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Recently, some scientists from NASA have claimed that there may be a black hole like structure at the centre of the earth. We show that the existence of life on the earth may be a reason that this black hole like object is a black brane that has been formed from biological materials like DNA. Size of this DNA black brane is 109 times longer than the size of the earth's core and compacted interior it. By compacting this long object, a curved space-time emerges, and some properties of black holes emerge. This structure is the main cause of the emergence of the large temperature of the core, magnetic field around the earth and gravitational field for moving around the sun. Also, this structure produces some waves which act like topoisomerase in biology and read the information on DNAs. However, on the four-dimensional manifold, DNAs are contracted at least four times around various axis's and waves of earth couldn't read their information. While, by adding extra dimensions on 4 +n-dimensional manifold, the separation distance between particles increases and all of the information could be recovered by waves. For this reason, each DNA has two parts which one can be seen on the four-dimensional universe, and another one has existed in extra dimensions, and only it's e_ects is observed. This dark part of DNA called as a dark DNA in an extra dimension. These dark DNAs not only exchange information with DNAs but also are connected with some of the molecules of water and helps them to store information and have memory. Thus, the earth is the biggest system of telecommunication which connects DNAs, dark DNAs and molecules of water.
Editor-in-Chief has retracted the following articles from the special issue Vol. 7 No. 18 (2019): Sep 30 (Global Dermatology): (1) DNA Waves and Their Applications in Biology - Massimo Fioranelli et al. - Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (2019) - DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.767; (2) Recovery of Brain in Chick Embryos by Growing Second Heart and Brain - Massimo Fioranelli et al. - Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (2019) - DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.777; (3) A Mathematical Model for the Signal of Death and Emergence of Mind Out of Brain in Izhikevich Neuron Model - Massimo Fioranelli et al. - Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (2019) - DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.774; (4) A Black Hole at the Center of Earth Plays the Role of the Biggest System of Telecommunication for Connecting DNAs, Dark DNAs and Molecules of Water on 4+N- Dimensional Manifold - Massimo Fioranelli et al. - Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (2019) - DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.776 (5) New System Delivering Microwaves Energy for Inducing Subcutaneous Fat Reduction: In - Vivo Histological and Ultrastructural Evidence - Nicola Zerbinati et al., Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences (2019) - DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.778 An internal investigation has raised sufficient evidence that they are not directly connected with the special issue Global Dermatology and contain inconsistent results. As such, we retract these articles from the literature and by guidelines and best editorial practices from the Committee on Publication Ethics. We apologize to our audience about this unfortunate situation.
The cause and source of the heat released from Earth’s interior have not yet been determined. Some research groups have proposed that the heat is supplied by radioactive decay or by a nuclear georeactor. Here we postulate that the generation of heat is the result of three-body nuclear fusion of deuterons confined in hexagonal FeDx core-centre crystals; the reaction rate is enhanced by the combined attraction effects of high-pressure (~364 GPa) and high-temperature (~5700 K) and by the physical catalysis of neutral pions: ²D + ²D + ²D → 2¹H + ⁴He + 2 + 20.85 MeV. The possible heat generation rate can be calculated as 8.12 × 10¹² J/m³, based on the assumption that Earth’s primitive heat supply has already been exhausted. The H and He atoms produced and the anti-neutrino are incorporated as Fe-H based alloys in the H-rich portion of inner core, are released from Earth’s interior to the universe, and pass through Earth, respectively.
The experimental conditions by which electromagnetic signals (EMS) of low
frequency can be emitted by diluted aqueous solutions of some bacterial and
viral DNAs are described. That the recorded EMS and nanostructures induced in
water carry the DNA information (sequence) is shown by retrieval of that same
DNA by classical PCR amplification using the TAQ polymerase, including both
primers and nucleotides. Moreover, such a transduction process has also been
observed in living human cells exposed to EMS irradiation. These experiments
suggest that coherent long range molecular interaction must be at work in water
so to allow the observed features. The quantum field theory analysis of the
phenomenon is presented.
When human polymorphonuclear basophils, a type of white blood cell with antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) type on its surface, are exposed to anti-IgE antibodies, they release histamine from their intracellular granules and change their staining properties. The latter can be demonstrated at dilutions of anti-IgE that range from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(120); over that range, there are successive peaks of degranulation from 40 to 60% of the basophils, despite the calculated absence of any anti-IgE molecules at the highest dilutions. Since dilutions need to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water
The Earth's core is a ball of swirling hot metal at the centre of our planet, with a radius roughly one half of the Earth's radius. It is formed by two parts: a solid inner core, with a radius of 1221 km, surrounded by a shell of liquid which extends up to 3480 km from the centre. It is widely believe that the Earth's core is mainly formed by iron, or iron with up to 5 – 10% of nickel. It is also known that the core must contain a significant fraction of light impurities, in the region of 2 – 3% in the solid and 6 – 7% in the liquid. The nature of these light impurities is unknown. The temperature of the core is also inaccessible to direct probing. Here we present a theoretical study on the temperature and the composition of the Earth's core. The investigation is based on the application of the implementation of quantum mechanics known as density functional theory. We shall show that these techniques are very accurate at predicting the properties of iron, and therefore can be usefully used to study the properties of the core. We show that by combining these techniques with direct observations it is possible to predict the temperature of the core, in particular the temperature at the boundary between the solid and the liquid core (the ICB), and put constraints on its composition. The result of this study is that the temperature of the ICB is probably in the region of 5400 – 5700 K and that the outer core contains a significant fraction (8 – 13%) of oxygen. As the Earth cools down the solid core grows and expels oxygen in the liquid. Since oxygen is lighter than iron it rises in the liquid, and its gravitational energy is available to drive the convective motions in the liquid core that are responsible for the generation of the Earth's magnetic field.
Earth’s core is structured in a solid inner core, mainly composed of iron, and a liquid outer core. The temperature at the
inner core boundary is expected to be close to the melting point of iron at 330 gigapascal (GPa). Despite intensive experimental
and theoretical efforts, there is little consensus on the melting behavior of iron at these extreme pressures and temperatures.
We present static laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments up to 200 GPa using synchrotron-based fast x-ray diffraction
as a primary melting diagnostic. When extrapolating to higher pressures, we conclude that the melting temperature of iron
at the inner core boundary is 6230 ± 500 kelvin. This estimation favors a high heat flux at the core-mantle boundary with a possible partial melting of the mantle.
We propose a new method to consider D-brane probes in thermal backgrounds.
The method builds on the recently developed blackfold approach to
higher-dimensional black holes. While D-brane probes in zero-temperature
backgrounds are well-described by the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action, this
method addresses how to probe thermal backgrounds. A particularly important
feature is that the probe is in thermal equilibrium with the background. We
apply our new method to study the thermal generalization of the BIon solution
of the DBI action. The BIon solution is a configuration in flat space of a
D-brane and a parallel anti-D-brane connected by a wormhole with F-string
charge. In our thermal generalization, we put this configuration in hot flat
space. We find that the finite temperature system behaves qualitatively
different than its zero-temperature counterpart. In particular, for a given
separation between the D-brane and anti-D-brane, while at zero temperature
there are two phases, at finite temperature there are either one or three
A novel property of DNA is described: the capacity of some bacterial DNA sequences to induce electromagnetic waves at high aqueous dilutions. It appears to be a resonance phenomenon triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves. The genomic DNA of most pathogenic bacteria contains sequences which are able to generate such signals. This opens the way to the development of highly sensitive detection system for chronic bacterial infections in human and animal diseases.
When human polymorphonuclear basophils, a type of white blood cell with antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) type on its surface, are exposed to anti-IgE antibodies, they release histamine from their intracellular granules and change their staining properties. The latter can be demonstrated at dilutions of anti-IgE that range from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(120); over that range, there are successive peaks of degranulation from 40 to 60% of the basophils, despite the calculated absence of any anti-IgE molecules at the highest dilutions. Since dilutions need to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water.
In this research, we calculate Tsallis δ-entropy and microstates of a rotating DNA by using concepts of hexagonal and pentagonal black branes. We argue that DNA is a massive brane-like object with more than 7 meter long which contracts in an small place. This leads to the emergence of a Rindler horizon and a curved space–time around a DNA. In this system, rotation of DNA leads to the radiation of some special waves. These waves lead to the motion of electrons in a metal wire and emergence of a current. This current has a direct relation with number of microstates of DNA and is different for females and males. By considering evolutions of this current, we determine some properties like entropy, number of microstates and gender.
The Earth's solid inner core exhibits strong anisotropy, with wave velocity dependent on the direction of propagation due to the preferential alignment of iron crystals. Variations in the anisotropic structure, laterally and with depth, provide markers for measuring inner-core rotation and offer clues into the formation and dynamics of the inner core. Previous anisotropy models of the inner core have assumed a cylindrical anisotropy in which the symmetry axis is parallel to the Earth's spin axis. An inner part of the inner core with a distinct form of anisotropy has been suggested, but there is considerable uncertainty regarding its existence and characteristics. Here we analyse the autocorrelation of earthquake coda measured by global broadband seismic arrays between 1992 and 2012, and find that the differential travel times of two types of core-penetrating waves vary at low latitudes by up to 10 s. Our findings are consistent with seismic anisotropy in the innermost inner core that has a fast axis near the equatorial plane through Central America and Southeast Asia, in contrast to the north-south alignment of anisotropy in the outer inner core. The different orientations and forms of anisotropy may represent a shift in the evolution of the inner core.
The first part of this article gives new travel-time data for the phase PKiKP at subcritical distances (Δ < 110°) obtained at the Warramunga array in Northern Australia. A compilation of the PKiKP subcritical travel times obtained from previous studies has also been carried out. In the second part, differential PKiKP-PcP travel times at short distances (Δ<45°) are used to determine the inner core ellipticity and mean radius, subject to hypotheses on the equilibrium figure of the liquid core and the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The coherence of the PKiKP-PcP travel-time residuals is increased when Morelli & Dziewonski's CMB topography is taken into account. According to various hypotheses, the values obtained for the ellipticity range from (1.9±2.2)×10−3 to (5.6±1.7)×10−3. This denotes a small inner core flattening corresponding to a decrease of the polar radius from (1.6±1.8) to (5.0±1.5) km with respect to a spherical inner core. The preferred solutions which involve the CMB topography, are consistent with the ellipticity 2.43times10−3 deduced from hydrostatic equilibrium of a rotating inner core. The last part of the paper concerns the amplitude variations of PKiKP. The amplitude ratio PKiKP/PcP at short distances (Δ<45°) is used to constrain the density jump δρ at the inner core boundary. δρ values of 1.35–1.66 g cm−3 are obtained for a quality factor in the liquid core ranging from 10 000 to infinity. These values, as well as a possible stratification in the inner core, are in favour of an inner core composition which is not pure iron.
We investigate the thermodynamics of the recently obtained finite temperature
BIon solution of arXiv:1012.1494, focusing on two aspects. The first concerns
comparison of the free energy of the three available phases for the finite
temperature brane-antibrane wormhole configuration. Based on this we propose a
heuristic picture for the dynamics of the phases that involves a critical
temperature below which a stable phase exists. This stable phase is the finite
temperature analogue of the thin throat branch of the extremal brane anti-brane
wormhole configuration. The second aspect that we consider is the possibility
of constructing a finite temperature generalization of the infinite spike
configuration of the extremal BIon. To this end we identify a correspondence
point at the end of the throat where the thermodynamics of the D3-F1 blackfold
configuration can be matched to that of k non-extremal black fundamental
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix $\$ $ that does not factorise into an $S$ matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the $\theta $ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes. Comment: 24p, LaTeX, 3 postscript figures included with epsf sent in a seperate uuencoded file
If the scale of quantum gravity is near TeV, the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be producing one black hole (BH) about every second. The decays of the BHs into the final states with prompt, hard photons, electrons, or muons provide a clean signature with low background. The correlation between the BH mass and its temperature, deduced from the energy spectrum of the decay products, can test Hawking's evaporation law and determine the number of large new dimensions and the scale of quantum gravity.
If the fundamental Planck scale is of order a TeV, as the case in some extra-dimensions scenarios, future hadron colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider will be black hole factories. The non-perturbative process of black hole formation and decay by Hawking evaporation gives rise to spectacular events with up to many dozens of relatively hard jets and leptons, with a characteristic ratio of hadronic to leptonic activity of roughly 5:1. The total transverse energy of such events is typically a sizeable fraction of the beam energy. Perturbative hard scattering processes at energies well above the Planck scale are cloaked behind a horizon, thus limiting the ability to probe short distances. The high energy black hole cross section grows with energy at a rate determined by the dimensionality and geometry of the extra dimensions. This dependence therefore probes the extra dimensions at distances larger than the Planck scale. Comment: Latex, 28 pages. v4: minor changes, largely to agree with published version; appendix added comparing conventions
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