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Different soybean cultivars respond differentially to damage in a herbivore-specific manner and decreas herbivore performance

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  • Great Seeds Paraguay
  • University of Buenos Aires and National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Buenos Aires, Argentina
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This study demonstrates that soybean cultivars respond differentially to damage in a herbivore-specific manner, and trigger responses decreasing herbivore performance. Soybean crops are affected by a great number of insect herbivores, resulting in devastating yield losses. Secondary metabolites like proteinase inhibitors and phenolic compounds are part of plants’ defense mechanisms against insect pests. However, the specificity of soybean defense responses to different attacking herbivores is poorly known. To investigate species-specific foliage responses to herbivory, we used two different commercial soybean cultivars (DM 4210 and DM 5.8i) widely used in Argentina with diverse susceptibility to insects’ attack and two species of phytophagous insects, thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli; Thysanoptera) and lepidopteran larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda; Lepidoptera) with a different way of feeding. Benzoic acid derivative levels were increased by damage of both insect species in the foliage of the field-grown soybean cultivars, whereas trypsin protease inhibitors activity was induced in cultivar (cv) DM 4210 by fall armyworm damage and malonyl genistein content in cv DM 5.8i after thrips’ attack. Although survivorship and mass of fall armyworm larvae were not differentially affected in field conditions by soybean cultivars, larvae reared in the laboratory that fed on cv DM 5.8i gained more mass than those on DM 4210. Conversely, thrips performance, natural colonization, and preference of feeding were higher on cv DM 4210 than on cv DM 5.8i. The differential effects of soybean cultivars on insectspecies’ performance were explained not only by induced defenses, but also by differences of constitutive defenses between cultivars. This study demonstrated that soybean cultivars responded differentially to damage in a herbivore-specific manner, and triggered responses decreased herbivore performance.
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Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2020) 14:89–99
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-019-09730-y
ORIGINAL PAPER
Dierent soybean cultivars respond dierentially todamage
inaherbivore‑specic manner anddecreas herbivore performance
BereniceRomero1,2· FranciscoM.Dillon2,3,4· JorgeA.Zavala2,3,4
Received: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published online: 8 November 2019
© Springer Nature B.V. 2019
Abstract
This study demonstrates that soybean cultivars respond differentially to damage in a herbivore-specific manner, and trigger
responses decreasing herbivore performance. Soybean crops are affected by a great number of insect herbivores, resulting in
devastating yield losses. Secondary metabolites like proteinase inhibitors and phenolic compounds are part of plants’ defense
mechanisms against insect pests. However, the specificity of soybean defense responses to different attacking herbivores
is poorly known. To investigate species-specific foliage responses to herbivory, we used two different commercial soybean
cultivars (DM 4210 and DM 5.8i) widely used in Argentina with diverse susceptibility to insects’ attack and two species of
phytophagous insects, thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli; Thysanoptera) and lepidopteran larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda; Lepi-
doptera) with a different way of feeding. Benzoic acid derivative levels were increased by damage of both insect species in
the foliage of the field-grown soybean cultivars, whereas trypsin protease inhibitors activity was induced in cultivar (cv)
DM 4210 by fall armyworm damage and malonyl genistein content in cv DM 5.8i after thrips’ attack. Although survivorship
and mass of fall armyworm larvae were not differentially affected in field conditions by soybean cultivars, larvae reared in
the laboratory that fed on cv DM 5.8i gained more mass than those on DM 4210. Conversely, thrips performance, natural
colonization, and preference of feeding were higher on cv DM 4210 than on cv DM 5.8i. The differential effects of soybean
cultivars on insectspecies’ performance were explained not only by induced defenses, but also by differences of constitutive
defenses between cultivars. This study demonstrated that soybean cultivars responded differentially to damage in a herbivore-
specific manner, and triggered responses decreased herbivore performance.
Keywords Plant–insect interactions· Glycine max leguminosae· Spodoptera frugiperda larvae· Thrips· Proteinase
inhibitors· Phenolics
Introduction
Soybean (Glycine max) is the most important legume crop
worldwide, and particularly in Argentina, where it repre-
sents almost 20% of the total exports. Most of soybean seeds
are used to obtain oil and protein for livestock feeding, and
products like soy milk or flour destined to human consump-
tion, increasing its economic value. However, field-grown
soybean can be attacked by insect pests that decrease crop
yield. Among the common insect pests that feed on soybean
crops in South and North America are thrips (Caliothrips
phaseoli; Thysanoptera) and lepidopteran larvae, such as
fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda; Lepidoptera) (Dias
Peruca etal. 2018; Dillon etal. 2018b; Steenbergen etal.
2018). Although lepidopteran larvae could be deterred by
transgenic (Bacillus thurigiensis) BT crops, BT soybean pro-
duces Cry 1F proteins that generated resistance populations
Handling Editor: Joe Louis.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (https ://doi.org/10.1007/s1182 9-019-09730 -y) contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
* Jorge A. Zavala
zavala@agro.uba.ar
1 Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas y Naturales, Intendente Güiraldes, 2160, Ciudad
Universitaria, C1428EGABuenosAires, Argentina
2 Universidad de Buenos Aires, Cátedra de Bioquímica,
Facultad de Agronomía, Avenida San Martín 4453,
C1417DSEBuenosAires, Argentina
3 INBA, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martín
4453, C1417DSEBuenosAires, Argentina
4 Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas,
BuenosAires, Argentina
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... The biological activity of KTIs has been demonstrated by using gut extracts in in vitro assays [16,29], as well as monitoring the fitness of herbivores feeding on KTI-enriched diets [2,6,22,25,26,30]. Since the first description of a KTI in soybean [19,24], most subsequent studies have also focused on KTIs from legume species [16,17,22,30,36,43]. However, KTIs in trees have gained more attention in past years. ...
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