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Evidence and observations favoring the hypothesis that Venus is habitable, and the celestial mechanisms promoting the interplanetary transfer of life, are reviewed. Venus may have been contaminated with Earthly life early in its history via interplanetary transfer of microbe-laden bolide ejecta; and this seeding with life may have continued into the present via spacecraft and due to radiation pressure and galactic winds blowing microbial-laden dust ejected from the stratosphere via powerful solar winds, into the orbit and atmosphere of Venus. Venus may have had oceans and rivers early in its history until 750 mya, and, hypothetically, some of those species which, theoretically, colonized the planet during that time, may have adapted and evolved when those oceans evaporated and temperatures rose. Venus may be inhabited by a variety of extremophiles which could flourish within the lower cloud layers, whereas others may dwell 10 m below the surface where temperature may be as low as 200 ∘C—which is within the tolerance level of some hyperthermophiles. Speculation as to the identity of mushroom-shaped specimens photographed on the surface of Venus by the Russian probe, Venera 13 support these hypotheses. - Journal of Cosmology, 27, 1-18.
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