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Pastoralism is a culture, livelihoods system, extensive use of rangelands. It is the key production system practiced in the arid and semi-arid dryland areas. Recent estimates indicate that about 120 million pastoralists and agro-pastoralists life worldwide, of which 41.7% reside only in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Pastoralists live in areas often described as marginal, remote, conflict prone, food insecure and associated with high levels of vulnerability. Pastoral communities of Ethiopia occupy 61% of the total land mass and 97% of Ethiopian pastoralists found in low land areas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya, and SNNPR. In spite pastoral areas have significance role in national economy, yet very little consideration was given to pastoral development and policy makers often neglect them, focusing on the interests of agriculture and urban people. The constitution of Ethiopia gives pastoral communities the right to free land grazing, fair use of natural resources, have market access and receive fair price, and not displaced from their own lands. However, pastoralists have faced new problems in recent years, including competition for water and pasture; unrepresented in socio-economic and political activities, ethnic based conflicts, poverty, and uneven drought and climate changes. The government of Ethiopia began large scale efforts to develop the pastoral areas and initiated different projects, but pastoral development policies and strategies seem to be state centrally-driven. In Ethiopia the current nature of pastoralism and pastoral communities’ life style is changing. Therefore, government needs to develop policies and strategies which are based on local customs and practical knowledge.
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DOI : https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v2i4.562
Pastoralism and Development Policy in Ethiopia: A Review Study
Abduselam Abdulahi Mohamed
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Kebri Dehar University, Kebridahar,
Ethiopia
Abdisalan654@gmail.com
Abstract: Pastoralism is a culture, livelihoods system, extensive use of rangelands. It is the
key production system practiced in the arid and semi-arid dryland areas. Recent estimates
indicate that about 120 million pastoralists and agro-pastoralists life worldwide, of which
41.7% reside only in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Pastoralists live in areas often described as
marginal, remote, conflict prone, food insecure and associated with high levels of vulnerability.
Pastoral communities of Ethiopia occupy 61% of the total land mass and 97% of Ethiopian
pastoralists found in low land areas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya, and SNNPR. In spite pastoral
areas have significance role in national economy, yet very little consideration was given to
pastoral development and policy makers often neglect them, focusing on the interests of
agriculture and urban people. The constitution of Ethiopia gives pastoral communities the right
to free land grazing, fair use of natural resources, have market access and receive fair price,
and not displaced from their own lands. However, pastoralists have faced new problems in
recent years, including competition for water and pasture; unrepresented in socio-economic
and political activities, ethnic based conflicts, poverty, and uneven drought and climate
changes. The government of Ethiopia began large scale efforts to develop the pastoral areas
and initiated different projects, but pastoral development policies and strategies seem to be
state centrally-driven. In Ethiopia the current nature of pastoralism and pastoral communities’
life style is changing. Therefore, government needs to develop policies and strategies which
are based on local customs and practical knowledge.
Keywords: Pastoralism; pastoralist; policy; strategy; marginal; Ethiopia.
I. Introduction
Pastoralism is not only the way of life for pastoralists, but also a culture, symbol of love
and integrate, economic and livelihood system, one of the basic pastoral risk management
strategies and rational use of drylands. It is life system mostly found in Africa’s vast arid and
semi-arid areas which are manifested by rainfall variability, and associated uncertainties in the
spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and grazing for animals. Pastoralism is
practiced mainly on the grasslands that cover about a quarter of the world’s surface (Follet &
Reed, 2010). It is closely associated with mobile herds and with the drylands (Robinson et al.,
2011). Pastoralists use mobility as a basic strategy for their livelihood development and risk
management systems. Although African pastoral ecosystems are ancestral homeland to a
substantial portion of the population for whom pastoralism is a traditional way of life,
pastoralism is far from static. Pastoralists in many areas are adapting to trends such as new
economic opportunities and better access to modern means of communication (AU/DREA,
2010).
The understanding of pastoralism has changed continuously in the last decades. It has
shifted from the view of pastoralism as an irrational way of life towards a systemic territorial
approach. This happen, because of nowadays sustainability and resilience is taking an
increasing role in the international development debate. Pastoralism is a key characteristic of
the people in the Horn of Africa. It was estimated that approximately 20 million pastoralists
live in the region in which they create significant migration flows; they move seasonally, often
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crossing porous borders in search of water, grazing lands, better livelihoods or simply safer
environments (Ginetti & Franck, 2014; Anand, 2014). Pastoralists adapted to ecosystems
defined as marginal, underdeveloped, characterized by lack of peace and stability, poor
infrastructure, variable and unpredictable agro-ecological resource endowment, and
unrepresented in socio-economic and political activities.
Pastoralism supports several hundred million households worldwide. Accounting for 50
million households only in sub-Saharan Africa, yet policy makers often neglect them
(Pastoralist Knowledge Hub, 2016 & Swallow, 1994), and the nature of pastoralism is
changing. In the face of demographic trends, prolonged conflicts, reduced access to grazing
land and water, erratic drought and climate change, food insecurity, and the impacts of
livestock diseases are worsening. These trends coincide with the limited political representation
of pastoralists in the decision-making processes affecting their livelihoods, which in turn, is
exacerbated by their physical position in remote areas, far from political and economic centers.
Many researchers and scholars believe that suffering of pastoralists hardships are self-inflicted
due to their apparent choice for a traditional life style that inhibits their ability for innovations
and adaptation to recent global change, which is not true and misconception of believe.
Pastoralists do not suffer due to their choice for traditional life style, but suffer due lack of
inclusive government development policies.
Pastoralists have multiple political identities: pastoral, livestock-keeping, regional,
ethnic, religious, and “indigenous peoples” (Andreas et al., 2017). In general speaking,
Pastoralists live in marginalized, remote and underdeveloped areas. In the pastoral areas
illiteracy rate is very high and majority of their children not in school (UNICEF, 2014). Pastoral
communities not have educational access. However, the morality of the parents is very
emphasized by teachings their children Islamic studies (Quran) (Suheri et al., 2019).
Pastoralists are often described as conflict prone, food insecure and associated with high levels
of vulnerability. Basic social services like health, education, electricity, road and
communication, accessibility of agricultural extension service, access to credit and insurance
service are usually less-well developed than in other areas, therefore pastoral areas are defined
as the area with low health and education indicators than national-level figures at any time.
II. Literature Review
2.1 Definition and Concept of Pastoralism
The worldwide literature on pastoralism is extremely uneven and determined by socio-
economic, culture and political issues related with pastoral communities, as well as by the need
of empirical data availability. Based on limited available knowledge of pastoralism, different
Organizations and Scholars are defined pastoralism in different ways. FAO defined as
“extensive livestock production in the pastures”. The United Nation Convention No. 169(1989)
defined as “ethnic identity, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples.
Pastoralism scientifically defined as “A member of social groups with a strong
traditional association with livestock keeping, where a substantially proportion of the group
derive over 50% of the household consumption from livestock products or their sales, and
where over 90% of animal consumption is from natural pasture, and where members of the
households are responsible for the full cycle of the livestock breeding”. Definition of
pastoralism in Ethiopian context related with mobility, but this may not be the true in the world
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context where large herds of livestock sometimes managed by sedentary households by just
allowing them to roam freely during the dry season. People move away from drought, animal
disease or conflict, towards newly available resources, this is why mobile cannot fully define
pastoralism. Pastoralism may be thought as a system in a range of livestock and non-livestock
activities connect through a web of social and economic relationships that extend well beyond
lowland areas to highland economies and across the nation’s borders (Lind, Sabates-Wheeler
& Kohnstamm, 2016).
Pastoralism, the use of extensive grazing in rangelands for livestock production, is one
of the key production, economic, and livelihood systems in the world's drylands. Nonetheless,
throughout much of its long history its reputation has been unflattering, its practitioners
marginalized by sedentary cultivators and urban dwellers. Pastoral societies have risen and
fallen, fragmented into isolated families or constructed world-spanning empires and their
demise regularly announced, often in the face of entirely contrary evidence of their persistence
(Roger Blench, 2001).
According to Roger (2001), pastoralism never developed because population pressure on
land remained limited, it strongly associated with the presence of grasslands, but can be found
numerous grasslands without pastoralists. But, I strongly disagree with this researcher because
pastoralism can be developed and disappeared with the change of land use policy of the nation.
In most parts of the world, except Africa, agriculture seems to be earlier than pastoralism and
pastoralism was developed later. Pastoralism existence has had complex relationships with
hunter-gatherers history of the human being, green revolution and the nature of land ownership
in many parts of the world. Melville (1994), suggested that pastoralism was developed in North
and Central America post the Spanish era as Amerindian peoples gained access to European
ruminants or migrants from the Old World settled and began to farm in that area which have
been adopted in very contrastive fashions, then these peoples were termed as “true
pastoralism”.
The foundation of pastoralism has been much discussed, especially by older type of
literature. Pastoralism lifestyle developed from surplus and pastoralists’ experience, as
individuals accumulate too many animals to graze them around a settlement throughout the
year pastoralism was developed. Similarly, as herders learnt more about the relations between
particular types of ecology and the spread of livestock diseases they gradually practice of
seasonal migration by their animals from danger areas.
2.2 Ethiopian Pastoralism and Policy Concern
Policies of post-colonial governments have led to the marginalization of pastoralists from
mainstream national development in most countries in the Horn of Africa. Over the years, there
has been a tendency to neglect the needs of pastoralists and even to envisage the gradual
eradication of pastoralism since most of the governments’ policies focus on the interests of
agriculture and urban dwellers, thus marginalizing pastoral communities. The different
narratives affect the decisions and policies made by government and development
organizations. But these are often poorly suited to the situation faced by pastoralists, service
providers and other organizations in the drylands. A better understanding of pastoralism is
needed to improve decision-making that affects pastoral areas and the people who live there
(Andreas et al., 2017).
Pastoralists in Ethiopia are mainly found in four lowland regions, Afar, Somali, Oromiya,
and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s (SNNP) regional states. Pastoral groups
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are also found in Gambella and Benishangul areas. The main livelihoods systems include
pastoralism, farming and ex-pastoralism those who have dropped out of pastoralism and now
survive on petty income-earning activities (Behnke et al., 2007).
Pastoralist communities in Ethiopia occupy the largest percentage of the country’s total
land area along the borders of Somalia, Kenya and Sudan. In deed this extends to the border of
Djibouti as well. Pastoral communities of Ethiopia occupy 61 percent of the total land mass
with more than 29 nationalities and ethnic groups, which comprise Arid and Semi-Arid climatic
conditions. The pastoralists are traditionally nomadic ethnic groups that are highly mobile,
move from one area to another in search of pasture and water for their livestock, well adapted
to harsh terrain and extreme climates. Ethiopian pastoralists are freely move from one region
to another and not restricted to one area or even country, sometimes they move out of
neighboring countries.
Pastoralists are found distributed over 122 districts of the country. More than half of the
country’s landmass belongs to pastoralists. Besides the mainly known pastoral regions, others
like the Gambella and Benishangul-Gumuz regional states have pastoral communities although
these regions at the western end of the country have predominantly a shifting cultivation
agricultural system. Over 97% of the pastoral population lives in Somali, Oromia, Afar and
Southern Region States (UNDP, 2010). The Ethiopian constitution incorporated the issues of
pastoralists by forming separated department for pastoralist issues under the ministry of federal
affairs which coordinates and facilitates development in pastoral areas and set up Ethiopian
Parliament Pastoralist Affairs Standing Committee (EPPASC) which oversees pastoral
development activities in the country. Livestock and Pastoral Development offices have been
established in regions where pastoralism is an important production and livelihood system.
The 1995 Ethiopian Constitution states that: pastoralists have the right to free land
grazing, fair use of natural resources, to have market access and receive fair prices, and not to
be displaced from their own lands without their wish. The government set a national policy and
strategies to direct development efforts in the pastoral areas of Ethiopia (Mohammed, 2015).
But, these nationally developed policies conflict with each other. For example, Proclamation
819/2014 promotes livestock trade and marketing as a major revenue earner for the country;
the policy on voluntary settlement, on the other hand, discourages pastoralist practices in
Ethiopia. The mandate of livestock policies is still in confusion to which Ministry it belongs;
Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, or the Ministry of Federal Affairs.
Pastoralism policies have been tacitly influenced by unfavorable attitudes (Farvar, 2003;
Cited in Boku, 2008). Earlier, Scholars and policy makers believe that Pastoralists are agents
of environmental degradation and desertification, and these groups of people are
geographically and socially marginalized due to their isolation, inhabiting large areas
unsuitable for agriculture and infrastructural development. Such dominant views influenced
pastoral policies in the country. Policy makers quietly accepted such assumptions and used
them to justify policies for land tenure reform, land privatization, the registration of title deeds,
formal land use planning, and livestock controls (Lane, 1998). Such policies determined
extensive grazing of pastoralist communities and represent the foundation of unrespect for
pastoralism, and became source of conflict among pastoralists and agriculture societies. The
options of replacing mobile pastoralism with non-pastoral activities such as cropping and
resettlement which were suggested by development programs and policy makers, have failed
to work (Anderson and Broch-Due, 1999; Hogg, 1986).
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The contribution of pastoralists to the national economies are often marginalized and
ignored. While pastoralism is a risky livelihood, it is still a viable way to use certain areas. This
is especially true in regard to climate change, shifting global markets, population growth and
increasing competition for land and other natural resources. Understanding how it works is
vital for efforts to reduce poverty in pastoral communities (Andreas et al, 2017).
The degree of social and political support for pastoralism is diverse, with some
governments strongly opposed, while others (such as in Europe) beginning to support it so as
to manage and conserve biological diversity (Nori & Gemini 2011; Cited in Andreas et al,
2017). The development challenges of pastoral areas are multi-dimensional and complex.
Therefore, pastoralism needs inclusive policy for development in every country. Pastoralist
communities facing extreme and worsening levels of food insecurity, highly affected by violent
conflict, politically and economically marginalized, have decreasing access to the natural
resources on which their livelihoods depend, and very limited access to basic socio-economic
services and infrastructure. Pastoralists are underdeveloped and poor because of inappropriate
development policies which lead to ineffective institutional settings, unfair resource
distribution and increased pressure on pastoral ecosystems. Pastoralism in Ethiopia is
undergoing profound change (Lind et al, 2016; Rettberg, Beckmann, Minah & Schelchen,
2017). The nature of pastoralism and their land use is changing now days. Therefore, pastoral
development policies should be based on local customs and community practical knowledge
rather than imposing state centrally-driven policies.
In spite very little consideration was given to the economic significance of pastoral areas
and pastoralist until the mid-1960s. However, after the formation of the Livestock and Meat
Board (LMB) in 1964 the government of Ethiopia began large scale efforts to develop the
pastoral areas and initiated different pastoral development projects, including among others
Arero Range Pilot Project, Livestock Development Project (I, II, III), Southern Rangelands
Pilot Project, and Pastoral Community Development Project (PCDP). Pastoralists have faced
new problems in recent years, including competition for water and pasture in the context of
decreased access to land; more explicit socio-economic and political marginalization, ethnic
based conflicts and deteriorating security situation; and uneven drought occurrences in pastoral
areas of the country.
Table 1. The Location and Size of Pastoral Areas in Ethiopia
Region
Total Surface area
(‘000 km2)
Total Pastoral area
(km2 sq.)
Afar
98.4
98.4
Somali
325.1
325.1
Oromia
353.0
152.1
Gambella
25.8
17.3
Benishangul-Gumuz
48.3
8.4
SNNP
112.3
30.4
Dire Dawa
1.2
1.2
Total
956.1
624.8
Source: (EEA, 2005; Cited in UNDP, 2010).
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Data Source: Standford and Habtu, (2000).
Figure 1. Pastoral population distribution in Ethiopia
III. Discussion
3.1 Somali, Afar and Borana Pastoralists
Pastoralism in Ethiopia is poorly documented by far, with confused description of
pastoral systems and terminology used for pastoralist groups. In Ethiopia pastoralists are
usually tribally organized referred to as Somali pastoral, Afar pastoral and Borana-Oromo
pastoral and associated with particular territories inhabited exclusively by them. Pastoralists
are also found in areas of Tigray, Benishangul and Gambella. According to Coppock (1994),
the Somali pastoralists constitute 53 percent of the pastoral population followed by the Afar 29
percent, the Borana-Guji Oromia 10 percent and the remaining 8 percent are found in
Gambella, Benishangul and Tigray regions.
Somali Pastoralists: Somali pastoralists move between seasonal grazing areas, taking
strategic advantage of different forage and water sources as they become available. In Somali
region 60 percent of the population was still practicing pastoralism as a main livelihood activity
(Save the Children UK (2008) cited in Lind et al, (2016). According to Mohamed (2018), the
nature of the land ownership and acquisition for Somali pastoralists changing this is associated
with changing the nature of the land use since state land is interested nowadays in Somali
region following resettlement. State land is a recent phenomenon defined as covering work,
face, making roads, building, plant, and other infrastructural development supports (Ismail
Mahli, 2019). Accessibility of land to pastoralists decline in Somali region since pasture and
water started to fall under the private control of other Somalis. Somali pastoralists are well
known by their movement to find pasture and water for their livestock. These movements are
one of the major sources of misunderstanding and conflict between them and their neighbors.
53
29
10 71 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Somali Afar Oromia SNNPR Gambella Beni Shangul
Regional breakdown of pastoral population in Ethiopia ( in %)
Somali
Afar
Oromia
SNNPR
Gambella
Beni Shangul
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In Somali region, land is owned by sub-clans, and whether someone can claim land or not
depends on the decision of the sub-clan. According to (Alison N. & Solomon D., 2011), the
situation of pastoralists’ area closure and land uses varies by location. In some parts of the
region much land has already been privatized and enclosed. Unlike parts of Somali region
including Shinille and Korahey zones, there are still large areas of open common grazing land.
Afar Pastoralists: The traditional Afar pastoralist system involves transhumant migration
between dry and wet season pastures. Similar to other pastoral communities in Ethiopia, the
major challenges of Afar pastoralist are recurrent drought and climate change. But, Afar
pastoralists do not see water as the main problem which makes them move, since they are near
to Awash River (Guinand Y., 2000). It is rather the circumstance and the fact that drought
periods exhaust grazing areas animals have to move ever-longer distances for fodder. Afar
pastoralists are very similar to Somali pastoralists in terms of their mobility and livelihoods,
but with less involvement in livestock exports. However, during the last decades, Afar
pastoralists became characterised by substantial losses of communal grazing areas along the
Awash River, due to dams for hydroelectric power, and large-scale irrigated cotton and sugar
schemes (Kloss H., 1982; Rettberg S., 2010). Different from other pastoral areas of the country,
decline in land access in Afar region was mainly due to external appropriation of land,
supported by central government.
Borana-Oromo Pastoralist: The Borana Plateau is an important rangeland for Ethiopia.
Pastoralism mode of production has supported the life of people here for many Centuries, and
animals are now supplied to a variety of domestic and export markets. Traditionally, Boran
systems of social solidarity provided clans with crucial resiliencies in relation to the sharing of
natural resources, livestock holdings, essential daily needs, and conflict. Unlike to other
pastoralists in Ethiopia, the leaders of the Borana pastoralists redistributed cattle to those
determined to be legitimately in need through no fault of their own. The Borana pastoral system
has endured several decades of decline due to several reasons, including climate change,
population growth, rangelands degradation, food insecurity and drop in livestock productivity
(Coppock et al., 2014). Some of the Borana pastoralists have sought to turn to agriculture, but
success in dryland agriculture is equally contingent on reliable rainfall (Stark J. et al., 2011).
Borana plateau is an area known by scarce water resource. But, social structure provides a
framework within which scarce resources (water and pasture) management is carried out by
well-organized traditional administrative structure-GADA.
3.2 Pastoralism and Vulnerability
The concept and definition of the pastoralism vulnerability that has been used by different
studies revolves around the explaining of vulnerability as lack of adaptive capacity in both
social and natural system: sensitivity and exposure to hazard (Adger and Kelly, 1999; Deressa,
2010; Acheampong et al., 2014). Pastoral communities are vulnerable to sudden or gradual
changes in social or ecological shocks and stresses. Pastoralism in Ethiopia is both viable and
vulnerable. The current climate change, food insecurity and internal conflict crisis are affecting
pastoralists’ livelihood in the country.
In order to define vulnerability we need to define risk first. Dercon (2001), risk are
defined uncertain events that can damage human and livestock wellbeing. The uncertainty
pertains to the occurrence, timing and magnitude of the negative event. Based on risk definition
vulnerability denotes lack of resilience to the occurrences of these uncertain events, including
long-term and seasonal trends. The climatic shock of the drought is one of many sources of
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vulnerabilities for Ethiopian pastoralists. Livestock terms of trade for cereals and other staple
commodities have collapsed, while pasture and water resource conflicts have increased. Loss
of access to water, pasture and effective, community-based animal health care, all these
vulnerabilities led to increases in malnutrition, morbidity and malnutrition (Lautze et al., 2003).
It is not drought as such that makes pastoralists vulnerable, but the growing inability of
pastoralists to cope with it. Factors that constrain pastoral drought response mechanisms,
especially the mobility of people and animals, are the main reason for this. These factors
include restrictions on trade and movement, poverty and poor investment in social services and
infrastructure, public policy constraints combine to impoverish pastoralists (ECHO, 2009).
Facing food insecurity caused by drought, many pastoralists sell their livestock on the market.
Increasing numbers of livestock, often in poor condition, drive down prices. Rich pastoralist
entrepreneurs are able to take advantage of this situation. Indeed, pastoralist areas can export
increasing numbers of livestock while also seeing increasing levels of destitution (Stark J. et
al., 2011). Climate change, drought, food insecurity, conflict and unsafe security issues are key
challenges and long-term structural problems for pastoralists in Ethiopia.
Poverty is one of the most development challenges in Africa, as well as Ethiopia. Despite
widespread attention was given to poverty alleviation, confusion still exists over the very
complex poverty dynamics in pastoral areas. Because pastoralists are often poor as results of
low standard indicators like cash expenditures, education and market access (Devereux, 2007).
According to (Peter et al., 2008) reliance on quantitative measurements are highly questionable
in the context of pastoralism and a seeming unwillingness to fully value pastoral production
and consumption leads to misperceptions about the nature and extent of poverty among pastoral
populations.
Pastoralism in everywhere uniquely well adapted to dryland environments. As an
economic and social system, it operates effectively in low and highly variable rainfall
conditions. Ethiopian pastoralists’ livelihoods systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable
due to rising human populations, climate change, completion for scarce resources; very poor
infrastructure development and international markets are setting ever-higher barriers for access
(Sara Pantuliano and Mike Wekesa, 2008).
Figure 2. Vulnerability Conceptual framework, taken from IPCC (2014). Solid and dashed
arrows show positive and negative functional relationship of component with vulnerability,
respectively.
VULNERABILITY (V)
SENSITIVITY (S)
ADAPTIVE CAPACITY (AC)
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According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group
II Report (2014). Vulnerability presented as pre-existing characteristic property of a system.
Accordingly, indicators ‘Sensitivity’ and ‘Adaptive capacity’ are internal properties of a
system, are employed to assess vulnerability.
IV. Conclusion
Pastoralism is a culture, way of life, economic and livelihood system. Pastoralist
livelihoods have come under increasing strain as a result of external shocks, both natural and
man-made. As a result of drought, changing public policies and strategies towards pastoral
communities, continuing loss of pasturelands, population dynamics, and accelerating climate
change, violent conflict and displacement, the future of pastoralism and the role that it will play
in national economy and sustainable development remains unclear. Policy-makers face a
challenging task when designing pastoral development policies and strategies. In fact, many
aspects of pastoralism and pastoral communities are still not fully understood and require
applied research.
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... TB case, the notification is neither adequate for WHO estimated incident cases nor consistent across local diversities in the country due to variation in access to TB prevention and control services [6]. Pastoral community is one of the most marginalized settings in the country, particularly in regions where the agrarian community is predominant [7]. But, pastoral communities occupy 43 % of the land mass of Africa and Ethiopia is one of 36 countries with large area of the pastoralist livelihood community [8]. ...
... Pastoral communities of Ethiopia occupy 61 % of the total land mass and 97 % of Ethiopian pastoralists found in lowland areas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya, and Southern Nations Nationalities and peoples' region. In spite pastoralareas have a significant role in the national economy, yet very little consideration was given to pastoral development and policy makers often neglect them, focusing on the interests of agriculture and urban people [7]. The health system of Ethiopia was highly centralized and access to basic health services was very poor before 2003. ...
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Background Pastoralist community accounts for a significant portion of the population in Ethiopia. This community is different from majority of the country’s population. Access to TB prevention and control services is uneven in the country. The community TB program is designed to improve the access. Exploring the program performance from the perspectives of its implemters in a pastoral setting remains important. Method We conducted a qualitative study using an interpretive description method in the pastoralist community setting of Ethiopia. Study participants were recruited from geographically dispersed areas. We collected data through in-depth interview using semi-structured interview guides and audio recordings during February 01–30, 2020. The guides were developed in consultation with TB program experts and clinicians treating TB patients in the study area. Notes were taken at the interviews to enrich transcription of the data. Principal investigator conducted the interview. The subsequent interviews were informed by emerging ideas from forgoing interview transcriptions and continued until data saturation was achieved. Results One hundred and fifty six codes, nine categories and three themes emanated. The first theme was inadequate community TB performance and some of its codes include inadequate presumptive TB case identification and compromised directly observed treatment short course service delivery. The second theme was factors contributing to the program performance. Community factors, lack of physical access to health facilities and indirect non-medical cost were some categories under this theme. The final theme was suggested solutions; and its categories include a need for active community involvement and modification of service delivery approaches. Conclusions Community TB performance was inadequate in the pastoralist community. Multifaceted factors contributed to the inadequate program performance. Socioeconomic and access related factors were major contributers. Aligning the program to the context of the pastoralist community setting is required to improve the performance.
... It is the primary production method used in arid and semi-arid dry land environments. 3 Pastoral groups account for 10% of Ethiopia's total population and 61% of the total land mass, 97% of them found in low land areas of Afar, Somali, Oromia, and SNNPR. 3,4 Pastoral areas in Ethiopia are characterized by frequent drought with high livestock mortality which often results in threatening the viability of pastoral livelihood, famine, psychological harm and death in the human population. ...
... 3 Pastoral groups account for 10% of Ethiopia's total population and 61% of the total land mass, 97% of them found in low land areas of Afar, Somali, Oromia, and SNNPR. 3,4 Pastoral areas in Ethiopia are characterized by frequent drought with high livestock mortality which often results in threatening the viability of pastoral livelihood, famine, psychological harm and death in the human population. 5,6 They are the most marginalized group of people in Ethiopia. ...
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Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic and a major health crisis affecting several nations. Such outbreaks are associated with adverse mental health consequences to any group of the population. Despite its negative effects, no study has addressed the potential psychological impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak among the pastoral community. This study aims to assess psychological experiences during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak and the factors that contributed to it among pastoral community residents in West Omo, South-West Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from May to June 2020. The study subjects were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, and entered into EpiData 3.1, then exported to SPSS version 24 for statistical analysis. The psychological impact was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). P-value < 0.20 during bi-variable analysis was considered as a candidate for multivariable logistic regression. Independent factors of depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed using adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence level s at P-value < 0.05 cut-off point. Results: A total of 845 eligible pastoral residents were interviewed, with a 94.4% response rate. The prevalence of a positive response for anxiety, depression and stress was 30.8%, 26.3% and 24.4%, respectively. Being female was highly associated with developing anxiety and depression. Anxiety was found to be three times more prevalent among the respondents with ≥ 3 family members. Furthermore, participants with a history of mental illness, poor social support, and a high perceived life threat were also at a higher risk of experiencing anxiety, depression, and stress. Conclusion: The prevalence of positive depression, anxiety and stress results were high. As a result, special attention should be paid, by governmental and non-governmental health organizations, to psychosocial and mental health programs for pastoral residentsduring the COVID-19 pandemic.
... TB case noti cation is neither adequate for WHO estimated incident cases nor consistent across local diversities in the country due to variation in access to TB prevention and control services [6]. Pastoral community is one of the most marginalized settings in the country, particularly in regions where the agrarian community is predominant [7]. But, pastoral communities occupy 43% of the land mass of Africa and Ethiopia is one of 36 countries with large area of the pastoralist livelihood community [8]. ...
... Pastoral communities of Ethiopia occupy 61% of the total land mass and 97% of Ethiopian pastoralists found in lowland areas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya, and SNNPR. In spite pastoral areas have a signi cant role in the national economy, yet very little consideration was given to pastoral development and policy makers often neglect them, focusing on the interests of agriculture and urban people [7]. ...
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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death and thee first cause of death due to single infectious disease in the world. Nevertheless, access to TB prevention and control is not uniform even within a country, The community TB program is designed to improve the access in Ethiopia. Exploring the program performance from the perspectives of its implemters in a pastoral setting remains important. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using an interpretive description method in the pastoralist community setting of Ethiopia. Study participants were recruited from geographically dispersed areas. Data were collected through in-depth interview using semi-structured guides and audio recordings during February 01-30, 2020. The interview guide was developed based on consultation with TB program experts and clinicians treating TB patients in the study area. Notes were taken at the interview to enrich the transcription of the data. The interview was conducted by the principal investigator. The subsequent data collection was informed by emerging ideas from forgoing interview transcriptions. The interview continued until data saturation was achieved. Results: One hundred and fisty six codes, nine categories and three themes emanated. The first theme was an inadequate community TB performance and some of its codes include inadequate presumptive TB case identification and compromised DOTs service delivery. The second theme was factors contributing to the performance. Community factors, lack of physical access to health facilities and indirect non-medical cost are some of categories under this theme. The final theme was related to solutions and its categories include a need for active community involvement and modification of service delivery approaches. Conclusion: Community TB performance is inadequate in the pastoralist community and many factors contribute to the inadequate performance. Aligning the program to the context of the pastoralist community setting is required to improve the performance.
... Pastoralists lack land for settled crop production and generally operate in fragile or difficult environments and have lower incomes, less education, and fewer resources to cope with climate and weather risks. Abdulahi (2019) reported that pastoralists used 61 percent of the land area of Ethiopia. About 97 percent of the pastoralists were in lowland areas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya, and the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR), but they often cross national borders. ...
... About 97 percent of the pastoralists were in lowland areas of Afar, Somali, Oromiya, and the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR), but they often cross national borders. Abdulahi (2019) noted that many previous efforts to settle pastoralists have failed. In some areas, competition for land has led to conflicts between pastoralists and agropastoralists. ...
... In Ethiopia, pastoral communities are found in arid and semi-arid lowlands of North-Eastern, Eastern, Southern-Eastern, and Southern, and Southwestern parts [3]. Somali State, which lies south-eastern part of the country, pastoralism is a principal livelihood of Somali communities, and they have been practicing this model through their history [5]. ...
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Pastoralism and agro-pastoralism with extensive livestock production are the dominant livelihood sources for the Somali regional State's population. However, recent decades marked with climatic shocks such as recurrent drought have negatively impacted livestock production and forced many pastorals and agro-pastoral households to face livelihood crises. To cope with this situation, seeking alternative livelihood sources become inevitable. The objective of this study was to assess the determinants of agro-pastoral household's livelihood diversification strategies in Awbare district, Fafan zone of the Somali State, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to capture the necessary data, and 153 respondents were randomly selected from the agro-pastoral population using a semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussion, and key informant interview. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as ANOVA and chi-square and Multinomial logistic model were used to identify determinants factors. The study has revealed that 45.1% of the surveyed agro-pastoral households were engaging livelihood diversification of non-farm, off-farm, and farm+non-farm+off-farm whereas the rest of 54.90% of the respondents were unable to diversify and were practicing only farm activities. The multinomial regression model has identified that the educational status, farm size, use of agricultural farm input, and total annual income of the households were positively associated with the likelihood of engaging livelihood diversification strategies. In contrast, the age, dependent ratio, and access for credit use were negatively associated with the likelihood of livelihood diversification. In conclusion, livelihood diversification among Awbare agro-pastoralists was low due to underlying factors like education and income, and enchasing these factors could improve their livelihood asset. The study suggests that the future policy toward pastoral and agro-pastoralist should consider these factors.
... [11][12][13] Ethiopian pastoralist communities occupy 61% of the land mass in over 122 districts. 14 Studies revealed that the proportion of home delivery is more common in the pastoralist communities. For instance, findings from studies conducted in pastoralist districts in Dubti, Afar Region, Ethiopia indicated 92.6% of births took place at home. ...
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Full-text available
Purpose: Studies addressing determinants of home delivery in pastoralist areas are scarce in Ethiopia. In this study, we aimed to assess determinants of home delivery in rural pastoralist communities of Hamar District, Southern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: In April 2018, we conducted a community-based case-control study. Of 35 rural kebeles (lowest level of administration) in the district, 8 were randomly selected. Ninety-nine randomly selected cases (mothers who gave birth at home) and 193 controls (mothers who gave birth at health facility) were included in the study. We used structured questionnaires to collect data. Through face-to-face interview, data on place of delivery, socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history knowledge and attitude of mothers were collected. We used logistic regression model to measure association between variables. Results: Late initiation of antenatal care (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 17.1), husbands only decision-making (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.2, 95% CI = 2.1, 24.5), women's preference for traditional birth attendants (TBAs) (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 12.5), and not involving in women's development army (WDA), (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.0, 10.5) increased the risk of home delivery. Moreover, low maternal knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy (AOR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.5, 29.0) and negative maternal attitudes towards institutional delivery (AOR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.4, 14.1) were other factors that increased the risk of home delivery. Conclusion: Among our study participants, a number of factors increased the risk of home delivery. Improving women's awareness on the importance of institutional delivery, establishing systems for integration between TBAs and health facilities, empowering women and promoting them to participation in WDA were recommended.
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A major constraint faced in implementing sheep and goat improvement programs in low input systems is the limited involvement of the pastoral livestock keepers. Gender dynamics represent strong determinants of pastoral livestock management practices but are however very rarely integrated in livestock improvement programs. This research adopts a gendered lens to explore sheep and goat breeding management, ownership and trait preferences. Using a qualitative approach ten gender disaggregated focus group discussions with 121 participants were conducted with beneficiaries from a USAID supported Accelerated Livestock Value Chain Development Project for livestock improvement in Kenya’s low input systems. The results show that availability of sheep and goat breeding stock are directly influenced by gendered allocations of management activities. Despite women’s contribution to sheep and goat management, men were perceived to exercise a greater variety of ownership rights compared to women, especially regarding decision-making over sheep and goat breeding. While sheep and goat trait preferences were similar for men and women the order of trait prioritisation was gendered according to divisions of labour and decision-making opportunities and constraints. The results demonstrate that gender dynamics in specific areas of sheep and goat husbandry in low input systems can influence breeding outcomes in different ways. Contributing to filling an important knowledge gap and supplementing existing literature, the study recommends the adoption of a gendered approach when introducing or strengthening productivity improvement practices. Strategies to ensure that sheep and goat improvement practices are not only relevant but compatible with the preferences of men and women are therefore considered more likely to improve technology adoption rates.
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