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Sharing Mechanism of Intelligent Vehicles Trust Points based on Blockchain for Vehicular Networks


Abstract and Figures

Nowadays, there exists strong need to enable the Intelligent Vehicle (IV) communication for applications such as safety messaging, traffic monitoring and many other internet access purposes. In this work, we have introduced an Intelligent Vehicle Trust Points (IVTPs) sharing mechanism between vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure and vehicle to roadside units.Existing models have already embeded Blockchain (BC), which is valuable for many purposes like security in different data transmission circumstances. However, our proposed scheme uses this BC feature along with IVTPs to ensure the trust worthiness in the communication environment. Performance of our proposed system is evaluated on the basis of IVs’ processing time, which are totally based on IVTPs. Our proposed system is efficient as compared to existing one which handles less number of vehicles at intersection point where IVTPs are shared between moving vehicles in a scalable architecture.
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Sharing Mechanism of Intelligent Vehicles Trust
Points based on Blockchain for Vehicular Networks
1st Sharqa Hameed
Department of Computer Science
COMSATS University Islamabad
Islamabad (44000), Pakistan
2nd Sakeena Javaid
Department of Computer Science
COMSATS University Islamabad
Islamabad (44000), Pakistan
3rd Sheeraz Ahmed
Department of Computer Science
Iqra National University
Peshawar, Pakistan
4th Nadeem Javaid
Department of Computer Science
COMSATS University Islamabad
Islamabad (44000), Pakistan
Abstract—Nowadays, there exists strong need to enable the
Intelligent Vehicle (IV) communication for applications such as
safety messaging, traffic monitoring and many other internet
access purposes. In this work, we have introduced an Intelligent
Vehicle Trust Points (IVTPs) sharing mechanism between vehicle
to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure and vehicle to roadside units.
Existing models have already embeded Blockchain (BC), which
is valuable for many purposes like security in different data
transmission circumstances. However, our proposed scheme uses
this BC feature along with IVTPs to ensure the trustworthiness
in the communication environment. Performance of our proposed
system is evaluated on the basis of IVs’ processing time, which
are totally based on IVTPs. Our proposed system is efficient as
compared to existing one which handles less number of vehicles
at intersection point where IVTPs are shared between moving
vehicles in a scalable architecture.
Index Terms—Intelligent vehicles, Blockchain technology,
Trustable system, IVTP sharing, Intersection scenario.
Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) are equipped with the range of
sensors for helping them to navigate from the roads and
are critical for detecting dangers in order to maintain their
safety. These sensors are also responsible for promoting any
appropriate action, such as deceleration to turn a corner or
stopping [1]. These IVs are not only equipped with these
features; however, old vehicles also share some features of
these IVs [2]. Vehicle intelligence is the application of various
sensors and artificial intelligence that enhance the capability of
these vehicles. This function in case of autonomous vehicle is
the confidential delivery of the passenger to their destination
with maximum comfort and safety while keeping minimum
interruption in the environment. Nowadays, there exists strong
need to enable this IV communication for applications such as
safety messaging, traffic monitoring and many other internet
access purposes. All of these IVs are coordinating together
in an IV network for fulfilling each other requests. Vehicular
networks improve the traffic safety and efficiency of the
system by enabling the IVs to receive and broadcast messages
[3]. However, due to untrustworthy environment, it becomes
difficult to validate the received messages as shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1: Attacks on autonomous vehicle
This information transmission is majorly considered as a
main issue in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communication, as
the crucial applications require efficient data exchange [3].
IVs are capable of vehicle to everything communication.
However, this communication environment has several issues
like security of transmitted data and trustworthiness. Vehicular
communication schemes require security and privacy with
their system along with the problem of network scalability
[4]. In IV communication environment, privacy of message
transmission is of great importance. It is the key component for
building trust in an environment. Blockchain (BC) provides a
trusted environment for communication and coordination. BC
is widely considered as decentralized public ledger. Blocks are
linked together in a time generated sequence within a BC [4].
In future, our traffic will consist of fully automated cars which
do not require any human interaction. Essentially, BC provides
more security to IVs as compared to traditional vehicular
978-1-7281-4452-8/19/$31.00©2019 IEEE
Fig. 2: Message process between IVs
system. Information is exchanged between vehicles using BC.
The stored information of a vehicle can be shared between
other IVs. BC supports message delivery process between any
number of vehicles. Here, in Fig. 2, a message passing scenario
between two IVs is given.
BC builds trust between these IVs by handling each and
every step efficiently. A seven layer conceptual model is
proposed in [5] for the establishment of trustable, decentralized
and secure ecosystem. The work in [6] also proposed BC
embedded vehicular network. Proposed system combines the
vehicular network with ethereum based BC. It also proposed
some optional and mandatory application connection between
BC and the system. The work in [7] ensures that BC provides
a privacy mechanism in which user provides and updates
their data or services. In [8], authors proposed an Intelligent
Vehicle Trust Point (IVTP) mechanism for IV communication.
It provides a reward based system which maintains a secure,
reliable and trustworthy environment. IVTP [8] is an encrypted
unique number, which is separately issued to every IV and
known as IV-ID. Higher the IVTP attained by an IV, higher
will be its computation power. The IVTP access method is
shown in Fig. 3.
A. Problem Statement and contributions
Existing intersection scenario [8] deals with less number of
vehicles. Having a trustful environment increases the chances
to handle more vehicles and enhances the communication area,
which lacks in this scheme. It addresses V2V communication
only at intersection point. However, IVs also need to com-
municate with infrastructure and road side units. As traffic
comprises of IVs that do not depend upon human interaction
with them. Embedding BC is valuable for different kinds
of data transmission [8]. It also builds trust in whole IV
network. In our model, IVTPs sharing in all communication
related scenarios is tackled. Proposed scheme prevents the
interference between communication of vehicles to everything.
It also highlights the system scalability by handling greater
number of IVs at intersection scenario.
Here all the related work is divided into different categories
based on their platform.
A. Vehicular Networks (VNs)
Traditional vehicular networks are not trustable and have
several security issues. In these kinds of systems, onboard
devices have limited storage capacity and traffic environment
is changing so fastly, so for the long term system can store
the rating locally in different BCs. In [9], authors proposed
an Internet of Vehicle (IoV) based BC model that describes
the connection between BC and IoV. Furthermore, blocks are
also distinguished on the basis of requirements. Nodes are
categorized into controller, minor and ordinary nodes in [10]
which depend upon their specifications. BC is deployed in [11]
for managing all trust values, rating generations, value offset
calculations. These values are uploaded on the database of road
side units. By combining PoW and PoS, system held elections
for the position of miner. All these units work together to
achieve a stable trust worthy system. Bayesian inference based
rating generation scheme is used in the proposed scenario
to decide the trustworthiness of broadcasted messages which
provides more efficiency. Proposed model in [12] consists of
two BCs, Local Dynamic Blockchain (LDB) and other is Main
Blockchain (MB). Concept of IVTP is also introduced in their
study, which is an encrypted unique number allocated to every
vehicle by revocation authority. It increases computational
power of an IV and used to build trust in between IVs. Authors
also proposed Branching algorithm to handle the duplicate
state changes issue. The first step in the improved scheme [13]
is to implement smart contracts with new nodes. This proposed
scheme improves the efficient key distribution management
which is based on cryptographic accumulator. Two processes
are proposed for vehicles validation. One is to verify the iden-
tity of IoV to roadside units and the other is to verify roadside
units and cloud systems. In [14], authors proposed a distributed
BC based framework that covers the whole life cycle of
Fig. 3: Access method of IVTP
automotive industry. To avoid the process of mining while
generating blocks a unique miner pool, an efficient miner node
selection method is also proposed.A lightweight Blockchain
(LSB) architecture is proposed in [15]. This architecture is
optimized for the IoT and network having low resources. The
important part of this architecture is the overlay where public
BC is managed by the overlay nodes. These nodes can be smart
vehicles, cloud storage provider, vehicle assembly line or any
smart phone. Furthermore, it also discusses the embedding of
LSB in some applications like car sharing services. [16] in-
troduced a BC based Anonymous Reputation System (BARS)
for establishment of distributed trust management system with
privacy preservation of the system. There exists two main
contributions of this mechanism. First one is exploring the BC
features for extending public key infrastructure. A reputation
based algorithm is designed for evaluating trustworthiness of
each vehicle according to the authenticity of messages which
are broadcasted. A noval platform is presented in [17], which
is based on BC. An interaction and manufacturing-agnotic
transaction layer is added that enables vehicle to everything
communication platform for goods and services interaction.
An auction algorithm is also proposed for vehicle to everything
economy that allow to reach the efficient consensus on certain
price between buyer and seller.
B. IoT Networks (IoTNs)
Today’s smart city is facing a lot of challenges like privacy,
security issues and in terms of scalability. Low latency and
high mobility of any kind of nodes are also considered as main
problem in this environment. Authors proposed a scalable
decentralized management system in [18], which consists of
multiple hubs. These hubs are the javascript platform that
translates the constrained application protocol messages into
a form understood by the nodes in the block chain. Authors
proposed a business model in [19] for Internet of Things (IoT).
Proposed model in [20] consist of three parts: BC, confusion
mechanism and the intelligence crowd sensing network. Con-
fusion mechanism further consists of encode algorithm (CMA-
E) and decode algorithm (CMA-D). Concept of Distributed
Autonomous Corporation (DAC) is also introduced in this
paper. However, edge nodes are deployed at the edge of the
network and they provide real time processing in [21]. Edge
nodes have some storage and computational power. It transfers
the data which is encrypted to the smart city core network.
Authors in [22] proposed a system model that validates the
state off-chain services and edge servers which are dynami-
cally declared by cloud merchants. It helps the light weight
clients in the process of service validation and identification
for improving the performance of proposed model.
C. Data Sharing Networks (DSNs)
The data which is stored in Third Party (TP) can be damaged
or altered and in complex system, this change can cause
drastically damage in the data. Managing TP also requires
operational cost. Authors proposed BC for handling trust
issue and deployed a green proof of collaboration and futile
transaction theory [23]. A storage mechanism is proposed in
paper known as Network Coding Distributed Storage (NCDS)
framework. The proposed scheme adopts (6,3) code which
works when a new block is generated. In [23], authors con-
sidered two types of chains: Data chain and behavior chain
which are supervised and then combined for creating a safe
environment. Different types of permissions are also settled for
organizing the whole system. Smart contracts are deployed for
further enhancement. Authors in [24], proposed a BC design
for LoRa Wide Area Networks (LoRaWAN) servers which
may use benefits from block chain. LoRaWAN innovation
provides an open, decentralized and carefully designed trusted
framework. In LoRaWAN network architecture, BC manage-
ment component is added for performing BC functionalities
like hashing, verification of transactions. To verify that the
confirmed transactions are the part of a block or not Simplified
Payment Validation Method (SPV) is used.
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), merging of different
kinds of network cause problems for storing and sharing data.
The capacity of data storage is also a serious issue. Some
nodes in the network release or waste the network data in
order to retain their own data. In [25] a solution is proposed
for all of these problems referring as incentive mechanism by
keeping in mind the behavior of selfish nodes. Deployment of
this mechanism gives selfish node incentive which pursue them
to store more rather than wasting data. The more these nodes
store data, the more they get reward. In [26], system model
contains the entire local network BCs that are stored in it. All
the nodes in this WSN focused on a particular event. There
exist different types of subnets and they build their own block
part. A mathematical model is also proposed that describes
the structure of this rolling BC.
An IVTP unique ID is issued by vehicle sellers or revocation
authority to IVs. Revocation authority also provides vehi-
cle information like model number and other specifications.
IVTPS in [9], build up a trust environment between vehicles
without disclosing their personal information. IVTPs of an IV
is directly proportional to its processing speed. Number of
IVTPs increase the processing speed of an IV.
A. Existing System Model
We are motivated from studies in [9], [10] and [12]. Authors
have embedded their proposed model with BC and enabled
V2V communication for IVTPs transaction only at intersection
point.To move in a block chain in existing system, random
velocities are assigned to each vehicle at the beginning. IVTP
layout tells how many IVTPs, an IV currently have. This
display is associated with every IV as shown in Fig. 4.
From Fig. 4, it is obvious that four IVs are approaching
the intersection at different time, named as IV-1, IV-2, IV-3,
and IV-4. The arrival time of IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, and IV-4 at
the intersection is 10:06, 10:02, 10:04, and 10:03 respectively.
Fig. 4: Existing system model
One IV is selected as miner node after consensus result and
then it will decide which vehicle is going to move across
intersection point at a particular instance of time. This model
Fig. 5: Proposed system model
only deals with four vehicles and is not much scalable in order
to deploy it in ITS where we have more than four IVs at
intersection point. Furthermore, it also restricts the IVTPs to
the intersection scenario rather than being utilized in the whole
B. New Proposed Scenario
Our proposed model allows the IVs to build trust between
other vehicles and in the whole ITS environment. Fig. 6 shows
that these vehicles are availing services from road side units by
using these IVTPs, for example; in different paying methods
like paying gas charges at gas stations, etc.
This step increases the efficiency of the system by building
a trustable ITS which allows V2V and V2I communication by
using IVTPs.
It is suggested that moving vehicles also request for the
transactions of IVTPs with one another as shown in Fig. 5. IV-
1 requests IVTPs transaction to IV-2 which results exchanging
of IVTPs with replacement of some bit coins.
Fig. 6: V2R Communication
IVs also request revocation authority for IVTPs transactions.
This whole process start with a request then sending bit coins
to revocation authority and exchanging it with IVTPs in return
as in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7: V2I Communication
C. Modification in Existing Intersection Scenario
As the IVTP transactions in the moving vehicle will result
the efficient behavior in the intersection scenario. A scalable
architecture is proposed which handles more than four IVs
in real time. By Proof Of Work (POW) miner node is elected
from all of these IVs and it then selects the IV for intersection
crossing which is based on its IVTPs and arrival time. An IV
with greater number of IVTPs and small arrival time is allowed
for movement across intersection as shown in Fig. 5. After
that the miner IV selects the next IV from the remaining and
the whole process repeats until miner node is the only node
which is present at the intersection point. It then crosses the
intersection with all of its IVTPs of itself and others which it
gathered from mining the other IVs.
All of these simulations are performed in MATLAB and
test were run by a system with Windows 8.1 pro on an Intel
Core m3-7Y30 CPU clocked at 1.00 GHz with 8 GB RAM.
Fig. 8: Exchanging IVTPs
Performance of proposed system is analyzed under different
criteria. As it is clearly seen from Fig. 8 that sharing of IVTPs
is increasing the system efficiency and it does not effects the
number of IVs in the current scenario. Before sharing IVTPs,
the system is stable with less efficiency. However, when the
IVs started sharing the IVTPs while moving helps the system
to gain more efficiency. The processing speed of these vehicles
is increasing gradually with the increase in their IVTPs.
Fig. 9: Intersection Scenario Message Broadcasting
Arrival time and processing time totally depend on IVTPs of
an IV. At the point of intersection, allowance of the movement
of any IV is decided by the miner nodes. Miner node is elected
by POW with some settled difficulty level and their processing
time is also calculated in this case as shown in Fig. 9.
After achieving the scalablitiy factor in our proposed model,
we can evaluate that system is behaving efficiently after
implementing the procedure of on moving vehicles IVTPs
sharing. From Fig. 10, it is seen clearly that the IVTPs and
processing time of a vehicle is inversely proportional to each
other. Increase in the IVTPs causes reduction of processing
Fig. 10: Evaluating System efficiency
This happens due to the reason that, the more a vehicle
has IVTPs the more it has processing speed, these IVTPs are
increasing the processing speed of a vehicle and IVs require
less computational time and power.
We have proposed and implemented a BC embedded IV
communication environment that is valuable for many pur-
poses like data transmission security and privacy. We have
also proposed IVTPs sharing scenario that enables vehicle to
everything communication. In our scenario, moving vehicles
are sharing IVTPs between IVs, roadside units or infrastruc-
tures. In intersection scenario, IVs do not need to wait for long
period of time. Elliptic curve cryptography is implemented in
the proposed scheme with POW consensus mechanism. Our
proposed scenario has improved the efficiency of the existing
system as shown in Fig. 4 that has also provided a scalable
This problem still needs further elaboration in the field of data
sharing between IVs about a specific event like road accident,
traffic jam, collision or road blockage. We will consider
scheduling schemes in the IV communication environment at
parking slots, gas stations and at many other roadside units for
improving the performance of the system. In future, we will
work on the transformation schemes of IVTPs using other
cryptocurrencies at different levels.
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... The proposed system performed well in case of heavy traffic. Several authors have used IVTP for ensuring trust between entities [73], [74]. In [75], the authors proposed a blockchain based distributed network architecture for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). ...
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Thanks to the rapid development in mobile vehicles and wireless technologies, Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has become an attractive application that can provide a large number of mobile services for drivers. Vehicles can be informed of the mobile position, direction, speed and other real-time information of nearby vehicles to avoid traffic jams and accidents. However, the environments of IoV could be dangerous in the absence of security protections. Due to the openness and self-organization of Internet of Vehicles, there are enormous malicious attackers. To guarantee the safety of mobile services, we propose an effective decentralized authentication mechanism for Internet of Vehicles on the basis of the consensus algorithm of blockchain technology. The simulation under the Veins framework is carried out to verify the feasibility of the scheme in reducing the selfish behavior and malicious attacks in Internet of Vehicles.
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Crowd sensing is a perception mode that recruits mobile device users to complete tasks such as data collection and cloud computing. For the cloud computing platform, crowd sensing can not only enable users to collaborate to complete large-scale awareness tasks but also provide users for types, social attributes, and other information for the cloud platform. In order to improve the effectiveness of crowd sensing, many incentive mechanisms have been proposed. Common incentives are monetary reward, entertainment & gamification, social relation, and virtual credit. However, there are rare incentives based on privacy protection basically. In this paper, we proposed a mixed incentive mechanism which combined privacy protection and virtual credit called a blockchain-based location privacy protection incentive mechanism in crowd sensing networks. Its network structure can be divided into three parts which are intelligence crowd sensing networks, confusion mechanism, and blockchain. We conducted the experiments in the campus environment and the results shows that the incentive mechanism proposed in this paper has the efficacious effect in stimulating user participation.
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The rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) implies new technical challenges such as managing a universally vast number of IoT devices. Despite the fact that there are already a variety of secure management frameworks for IoT, they are based on centralized models, which limits their applicability in scenarios with a large number of IoT devices. In order to overcome those limitations, we have developed a distributed IoT management system based on blockchain. In this paper, we compare the performance of our solution with the existing access management solutions in IoT. We study the delays and the throughput rate associated with the systems and analyze different configurations of our solution to maximize its scalability. The objective of the paper is to find out whether our solution can scale as well as the existing management systems in IoT.
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The explosive development of mobile communications and networking has led to the creation of an extremely complex system, which is difficult to manage. Hence, we propose an AI-powered network framework that uses AI technologies to operate the network automatically. However, due to the separation between different mobile network operators, data barriers between diverse operators become bottlenecks to exploit the full power of AI. In this paper, we establish a mutual trust data sharing framework to break these data barriers. The framework is based on the distributed and temper-proof attributes of blockchain. We implement a prototype based on Hyperledger Fabric. The proposed system combines supervision and fine-grained data access control based on smart contracts, which provides a secure and trustless environment for data sharing. We further compare our system with existing data sharing schemes, and we find that our system provides a better functionality.
The digitalization and massive adoption of advanced technologies in the automotive industry not only transform the equipment manufacturer's operating mode but also change the current business models. The increased adoption of autonomous cars is expected to disrupt government regulations, manufacturing, insurance, and maintenance services. Moreover, providing integrated, personalized, and on-demand services have shared, connected, and autonomous cars in the smart city for a sustainable ecosystem. To address these issues in this paper, we propose a blockchain-based distributed framework for the automotive industry in the smart city. The proposed framework includes a novel miner node selection algorithm for the blockchain-based distributed network architecture. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed framework, we simulated the proposed model on a private Ethereum blockchain platform using captured dataset of mined blocks from The simulation results show the proof-of-concept of the proposed model which can be used for wide range of future smart applications.
The rapid growth of Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has brought huge challenges for large data storage, intelligent management, and information security for the entire system. The traditional centralized management approach for IoV faces the difficulty in dealing with real time response. The blockchain, as an effective technology for decentralized distributed storage and security management, has already showed great advantages in its application of Bitcoin. In this paper, we investigate how the blockchain technology could be extended to the application of vehicle networking, especially with the consideration of the distributed and secure storage of big data. We define several types of nodes such as vehicle and roadside for vehicle networks and form several sub-blockchain networks. In the paper, we present a model of the outward transmission of vehicle blockchain data, and then give detail theoretical analysis and numerical results. Our study has shown the potential to guide the application of Blockchain for future vehicle networking.
The emergence of edge computing has witnessed a fast growing volume of data on edge devices belonging to different stakeholders which, however, cannot be shared among them due to lack of trust. By exploiting blockchain's non-repudiation and non-tampering properties that enable trust, we develop a blockchain-based big data sharing framework to support various applications across resource-limited edges. In particular, we devise a number of novel resource-efficient techniques for the framework: (1) the PoC (Proof-of-Collaboration) based consensus mechanism with low computation complexity which is especially beneficial to the edge devices with low computation capacity, (2) the blockchain transaction filtering and offloading scheme that can significantly reduce the storage overhead, and (3) new types of blockchain transaction (i.e., Express Transaction) and block (i.e., Hollow Block) to enhance the communication efficiency. Extensive experiments are conducted and the results demonstrate the superior performance of our proposal.
Intelligent vehicle (IV) is an internet-enabled vehicle, commonly referred to as a self-driving car, which enables vehicles-to-everything communications. This communication environment is not secure and has several vulnerabilities. The major issues in IV communication are trustworthiness, accuracy, and security of received and broadcasted data in the communication channel. In this article, we introduce blockchain technology to build trust and reliability in peer-to-peer networks with topologies similar to IV communication. Further, we propose a blockchain-technology-enabled IV communication use case. Blockchain technology is used to build a secure, trusted environment for IV communication. This trusted environment provides a secure, distributed, and decentralized mechanism for communication between IVs, without sharing their personal information in the intelligent transportation system. Our proposed method comprises of a local dynamic blockchain (LDB) and main blockchain, enabled with a secure and unique crypto ID called intelligent vehicle trust point (IVTP). The IVTP ensures trustworthiness among vehicles. Vehicles use and verify the IVTP with the LDB to communicate with other vehicles. For evaluation, we simulated our proposed blockchain technology-based IV communication in a common intersection deadlock use case. The performance of the traditional blockchain is evaluated with emphasis on real-time traffic scenarios. We also introduce LDB branching, along with a branching and un-branching algorithm for automating the branching process for IV communication.