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Black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) is a detritivorous insect that is neither a pest nor a vector and does not cause any harm. The larval stage of BSF is capable of bioconversion of organic wastes in a short time. The organic waste biomass can be reduced to tune of 50–95%. BSF rearing on organic wastes reduces odours emanating from wastes due to quicker conversion of biomass, reduces housefly and other flies breeding and also reported to reduce pathogenic microflora. BSF ability to decompose farm wastes is attracting farmers, private firms, urban residential people and poultry farmers. BSF compost produced on kitchen waste is superior to farmyard manure, vermicompost and sheep manure, due to high amount of N, P, K along with other micronutrients and can be prepared in 60 days. BSF compost has been recorded to be very good for establishment of nursery plants like tomato, chilli, brinjal, cabbage and horticultural crops. BSF leachate is also equally nutritive that can be used for fertilizing soil through irrigation water. NBAIR has termed BSF compost as ‘Black Gold’ due to its nutrient richness
ISO 9001:2015 Organization
Volume 25 No. 3
ISSN 2394-3289
July-September 2019
Promising Technologies
A potentially polyembryonic dwarf 1
rootstock for mango cultivar
Pusa Arunima
Interventions in tribal villages by 3
ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute
On-field detection of Helicoverpa 6
Armigera Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus
using Luminescent Amphiphilic probe
New Initiatives
Native bees a – potential pollinatiors 8
of cashew
ICAR initiatives on Antimicrobial 9
Bioethanol from lignocellulosic waste: a
stepping stone towards energy security 11
Natural Resource Management
Co-composting of organic manure for 13
soil quality management
Black soldier fly – a detritivorous 13
insect for solid waste management
CMFRI: All set for a blue revolution 14
Development of protein enriched 21
gluten free rice pasta
Post-harvest method for coriander 22
(Coriandrum sativum L.) in
Madhya Pradesh
PUSA SONA – A new high yielding onion 23
variety suitable for salad and export
PUSA SHOBHA – A high yielding onion 24
variety for value addition
New brinjal varieties for higher 25
nutrition and health
VRSG-7-17: A new aromatic sponge gourd 26
Black soldier fly – a promising protein 27
supplement in aquacultural feed
Way Forward 28
Horticulture is known as a highly potential sector for employment
generation, house hold nutritional security and income generation
to the growers. Mango is one of the most important tropical fruits
of the world, and is known as ‘King of fruits’ in India.
Inspite of vast achievements in mango, several constraints still
exist such as large tree size, low planting density etc., causing
low yield efficiency. New emerging challenges like poor fruit
productivity per unit area continues to be a worry in mango
cultivation. Maintaining mango under high density requires heavy
annual hedging and pruning which often affects terminal
flowering and subsequent inhibits yield efficiency. Vigour
management plays an important role in mango, especially for
high density planting and orchard management in terms of
canopy management, harvesting and plant protection measures.
Pusa Arunima on K-2 rootstock after 11 years
A potentially polyembryonic
dwarf rootstock for mango
cultivar Pusa Arunima
Comparative growth performance of mango cultivar Pusa
Arunima on K-2, Kurakkan and Olour rootstocks after 12
years of planting
Parameter Rootstock Percent
Kurkkan Olour K-2 reduction
Plant height (m) 3.80 4.08 2.67 Over Kur=
29.73 Over
Ol= 34.55
Canopy diameter 4.02 4.58 3.22 Over Kur=
(m) (N-S) 19.90 Over
Ol= 29.69
Canopy diameter 4.13 4.55 3.32 Over Kur=
(m) (E-W) 19.61Over
Ol=ur 27.03
Canopy volume 135.48 178.36 60.25 Over Kur=
(m3) 21.75 Over
Kur; Kurakkan, Ol; Olour
Comparative yield and fruit quality of mango cultivar Pusa
Arunima on K-2, Kurakkan and Olour rootstocks
Parameter Rootstock
Kurakkan Olour K-2
Fruit/tree* 77.00 106.00 74.00
Yield/tree (kg)* 17.66 23.46 16.34
Fruiting density/m3 CV* 1.00 1.03 2.03
Yield efficiency/m3 CV* 0.24 0.22 0.44
Fruit weight (g)* 226.21 222.14 221.36
Pulp content (%)* 61.30 65.98 63.71
Stone weight (g)* 33.67 34.55 33.14
TSS (0B)** 22.56 23.58 23.13
*Mean of four years
In our country, mango is generally propagated on non-
descriptive seedlings which causes variations not only
in yield of scion cultivar but also in fruit quality and
tolerance power to many abiotic and biotic stresses.
Hence we need to improve productivity of mango
orchard per unit area for realizing more farmer’s
income by accommodating more number of trees per
unit area. The best long term solution to impart
dwarfism in mango is use of rootstock which can reduce
vigour of mango scion varieties up to more than 30%.
Among available north Indian varieties, Pusa Arunima,
is the most important, known for its coloured fruits
with good acid, sugar blend and highest shelf life. Our
present, research was aimed to realize the new
dwarfing mango rootstock for Pusa Arunima, therefore
we evaluated the performance of Pusa Arunima variety
on five polyembryonic rootstocks viz., Kurakkan, Olour,
K-5, K-3 and K-2 during 2008-2019.
Pusa Arunima on Kurakkan rootstock after
Pusa Arunima on Olour rootstock after 11
Fruit of K-2 rootstock
Vegetative growth of Pusa Arunima on K-2
rootstock as compared to other rootstock
After 11 years of growth, trees of Pusa Arunima had 2.67
m height as compared to 4.08 m on Olour and 3.80 m on
Kurakkan, which 29.73% and 34.55% lesser than
Kurakkan and Olour, respectively. Likewise, canopy
diameter of Pusa Arunima trees was noted to be 3.22 m
north to south as of 4.58 m and 4.02 m on Olour and
Kurakkan, which was 19.90% and 29.69% less than
Kurakkan and Olour, respectively. Similar reduction was
noticed in east and west canopy diameter and trees on
K-2 rootstock having only 3.32 m east to west canopy
diameter. Moreover, a drastic reduction was noticed in
canopy diameter in trees grafted on K-2 rootstock as of
3July-September 2019
rural appraisal techniques like transact walks, livelihood
analysis, gender analysis, matrix ranking, venn diagrams,
seasonal analysis conducted with the tribal people gave
us a vivid picture of the village setting.
Holistic Approach: After information was analyzed we
prepared problem-cause diagrams for each village.
Subsequently, the problems (both felt and unfelt) were
prioritized and crucial ones were considered for
immediate action. A work plan was prepared for each
beneficiary village taking into account the felt needs
of people, resources available, expertise required and
manpower availability. The technological interventions
were carefully chosen so as to have a sustainable
livelihood for tribal villagers, drudgery reduction for
tribal women and employment generation for tribal
The year-wise 17 beneficiary tribal villages identified
ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute (SBI) at Coimbatore
and its Regional Centres in different states of India is
playing a pivotal role in sugarcane improvement in the
country since its inception in 1912. The Institute has
also stretched its activities for the betterment of tribal
people through Tribal Sub Plan, being implemented at
this Institute since 2014. Tribal Sub Plan is a
comprehensive strategic approach adopted by the
Government of India for welfare and development of
Scheduled Tribes (STs).
Every village we visited was different so we got
acquainted with their social setup through frequent
Requirement Analysis: As an initial step, requirement of
the tribal people was analyzed through personal
interactions and focus group discussions conducted in
villages with tribal headman and villagers. Participatory
Interventions in tribal villages by
ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute
Growth habit of K-2 rootstock
quality. Hence this rootstock could be used as potentially
dwarf rootstock for this variety for high density
orcharding (4 m x 4m spacing based on canopy spread
after 11 years’ growth). This rootstock can also be tried
for other mango varieties under different agroclimatic
AK Dubey and RM Sharma
New Delhi 110012
trees on Olour rootstock (66.22%
inhibition) and Kurakkan (21.75%
inhibition) (Table 1).
Yield and fruit quality
performance of Pusa Arunima on
K-2 rootstock
According to per tree the number of
fruits and yield was recorded highest on
Olour rootstock, but highest fruiting
density (2.03 fruits/ m3 CV) and yield
efficiency (0.44 kg/m3 CV) was found
when trees of Pusa Arunima were raised
on K-2 rootstock. Trees on K-2 rootstock
had 103% and 97.09% higher fruiting
density than trees on Kurakkan and Olour rootstocks,
respectively. Likewise, there was 83.33% and 100% more
fruiting efficiency than Kurakkan and Olour rootstocks. It
is pertinent to mention that fruit quality parameters
such as fruit weight, pulp content, stone weight and TSS
were also found equally good on K-2 rootstock.
It can be inferred that K-2, a polyembryonic genotypes
of mango is able to restrict vegetative growth of mango
cultivar Pusa Arunima without deteriorating the fruit
village into a
village’ and made
them form a
group called
Vellamari Adivasi
Group’ and got it
registered with
Agali panchayat. We supplied a four wheeler drive
mini-tractor with accessories viz., trailer, cultivator,
rotavator and other minor implements like brush
cutter, sprayers, spade etc. On-farm training and
demonstration on usage of these machineries were
also organized.
Sustainable Horticultural Village – Sarkarporethi
Sarkarporethi is a
tribal village in
range with around
20 acres of
cultivable land
owned by 22
families and their
demand was
mainly for
horticultural plants and minor irrigation facility. Lemon
air layering plants (200) and jasmine plants (1500)
along with nutrient mixture, saplings of red rose,
moringa, clove, nutmeg, pepper, litchi, rambutan,
egg fruit, surinam cherry along with garden tools
were supplied to them in 2015. Villagers were
enthusiastic but water shortage was a stumbling
Sustainable Agricultural Village – Kuzhiyur
Kuzhiyur is a tribal
village in
Karamadai range
with more than 80
acres of arable
land owned by 65
families. The
villagers are
enterprising and
had tried their
hands on many
avenues for improving their livelihood. We had
distributed four wheeler drive tractor with
accessories like trailer, tiller and rotavator,
multipurpose thresher, improved seeds of pulses and
vegetables, coconut seedlings, lime air layered plants,
since 2014 for implementation of the project are given
2014-15: Thondamuthur range: Attukkal; Boluvampatti
range: Sarkarporethy, Sadivayal, Vellapathy.
2015-16: Attapadi hill range: Vellamari, Agali, Palakkad
district, Kerala; Boluvampatti hill range: Pottapathi,
2016-17: Karamadai Forest Range: Kuzhiyur.
2017-18: Palamalai hill range, Periyanaikenpalayam:
Pasumani, Pasumanipudur, Mankuzhi, Perukkapathy,
Perukkapathy pudur, Kunjoorpathi; Pilloor Dam Reserve
Forest Area: Keththakadu, Veerakkal, Maanaar,
Sustainable Horticultural Village – Attukkal
Encouraged by response of villagers in Attukkal, we
aimed to create a ‘Sustainable horticultural village’.
With 61 families settled in 54 houses in an area of
around two acres in the foothills, this village was best
suited for interventions in horticultural crops.
Responsive attitude of the tribal people “Irulas” in
this village became our motivating factor.
With ample scope
for area or water
facility, we
restricted our
support in terms
of supply of
seedlings of
coconut (42),
nerium (102),
sapota (31),
mosambi (5), curry leaf (50), acid lime (31), custard
apple (4), jasmine (5), guava (3), betel nut (37),
gooseberry (20) and pomegranate (5). We helped
them in planting saplings scientifically by proper
potting mixture, well protected with bamboo cages
with little support for watering.
Sustainable Mechanized Village – Vellamari
TSP was implemented in Vellamari, Palakkad district,
Kerala with emphasis on mechanization in
agriculture. There are 196 households in this village
owning 110 acres of cultivable land where crops like
coconut, arecanut, banana, vegetables, wild jasmine,
pulses etc. are cultivated. It was seen that the usage
of machineries was minimum except for spade, hand
hoe and sprayers.
Therefore we took the initiative of converting this
5July-September 2019
kitchen gardening,
vermicomposting, use
of agricultural
machinery, health and
hygiene, demo cum
training on use of
brush cutter,
apiculture including
honey extraction, food
and nutrition and awareness campaigns on cleanliness
and parthenium eradication.
Drudgery reduction for tribal Women–Double
Potted Chullahs
Attukkal village was adopted by the institute during
the first phase of the programme (2014-15). As a
drudgery reducing measure for tribal farm women,
double potted fuel efficient chullahs were supplied to
30 tribal women. These chullahs can be used for
cooking and water heating. The overall dimension is
55x30x25 cm with a fuel inlet of 15.5x15 cm and an
air inlet of 15.5x15 cm with six legs. The double pot
portable chullha (chimney-less) is made with two
walls. It costs ` 450 per unit and has an efficiency of
Feedback from tribal women was that these chullahs
apart from fuel efficiency, reduced the time taken
for cooking and the food retained heat for a long
duration than conventional chullahs being used by
Development of tailoring skills among women
from marginalised communities
Development of tailoring skills among tribal women is
a field action project which was started in April 2016,
with the objective
of training women
from marginalised
tribal groups and
help them gain
employment or
Women from
these groups have
responded to this
activity enthusiastically as it is helping in developing
skills, and gaining self-confidence to earn money. Six
sewing machines were given to them, of which two
tribal women had opened a tailoring unit in
Melbaaviyur village and they reported that they earn
sewing machines (6), bullocks (3), milching animals
(3), power sprayers (10), mini flour mill and brush
cutter to the village. Other agri-inputs were made
available to the villagers to improve their agricultural
productivity and livelihood.
Subsequently, items namely country plough, field
operation kits (Rose can-5 litre, crowbar, digging fork,
spade, hand hoe, measuring tape 30m, plastic pan,
plastic shears, bill hook) tarpaulin sheets,
multipurpose pans also were given to villagers from
time to time.
Interventions in Palamalai Hills
Surveys were conducted in 21 villages of Palamalai
hill range and
finally six villages
were selected.
Water is a limiting
factor here and is totally rainfed. However, terrace
cultivation with crops like horsegram, sorghum,
cowpea ragi etc. are being done. Our interventions
in this tract were supplying sewing machines (23),
honey bee-hives (40), power sprayers (7), farm
operation kits, crow bars, country plough, tarpaulin
sheets andinduction stoves (40).
Interventions in Pilloor Dam areas
Tribal villages in the entire hill range covering over
11 villageswere
surveyed and
finally four villages
were selected.
Banana is the
main crop as they
have access to good water. Vegetables and other field
crops are grown in limited area. Our interventions in
this tract were supplying sewing machine (1), power
weeder, brush cutter, multipurpose pans, field
operation kits, country ploughs, sprayers, taurpaulin
sheets, multipurpose pans.
We organized 12 one-day training programmes in
adopted tribal villages on seed production/nursery,
off elephants: To prevent crop damage by
elephants and create business opportunities, we
gave 40 honey-bee hives to Paalamalai tribal
villages in the Western Ghats. During our earlier
interaction with the tribal villagers, we learnt that
villagers were worried about their livelihoods as
the elephants pose a threat to their cultivation.
Also, we could notice availability of varied sweet
smelling flowers like Pavetta indica, wild jasmine
and a variety of creepers. So, we thought to make
villagers produce honey by rearing honey bees.
Honey bee-hives were ordered from a cultivator
in Erode and was transported at night as the bees
are night blind and are also sensitive to change in
surroundings. Another 50 bee-hive units were given
to Agali village as well.
In ‘Kisan Samriddhi Mela’ organized by the
Institute during 24-26 August 2018, tribal villagers
had a shared stall wherein Palamalai (honey) was
displayed for sale at a cost of ` 110 for 250 gm.
The stall was a crowd gatherer with the entire
stock getting over in two days.
Each village we visited was totally different and
understanding their social set-up took considerable time.
Frequent visits and focus group discussions with tribal
village head and the villagers helped us to chart out the
technological interventions uniquely for every village as
per their requirements. It was a challenging sojourn
throughout, at times even encountering wild beings.
However, benefits for tribal people accrued during the
journey made us go an extra mile to create a smile in
their lives.
Bakshi Ram1, T. Rajula Shanthy2, C. Jayabose2,
C. Sankaranarayanan2 and A.S. Tayade2
1-Director, 2-Scientists,
Coimbatore 641 007
` 3500 to ` 4000 per month. As a follow-up of skill
development, these tribal women had furthered their
skill with training through a local tailor. They were
guided to start their own ventures and further advance
short term training will be given to them if needed.
Taking cue from this success story, we have upscaled
this activity in Paalamalai hills.
In March 2018, we had provided 23 sewing machines
for 23 tribal women in Neelampathi, Ikkapathi,
Mottiyoor, Ukkaiyanoor, Perukkupathi and Pasumani
who were certificate holders in tailoring as a means
to improve their livelihood. These women had stitched
school uniforms in June 2018 for two schools in
Periyanaickenpalayam and got orders for 2019 as
well. This is the first time that these tribal women,
whose livelihood had so far been farming on small
patches of land in the reserve forest fringes or picking
up dry leaves and wood, have managed to find
themselves a non-seasonal profession.
Mini flour mill at Kuzhiyur
Major crops grown in Kuzhiyur tribal village are horse
gram, ragi, sorghum and beans. Villagers had to
travel large distances to grind millets raised by them
and wheat procured from PDS outlets. A mini-flour
mill was given to Kuzhiyur tribal village, wherein
developmental activities are being done by the
Institute since 2016. The flour mill has been put to
use to grind over one metric tonne of wheat, ragi,
sorghum and other minor millets.
This facility is now being used by villagers in Kuzhiyur
as well as tribal people from nearby villages. Money
obtained is deposited in common savings bank account
of a self help group run by the tribal women of
Kuzhiyur village.
Apiary in Palamalai hills
Bee-hives – A mode of income and a tactic to ward
On-field detection of Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrosis
Virus using Luminescent Amphiphilic probe
of commercially available insecticides. Hence
environmentally friendly alternatives to control these
hazardous pests are most sought after. Helicoverpa
armigera Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (HaNPV) of class
baculovirilae is specific to the host H. armigera. The
occlusion body of HaNPV virus which includes viral particle
Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of the harmful and
polyphagous pest species which is known to affect a wide
range of agricultural crops such as tomato, cotton,
legume sunflower, groundnut, wheat, tobacco, corn,
vegetables, fruit crops and tree species. The insect has a
high reproductive rate as well as resistant to a number
7July-September 2019
present study non-
specifically binds to the
surface of the occlusion
bodies of HaNPV through
electrostatic interactions.
Thus, the addition of HaNPV
to the color of the probe
solution from blue to cyan
(observed under UV).
However, no detectable
change in the emission color
was observed upon addition
of any competitive analytes,
commonly present in
commercial formulations,
such as charcoal, sugar,
NaCl, glycerol, and Ranipal®. HaNPV is applied in
agriculture field by conventional spraying method using
the water-dispersible formulation.
Therefore detection of presence of HaNPV in the plant
extract or on leaf surface of crop helps farmers to
determine time intervals required between two
successive spraying. The authors have estimated that the
soluble HaNPV content in 16 different crop samples known
to be infected by H. armigera. On treatment with probe,
leaves with HaNPV, showed cyan colored emission unlike
the control leaves.
The authors developed low-cost, reusable paper strips
for on-location detection of HaNPV. The paper strips
coated with probe shows blue colored emission, while it
becomes cyan in color as soon as exposed to HaNPV. The
sensing studies using color-strips don’t require
maintenance of proper temperature or pH (or even
electric source), making this method suitable for on-site
detection. As operational procedure is very simple in this
case, even end-users with no basic knowledge in science
can use them without much difficulty. The paper strips
are stable at room temperature (open-air condition) for
several months. Moreover, as the strips are tiny and easily
portable, farmers can use them whenever required in
the field (no establishment cost).
The present work demonstrates a unique protocol where
the presence of biopesticide HaNPV can be assayed by a
color-changing response both in commercial formulations
and agricultural crop extracts.
Nilanjan Dey, Deepa Bhagat and
Santanu Bhatacharya
Principal Scientist (Organic Chemistry),
ICAR-NBAIR, Bengaluru-560024
and the protein coat are transmittable structural units
during the larval infection and registered by EPA as
pesticide active ingredient of the virus. The quality of the
virus during large scale production depends on many
factors such as procedure followed during culture, pH
and ionic strength of water and prevention of
contamination of end product with foreign insect
pathogen which reduces the productivity of HaNPV and
poses a hazard to the production staff or end users.
However, rapid and cost effective methods for
quantification of the virus in commercial formulation as
well as in agricultural fields is yet to be evaluated.
Dr Nilanjan Dey, Professor Santanu Bhattacharya, IISc,
Bengaluru and Dr Deepa Bhagat, ICAR-NBAIR, Bengaluru
have developed an easy-to-synthesize carbazole-based
fluorescent probe for ratiometric optical sensing of HaNPV
both at physiological pH in water and in different
commercial formulations. The probe involved in the
(a) (HaNPV) occlusion bodies (OBs) from deceased pests. (b) Structure of amphiphilicprobe1
involved in the present study (MICE = motion induced changes in emission).
Attention authors and contributors
of ICAR News
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Native bees a – potential pollinatiors of cashew
Cashew (Anacardium
occidentale L. Family:
Anacardiaceae), a
commercial tree crop, is
andromonoecious having
sticky pollen. Each flower has
a long stamen and 7-9
staminoids. In the
hermaphrodite flowers, style
is longer than the large
stamen and assumes the
same position, thus makes
self-pollination difficult and
requires cross pollination by
insects. Fruit set in cashew
is mainly influenced by the
activity of pollinators and
not the wind. Cashew
flowers are visited by a diverse group of insects and its
yield is often
dependent. Bees,
ants, wasps,
butterflies, flies,
and moths have
been reported as
pollinators in
different cashew
growing regions
of the world.
Each region has
its own native bees which are very important for crop
pollination and need to be studied thoroughly. Among
the 40 species recorded as flower visitors of cashew at
ICAR-Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur, Karnataka,
64% comprised of bees of families Apidae and Halictidae,
while the rest were megachilids,
scolids, bombylids, syrphids, sciarids,
calliphorids, and butterflies. Among
them, 8 species of Apidae and 5
species of Halictidae were recorded
as pollinators of cashew. Species
abundance was high for Braunsapis
picitarus (Cameron) (20.0%) followed
by Pseudapis oxybeloides Smith
(17.6%) and Apis cerana indica F.
Peak foraging period of pollinators
occurred during 11.00 - 13.00 hrs when much of the
hermaphrodite flowers remained open and a high
proportion of anther dehiscence was seen in male
flowers, which is advantageous for effective pollination
in cashew. Certain bee species visited cashew flowers
mainly for pollen, while, few visit for nectar and extra
floral nectarines. Nectar was the major foraging reward
for A. c. indica and Apis florea, while, it was pollen for B.
picitarsus, P. oxybeloides, Ceratina hierogyphica,
Lasiolossum sp. and Seledonia sp. But for Tetragonula
sp., the foraging reward was nectar from extra floral
nectarines followed by pollen and nectar. Fresh flowers
were mostly preferred by all the bee species.
Nevertheless, multiple bee species visited the same
hermaphrodite flower multiple times thus ensuring
pollination in field. The mean number of pollen grains
deposited per stigma upon bee visit was 0.2 during 10.00-
10.30 hrs and 2.65 during 16.00 to 16.30 hrs indicating
Pollinators of cashew a. Apis cerana indica, b. Braunsapis picitarsus, c. Tetragonula sp., d.
Pseudapis oxybeloides e. Ceratina hieroglyphica, f. Seledonia sp.
a. Natural nest of B. picitarsus, b. Artificial nesting sites of B. picitarsus
Pollen grains deposited on cashew
stigma by bees
9July-September 2019
multiple bee visits during the day. However, it was noticed
that around 42% cashew flowers opened on the same
day were devoid of any pollen even at the end of the day
indicating pollination deficit in cashew in the study region.
Mean pollen count per bee collected after multiple visits
was high for P. oxybeloides (786.6) followed by B.
picitarsus (804.9), Seledonia sp. (786.6) and C.
hieroglyphica (187.1) compared to A. c. indica. These bees
exhibited strong affinity to cashew flowers and collected
more pollen during peak flowering period and hence could
be efficient pollinators of cashew.
Controlled exposure of bees to inflorescences of cashew
variety, Bhaskara during different time periods indicated
the maximum nut set under combined hand pollination
and open pollination followed by inflorescences exposed
to bees between 11.00 and 13.00 hrs. While there was
no nut set in the caged ones and those exposed between
16.00 hrs - 08.00 hrs. Further, observations on the nesting
biology of B. picitarsus helped in developing suitable
artificial nesting sites for breeding and conservation of
these promising native bees.
K Vanitha and TN Raviprasad
ICAR-DCR, Puttur 574 202, Karnataka
ICAR initiatives on
Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial agents, the wonder drug, has become an
indispensable choice of modern medicine, since the
introduction of penicillin in clinical practice in 1942. Over
the years, this magic bullet has saved millions and helped
us tame the killer diseases once thought invincible. But
the time has come when resistance started to crop up
and spread among the pathogens against even newer
and higher generation antibiotics making them
in effective. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is considered
as one of the biggest threats to modern civilization which
can jeopardize global health, economy and human
development. It has been pointed out atvarious global
forum that antibiotics are rapidly losing their potency
and efficacy to fight infection; the possibility of the
reemergence of once subdued killer diseases as a global
annihilator cannot be thus excluded. Even today, AMR
has the enviable positionfor being one of the leading
infectious causes of mortality in human. We are indeed
heading towards a point-of-no-return which was
described by many as “post-antibiotic apocalypse” when
the minor infection and surgeries which have been
manageable and treatable for all these years, will turn
out to be lethal. WHO Director-General, Dr Margaret
Chan rightly said “The world is on the brink of losing these
miracle cures,” when she referred to this rising menace
of global health. Considering the dimension and
magnitude of the problem, the issue was discussed in
United Nations General Assembly in New York in
September 2016. AMR is the fourth health-related issued
to be discussed at the General Assembly preceded by
HIV, non-communicable diseases, and Ebola.
Inadvertent and irrational use of antimicrobials is
considered as the single most important driver for
development of antimicrobial resistance. There are
various factors which are crucial in development and
dissemination of bugs apart from overuse of
antimicrobials in human health, agriculture, livestock
rearing and aquaculture. Persistence of antimicrobial
residues in the refusals of the pharmaceutical production
units, population, overcrowding, poor bio-security
measures, lack of personal hygiene – all these are
implicated in AMR in one way or other. The impact of
AMR is not limited within the health sector, as generally
presumed, but it has a far-reaching consequence to cause
irreversible damage to global economy and food security.
The famous report on AMR by O’Neill, in 2016 was an
eye-opener in this context.
Currently, AMR is responsible for about 700,000 deaths
annually world wide and is expected to reach 10 million
by 2050, if adequate measures are not taken. AMR will
have a shattering impact over world economy causing a
loss of $100 trillion by 2050, thereby decreasing the global
GDP by 3.5%. It is the AMR for which around 28 million
people will be slipped under poverty, as the World Bank
depicted below.
The genesis and structure of INFAAR, an ICAR
initiative to combat AMR
ICAR and its scientists actively took part in shaping the
National Action Plan (NAP) on AMR. On 5th December
2016, ICAR organized a meeting on NAP-AMR with
leading experts of country to discuss issues pertaining to
AMR in livestock sector at its headquarters at NASC, New
Delhi. India’s national action plan on AMR is a robust
one which kept no stone unturned to make a sincere
effort to resolve the problem which has already gripped
developing countries like ours. Surveillance and
monitoring of AMR resistance form an integral part of
the NAP, as does the antimicrobial usage. The NAP
warrants an evidence-based database on both AMU and
the dynamics of AMR emerging in all the three sectors -
human, agriculture and environment, so that appropriate
remedial measure may be taken in advance to extenuate
the problem before it moves into a complete slugfest.
The crux of the problem is gaining useful denominator
data, particularly, in livestock sector where a large
section still relies on local quacks, pharmacists or
unorganized veterinary practitioners. Although it is
relatively easy to get data on AMU from the veterinary
hospitals/polyclinics where such records are being
maintained on daily basis, it will be really hard to get
accurate information from unorganized sector
particularly, at the local level. As the resistance rate of
vary common pathogens frequently over short distance
or period, a nationwide surveillance programmme is
required-using uniform SOP and sampling frame, to get
meaningful data. Taking such consideration into account,
ICAR with the support of FAO has started a network
programme on AMR surveillance in food animals and
aquaculture, first of this kind in the world. In a FAO-ICAR
collaborative meeting on establishment of a national
network of veterinary laboratories for AMR held in
report stated. Livestock
production will be dwindled by
7.5% to have an adverse
impact on food security. The
crisis will be more intense in
the developing and
underdeveloped economies
with more loss of lives. This has
been highlighted by a report
which showed that WHO South
East Asia region comprising of
the countries like, Bangladesh,
Bhutan, Democratic Peoples’
Republic of Korea, India,
Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Timor Leste – home to around 1.8 billion
people is at the highest risk to be affected by AMR. Thus
AMR is seen as the prominent threat to UN Sustainable
Development Goals.
Leaders across global political communities vowed to put
efforts together for control and containment of AMR. In
2015, WHO came with the Global Action Plan (GAP) to
ensure, ‘for as long as possible, continuity of successful
treatment and prevention of infectious diseases with
effective and safe medicines that are quality-assured,
used in a responsible way, and accessible to all who need
them’. This was approved in sixty-eighth World Health
Assembly in May 2015. Broadly, WHO GAP sets out five
major objectives:
1. To improve awareness and understanding of
antimicrobial resistance through effective
communication, education and training;
2. To strengthen knowledge and evidence base through
surveillance and research;
3. To reduce incidence of infection through effective
sanitation, hygiene and infection prevention
4. To optimize use of antimicrobial medicines in human
and animal health; and
5. To develop economic case for sustainable investment
that takes account of the needs of all countries and
to increase investment in new medicines, diagnostic
tools, vaccines and other interventions.
Subsequently, The Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
endorsed the WHO GAP. Finally in 2016 in UN General
Assembly world leaders put their shoulder together to
give a clarion call to resolve this burgeoning problem.
Next year, India came with the National Action Plan on
AMR with multi-sectorial One Health approach.
The strategic objectives of NAP on AMR of India are
Awareness &
& evidence
prevention &
Optimise use
& IEC Laboratories
of AMR –
Community &
Animal health
access, AM
AMS in
in human
State level
11 July-September 2019
and database
management in AMR
surveillance at ICAR-
IVRI, Izatnagar during
23-25, July 2018.
Subsequently, such
training was also
imparted to PI/Co-PI
of fishery institutes on
17-18 August 2018 in
Lucknow. With this
INFAAR made a strong
footprint to kick off its
journey to tackle AMR
in livestock and aqua
culture. The long term goal of the program aims to
identify strategies to prevent and reduce the
development and spread of AMR in animal and
aquaculture sectors. Successful implementation of the
programme will be a key component of the National
Action Plan on AMR for protection of human health,
animal health and food safety in India.
The first annual review meeting of INFAAR was organized
by ICAR in collaboration with FAO at Goa from 21 to 22
September 2018 to discuss various issues pertaining to
technical programme/work plan carried out by each
center under INFAAR programme. Subsequently this year
during 21 to 25 January 2019, ICAR organized FAO
Assessment Tool for Laboratories and Antimicrobial
resistance Surveillance Systems (FAO-ATLASS) for assessors
training for PIs under INFAAR at ICAR-CIFT, Kochi.
Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Jyoti Misri, Gaurav Rathore,
Rajesh Bhatia, Joy Krushna Jena
1ICAR-IVRI, Kolkatta. 2-5ICAR HQs,
3ICAR-NBFGR, Lucknow,
4FAO Consultant
Kolkata, India from 7-
8 March 2017, this
programme came into
existence with the
name INFAAR (Indian
Network for Fishery
and Animals
Resistance) with an
aim to explore the
resistance pattern of
the indicator and
pathogenic bacteria
isolated from food
animals and fishes.
The operational
mechanism for INFAAR was finalized on 14th July 2017, in
ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai. The first meeting of advisory
committee/board was held in March 2018 where various
administrative issues and functionalities of INFAAR as well
as institutes to participate in INFAAR network, was
decided. Initially, to kick off, veterinary/animal science
institutes which includes 10 ICAR institutes (ICAR-CIRG,
Makhdoom; ICAR-NIVEDI, Bengaluru; ICAR-NEH,
Barapani; CSWRI, Avikanagar; ICAR-NDRI, Karnal, ICAR-
NRC Equine, Hisar; ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar and ICAR-IVRI,
Kolkata centre, ICAR-CARI, Izatnagar and ICAR-DPR,
Hyderabad) one Central (College of Veterinary Science,
CAU Aizwal) and 2 state veterinary/agriculture
universities (SVVU, Gannavaram and SDAU, Dantewada)
and 8 fishery institutes (ICAR-CMFRI, Kochi, ICAR-CIFRI,
Barrackpore, ICAR-CIFT, Kochi, ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai, ICAR-
NBFGR, Lucknow, ICAR-CIBA, Chennai, ICAR-CIFA,
Bhubaneswar, ICAR-DCFR, Bhimtal) were included in the
network with ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar and ICAR-NBFGR,
Lucknow as the coordinating centres/institutes for
veterinary and fishery sectors, respectively. A training
programme was organized for PI/Co-PI of veterinary
institutes under INFAAR network project on antimicrobial
susceptibility testing and WHO-NET for AMR surveillance
FAO–ICAR training on WHONET software for data management of (AMR)
organized at ICAR-NBFGR, Lucknow on 17th-18th August 2018
Bioethanol from lignocellulosic waste: a stepping stone
towards energy security
oxygenated fuel and can be widely used for
transportation purpose across the world. Use of biofuels
can significantly lower the emission of exhaust gases
thereby resulting in a clean and eco-friendly environment.
The biological materials obtained from forest, agricultural
residues and other wastes from food and agro industries
are usually referred as biomass. Bioethanol is produced
by action of microorganisms on fermentable sugars
The world is facing depletion of global fossil fuels
resources, like petroleum, natural gas, or charcoal, while
energy requirements are continuously growing up. Fossil
fuels should be replaced, partially by biofuels once the
current fuel supply is suspected to be unsustainable in
the foreseen future. Bioethanol is obtained by using bio-
based resources. It is one of the most attractive biofuel
and considered as ‘green’ fuel. Bioethanol is an
present in the biomass.
First generation biofuel vs second generation
The first generation bioethanol is produced mainly from
different food crops such as corn, wheat, sugarcane, rice
and barley. Usage of these crops for ethanol production
has led to shortage for food. The lignocellulosic material
has emerged as an attractive low cost material for
ethanol production, and has been termed as second
generation bioethanol, therefore, there is no crisis for
any food material.
Basically there are three types of fermentation processes
which are commonly used. These are i) Separate
hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF), ii) Simultaneous
Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF), iii) Simultaneous
Saccharification and Co-Fermentation (SSC).
Methodical technique for bioethanol production
Separate hydrolysis and Fermentation
5 g untreated P. deltoides wood biomass was taken in
250 ml of flask. To this 50 ml of 2% NaOH +H2O2 (9:1)
was added and kept at 65oC in water bath for 3 h. After
3 h supernatant was separated out from solid biomass
by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 20 min. Enzymatic
saccharification of the alkaline peroxide pretreated left
over solid biomass was done by adding hydrolytic enzymes
at 1ml/g of residue. After 72 h saccharified biomass was
centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 20 min and clear
hydrolysate was collected. The saccharified syrup was
pooled together with supernatant of alkali pretreated
wood, followed by detoxification by overliming with Ca
(OH) 2. To the calcium hydroxide treated (detoxified)
supernatant 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5% peptone was
added and autoclaved at 121oC, 15 lbs for 20 min. To the
fermentation media 10 % (1 OD) inoculum of fermenting
microbes was added and kept for 72 h (3 days) at 25oC.
Ethanologens used as monoculture and co-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae-I, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-
II , Pichia stipitis , Candida shehatae, Zymomonas mobilis,
S. cerevisiae-I + P. stipitis , S. cerevisiae-I + C. shehatae,
S. cerevisiae-II + P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae-II + C.
shehatae. Bio-ethanol was estimated in terms of g/l of
fermented liquor and g/g of biomass on dry weight basis.
Ethanol produced (g/g)
Fermations efficiency =———————————————— × 1 0 0
Theoretical yield of ethanol
Theoretical yield was referred as standard value of 0.511
g/g of sugars. Development of a technology for
effectively converting alkaline hydrogen peroxide pre-
treated lingo-cellulosic biomass to simple sugars by
potential in-house enzymes produced from
microorganisms and intern fermenting them to
appreciable concentration of ethanol thus envisaging
sustainable energy production and improved
environmental quality.
Nisha Sharma* and Nivedita Sharma
YSPUHF, Basic Sciences (Microbiology),
Nauni, Solan (HP)
Bacterial strains used for hydrolytic enzymes production for
saccharification of biomass (a) Cellulase producer Bacillus
stratosphericus N12 and (b) xylanase producer Bacillus
altitudinis Kd1
Wood biomass (grinded 2mm size) used as substrate for
bioethanol production
13 July-September 2019
Biochar is carbon rich charcoal-like substance created
by heating biomass (organic matter) in limited oxygen
condition, through a process known as pyrolysis.
Laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess
the efficacy of different organic manure amended with
biochar on soil acidity management. Poultry manure,
pig, goat, FYM and vermicompost were used to prepare
biochar co-compost. Both biochar and organic manure
were mixed at 1:2 and kept for 15 days. This mixture
of biochar manure co-compost was analyzed for pH
(poultry manure biochar co-compost 9.35; pig manure
biochar co-compost 9.16; goat manure biochar co-
compost 9.04; FYM biochar co-compost 8.97 and
vermicompost biochar co-compost 8.86). The effect of
these biochar manure co-compost addition on chemical
properties of acidic soil such as soil pH was observed
to determine the liming potential. This study was
conducted by incubating acidic soil (clay loam) of pH
5.2 with biochar co-compost. The co-compost
prepared was applied at three rates (0, 2.5, and 5.0
t/ha) with soil and was incubated for two months. At
5.0 t/ha application rate poultry manure biochar co-
compost had shown a relatively larger increase in soil
pH with initial pH 5.2 to final 6.8 followed by pig
manure biochar co-compost (pH 6.6), goat manure
biochar co-compost (pH 6.4), FYM biochar co-compost
Co-composting of organic manure for soil quality
(pH 6.2) and vermicompost biochar co-compost (pH
6.0). Co-compost type, application rate, and their
interaction had significant effects (p<0.05) on soil pH.
Thus these manure biochar co-compost can be
effectively used for management of acid soil in Sikkim.
Shaon Kumar Das1, RK Avasthe1 and
Goutam Kumar Ghosh2
1ICAR-National Duganic Farming Research Institute,
Tadong, Gangtok 737 102
2Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Sriniketan,
West Bengal 731 236
Black soldier fly – a detritivorous insect for
solid waste management
Black soldier fly as decomposer of wastes
Black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) is a detritivorous
insect that is neither a pest nor a vector and does not cause
any harm. The larval stage of BSF is capable of
bioconversion of organic wastes in a short time. The
organic waste biomass can be reduced to tune of 50–95%.
BSF rearing on organic wastes reduces odours emanating
from wastes due to quicker conversion of biomass, reduces
housefly and other flies breeding and also reported to
reduce pathogenic microflora. BSF ability to decompose
farm wastes is attracting farmers, private firms, urban
residential people and poultry farmers. BSF compost
produced on kitchen waste is superior to farmyard manure,
vermicompost and sheep manure, due to high amount of
N, P, K along with other micronutrients and can be prepared
in 60 days. BSF compost has been recorded to be very good
for establishment of nursery plants like tomato, chilli,
brinjal, cabbage and horticultural crops. BSF leachate is
also equally nutritive that can be used for fertilizing soil
through irrigation water. NBAIR has termed BSF compost
as ‘Black Gold’ due to its nutrient richness.
Mahesh S Yandigeri, Mohan M, Mahendiran G,
Sampath Kumar M, Amala U, and Ballal C R
Senior Scientist (Microbiology), ICAR-National Bureau of
Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Bengaluru 560 024
Pupae of black soldier fly Compost produced by black
soldier fly
The Central Marine Fisheries Research
Institute was established by Government
of India on February 3,1947 under the
Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers
Welfare and later, in 1967, it joined the
ICAR family and emerged as a leading
tropical marine fisheries research
institute in the world. Initially the
institute’s focus was on creating a strong
database on marine fisheries sector by
developing scientific methodologies for
estimating the marine fish landings and
effort inputs, taxonomy of marine organisms and the
biological aspects of the exploited stocks of finfish and
shellfish on which fisheries management were to be
based. This focus contributed significantly to
development of marine fisheries sector from a
predominantly artisanal, sustenance fishery till the early
sixties to that of a complex, multi-gear, multispecies
One of the major achievements of CMFRI is development
and refinement of “Stratified Multistage Random
Sampling Method for estimation of marine fish landings
in the country with a coast line of over 8000 km coastline
and landing centres. Currently, the institute is
maintaining the National Marine Fisheries
Data Centre (NMFDC) with over 9 million
catch and effort data records of more
than 1000 fished species, from all
maritime states of India.
The Institute’s multi-disciplinary approach
to research in marine capture and culture
fisheries has won it recognition as a
premier institute comparable to any well-
established marine laboratory in the
world. Presently the institute has 3
Regional Centres located at Mandapam, Visakhapatnam
and Veraval and 8 Research Centres at Mumbai, Chennai,
Calicut, Karwar, Tuticorin, Vizhinjam, Mangalore and
Digha. Besides, there are also fifteen field centre and 2
KVKs (Ernakulam and Kavratti, Lakshadweep) under the
control of the institute. The nearly five fold increase in
marine fish production and the increasing contribution of
marine fisheries to the GDP growth are supported by the
robust research efforts and its impact on fisher folk,fish
farmers, fisheries policy planners and managers.
Sustainable marine fisheries through management
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute
All set for a blue revolution
15 July-September 2019
effective fisheries management plans with stakeholders
participation; proactive measures to ensure regulated
and sustainable fisheries and aiding efforts in marine
fisheries management realm by preparing policy
guideline documents based on the research programmes
of the Institute. The National policy on Marine Fisheries
(NPMF) 2017 notified by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Farmers’ Welfare was developed with wide stakeholders’
consultations by the institute and is a major step towards
a framework for a sustainable marine fisheries
development model in the country. Marine fisheries
policies for the state of Kerala and Lakshadweep Islands,
Karnataka, Goa and Andhra Pradesh are formulated with
the reassert and policy inputs from CMFRI scientific
expert teams. CMFRI has prepared a document entitled
Indian Marine Fisheries Code which guides the
establishment of a sustainable marine fisheries resources
management model for India in accordance with Food
and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries (CCRF). Other contributions of
CMFRI recognized as major inputs for the national level
policy making are policy guidance on Fish Aggregating
Device (FAD); based on which Government of Karnataka
banned an FAD assisted cuttlefish fishery that was
contributing to growth and recruitment overfishing of
cuttlefishes and leading to loss of livelihoods and income
to local fishers, guidance on National Plan of Action
(NPOA) for sharks in India for increasing awareness of
the need to ensure their sustainable exploitation and
conservation, guideline on temporal and spatial measures
of effective Trawl Ban for Government of Kerala,
recommendation on Minimum legal size (MLS) of
commercially important marine fishes aimed at
restricting juvenile fishing for various coastal States
(Based on which Government of Kerala notified MLS for
58 commercially important species in the Gazette),
recommendations on use of technology in agricultural
insurance’ to NITI Aayog, guidelines for Mariculture Policy
in India etc. CMFRI also coordinated and provided
scientific inputs for India’s first Marine Stewardship
intervention and enhanced coastal fish production
through mariculture for improved coastal livelihoods.
To develop an information based management system
for changing over from open access to regulated regime
in marine fisheries, augment coastal fish production
through mariculture and sea ranching and restore critical
marine habitats.
Monitor and assess marine fisheries resources of the
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) including impact of
climate and anthropogenic activity and develop
sustainable fishery management plans.
Basic and strategic research in mariculture to
enhance production.
Act as repository of geo-spatial information on marine
fishery resources and habitats.
Consultancy services and human resource
development through training, education and
Marine fishery resource assessment.
Productivity and production enhancement through
Conservation of marine biodiversity.
Transfer of technology, training and consultancy.
Major research focus and its impact on marine
fisheries sector in India
Support to strengthen marine fishery management
regime in India
From beginning, CMFRI has focussed on gathering
information of the marine fishery resources of India.
Through its sustained efforts a database on fisheries
landings and effort statistics has aided the developing
CMFRI Laboratory CMFRI Laboratory
Council (MSC) certified fishery, for the short-neck clam in
the Ashtamudi Lake, Kerala.
Integration of Satellite Technologies into Fisheries
To effectively utilize satellite technology for managing
marine fisheries sector the Institute has joined hands with
the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) with the
aim to identify and forecast Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ).
GIS based resource mapping of distribution and
abundance of fin fishes and shellfishes off the Indian coast
and using the GIS technology for mapping of marine fish
landing centres. The CMFRI special publication on
‘Handbook on Application of GIS as a Decision Support
Tool in Marine Fisheries’ and the GIS based inventory of
1278 marine fish landing centres of Indian coast prepared
by CMFRI, was even sought by Indian Navy.
Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management
CMFRI’s initiative in promoting EAFM is based on the
fact that the country
needs to shift from
traditional single
species management
approach to a more
advanced one
addressing ecological
and human well-
being with good
governance. An
Ecosystem Based
Management (EBFM)
model has been
developed for the
South-west, North-west, Gulf of Mannar coasts and can
be used to facilitate well managed fisheries.
Addressing climate change concerns in marine
fisheries sector
Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest
long-term challenges to marine ecosystems and fisheries.
Under the National Innovations on Climate Resilient
Agriculture (NICRA), a network project of Indian Council
of Agricultural Research (ICAR), to deal with climate
change in marine ecosystem CMFRI has focussed on
preparing the marine fisheries sector to minimize the
impact of climate change. It is also aimed at addressing
critical knowledge gaps about climate change impacts,
improve monitoring and translating the knowledge into
active management responses. Relationship between
temperature and abundance of resources such as
threadfin breams and the effect of projected rise in sea
surface temperature due to climate change by modeling
the biomass dynamics using a variant of SEAMICE models
for the south Kerala region has been done. The carbon
foot print, blue carbon potential of mangroves and sea
grass and life cycle assessment of fishing operations
indicated that fishing operations for Kerala coast had
Mobile app for online fish sale
As an adaptation strategy to improve
income of fishermen and to help them cope
up with adverse climatic events, the ICAR-
CMFRI has developed a multivendor E-
commerce website
( and associated
android app (marinefishsales) through the
National Innovations on Climate Resilient
Agriculture (NICRA) project. The website
and mobile app is aimed at helping fish
farmers and fishermen to sell their farmed
fish and marine catch directly to customers
online and to fetch better income without
depending middlemen.
CMFRI Research Vessel – Silver Pompano Fish Cage
17 July-September 2019
highest emissions during harvest phase followed by post-
harvest and pre-harvest phases. Multivendor e-
commerce portal and Mobile App, low cost feeds for
Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) and
Participatory mode of coastal vulnerable resource
mapping are few of our initiatives. Through adoption of
a number of coastal villages and converting then as
“Climate Smart Villages”, organizing field
demonstrations on technologies for climate change
adaptation and mitigation, livelihood sustainability
enhancement through provision of know-how and
alternative income generating activities are some
interventions carried out by CMFRI.
Fishery socio economics, marketing, trade and
fisheries governance
Focussed studies on economics of fishery enterprises and
socio-economic conditions of fisher folk. Valuation,
estimation and analysis of marine fish landings and its
economic performance, supply chain management, price
behaviour of marine fish varieties, fish consumption
patterns, impact of GST on fisheries sector and
vulnerability of coastal villages are being estimated
annually both at landing centre and retail market levels
for different maritime states. An estimation of value of
marine fish landings in India, during 2011-2017 indicated
an increase of fish landings at landing centre level from
`24,369 crores in 2011 to `52,431 crores in 2017, with
an annual increase of 14.5%, while at retail centre level,
increased from `38,147 crores to `78,404 crores with
an annual increase of 15.08%.
Innovations in mariculture
Globally, mariculture is the fastest growing animal food
producing sector and an increasing source of protein for
human consumption. Envisaged to be the future of Indian
marine fisheries mariculture has not yet developed into
a major contributor of seafood production in India.
However, ICAR - CMFRI remains on forefront to promote
various mariculture activities such as cage fish farming,
seaweed farming, bivalve and pearl farming, ornamental
fish culture, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, etc.
The Research and Development programme on marine
cage farming in India which was initiated by CMFRI with
the grants received from the Ministry of Agriculture has
been successfully demonstrated technically all along the
Indian coast with the financial support of National
Fisheries Development Board (NFDB). By year 2018, 1609
Yellow clam or short neck clam fishery of Ashtamudi Lake
First Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fishery of
India with CMFRI's support
Hatchery technologies
Technologies for seed production and grow-out
culture of cobia (Rachycentron canadum), groupers
(Epinephelus coioides) silver pompano (Trachinotus
blochii), Indian pompano (Trachinotus mookalee) and
pink ear emperor (Lethrinus lentjan) have been
developed and demonstrated by CMFRI, while
efforts are on to bring more promising species under
farming. In addition, five species of snappers and
carangids have been prioritized for developing seed
production technology. Hatchery production
technology for mussel, edible oyster and 14 varieties
of marine ornamentals, including Marcia’s anthias,
clowns, damsels, hybrids, camel shrimp and cleaner
shrimp has been achieved. The indigenously
developed Re-Circulatory Aquaculture System (RAS)
is also functioning at the Institute to boost seed production round the year.
Cobia fingerlings in cage
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, a novel method
Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is the practice which
combines appropriate proportions of finfish/shrimp with shell/
herbivorous fish and seaweeds in farming to create balanced
systems for environmental and economic stability. The CMFRI has
successfully conducted the demonstration of IMTA under
participatory mode with fishermen groups by integrating
seaweed with cage farming of cobia. It has been proved that in
one crop of 45 days the seaweed rafts integrated with cobia
cage will give an average yield of 260 kg per raft against a control,
which yielded 150 kg per raft.
Cobia fingerling
cages were installed in different marine locations in India
under the technical support and guidance of CMFRI.
Continuous refinement of technology is taking place
through various research projects of CMFRI and All India
Network Project on Mariculture (AINP-M) funded by
ICAR, Government of India. The successful seed
production of a marine ornamental, camel shrimp,
Rhyncocinetes durbanensis was achieved at Mandapam
Regional Centre of CMFRI. The Tribal Sub Plan (TSP)
programme of the institute has extended technical
support in cage farming to several tribal groups in the
states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala
and helped them to attain better livelihood skills and
income through fish farming.
Marine Biotechnology
Bioprospecting of marine and oceanic resources, through
which the institute has produced several nutraceuticals
useful for treating life style diseases and dietary
supplements from seaweeds, has been recognised. The
Institute has developed and commercialized
nutraceutical products CadalminTM Green Algal extract
(CadalminTMGAe) and Antidiabetic extract
(CadalminTMADe to combat rheumatic arthritic pains and
type-2 diabetes, respectively. Nutraceuticals from
seaweeds to combat dyslipidemia, obesity, hypo-thyroid
have also been developed and out-licensed to
pharmaceutical companies. â Nodadetect a single tube
RT lamp diagnostic for â-Noda virus detection in marine
fish of mariculture interest has been developed by the
institute. This highly specific, sensitive and rapid method
of screening marine broodstock fish ensures certified
specific pathogen free eggs and larvae. To understand
the population genetic structure of fishery resources in
Indian waters specific studies were carried out. The
complete mitogenome characterisation of Etroplus
suratensis from Vembanad Lake, genetic stock structure
investigations in Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Indian
oil sardine Sardinella longiceps and bioprospecting for
biotic and abiotic stress responsive genes from
Crassostrea madrasensis and their characterisation have
yielded valuable baseline data.
Estimation of multispecies multi-gear marine fish
landings for more than 1200 species covering 1511
fish landing centres on a GIS platform from the EEZ
of India for marine fish stock assessment following
the self-developed stratified multi-stage random
sampling design and maintaining a National Marine
Fishery Resources Database which is generated based
on continuous and perpetual field data collection on
marine fishery resources over decades
Annual estimation of marine fish landings at landing
centre and retail market level carried out to work
out the contribution of fisheries sector to the
agricultural and National GDP.
ICT initiatives include ‘Fish Watch’, a web portal for
real time landing and market information from the
landing centres; Choose Wisely’ – a sustainability
labeling code developed by CMFRI which was adopted
Open Sea Cage Farms
19 July-September 2019
farming of
mussels and
oysters in coastal
areas with an
production of
over 10,000
benefitting nearly
6000 women self-
help groups
Identified and
mapped new and
deep sea marine
resources by
vessel based
surveys, including
abundance maps
of oceanic squid resources. The Institute has so far
described 255 marine species new to science from
various groups of fishes
Used modern biotechnological tools for development
of marine nutraceuticals (GMe, GAe, Ade and Ate)
for human well-being and functional feeds (Varna and
Varsha) for mariculture species
Assessed major marine and island habitats and
evaluated their biodiversity; and developed
restoration protocols through artificial reef
CMFRI conducts regular training programmes in
fisheries and marine biology. So far, the institute has
produced over 300 Masters and 160 PhD degree
Provided science back-up for India’s first eco-labelled
(MSC certified) fisheries (short-neck clam) meeting
by the ITC chain of restaurants all over India serving
seafood; m@krishi service supported by TCS in
collaboration with CMFRI provided and tested a
platform to inform fishermen in Maharashtra on
potential fishing zones (PFZ) through mobile phones
in local language; Litter atlas an interactive map on
litter status of Indian beaches
National quinquennial census of marine fisher
population and infrastructure facilities and estimated
value of marine fisheries and fishing fleet economic
Optimized fishing fleet size of various craft-gear
combinations for rational exploitation of marine
resources in all maritime states of India
Monitored biology and health of commercial marine
fish stocks (133 stocks) of India. Developed and applied
several analytical models to assess the finfish and
shellfish stocks in all maritime states for providing
Fishery Management Plans and advisories on seasonal
fishing bans and potential yields
Developed hatchery and grow-out technologies for
shrimps, pearl oysters, oysters, mussels, clams,
ornamental fishes, sea bass, cobia, pompano and
groupers (totaling 37 species)
Cage Farming Harvest
Recirculation Aquaculture Facility at CMFRI Mandapam Centre Nemipterus japonicus haul in Kochi, Kerala
Oyster farmer with ready to harvest
farmed oyster rens
global standards of fisheries management
Delineated the scientific reasons behind the recent
decline in oil sardine fishery along the south-west
coast of India, to support formulation of management
guidelines to improve the status of the fishery.
Agricultural Technology Information Centre (ATIC) of
CMFRI serves as a ‘single window delivery system’ for
technologies and services developed by the institute.
There are two Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) functioning
under the institute presently. KVK-Ernakulum has
developed and disseminates location specific technological
modules and acts as Knowledge and Resource Centre for
agriculture, fisheries and allied activities.
Administrative control of KVK at Kavarathi, Lakshadweep
Islands has been recently taken up by the institute from
CIARI, Port Blair. The main focus will now be for enhancing
farmers’ income and employment opportunities especially
for women, through value-added products development
and facilitate increased market access.
Academic collaboration and training
Collaborations with a number of research and academic
organizations inside and outside the country have
included the Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK; Nansen
Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre (NERC),
Norway; Michigan State University, USA; Rhodes
University, South Africa and Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia
besides fisheries related institutes and academic
universities in the country.
Way forward
Sustainability of fishery resources is core to a healthy
and vibrant marine fisheries sector in India. To grow
further, the following focus areas have been identified:
Fishery modelling and forecasting
Green auditing – valuation of marine bio-diversity and
ecosystem services
Nanotechnological approaches in mariculture and
environment management.
Dr A Gopalakrishna, Director
CMFRI, Kochi 682 018, Kerala,
Anti-obesity extract CMFRI pearl stringAnti-diabetic extract
Ornamental Fish – Anthias
Designer crown fish – the new ornamental fish variety
21 July-September 2019
Development of protein enriched
gluten free rice pasta
Celiac disease (CD) is an auto immune enteropathy
triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing grains
(wheat, barley, rye, and oats). The prevalence of CD
worldwide is increasing and affecting almost most of the
population. Thus, with the increasing numbers of people
intolerant to gluten, the need is rising for high quality
gluten-free products. Presently, the only treatment for
CD consists of a lifelong gluten-free diet. The replacement
of gluten presents a significant technological challenge,
as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is
necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods as
pasta. The only way to prevent this is by eating gluten-
free foods. Among these, rice flour is one of the most
utilized raw material in gluten-free production. But,
functional properties of rice flour are insufficient for
creation of highly developed and stable structure. For
improvement of rice flour functionality several different
modification procedures were employed including protein
and fibre.
Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. For
about 50% of the world population, mostly in Asian
countries, rice is the staple diet and provides 35–59% of
energy consumed from foods. The functional properties
of rice grains such as pasting profiles, texture, water
holding capacity and cooking characteristics are
important factors which determine the end use and
marketing of rice grains flour. It has also many beneficial
properties as it is easy to digest, has mild taste and
hypoallergenic properties and also provides 45% of
calories and 40% total protein requirement of an average
population. Gluten-free pasta represents a challenge for
food technologists and nutritionists since gluten-free
materials used in conventional formulations have poor
functional and nutritional properties. So a novel
extrusion-cooking process used to improve the textural
characteristics of rice-based pasta that enrich with
apricot protein isolate. The very less work on apricot
kernel press cake as well as isolation of protein isolates
from apricot kernel press cake and its utilization for
product development has been done. Therefore, the
present study was hereby proposed and done at Dr YS
Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni,
Solan Himachal Pradesh for development of protein
enriched gluten free rice pasta.
Single screw extruder (La Monferrina make Dolly model)
was used for preparing pasta. The amount of water was
calculated as per Mondelli equation. Premixing of rice
flour with protein isolate was done by planetary mixer
(M/s Artisan Engineering works), followed by mixing in
Dolly type extruder, and kneading the mixture by rotating
screw in opposite direction of extrusion process. The
temperature of extruded dough was 40±2°C and 1.7 mm
diameter die was used to shape the dough and formation
of pasta.
Quality characteristics of developed pasta
Gluten free pasta was prepared from rice with
supplementation of protein isolate at different
concentration (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%). Showed
the effect of cooking time on the quality of pasta. The
picture clearly showed that with the prolonging the
cooking time of the pasta it become mashy specially in
rice flour pasta. Hence 5 min was considered an optimize
time for pasta preparation.
The cooking quality of pasta is based on evaluation of
texture. Cooked pasta is desired to be not sticky or mudy
when eaten and should exhibit some frimness to the bite.
During pasta processing, gluten proteins present as
irregular globular structures that build a three-
dimensional network when flour is mixed with water. After
kneading, gluten a network is formed composed of layers
of thin film, penetrated by the starch granules. The
Rice flour pasta 2.5% protein enriched pasta 5% protein enriched pasta 7.5% protein enriched pasta 10% protein enriched pasta
surface of freshly extruded pasta has a continous protein
film, while the inner portion has a compact structure of
starch granules embedded in an amorphous protein
matrix aligned in layer parallel to protein film. After
cooking pasta starch got gelatinized and protein
coagulated and caused major structural changes and
hence influenced the final texture. During cooking pasta,
protein absorbed water and swell more rapidly than
starch. Hydration of protein fraction of pasta before the
beginning of starch gelatinization appeared important
to produce a firm, good quality pasta. Scanning electron
microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile method
for the examination and analysis of the microstructure,
chemical composition and physical (size and shape)
characterizations. It shows arrangement of starch
granules and protein network in the matrix. The SEM
was conducted at magnification of 1000 x and 1200x.
The Fig 1 showed that the pasta had some medium to
large ellipsoidal, irregular, cubical and polygonal shape
cluster bodies represent the presence of starch molecules
in the sample. The external chalky and opaque
appearance in the pasta, resulting from air spaces
between the starch granules. Whereas, cracked and flaky
plate like structure surface represents the presence of
protein and indicated the presence of protein content in
the pasta. Protein remains with irregular edges and
starch granules were distributed in the direction of force
applied during the extrusion process and at the final
stage of processing forming the protein-starch matrix.
The cost of production for gluten free protein enriched
pasta was ` 55.60 per/kg which was very less as
compared to market semolina pasta. It is concluded that
incorporation or addition of protein isolate for
development of different food products like pasta seems
to be a profitable venture for utilizing the waste and
boosting income of farmers, apart from providing many
health benefits to people.
Abhishek Thakur*, Devina Vaidya,
Manisha Kaushal and Anil Gupta
Dr YSPUHF, Nauni, Solan 173230 (HP)
Post-harvest method for coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)
in Madhya Pradesh
Diversity in seed spice crops was explored in Ashok Nagar,
Guna, Gwalior and Shivpuri districts of Madhya Pradesh
and Bara district of Rajasthan(latitude 24° 34’ - 26° 07N
and longitude 77° 03’ - 78° 02’E) during, 1 to 9, March
2019. This area being confluence zone between central
and western part of India, is the hot-spot for diversity in
seed spice crops especially for coriander, cumin,
fenugreek, ajwain and other species. 53 accessions
comprising of dhania (Coriandrum sativum- 39), ajwain
(Trachyspermum ammi-7), methi (Trigonella foenum-
graecum-2), kasuri methi (Trigonella corniculata-1), sowa
(Anethum sowa-1) and kalaunji (Nigella sativa-3) were
collected. In India coriander (family Apiaceae) is an annual
spice crop, grown in home gardens throughout the
country, and cultivated mainly in parts of Andhra Pradesh,
Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Odisha, Rajasthan,
Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Some of the named
coriander landraces viz, Kumbhraj, Mithi Dhana, Kudi
Dhana, Deshi Dhana, Dhana and Ramela were collected
from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The collected
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of protein enriched
gluten free rice pasta
a. Harvested material kept for sun drying, b. Harvested material
kept for drying under cellophane sheet, c. Brown seeds after
sun drying, d. Green seeds after drying under shades
germplasm showed good variability in seed shape (round,
oval), size (small and large) and colour (brown, light
brown, green, dark green and parrot green). Coriander
seed weight (100 seed wt.) was also recorded. Maximum
a b
c d
23 July-September 2019
several alcoholic beverages in large scale. For preparing
flavoured beverages, the indigenous drying method for
processing of “green coriander seed” has been developed
by local farmers through several years of trials and
practices. For green coloured seeds the most preferred
landraces are Kumbhraj, Mithi dhana and Kudi Dhana.
To retain the green colour and aroma in mature seeds,
the plants are cut in early morning and dried under cover
of a cellophane sheet for 1-2 days. Generally coriander
seeds are harvested (110-130 days after maturity) when
fruits attain yellow to golden yellow colour. Farmers have
informed that harvesting of coriander landraces-
Kumbhraj, Mithi Dhana and Kudi Dhana are done on
priority due to early maturity (90-100 days) as well as
fetching higher price in the market. Generally the price
of brown coloured seeds varies from ` 4,000 to ` 6,000
per 100 kg. Farmers informed that the rate of light green
and dark green processed seed are fetching much higher
price (` 10,000 to ` 12,000 per 100 kg) in local mandi
because of presence of high aroma in seeds in comparison
to normal ones (yellow and brown coloured seeds). Only
few farmers of the area are adopting this method and
earning good income. The aromatic green seeded
coriander was available with several traders in mandis of
Ashok Nagar, Shivpuri, Guna and Kumbhraj. However,
there is an urgent need to refine post-harvest method
for popularization and doubling the income of coriander
farmers in different parts of other states.
DP Semwal, OP Dhariwal, SP Ahlawat, Anjula Pandey,
KC Bhatt and RS Meena*
ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi 110 012
*ICAR-NRCSS, Ajmer, Rajasthan
seed weight was recorded for Desi Dhana (1.65 g) and
minimum for Kumbhraj (0.97 g).
Coriander is mostly used for flavouring and as seed
powder in curries. Farmers and traders of Ashok Nagar,
Guna, Kumbhraj and Shivpuri (Madhya Pradesh) informed
that mature seed with green colour after drying has good
demand in beverage industry for increasing flavour in
beverages. A processed green coloured coriander seed is
purchased by beverage industry located in Ashok Nagar,
Guna and Shivpuri districts of Madhya Pradesh for making
PUSA SONA – A new high yielding onion variety
suitable for salad and export
Onion is one of the most important vegetable having
round the year demand in almost every household. In
India, it is grown in 1.32 million ha with a production of
20.93 million tones. The average productivity is 7.0 t/ha,
which can be improved by adoption of high yielding onion
varieties/hybrids, suitable crop management practices
and better plant protection measures.
Pusa Sona is a recently developed high yielding onion
variety from Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR-IARI,
New Delhi. The variety was tested across India through
All India Network Research Project on onion and Garlic
and found suitable for commercial cultivation during rabi
season in zone II, comprising Delhi, Rajasthan, Haryana, Pusa Sona
Variability in seed shape, size and colour of corriander
germplasm collected from Guna and Shivpuri districts of
Madhya Pradesh
Jammu region of J and K and Punjab. The variety was
notified through Central Sub-Committee on Crop
Standards, Notification and Release of varieties of
Horticultural Crops on 5th February, 2019.
Bulbs of this variety are globular in shape, large in size
and creamish yellow in colour. The bulbs are juicy and
the average total soluble solids content is around 10.0 ±
2° Brix. Pungency is medium (5.0 Pyruvic Acid ìmol/g).
Therefore, the variety is most suitable for slicing and table
purpose (fresh consumption as salad or raita
preparation). This variety becomes ready for harvesting
in approximately 130 days after transplanting. Average
equatorial diameter of bulbs ranges from 5.0 – 6.2 cm,
polar diameter ranges from 5.2 - 6.5 cm and single bulb
weight ranges from 70.0 – 135.0 g, yield potential is
33.0-35.0 t/ha, whereas the national onion productivity
is 17.0 tons/ha. The bulbs of this variety being large,
cream coloured and mildly pungent, they are suitable
for export to Europe and USA.
Dr Sabina Islam, Subodh Joshi, Anil Khar,
B S Tomar and V K Pandita
ICAR-IARI, New Delhi,
IARI-RS, Karnal
Onion is a ubiquitous vegetable in almost every
culinary preparation in Indian household. Apart
from their use as adjunct to add flavor and taste,
they are used raw as salad or raita preparation,
processed in vinegar, converted to pickle,
dehydrated and various processed product. They are
also valued for their medicinal properties and
important ingredient of traditional Indian medicine
system since time immemorial. Different types of
onion are grown in various parts of the world having
regional adaptation and preference. In India,
mostly the red and dark skinned short day or
intermediate day type onion dominates cultivation.
However, these days, other skin color onion like
brown, cream and white color onion are also
gaining popularity in localized pocket either for
their medicinal properties, localized or export
Pusa Shobha is a brown skin colored variety with
white flesh, developed at Division of Vegetable
Science, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi and notified for
commercial cultivation during rabi season in zone
III (Delhi, UP, Haryana, Bihar and Punjab), IV
(Rajasthan and Gujrat) and V (MP, Chattishgarh and
Orissa) during 2018.
The bulbs of this variety are compact, flat globe,
brown in colour. The flesh is white with average
total soluble solids around 17± 20 Brix and suitable
for storage, drying, processing and export. Pusa
Shobha belongs to mid-maturity group and the bulbs
become ready for harvesting in 140-160 days after
transplanting. Average bulb weight ranges from
70.0 – 100.0 g. The bulbs of this variety are mildly
pungent (5.09 Pyruvic Acid ìmol/g). It has higher
mineral content and 100 g dry bulbs contain. 19.45
mg Calcium, 38.7 mg Magnesium, 0.57 mg Zinc and
0.73 mg Iron. The bulbs have medium phenol (60.0
-100.0 mg galic acid equivalents/100g) and
quercetin (14.0 - 18.0 mg/100g FW) content. The
bulbs posses high antioxidant activity (2.0 - 2.6 ìmol
Trolox/g FW FRAP value, 6.1 - 6.8 ìmol Trolox/g FW
CUPRAC value). The average yield is 25.04 t/ha,
which is 64.08% higher than check variety tested in
different networking centre across India.
Dr Sabina Islam, Subodh Joshi,
B S Tomar and V K Pandita
ICAR-IARI, New Delhi,
IARI-RS, Karnal
PUSA SHOBHA – A high yielding onion variety
for value addition
Pusa Shobha
25 July-September 2019
New brinjal varieties for
higher nutrition and health
Mean performance of brinjal variety Pusa Safed Baingan 1 at ICAR-IARI, New Delhi
Name of entry Days to 50% No. of fruits/ Avg. Fruit wt Total fruit Maturity
flowering (After plant (Avg. (g) (Average yield (days after
planting) of 5 plants of 20 fruits) (t/ha) transplanting)
Pusa Safed Baingan 1 38.45 38.50 56.36 34.80 51.47
Pusa Bindu 39.78 15.83 105.48 26.78 53.47
Aruna 39.48 27.45 55.48 24.32 61.47
Pusa Ankur 44.78 20.45 64.58 21.12 58.78
CD at 5% 7.50 3.28 8.64 4.28 5.98
CV (%) 9.78 7.12 6.06 8.23 5.67
Mean performance of green oval brinjal variety Pusa Hara Baingan 1 at ICAR-IARI, New Delhi
Name of entry Days to 50% No. of fruits/ Avg. Fruit wt (g) Total fruit Maturity
flowering (After plant (Avg. of (Average of yield (days after
planting) 5 plants 20 fruits) (t/ha) transplanting)
Pusa Hara Baingan 1 43.25 12.59 219.22 44.25 56.69
Pusa Uttam 41.58 8.94 205.69 29.56 59.84
KS-224 42.69 12.68 150.58 30.56 61.56
CD (5%) 2.69 2.14 15.58 5.21 2.41
CV 14.25 3.02 6.98 12.36 9.63
Pusa Safed Baingan 1
White oval round fruited variety notified (S.O. 692
(E), dated 5th Feb, 2019) for cultivation during kharif
season under North Indian Plains.
It can be grown in other brinjal growing areas.
It is an early maturing variety (50-55 days from
transplanting to first fruit harvest).
Plants are semi spreading, spines are absent in stem,
leaves and calyx.
Light purple pigmentation present on younger leaves
with green mid-rib and veins.
Flowers are light purple in colour.
Fruits are oval in shape weighing 50-60 g having green
non-spiny calyx and mostly born in cluster.
It is responsive to both high and a normal fertile soil
and 250 g seed per hectare is sufficient for nursery
The potential yield of the variety is 35 t/ha. The
performance of the variety is given in Table.
It has high total phenol content (31.21 mg GAE/100
g) as compared to Pusa Uttam (21.57 mg GAE/100
g) and Pusa Kranti (19.67 mg GAE/100 g).
It is rich in antioxidant activity (3.48 CUPRAC
mol trolox/g, 2.58 FRAP moltrolox/g) as
compared to Pusa Uttam (2.03 CUPRAC mol
trolox/g, 1.13 FRAP moltrolox/g) and Pusa Kranti
Pusa Safed Baingan
(1.97 CUPRAC mol trolox/g, 1.03 FRAP
Pusa Hara Baingan 1
Green coloured oval fruited variety notified (S.O. 692
(E), dated 5th Feb, 2019) for growing kharif season
under North Indian condition.
Plants are non-spiny with erect branches and light
purple pigmentation present on younger leaves, mid-
rib and veins.
The plants start flowering 40 days after transplanting
and ready for harvest in 55-60 days from
Fruits are big oval, green with light purple patches
and 210-220 g having green non-spiny calyx.
The potential yield of the variety is 40-45 t/ha (yield
data shown in Table).
The variety has high antioxidant activity (3.41 CUPRAC
mol trolox /g, 3.07 FRAP mol trolox /g) as compared
to Pusa Uttam (2.03 CUPRAC mol trolox/g, 1.13 FRAP
moltrolox/g) and Pusa Kranti (1.97 CUPRAC mol
trolox/g, 1.03 FRAP moltrolox/g).
Partha Saha*, B S Tomar, A D Munshi and Y A Angel
ICAR-IARI, New Delhi 110012
VRSG-7-17: A new aromatic
sponge gourd
An aromatic sponge gourd (LuffaylindricalRoem. Syn.
Luffa aegyptica) genotype has been developed to
popularize/promote this cucurbitaceous vegetable
across India. Recently, ICAR-Indian Institute of
Vegetable Research (IIVR), Varanasi has generated a
unique material of sponge gourd (VRSG-7-17) with
characteristic aroma which resembles with the typical
aroma of ‘Basmati rice’ in its various plant parts viz.,
leaves, flowers, fruits, blossom end of fruits, plant vine
and peel. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy
study conducted at CSIR-Central Institute for Medicinal
and Aromatic Plant, Lucknow revealed the presence
of high concentration of aroma compound viz., Hexenal
and 3-Octanone in VRSG-7-17. Interestingly, all the duo
volatiles were either absent or found in very low
concentration in the control sample Kashi Shreya
(VRSG-194). Other volatile compounds identified were
cis-3 Hexenol, 1-Octane-3-ol, 1-Hexenol and Limonene
etc. The fruits of this novel sponge gourd genotype
(VRSG-7-17) also retained its special aroma even after
cooking and/or boiling. Apart from these, the
genotype VRSG-7-17 has also been observed for high
fruit yield (1.375 kg / plant) with medium sized light
green coloured fruits which matured at 58 to 60 days
after sowing. The genotype is also tolerant to downy
mildew disease, moderately susceptible to Sponge
Gourd Mosaic Virus and is tolerant to melon weevil
and is less susceptible to leaf miner under field
T Chaubey, B Singh, J Singh, S Pandey, P M Singh,
R K Singh, C S Chanautiya* and A K Tripathi*
Varanasi-221 305, UP, India
CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India
Pusa Hara Baingan
27 July-September 2019
Black soldier fly – a promising protein supplement in
aquacultural feed
Global aquaculture industry demands alternatives for fish
meal and fish oil used in fish feeds due to the decreasing
production and increased cost. Black soldier fly (BSF),
Hermetia illucens can efficiently convert protein free
organic wastes into protein rich biomass that could serve
as partial or complete replacement of fish feed with BSF
as protein supplement. BSF prepupae was estimated to
contain 32.53% crude protein, 22.1% crude lipid, 23.81%
carbohydrates. Growth performance of Tilapia, monosex
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was evaluated using the
pellet feed formulated using black soldier fly. Fishes fed
with fish meal diet and BSF incorporated diet showed
significantly higher final weight and mean weight gain
compared to other treatments. Percentage weight gain
of fishes and feed conversion ratio of fishes fed with BSF
diet was statistically on par with that of control fish meal
diet. BSF diet was statistically on par with commercial
fish meal. The present study indicates that BSF could be
Published by Dr Satendra Kumar Singh, Project Director, Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural
Research, New Delhi 110 012. Phone: 011-25842787; Fax: 011-25843285; e-mail: Lasertypeset by M/s Print-O-World,
Shadipur, New Delhi 110 008, and printed in India at M/s Royal Offset Printers, A-89/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase I, New Delhi 110 028.
Editing : Seema Burman Design & Production : Dr VK Bharti and Punit Bhasin
Dr T Mohapatra
Secretary, DARE and DG, ICAR
Dr K Alagusundaram, DDG
(Agric. Engg. and Natural Resource Management)
Dr JK Jena, DDG
(Fisheries Science and Animal Science)
Dr RC Agrawal, DDG
(Agric Edu)
Dr AK Singh, DDG
(Agric. Ext)
Dr AK Singh, DDG
(Horticultural Science and Crop Science)
Dr Satendra Kumar Singh, Project Director (DKMA)
a suitable protein source for fish feed formulation in
aquaculture practices.
Amala U1, Yandigeri MS1, Mohan M1, Preetha Panikkar2,
Jesna PK2, Feroz Khan M2, Das BK2, Ballal CR1,
Selvaraj K1 and Vijaykumar ME2
Bengaluru 560 024
2ICAR-CIFRI, Barrackpore 700 120.
Tilapia fishes feeding on BSF feed
Black Soldier Fly Prepupae
Black Soldier Fly Pellet fish feed
AGRICULTURE is crucial for ensuring food, nutrition and
livelihood security. More than 80% of Indian farmers are
marginal (cultivating land up to 1 hectare) and small
(cultivating between 1 hectare and 2 hectares) with poor
coping capacity, particularly when we talk about sustaining
production and productivity. Sustainable agriculture is an
agriculture that sustainably (i) increases productivity, (ii)
increases resilience (adaptation), (iii) reduces/removes
GHGs and (iv) enhances achievement of national food security
and development goals.
Agriculture contributes to climate change primarily
through emission and consumption of GHGs. Methane is
produced in soil during microbial decomposition of
organic matter under anaerobic condition. Rice fields
submerged with water are the potential sources of CH4
production. Continuous submergence, higher organic C
content and use of organic manure in puddled soil
enhance the CH4 emission. The enteric fermentation in
ruminants is another major source of CH4 emission.
Burning of crop residues also contributes to the global
methane budget. Main source of carbon dioxide in
agriculture is soil management practices such as tillage,
which triggers emission of this gas through biological
decomposition of soil organic matter. Use of fuel for
various agricultural operations and burning of crop
residues are other sources.
Globally, out of total GHG emissions of 55 billion tons
(Bt) CO2 eq. India’s contribution is only 5%. Agriculture
contributes globally 11-12% of the total GHGs emission
out of which the share of Indian agriculture is about 1%.
Energy sector in India contributes the highest amount
GHGs (65%) followed by agriculture (18%) and industry
(16%). Indian agricultural sector, including crop and
animal husbandry, emits about 420 Mt of CO2 eq. Enteric
fermentation i.e., emission from ruminant animals
contributes the highest (56%) amount of the emission
from this sector, followed by agricultural soil (23%) and
rice fields (18%). Burning of crop residues in field and
livestock manure management contribute 2% and 1% of
the emission, respectively. Since 1970, the GHG emission
from Indian agriculture has increased by about 80%. The
increased use of fertilizers and other agri-inputs are
major drivers for this increase in emission.
GHG emissions are expected to continue to increase due
to higher demand for food as population grows. As
societies in developing countries become wealthier there
is shift in diet and meat consumption increases. By 2030,
GHG emissions from agriculture are expected to be almost
60% higher than in 1990. The largest increase will be in
N2O emissions from soils (75%), as fertilizer use rises
rapidly. Emission of CH4 from other agricultural sources
(predominantly biomass burning) will also grow greatly
(70%), but these emissions will still account for only 5%
of the total agricultural emissions. Emissions from
manure management will still be significant and may
become greater on the order of 31% for N2O and 47% for
CH4 from this source.
If demands for food increase, and diets shift as projected,
then annual emissions of GHGs from agriculture may
escalate further. But improved management practices and
emerging technologies may permit a reduction in
emissions per unit of food (or protein) produced, and
perhaps also a reduction in emissions per capita food
consumption. The projected trends of GHGs emission (Mt.
CO2equivalent) from Indian agriculture have indicated
that under the business-as-usual scenario, the emission
will increase by 17% by 2030 compared to that in 2010.
The key challenge to limiting GHG emissions from
agriculture is to expand efficiency of external inputs i.e.,
energy, irrigation water, fertilizer, and pesticides used for
production and reducing the loss of produce. Mitigation
strategies that reduce GHG intensity from agriculture, by
changing production practices without hampering yields
and by shifting demand to lower-GHG intensive products
can result from broadly three types of interventions:
(i) Efficient Supply chain management: Reducing
emissions intensity along entire agricultural supply chain,
including avoided land use change. (ii) Sustainable
agricultural production: Reducing wastage of food or
shifting away from high-carbon intensity agricultural
products such as livestock production and (iii)
Sequestering carbon in agricultural systems.
Agriculture offers opportunities for mitigation from
supply-side (management of land and livestock) and
demand-side (C sequestration). Agriculture can mitigate
GHGs cost-effectively through the adoption of changes in
agricultural technologies and management practices
through (i) crop management: improved variety, rotation,
diversification; (ii) nutrient management: type of fertilizer,
(iii) tillage/residue management: reduced tillage, residue
retention; (iv) water management: improved water
application, drainage; (v) land use changes: agroforestry,
bio-energy crops and (vi) improved livestock
management:low nitrogen feed, nitrate as feed additive,
vaccination against methanogenic bacteria in the rumen,
specific breeding programs to increase milk yields of dairy
cows and ruminant feed efficiency and anaerobic digestion
of animal dung for biogas at farm scale.
(T Mohapatra)
Dr T Mohapatra, Secretary (DARE) and Director General (ICAR)
... An important component of the human diet, many insect species have been identified as food and feed [2]. Insects can play role as recyclers of biowastes [3]. One of the most consequential application of insects is biological pest management agents; insect predators are known to be more potent than many chemicals in controlling economically damaging insects [1]. ...
... Can reduce the organic waste biomass to tune of 50-95%. BSF is neither a pest nor a vector (detritivorous) and does not cause any harm [3]. ...
... It was opined long back that it could serve as a partial replacement for soybean meal (Newton et al. 2005). The larvae of BSF feeds voraciously on decaying organic wastes and were reported to reduce the waste biomass to the tune of 50-95% in a shorter time period (Yandigeri et al. 2019 Oluokun (2000) tested BSF larvae as an alternative protein source to soybean meal with positive results in terms of productive performance. In the study by Elwert et al. (2010), body weight of chicken (Ross 308) fed with diets containing 4.7% to 6.6% BSF larvae was comparable to control chicken fed with 3% fish meal. ...
An experiment was conducted to explore the suitability of black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) prepupae as poultry feed. Ninety day old, unsexed, Cobb chicks were distributed into 2 treatment groups, with 5 replicates, having 9 birds in each replicate, in a completely randomized design. The two dietary treatments consisted of corn-soy control diet and 5% supplemented insect meal-based diet. Results indicated similar (P > 0.05) body weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion ratio in chicks fed either insect meal or control diet during the experimental period. There was also no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the crude protein digestibility, cellular immunity as well as the length or weight of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum between the treatments. It could be concluded that the black soldier fly prepupae meal can be incorporated at 5% in broiler diet. Thus, BSF can play a significant role in converting waste into feed and add to the feed basket in future.
Full-text available
One of the most common forms of pollution is solid wastes which are unwanted and discarded solid materials that come from a variety of sources such as schools, households, industries, agricultural activities, medical facilities, etc. Proper management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environment and human health and supports economic development and improves the quality of life. Solid waste management remains a major challenge in the Philippines especially in urban areas like Metro Manila. Unless these are addressed, the wastes generated from various sources will continually lead to health hazards and serious environmental impacts such as ground and surface water contamination, flooding, air pollution, and spread of diseases. This paper examines and presents a detailed review of solid waste management and sustainable solution with the help of decomposers and detritivores as means to lessen or manage organic solid waste and if they can be adopted in the Philippines. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method was used to analyze the gathered articles utilized for this review paper. The articles chosen for this paper features detritivores like vermi worms and black soldier fly maggots that consume organic materials by breaking them down into something usable by plants and decomposers such as microorganisms and fungi that consumes nutrients on a molecular level. By developing an understanding of vermi worms, black soldier fly maggots, microorganisms such as fungi and bacterial communities and their response to the natural environment and pollutants, expanding the knowledge of the genetics of these organisms in order to increase capabilities to degrade pollutants, conducting field trials on bioremediation techniques that are cost-effective, and dedicating sites which are set aside for long term research purpose, these opportunities offer the potential for significant advances for managing solid wastes. This review may provide further directions of investigations including culture techniques for community-scale applications of detritivores and decomposers in solid waste management.
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