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There is a need to more fully characterize financial capacity losses in the preclinical and prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their pathological substrates.
To test the association between financial skills and cortical β-amyloid deposition in aging and subjects at risk for AD.
Cross-sectional analyses of data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-3) study conducted across 50 plus sites in the US and Canada.
Multicenter biomarker study.
243 subjects (144 cognitively normal, 79 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], 20 mild AD).
18F-Florbetapir brain PET scans to measure global cortical β-amyloid deposition (SUVr) and the Financial Capacity Instrument Short Form (FCI-SF) to evaluate an individual's financial skills in monetary calculation, financial concepts, checkbook/register usage, and bank statement usage. There are five sub scores and a total score (range of 0-74) with higher scores indicating better financial skill.
FCI-SF total score was significantly worse in MCI [Cohen's d= 0.9 (95%CI: 0.6-1.2)] and AD subjects [Cohen's d=3.1(CI: 2.5-3.7)] compared to normals. Domain scores and completion times also showed significant difference. Across all subjects, higher cortical β-amyloid SUVr was significantly associated with worse FCI-SF total score after co-varying for age, education, and cognitive score [Cohen's f2=0.751(CI: 0.5-1.1)]. In cognitively normal subjects, after covarying for age, gender, and education, higher β -amyloid PET SUVr was associated with longer task completion time [Cohen's f2=0.198(CI: 0.06-0.37)].
Using a multicenter study sample, we document that financial capacity is impaired in the prodromal and mild stages of AD and that such impairments are, in part, associated with the extent of cortical β-amyloid deposition. In normal aging, β-amyloid deposition is associated with slowing of financial tasks. These data confirm and extend prior research highlighting the utility of financial capacity assessments in at risk samples.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... The FCI is used in twenty-two studies included in this review (i.e., Clark et al., 2014;Earnst et al., 2001;Gerstenecker et al., 2019Gerstenecker et al., , 2018Gerstenecker et al., , 2017bGerstenecker et al., , 2017aGerstenecker et al., , 2016Griffith et al., 2010Griffith et al., , 2007Griffith et al., , 2003Lassen-Greene et al., 2017;Marson et al., 2000;Martin et al., 2008Martin et al., , 2019Martin et al., , 2013Niccolai et al., 2017;Okonkwo et al., 2009Okonkwo et al., , 2006Sherod et al., 2009;Stoeckel et al., 2013;Tracy et al., 2017;Triebel et al., 2009). 6 The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF; Tolbert et al., 2019) assesses complex financial abilities and is a modified shorter version of the FCI. Five domains, i.e., (1) 'mental calculation', (2) 'financial conceptual knowledge', (3) 'single checkbook/register task', (4) 'complex checkbook/register task', and (5) 'using bank statement' are included. ...
... Scores can be determined for all five domains separately and a total score based on the sum of these five domains can be calculated, with higher scores indicating a better financial capacity. The FCI-SF is used in one study included in this review (i.e., Tolbert et al., 2019). 7 The Financial Competency Questions (FCQ; Bassett, 1999) evaluates a participants' understanding of financial issues related to the use and maintenance of a checking account by asking five questions. ...
... Some studies found evidence that a higher age was associated with lower performances on FDM tests in people living with MCI (Duke Han et al., 2015;Lassen-Greene et al., 2017;Lui et al., 2013;Tolbert et al., 2019). Age can, however, not fully explain the differences that were found between people living with MCI and healthy controls regarding FDM since some studies controlled for age in their group analyses and still found significant differences between groups on tests of FDM (Arcara et al., 2019;Benavides-Varela et al., 2015;Duke Han et al., 2015;Griffith et al., 2010;Martin et al., 2019;Triebel et al., 2009). ...
Self and proxy reported questionnaires indicate that people living with a neurodegenerative disease (NDD) have more difficulties with financial decision-making (FDM) than healthy controls. Self-reports, however, rely on adequate insight into everyday functioning and might, therefore, be less reliable. The present study provides a comprehensive overview and meta-analysis of studies evaluating FDM in people living with an NDD. For this, the reliability of performance-based tests to consistently identify FDM difficulties in people living with an NDD compared to healthy controls is evaluated. Furthermore, the associations between FDM and disease severity, performances on standard measures of cognition and demographics are evaluated. All 47 included articles, consistently reported lower performances on performance-based FDM tests of people living with an NDD (including Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis or Huntington’s disease) compared to healthy controls. The majority of studies, however, focused on Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment (k = 38). FDM performance appears to be related to cognitive decline, specifically in working memory, processing speed and numeracy.
...  However, it remains unclear whether IADL impairment can be detected cross-sectionally in even earlier stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in particular in the biomarker-defined stage of preclinical AD. 15 To date, few publications have examined systematic IADL assessment in CN individuals with high cortical amyloid burden consistent with preclinical AD and CN individuals with low amyloid. 16,17 In the current study, we analyzed the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease (A4) Study 18 screening data of CN participants who underwent florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the cross-sectional associations among IADL, as measured by the participant and study partnerreported ADCS ADL-PI, cortical amyloid deposition as measured by florbetapir PET, and cognition. We hypothesized that subtle difficulties in IADL will be associated with greater cortical amyloid burden and worse cognition. ...
... 5 Items address IADL, such as managing finances, traveling, and organizing activities (see Tables 2 and 3). For the A4 Study, three technology-related items were added (items , aimed at capturing aspects of use of cellphones, smartphones, computers, tablets, and e-readers. They were pretested among CN volunteers for clarity of wording and feasibility. ...
... Prior studies in CN participants have shown associations between amyloid burden and objective and subjective cognitive function  but only limited evidence for a relationship with IADL difficulties. 16,17 The current analyses demonstrated an association among IADL, amyloid burden, objective cognition, and subjective cognitive concerns. ...
We examined the associations among instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), cortical amyloid, and cognition in cognitively normal (CN) older adults.
CN participants screening for the A4 Study (n = 4486) underwent florbetapir (amyloid) positron emission tomography. IADL were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Prevention Instrument. Separate logistic regression models were run with cortical amyloid or cognition as independent variable and IADL as dependent variable, adjusting for age and sex.
IADL difficulties were endorsed infrequently (≤16%). Overall IADL and four select IADL item difficulties ("remembering appointments," "finding belongings," "following TV programs," and "remembering current events") reported by both participant and study partner were significantly associated with greater amyloid burden and worse cognition.
Although IADL deficits were infrequent in this CN cohort, greater participant and study partner report of overall IADL deficits and subtle difficulties in specific IADL items were associated with mildly higher amyloid burden and worse cognition.
... As described above, previous studies have displayed an association between IADL and certain brain regions, but few studies have assessed the relationship between financial capacity and AD pathology. One such recent study found that higher cortical amyloid burden was significantly associated with higher impairment in financial capacity in participants with early-stage AD . However, to our knowledge, no previous study has investigated the relationship between tau pathology and financial capacity. ...
... While association were modest in strength, this suggests that the FCI-SF, used in the current study, may be more sensitive to detecting the earliest IADL changes in the preclinical stage of AD, while the FAQ, used in the previous study, may be more geared toward detecting IADL changes at the stage of MCI and mild AD dementia. A few prior studies have shown an association between IADL changes and cortical amyloid within CN older adults [20,38]. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show an association between regional tau burden and IADL within CN older adults. ...
Financial capacity is often one of the first instrumental activities of daily living to be affected in cognitively normal (CN) older adults who later progress to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia.
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between financial capacity and regional cerebral tau.
Cross-sectional financial capacity was assessed using the Financial Capacity Instrument -Short Form (FCI-SF) in 410 CN, 199 MCI, and 61 AD dementia participants who underwent flortaucipir tau positron emission tomography from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Linear regression models with backward elimination were used with FCI-SF total score as the dependent variable and regional tau and tau-amyloid interaction as predictors of interest in separate analyses. Education, age sex, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Total Learning, and Trail Making Test B were used as covariates.
Significant associations were found between FCI-SF and tau regions (entorhinal: p < 0.001; inferior temporal: p < 0.001; dorsolateral prefrontal: p = 0.01; posterior cingulate: p = 0.03; precuneus: p < 0.001; and supramarginal gyrus: p = 0.005) across all participants. For the tau-amyloid interaction, significant associations were found in four regions (amyloid and dorsolateral prefrontal tau interaction: p = 0.005; amyloid and posterior cingulate tau interaction: p = 0.005; amyloid and precuneus tau interaction: p < 0.001; and amyloid and supramarginal tau interaction: p = 0.002).
Greater regional tau burden was modestly associated with financial capacity impairment in early-stage AD. Extending this work with longitudinal analyses will further illustrate the utility of such assessments in detecting clinically meaningful decline, which may aid clinical trials of early-stage AD.
... For patients who do progress to MCI due to AD (with/ without MBI), initial clinical symptoms typically include short-term memory impairment, followed by subsequent decline in additional cognitive domains (15) (Figure 1). On a day-to-day basis, an individual with MCI due to AD may struggle to find the right word (language), forget recent conversations (episodic memory), struggle with completing familiar tasks (executive function), or get lost in familiar surroundings (visuospatial function) (15,16). As individuals have varying coping mechanisms and levels of cognitive reserve, patients' experiences and symptomology vary widely; however, patients tend to remain relatively independent at this stage, despite potential marginal deficits in function. ...
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease impacting cognition, function, and behavior. Alzheimer’s disease progresses along a continuum from preclinical disease, to mild cognitive and/or behavioral impairment and then Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Recently, clinicians have been encouraged to diagnose Alzheimer’s earlier, before patients have progressed to Alzheimer’s disease dementia. The early and accurate detection of Alzheimer’s disease-associated symptoms and underlying disease pathology by clinicians is fundamental for the screening, diagnosis, and subsequent management of Alzheimer’s disease patients. It also enables patients and their caregivers to plan for the future and make appropriate lifestyle changes that could help maintain their quality of life for longer. Unfortunately, detecting early-stage Alzheimer’s disease in clinical practice can be challenging and is hindered by several barriers including constraints on clinicians’ time, difficulty accurately diagnosing Alzheimer’s pathology, and that patients and healthcare providers often dismiss symptoms as part of the normal aging process. As the prevalence of this disease continues to grow, the current model for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis and patient management will need to evolve to integrate care across clinical disciplines and the disease continuum, beginning with primary care. This review summarizes the importance of establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, related practical ‘how-to’ guidance and considerations, and tools that can be used by healthcare providers throughout the diagnostic journey.
Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that tau pathology propagation, facilitated by amyloid pathology, may occur along connected pathways. To investigate these ideas in humans, we combined amyloid scans with longitudinal data on white matter connectivity, hippocampal volume, tau positron emission tomography and memory performance in 256 cognitively healthy older individuals. Lower baseline hippocampal volume was associated with increased mean diffusivity of the connecting hippocampal cingulum bundle (HCB). HCB diffusivity predicted tau accumulation in the downstream-connected posterior cingulate cortex in amyloid-positive but not in amyloid-negative individuals. Furthermore, HCB diffusivity predicted memory decline in amyloid-positive individuals with high posterior cingulate cortex tau binding. Our results provide in vivo evidence that higher amyloid pathology strengthens the association between HCB diffusivity and tau accumulation in the downstream posterior cingulate cortex and facilitates memory decline. This confirms amyloid's crucial role in potentiating neural vulnerability and memory decline marking the onset of preclinical Alzheimer's disease.
We investigated the roles of financial/functional and cognitive abilities in predicting clinical progression in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a longitudinal sample of 51 patients with consensus conference diagnosed MCI likely due to Alzheimer disease (AD), two-year change scores were calculated for a performance measure of functional ability, cognitive variables, and 3 outcome measures used to track progression in neurological disorders. We examined patterns of financial and cognitive decline across the 2-year study period, and used these data and the 3 outcome variables to construct discrete predictor models of clinical progression in MCI. We found that both financial skills and cognitive abilities declined over the 2-year study period, were significantly associated with clinical progression, and contributed unique variance to all 3 predictor models. The resulting models accounted for 40% to 75% of variance in clinical progression across outcome variables. Taken together, our results indicate that changes in both cognitive abilities and higher order functional skills appear integral to understanding clinical progression in MCI likely due to AD. Specifically, declines in financial skills contribute unique variance to measures commonly used to track progression in neurological disorders associated with aging, and thus represent an important functional marker of clinical progression in prodromal AD.
This study was designed to evaluate whether subjects with amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology, detected using florbetapir positron emission tomorgraphy (PET), demonstrated greater cognitive decline than subjects without Aβ pathology. Sixty-nine cognitively normal (CN) controls, 52 with recently diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 31 with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included in the study. PET images obtained in these subjects were visually rated as positive (Aβ+) or negative (Aβ-), blind to diagnosis. Fourteen percent (10/69) of CN, 37% (19/52) of MCI and 68% (21/31) of AD were Aβ+. The primary outcome was change in ADAS-Cog score in MCI subjects after 36 months; however, additional outcomes included change on measures of cognition, function and diagnostic status. Aβ+ MCI subjects demonstrated greater worsening compared with Aβ- subjects on the ADAS-Cog over 36 months (5.66±1.47 vs -0.71±1.09, P=0.0014) as well as on the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), digit symbol substitution (DSS) test, and a verbal fluency test (P<0.05). Similar to MCI subjects, Aβ+ CN subjects showed greater decline on the ADAS-Cog, digit-symbol-substitution test and verbal fluency (P<0.05), whereas Aβ+ AD patients showed greater declines in verbal fluency and the MMSE (P<0.05). Aβ+ subjects in all diagnostic groups also showed greater decline on the CDR-SB (P<0.04), a global clinical assessment. Aβ+ subjects did not show significantly greater declines on the ADCS-ADL or Wechsler Memory Scale. Overall, these findings suggest that in CN, MCI and AD subjects, florbetapir PET Aβ+ subjects show greater cognitive and global deterioration over a 3-year follow-up than Aβ- subjects do.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 11 March 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.9.
Recent developments of PET amyloid ligands have made it possible to visualize the presence of Aβ deposition in the brain of living participants and to assess the consequences especially in individuals with no objective sign of cognitive deficits. The present review will focus on amyloid imaging in cognitively normal elderly, asymptomatic at-risk populations, and individuals with subjective cognitive decline. It will cover the prevalence of amyloid-positive cases amongst cognitively normal elderly, the influence of risk factors for AD, the relationships to cognition, atrophy and prognosis, longitudinal amyloid imaging and ethical aspects related to amyloid imaging in cognitively normal individuals. Almost ten years of research have led to a few consensual and relatively consistent findings: some cognitively normal elderly have Aβ deposition in their brain, the prevalence of amyloid-positive cases increases in at-risk populations, the prognosis for these individuals is worse than for those with no Aβ deposition, and significant increase in Aβ deposition over time is detectable in cognitively normal elderly. More inconsistent findings are still under debate; these include the relationship between Aβ deposition and cognition and brain volume, the sequence and cause-to-effect relations between the different AD biomarkers, and the individual outcome associated with an amyloid positive versus negative scan. Preclinical amyloid imaging also raises important ethical issues. While amyloid imaging is definitely useful to understand the role of Aβ in early stages, to define at-risk populations for research or for clinical trial, and to assess the effects of anti-amyloid treatments, we are not ready yet to translate research results into clinical practice and policy. More researches are needed to determine which information to disclose from an individual amyloid imaging scan, the way of disclosing such information and the impact on individuals and on society.
Persons with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) have significant deficits in financial abilities. This study examined the relationship between brain structure volumes, cognition, and financial capacity in patients with mild AD. Sixteen mild AD patients and 16 older adult comparisons completed the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI), a psychometric measure of financial abilities, and also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain volumes of the bilateral hippocampi, angular gyri, precunei, and medial and dorsolateral frontal cortices. Mild AD patients performed significantly below comparisons on the FCI and had significantly smaller hippocampi. Among mild AD patients, FCI performance was moderately correlated with frontal (medial and dorsolateral frontal cortex) and posterior (angular gyri and precunei) cortical volumes. Stepwise regression demonstrated that medial frontal cortex volume predicted FCI score. The relationship between medial frontal cortex volume and overall FCI score was partially mediated by two measures of simple attention (DRS Attention, DRS Construction). The findings suggest that medial frontal cortex atrophy and associated declines in simple attention play an increasingly important role in declining financial skills in patients with mild AD.
The ability to identify and quantify brain β-amyloid could increase the accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.
To determine if florbetapir F 18 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging performed during life accurately predicts the presence of β-amyloid in the brain at autopsy.
Prospective clinical evaluation conducted February 2009 through March 2010 of florbetapir-PET imaging performed on 35 patients from hospice, long-term care, and community health care facilities near the end of their lives (6 patients to establish the protocol and 29 to validate) compared with immunohistochemistry and silver stain measures of brain β-amyloid after their death used as the reference standard. PET images were also obtained in 74 young individuals (18-50 years) presumed free of brain amyloid to better understand the frequency of a false-positive interpretation of a florbetapir-PET image.
Correlation of florbetapir-PET image interpretation (based on the median of 3 nuclear medicine physicians' ratings) and semiautomated quantification of cortical retention with postmortem β-amyloid burden, neuritic amyloid plaque density, and neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in the first 35 participants autopsied (out of 152 individuals enrolled in the PET pathological correlation study).
Florbetapir-PET imaging was performed a mean of 99 days (range, 1-377 days) before death for the 29 individuals in the primary analysis cohort. Fifteen of the 29 individuals (51.7%) met pathological criteria for Alzheimer disease. Both visual interpretation of the florbetapir-PET images and mean quantitative estimates of cortical uptake were correlated with presence and quantity of β-amyloid pathology at autopsy as measured by immunohistochemistry (Bonferroni ρ, 0.78 [95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.89]; P <.001]) and silver stain neuritic plaque score (Bonferroni ρ, 0.71 [95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.86]; P <.001). Florbetapir-PET images and postmortem results rated as positive or negative for β-amyloid agreed in 96% of the 29 individuals in the primary analysis cohort. The florbetapir-PET image was rated as amyloid negative in the 74 younger individuals in the nonautopsy cohort.
Florbetapir-PET imaging was correlated with the presence and density of β-amyloid. These data provide evidence that a molecular imaging procedure can identify β-amyloid pathology in the brains of individuals during life. Additional studies are required to understand the appropriate use of florbetapir-PET imaging in the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and for the prediction of progression to dementia.
Financial capacity is a complex instrumental activity of daily living critical to independent functioning of older adults and sensitive to impairment in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the neurocognitive basis of financial impairment in dementia. We developed cognitive models of financial capacity in cognitively healthy older adults (n = 85) and patients with MCI (n = 113) and mild AD (n = 43). All participants were administered the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI) and a neuropsychological test battery. Univariate correlation and multiple regression procedures were used to develop cognitive models of overall FCI performance across groups. The control model (R2 = .38) comprised (in order of entry) written arithmetic skills, delayed story recall, and simple visuomotor sequencing. The MCI model (R2 = .69) comprised written arithmetic skills, visuomotor sequencing and set alternation, and race. The AD model (R2 = .65) comprised written arithmetic skills, simple visuomotor sequencing, and immediate story recall. Written arithmetic skills (WRAT-3 Arithmetic) was the primary predictor across models, accounting for 27% (control model), 46% (AD model), and 55% (MCI model) of variance. Executive function and verbal memory were secondary model predictors. The results offer insight into the cognitive basis of financial capacity across the dementia spectrum of cognitive aging, MCI, and AD.
The National Social Life, Health and Aging Project is the first population-based, nationally representative study to ask older adults about their recent experience of mistreatment. This article provides estimates of mistreatment by family members and examines the association of mistreatment with demographic and health characteristics.
We selected community-residing participants aged 57 to 85 using a multistage area probability design. Of those eligible, 3,005 participated in the study, for a weighted response rate of 75.5%. We asked respondents if in the past year they had experienced mistreatment in the following domains: verbal, financial, and physical. We asked those who reported mistreatment about their relationship to the person responsible.
In all, 9% of older adults reported verbal mistreatment, 3.5% financial mistreatment, and 0.2% physical mistreatment by a family member. Odds of verbal mistreatment were higher for women and those with physical vulnerabilities and were lower for Latinos than for Whites. Odds of financial mistreatment were higher for African Americans and lower for Latinos than for Whites and were lower for those with a spouse or romantic partner than for those without partners.
Few older adults report mistreatment by family members, with older adults quite insulated from physical mistreatment.
With the increasing life expectancy in developed countries, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thus its socioeconomic impact are growing. Increasing knowledge over the last years about the pathomechanisms involved in AD allow for the development of specific treatment strategies aimed at slowing down or even preventing neuronal death in AD. However, this requires also that (1) AD can be diagnosed with high accuracy, because non-AD dementias would not benefit from an AD-specific treatment; (2) AD can be diagnosed in very early stages when any intervention would be most effective; and (3) treatment efficacy can be reliably and meaningfully monitored. Although there currently is no ideal biomarker that would fulfill all these requirements, there is increasing evidence that a combination of currently existing neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood biomarkers can provide important complementary information and thus contribute to a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of AD. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is exploring which combinations of these biomarkers are the most powerful for diagnosis of AD and monitoring of treatment effects.
The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI is a multisite, longitudinal, observational study that has collected many biomarkers since 2004. Recent publications highlight the multifactorial nature of late-onset AD. We discuss selected topics that provide insights into AD progression and outline how this knowledge may improve clinical trials.
We used standard methods to identify nearly 600 publications using ADNI data from 2016 and 2017 (listed in Supplementary material and searchable at http://adni.loni.usc.edu/news-publications/publications/).
(1) Data-driven AD progression models supported multifactorial interactions rather than a linear cascade of events. (2) β-Amyloid (Aβ) deposition occurred concurrently with functional connectivity changes within the default mode network in preclinical subjects and was followed by specific and progressive disconnection of functional and anatomical networks. (3) Changes in functional connectivity, volumetric measures, regional hypometabolism, and cognition were detectable at subthreshold levels of Aβ deposition. 4. Tau positron emission tomography imaging studies detailed a specific temporal and spatial pattern of tau pathology dependent on prior Aβ deposition, and related to subsequent cognitive decline. 5. Clustering studies using a wide range of modalities consistently identified a "typical AD" subgroup and a second subgroup characterized by executive impairment and widespread cortical atrophy in preclinical and prodromal subjects. 6. Vascular pathology burden may act through both Aβ dependent and independent mechanisms to exacerbate AD progression. 7. The APOE ε4 allele interacted with cerebrovascular disease to impede Aβ clearance mechanisms. 8. Genetic approaches identified novel genetic risk factors involving a wide range of processes, and demonstrated shared genetic risk for AD and vascular disorders, as well as the temporal and regional pathological associations of established AD risk alleles. 9. Knowledge of early pathological changes guided the development of novel prognostic biomarkers for preclinical subjects. 10. Placebo populations of randomized controlled clinical trials had highly variable trajectories of cognitive change, underscoring the importance of subject selection and monitoring. 11. Selection criteria based on Aβ positivity, hippocampal volume, baseline cognitive/functional measures, and APOE ε4 status in combination with improved cognitive outcome measures were projected to decrease clinical trial duration and cost. 12. Multiple concurrent therapies targeting vascular health and other AD pathology in addition to Aβ may be more effective than single therapies.
ADNI publications from 2016 and 2017 supported the idea of AD as a multifactorial disease and provided insights into the complexities of AD disease progression. These findings guided the development of novel biomarkers and suggested that subject selection on the basis of multiple factors may lower AD clinical trial costs and duration. The use of multiple concurrent therapies in these trials may prove more effective in reversing AD disease progression.
To investigate financial skill decline over a 6-year period in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) presumed due to Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Study participants were cognitively normal (CN) older adults (n = 82) and adults with MCI (n = 91) based on consensus conference diagnosis. Participants completed baseline and up to six annual follow-up assessments that included standardized financial skills measurement (Financial Capacity Instrument; FCI; nine FCI domain and two global scores). We examined FCI change over time using mixed-model repeated measures analysis adjusted for baseline age and follow-up duration.
At baseline, the CN group performed better than the MCI group across both global and seven domain scores. Group × Time interaction effects (all p's <.02) were found for all global and domain scores. The largest interaction effects were observed for complex domains of Financial Conceptual Knowledge, Checkbook Management, Bank Statement Management, and Bill Payment (all p's <.0001). Annualized decline in the MCI group's global scores, calculated in relation to CN group performance, was 10-17% over the initial 3-year time span and 22-24% at 6 years. Decline in FCI domain scores ranged from 6% (Knowledge of Assets/Estate) to 22% (Investment Decision-Making) at 3 year follow-up, and from 15% (Basic Monetary Skills) to 37% (Financial Judgment) at 6 year follow-up.
Over a 6-year period, persons with MCI demonstrated significant declines in multiple financial skills and in particular financial judgment. The findings highlight the importance of ongoing oversight by family members and clinicians of financial skills and activities in persons with MCI.
Financial capacity (FC) is a cognitively complex activity of daily living that declines in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), limiting an individual's ability to manage one's finances and function independently. The neural underpinnings of this decline in function are poorly understood but likely involve age-related and disease-related degradation across structural networks. The purpose of the current study was to determine if altered white matter integrity is associated with declining FC in persons with MCI and AD compared to older controls. Individuals with MCI due to AD (n = 31), mild dementia (n = 39), and cognitively healthy older adults (n = 60) were administered a neuropsychological battery including the FC Instrument, a performance-based measure of FC. All 130 participants also underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) upon which tract-based spatial statistics were performed. Both FC and white matter integrity decreased in accordance with disease severity with little to no effect in healthy, significant effects in MCI, and greater effects in AD. Regional white matter degradation (increased diffusivities and decreased fractional anisotropy) was associated with reduced FC in both MCI and AD groups even after controlling for age, education, and gender. Specifically, in MCI, decreased fractional anisotropy, but not increased diffusivities, was associated with poorer FC in widespread cingulo-parietal-frontal and temporo-occipital areas. In AD, rather than anisotropy, increased mean and axial diffusivities in anterior cingulate, callosum, and frontal areas associated with poorer FC. These findings suggest a severity gradient of white matter degradation across DTI metrics and AD stages that predict declining financial skill and knowledge.
Purpose of the study:
Capacity to manage finances and make financial decisions can affect risk for financial exploitation and is often the basis for legal determinations of conservatorship/guardianship. Several structured assessments of financial capacity have been developed, but have not been compared regarding their focus, validity, or reliability. Therefore, we conducted a review of financial capacity measures to examine these factors.
Design and methods:
We searched electronic databases, reference lists in identified articles, conference proceedings and other grey literature for measures of financial capacity. We then extracted data on the length and domains of each measure, the population for which they were intended, and their validity and reliability.
We identified 10 structured measures of financial capacity. Most measures could be completed in 25-30 min, and were designed to be administered to older adults with some level of cognitive impairment. Reliability and validity were high for most.
Measurement of financial capacity is complex and multidimensional. When selecting a measure of financial capacity, consideration should be made of the population of focus and the domains of capacity to be assessed. More work is needed on the cultural sensitivity of financial capacity measures, their acceptability, and their use in clinical work. Better understanding of when, and to whom, to administer different financial capacity measures could enhance the ability to accurately detect those suffering from impaired financial capacity, and prevent related negative outcomes like financial exploitation.
The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI-3, which began on August 1, 2016, is a 5-year renewal of the current ADNI-2 study.
ADNI-3 will follow current and additional subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD using innovative technologies such as tau imaging, magnetic resonance imaging sequences for connectivity analyses, and a highly automated immunoassay platform and mass spectroscopy approach for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. A Systems Biology/pathway approach will be used to identify genetic factors for subject selection/enrichment. Amyloid positron emission tomography scanning will be standardized using the Centiloid method. The Brain Health Registry will help recruit subjects and monitor subject cognition.
Multimodal analyses will provide insight into AD pathophysiology and disease progression.
ADNI-3 will aim to inform AD treatment trials and facilitate development of AD disease-modifying treatments.
The capacity to manage one's financial affairs, known as financial capacity, comprises a broad range of conceptual, pragmatic, and judgment abilities, used across a range of everyday settings, that are critical to the independent functioning of adults in our society. Older adults are the most vulnerable to cognitive impairment, yet hold a disproportionate amount of wealth in the United States. Financial capacity is also understudied, so the authors present in this issue of Generations a comprehensive look at the four domains of financial capacity: economic, clinical, legal, and public policy.
Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record
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The North American Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was originally conceived as a study to develop markers of disease progression, but has also become a strong technological platform for the multi-centric collection of clinical data and imaging and biological markers. Because the ADNI platform was first imported in Europe, thanks to the pilot European ADNI, several ADNI-related initiatives have flourished, funded by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme, national governments, and the Alzheimer's Association aimed at: (i) collecting fresh data ADNI style (FP7 AddNeuroMed, Innovative Medicine Initiative Pharma-Cog/European ADNI, Swedish ADNI, and Italian ADNI); (ii) developing standard operational procedures for the collection of markers (International Harmonization of CSF Abeta42 and tau, and European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium–ADNI Harmonization of Hippocampal Volumetry); and (iii) developing infrastructures for the treatment of ADNI data (FP7 neuGRID and outGRID, and the French Centre pour l'Acquisition et le Traitement de l'Image). Although this fragmented scenario is not surprising given the structure of scientific funding in Europe, opportunities are being developed for high order networking and harmonization at the continental level (Joint Programming for Neurodegenerative Diseases).
To better understand how brain atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetrics could affect instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) such as financial abilities.
Controlled, matched-sample, cross-sectional analysis regressing MRI volumetrics with financial performance measures.
University medical and research center.
Thirty-eight people with MCI and 28 older adult controls.
MRI volumetric measurement of the hippocampi, angular gyri, precunei, and medial frontal lobes. Participants also completed neuropsychological tests and the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI).
Correlations were performed between FCI scores and MRI volumes in the group with MCI. People with MCI performed significantly below controls on the FCI and had significantly smaller hippocampi. Among people with MCI, performance on the FCI was moderately correlated with angular gyri and precunei volumes. Regression models demonstrated that angular gyrus volumes were predictive of FCI scores. Tests of mediation showed that measures of arithmetic and possibly attention partially mediated the relationship between angular gyrus volume and FCI score.
Impaired financial abilities in amnestic MCI correspond with volume of the angular gyri as mediated by arithmetic knowledge. The findings suggest that early neuropathology within the lateral parietal region in MCI leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities that affect everyday financial skills. The findings have implications for diagnosis and clinical care of people with MCI and AD.
To investigate financial capacity in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) using a new theoretical model and prototype psychometric instrument.
Cross-sectional comparisons of older control subjects (n=23) and patients with mild (n=30) and moderate AD (n=20).
Financial capacity was measured using the Financial Capacity Instrument, a prototype psychometric instrument that tests financial capacity using 14 tasks of financial ability comprising 6 clinically relevant domains of financial activity: basic monetary skills, financial conceptual knowledge, cash transactions, checkbook management, bank statement management, and financial judgment.
The Financial Capacity Instrument tasks and domains showed adequate to excellent internal, interrater, and test-retest reliabilities. At the task level, patients with mild AD performed equivalently with controls on simple tasks such as counting coins/currency and conducting a 1-item grocery purchase, but significantly below controls on more complex tasks such as using a checkbook/register and understanding and using a bank statement. At the domain level, patients with mild AD performed significantly below controls on all domains except basic monetary skills. Patients with moderate AD performed significantly below controls and patients with mild AD on all tasks and domains. Regarding capacity status outcomes (capable, marginally capable, incapable) on domains, patients with mild AD had high proportions of marginally capable or incapable outcomes (range, 47%-87%), particularly on difficult domains like bank statement management (domain 5) and financial judgment (domain 6), but variability in individual outcomes. Patients with moderate AD had almost exclusively incapable outcomes across the 6 domains (range, 90%-100%).
Financial capacity is already significantly impaired in mild AD. Patients with mild AD demonstrate deficits in more complex financial abilities and impairment in most financial activities. Patients with moderate AD demonstrate severe impairment of all financial abilities and activities. The Financial Capacity Instrument has promise as an instrument for assessing domain-level financial activities and task-specific financial abilities in patients with dementia. Arch Neurol. 2000.
To assess financial capacity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using a standardized psychometric capacity measure.
Participants were 21 cognitively normal older controls, 21 patients with amnestic MCI, and 22 patients with mild AD. The Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI), a psychometric capacity measure consisting of 18 financial ability tests (tasks), 9 domains (activities), and 2 total scores, was administered to participants along with a battery of neuropsychological tests sensitive to dementia. Group differences were examined on the neuropsychological and financial capacity variables.
Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated impairments in episodic memory, and also semantic knowledge, executive function, written arithmetic, and spatial attention. MCI participants demonstrated impairments in FCI domains of conceptual knowledge, cash transactions, bank statement management, and bill payment, and in overall financial capacity. The control and MCI groups performed significantly better than patients with AD on most financial capacity and cognitive measures.
On direct assessment, patients with amnestic MCI as a group demonstrate impairments across a range of financial abilities. These impairments are mild and may only apply to a subset of patients with MCI. However, existing diagnostic criteria for MCI should be applied flexibly to include mild impairments in higher order activities of daily life such as financial capacity.
Changes in U.S. Family Finances from 2013 to 2016: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances
The Other Side of the Retirement Years: Cognitive Decline, Dementia, and Loss of Financial Capacity
The Alzheimer structural connectome: changes in cortical network topology with increased amyloid plaque burden
J W Prescott
P M Doraiswamy
Declining financial capacity in mild cognitive impairment
Detecting functional impairment in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease using a brief performance measure of financial skills
D C Marson
K L Triebel
R C Martin
V S Pankratz
R C Petersen
Detecting declining financial skills in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: the Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form