Chapter

Sport, Wohlbefinden und psychische Gesundheit

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Die empirische Evidenz für positive Zusammenhänge zwischen Sport, Wohlbefinden und psychischer Gesundheit hat sich in den letzten Jahren zwar verbessert, dennoch sind pauschale Aussagen, die sportlichen Aktivitäten bedingungslos eine positive Wirkung auf Wohlbefinden und psychische Gesundheit zuschreiben, mit Vorsicht zu genießen. Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich zunächst damit, was unter psychischer Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden genau zu verstehen ist und wie sie in ein ganzheitliches, biopsychosoziales Gesundheitsmodell eingebettet sind. Diese Grundlagen verschaffen die Möglichkeit für einen differenzierten Forschungsüberblick auf die Wirkungen von Sport auf Wohlbefinden und psychische Gesundheit. Darauf aufbauend werden theoretische Ansätze vorgestellt, mit denen die empirischen Zusammenhänge erklärt werden. Sie bilden die Grundlage, um Ansatzpunkte für eine gezielte Förderung von Wohlbefinden und psychischer Gesundheit durch sportliche Aktivität zu identifizieren.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... der Ablenkung von einem aversiven Reiz, beispielsweise eines aufdrängenden und wiederkehrenden negativen Gedankenganges. Körperliche Aktivität vermag diese Stressoren oder Sorgen zu durchbrechen und wirkt somit auf die unmittelbare Befindlichkeit; dieses Modell lässt sich über die darin beschriebenen Erklärungsmechanismen neurophysiologisch direkt mit der transienten Hypofrontalitätshypothese verbinden (Sudeck & Thiel, 2020). ...
Article
Physical activity (PA) is an essential component of physical and mental health and should be considered in any psychological- behavioral intervention. In modern, western urban environments, a sufficient amount of PA is often a challenge. Particularly in psychologically stressed life situations, for people with mental disorders and in the case of lifestyleassociated somatic illnesses, there is already a well-founded evidence base for the meaningful use of PA-interventions to reduce anxiety and depressiveness and to increase quality of life. The field of exercise psychology develops and evaluates addressee-appropriate intervention modules for a wide range of disorders on the basis of common health-behavior-theories and promotes education for optimal integration into practice. Sports and exercise psychology has positioned itself as an applied, PA-oriented health science and, in addition to interventions in elite sports, which mostly also serve to maintain or restore health and performance, makes significant contributions in the area of prevention and intervention.
... Hinsichtlich der physiologischen Wirkmechanismen werden zahlreiche, theoretisch gut begründete, jedoch teilweise nur auf Tierversuchen basierende Hypothesen (z. B. Monoaminmangel-Hypothese, Katecholamin-Hypothese) diskutiert [26]. Auswirkungen haben diese z. ...
Article
Sports psychiatry and psychotherapy is a relatively young field and is comprised of two key segments: the special features of the diagnostics and therapy of mental disorders in elite athletes and the use of exercise and sports in the development and treatment of mental disorders. Although all mental disorders can in principle also occur in (elite) athletes, there are additionally sport-specific mental disorders, such as anorexia athletica and other eating disorders, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, misuse of and dependency on performance-enhancing substances (doping) and muscle dysmorphia. Many high-quality clinical trials over the past two decades have been able to demonstrate a therapeutic efficacy of physical activity and sport in the treatment of various mental disorders. All clinicians active in psychiatry and psychotherapy should possess a basic knowledge of sports psychiatry.
... Bei gesunden Probanden weist körperliche Aktivität diverse positive Effekte auf die psychische Gesundheit auf, beispielsweise auf den Schlaf, die Stressverarbeitung, die Lebensqualität oder den positiven Affekt (für eine aktuelle Übersicht siehe [4]). In den vergangenen 10 Jahren wurde zudem eine Vielzahl neuer Studien zur Wirksamkeit körperlicher Aktivität bei psychischen Erkrankungen veröffentlicht, die in diesem Artikel ausführlich dargestellt werden (für einen generellen Überblick siehe [5]). ...
... B. zeitlicher Umfang und zeitliche Dichte von Befragungen, Befragungszeitpunkte vor, während oder nach Aktivitäten, ggf. Belastungsintensität während der Befragung; Ekkekakis et al., 2008;Sudeck & Thiel, 2019). ...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Affektive Reaktionen während körperlicher Aktivität haben in den letzten Jahren vermehrtes Forschungsinteresse erfahren. In englischsprachigen Forschungsarbeiten werden vielfach die zwei Single-Item-Verfahren „Feeling Scale“ ( Hardy & Rejeski, 1989 ) und „Felt Arousal Scale“ ( Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ) zur Erhebung angewendet. Für den deutschsprachigen Raum liegen bisher keine validierten Übersetzungen dieser Verfahren vor. Daher wurden 82 Personen bei einer Fahrradergometrie deutsche Übersetzungen der FS und FAS vorgelegt. Zur Prüfung der Validität wurde parallel das „Self-Assessment Manikin“-Verfahren ( Bradley & Lang, 1994 ) eingesetzt und individuelle Variationen auf Between- und Within-Person Ebene analysiert. Die Korrelationen zwischen FS und SAM Dimension Valenz ( r = .72 bis .73) sowie zwischen FAS und SAM Dimension Aktivierung ( r = .50 bis .62) waren mit den englischsprachigen Validierungsstudien vergleichbar. Auf Basis dieses Beitrags können die Möglichkeiten für die Erhebung von affektiven Reaktionen im deutschen Sprachraum erweitert werden, wobei Validierungen in weiteren Personengruppen empfehlenswert sind.
Chapter
Die positiven gesundheitlichen Wirkungen von Bewegung und körperlich-sportlicher Aktivität sind mittlerweile großen Teilen der Bevölkerung bewusst und wissenschaftlich gut belegt. Insgesamt gibt es eine starke empirische Evidenz, dass regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität zu einer erheblichen Senkung vorzeitiger Mortalität führt sowie wesentlich zur Prävention vieler Risikofaktoren und nicht-übertragbarer Erkrankungen beiträgt. Zudem stärken Bewegung und körperlich-sportliche Aktivität über die gesamte Lebensspanne wichtige physische und psychosoziale Gesundheitsressourcen und fördern somit in umfassender Weise Fitness, Wohlbefinden und Lebensqualität. Diese positiven gesundheitlichen Wirkungen treten jedoch nicht „automatisch“, sondern nur unter bestimmten Bedingungen ihrer Durchführung ein. Große Bedeutung kommt dabei insbesondere der Art und Dosis (Intensität, Dauer und Frequenz) der Aktivität zu. Die „Nationalen Empfehlungen für Bewegung und Bewegungsförderung“ postulieren diesbezüglich insbesondere die Durchführung von ausdauerorientierter Bewegung mit moderater und/oder höherer Intensität sowie von muskelkräftigenden Übungen. Zur Förderung des Bewegungsverhaltens in der Bevölkerung und systematische(re)n Nutzung des großen gesundheitsförderlichen Potenzials von Bewegung und körperlich-sportlicher Aktivität werden verschiedene Ansätze und Strategien verfolgt. Besonders verbreitet sind Maßnahmen nach dem „HEPA-Konzept“ (Health Enhancing Physical Activity) und dem Konzept von „Gesundheitssport“. Entsprechende Interventionen sind dabei nicht nur zentrale Elemente einer Förderung der individuellen und Öffentlichen Gesundheit, sondern zudem auch von ökonomischem Nutzen.
Chapter
Körperliche Aktivität ist gleichzeitig Bestandteil und Ziel der medizinischen Rehabilitation. Als therapeutische Leistung geht es in der Sport- und Bewegungstherapie sowie der Physiotherapie zunächst (proximal) um den Erhalt bzw. die Verbesserung von Körperfunktion und -strukturen sowie um bewegungsbezogen relevante Aktivitäten. Entsprechende Verbesserungen bleiben nur dann aufrechterhalten, wenn auch das (distale) Ziel einer Bindung an einen körperlich aktiveren Lebensstil erreicht wird. In der medizinischen Rehabilitation steht deshalb die Entwicklung von Kompetenzen für die Aufrechterhaltung körperlicher Aktivität und die Bewältigung der Gesundheitsstörung mit den Mitteln körperlich-sportlicher Aktivitäten im Zentrum, um damit zur gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe von Rehabilitandinnen und Rehabilitanden beizutragen.
Chapter
Full-text available
- Körperlich-sportliche Aktivität und Inaktivität: Chancen und Risiken für die Gesundheit - Effekte körperlich-sportlicher Aktivität auf ausgewählte Gesundheitsparameter - Ansätze zur Erklärung von psychologischen Effekten körperlich-sportlicher Aktivität als Gesundheitsverhaltensweise - Körperlich-sportliche Aktivität als Element der Gesundheitsförderung
Article
Full-text available
Full text available at Obesity Facts: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/487889 Objective: There is a need for more experimental research on weight stigma and physical activity, specifically among men with obesity. Yet, validated procedures are required. The goal of this study was i) to develop a 10-min video instrument for the experimental induction of physical activity-related weight stigma (including a neutral control video), and ii) to collect information with regards to its content, face, construct, and criterion validity. Methods: To ensure content and face validity, two experts gave repeated feedback on the video development. In addition, two novices reviewed the video. Subsequently, we conducted a separate experiment: 60 adult men (18-52 years, 31 with overweight, 29 with normal weight) were randomly assigned to one of the two video conditions, stratified by BMI. Results: After the treatment, the stigma group showed higher scores of negative affect and attitudes against obesity (convergent validity). As expected, there were no differences in measures of depression and general stress (discriminant validity). The BMI of the participants in the stigma group correlated positively with some indicators of negative affect (criterion validity). Conclusion: Our study provides preliminary evidence for the validity of the video tool. Therefore, it can be used in future trials to investigate the effects of weight stigma on physical activity behavior.
Article
Full-text available
When humans are physically active for an extended period of time, they regulate their physical performance in order to achieve the intended goal of that activity with an individually adequate effort. This permanent conscious or subconscious proportioning of energetic reserves towards an endpoint is termed as “pacing”. While pacing has primarily attracted notice in endurance sports competition, it also plays a vital role in other contexts of physical activity, such as locomotion or transport, work, leisure, and prevention and rehabilitation. The current paper outlines some of the fundamentals of pacing and aims to stimulate a debate by highlighting the potential and limitations of a stronger consideration of pacing in exercise therapy and health sports from a biomedical and psychosocial perspective. Endurance training that focuses on the learning of pacing and the perception of exertion may improve the control competence as one component of physical-activity-related health competence. In terms of client orientation, this would strengthen participants’ autonomy in exercise configuration, and it might positively influence well-being, self-responsibility, compliance, and long-term training effects. In fact, professional societies see scope for defined target groups in cardiac prevention and rehabilitation to self-regulate their training intensity based on perceived exertion. However, the training effects and the risks of self-regulation have yet to be investigated more carefully in subjects who are not experienced with exercise. Further research is also needed on the mechanisms of perception of physiological strain and effort, as well as on approaches for optimal support of the learning of pacing to achieve control competence.
Article
Full-text available
Context: The mental health benefits of physical activity are well established. However, less is known about whether the relationship between physical activity and mental health is consistent across different life domains. It is important to understand how context may influence the relationship between physical activity and mental health so that interventions and policy guidelines can be tailored to maximize positive effects. Evidence acquisition: In 2015, systematic searches of four databases identified 13,435 records, of which 98 studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence synthesis: Included studies were published between 1988 and 2015 and had a combined sample size of 648,726. Of the 98 included studies, 93 examined leisure-time physical activity, 14 examined work-related physical activity, 15 examined transport physical activity, 16 examined household physical activity, three examined school sport, and three examined physical education. Multi-level meta-analyses showed that leisure-time physical activity (r =0.13) and transport physical activity (r =0.13) both had a positive association with mental health. Leisure-time physical activity (r = -0.11) and school sport (r = -0.09) both had an inverse association with mental ill-health. However, physical activity was not consistently associated with lower mental ill-health across domains, as work-related physical activity was positively associated with mental ill-health (r =0.09). Household physical activity and participation in physical education had no relationship with mental health or mental ill-health. Conclusions: The domain in which physical activity occurs influences the relationship between physical activity and mental health and should, therefore, be considered when developing interventions, treatment programs, and policy guidelines.
Article
Full-text available
The low rates of regular exercise and overall physical activity (PA) in the general population represent a significant public health challenge. Previous research suggests that, for many people, exercise leads to a negative affective response and, in turn, reduced likelihood of future exercise. The purpose of this paper is to examine this exercise–affect–adherence relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Specifically, we argue that low rates of physical exercise in the general population are a function of the evolved human tendency to avoid unnecessary physical exertion. This innate tendency evolved because it allowed our evolutionary ancestors to conserve energy for physical activities that had immediate adaptive utility such as pursuing prey, escaping predators, and engaging in social and reproductive behaviors. The commonly observed negative affective response to exercise is an evolved proximate psychological mechanism through which humans avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. The fact that the human tendencies toward negative affective response to and avoidance of unnecessary physical activities are innate does not mean that they are unchangeable. Indeed, it is only because of human-engineered changes in our environmental conditions (i.e., it is no longer necessary for us to work for our food) that our predisposition to avoid unnecessary physical exertion has become a liability. Thus, it is well within our capabilities to reengineer our environments to once again make PA necessary or, at least, to serve an immediate functional purpose. We propose a two-pronged approach to PA promotion based on this evolutionary functional perspective: first, to promote exercise and other physical activities that are perceived to have an immediate purpose, and second, to instill greater perceived purpose for a wider range of physical activities. We posit that these strategies are more likely to result in more positive (or less negative) affective responses to exercise, better adherence to exercise programs, and higher rates of overall PA.
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical inactivity is one of the biggest health problems nowadays. Recent research shows that socio-cultural barriers to physical activity are mostly related to modern lifestyles. However, there is a lack of research on how social and group dynamics influence engagement in physical activity. Furthermore, there are few cross-cultural studies that have compared the social dynamics of (in)activity in different cultural settings. This paper therefore aims to analyse how social group dynamics influence physical activity and inactivity in informal social environments and whether physical activity is influenced by the socio-cultural settings. Methods The paper presents the qualitative data collected within a covert participant observation study. Data was collected by keeping observational notes in order to record typical, regular patterns regarding physical (in)activity related behaviour of groups at an artificial open air swimming pool in Germany and a natural pond in Hawai’i. The data collection period was eight and a half months. Data was interpreted based on constant comparative analysis in order to identify most generative patterns in the field notes. Results Group structures appear to play a significant role regarding the activity of the group members. In this study, we identified four key factors that influence group based physical activity: 1) Physical activity seems to be a group disturbing behaviour particularly in larger groups of adults; 2) Physical activity appears to be more functional and less joyful in adults than in children; 3) Group activity is influenced by (in)activity anchors, including ‘domestication’ of a group’s site, obesity, and controlling parents. 4) Physical activity is to a certain extent socially contagious, particularly with regard to playful activities. Conclusions Successful promotion of physical activity should target the social structures of inactive individuals’ groups. In this regard, one of the main problems is that fun and wellbeing, as very important targets of public health strategies for the adult population, appear not to be compatible with physical activity. Developing strategies to reframe physical activity rather as ‘fun’ and less as functional may be one way to engage inactive individuals in physical activity in leisure settings.
Article
Full-text available
Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings in non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search yielded 14 eligible studies for review. Six studies tested the relationship between affective states and subsequent physical activity; findings from these studies suggest that positive affective states were positively associated with physical activity over the next few hours while negative affective states had no significant association. Twelve studies tested affective states after physical activity and yielded consistent evidence for physical activity predicting higher positive affect over the next few hours. Further, there was some evidence that physical activity was followed by a higher level of energetic feelings in the next few hours. The evidence for physical activity reducing negative affect in the next few hours was inconsistent and inconclusive. Future research in this area should consider recruiting more representative study participants, utilizing higher methodological standards for assessment (i.e., electronic devices combined with accelerometry), reporting patterns of missing data, and investigating pertinent moderators and mediators (e.g., social and physical context, intensity, psychological variables). Knowledge gained from this topic could offer valuable insights for promoting daily physical activity adoption and maintenance in non-clinical populations.
Article
Full-text available
Objective Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image. Methods The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy. Results The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated. Conclusions The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional conceptions of the exercise-affect relationship postulate that moderate-intensity exercise leads to positive affective changes in all or most individuals, and it can, therefore, be prescribed for all individuals involved in exercise programs. This study investigated whether this assumption is true, not only at the level of group averages but also at the level of individuals. Affect was assessed before, during, and after a session of moderate-intensity cycle ergometry using a dimensional conceptualization of affect. Examination of individual responses revealed a diversity of patterns that was masked by aggregate-based analyses. Mean rarings of affective valence were shown to remain stable during exercise, but in actuality almost half of the individuals experienced progressive improvement, whereas the other half experienced progressive deterioration. The diversity of individual affective responses must be taken into account in formulating conceptual models of the exercise-affect relationship and deriving public health physical activity recommendations.
Article
Full-text available
Accelerometry for measuring physical activity. Recommendations on methods Abstract Accelerometry is an internationally well-established procedure for the objective measurement of habitual physical activity in large samples under free-living conditions and shows good psychometric properties. Accelerometers register the intensity and duration of single or multiaxial body acceleration. The duration of light, moderate and vigorous physical activity as well as sedentary time is calculated based on cutpoint models and energy expenditure is estimated by linear regression models. Nevertheless, the comparability of results between studies remains limited due to the use of different devices, protocols, calibration procedures and presentation of results. The recommendations, perspectives and limitations of accelerometer use described here have been collated and agreed by all members of the consensus group. Currently, there is no evidence for recommending a specific accelerometer model as model selection depends on the study question, target groups and study design. To obtain objective information on habitual physical activity behavior, a minimum wear time of 7 consecutive days with a minimum of 10 h/ day including one weekend day is recommended. To avoid bias the selected epoch length should be as short as possible or raw data should be recorded. For adults, the cutpoint model of Freedson et al. (1998) for estimating different activity categories is well accepted. Methodological limitations include the recognition of activities with limited body acceleration, such as bicycling or weight training and the estimation of energy expenditure using only linear regression models. Keywords Accelerometry · Measuring · Standardization · Consensus statement · Physical activity
Article
Full-text available
Als Fazit lässt sich somit aus unseren Ergebnissen festhalten, daß der postulierte Äquilibrationseffekt nach Ausdauersport und der Disäquilibrationseffekt nach Sportspielen vom Wettkampfkontext (mit) abhängt, ein Aspekt, der auch von ABELE/BREHM (1993) nicht grundsätzlich bestritten wird. In unserer Untersuchung zeigten sich die postulierten Effekte besonders eindeutig, wenn Ausdauersport in einem wettkampffreien und Spielsportarten in einem wettkampfbetonten Kontext betrieben wurden. Da in Spielsportarten der Wettkampfgedanke immament ist, war in unserer Untersuchung besonders interessant, dass Langstreckenläufer, die an einem Wettkampflauf (auf Landesebene) teilnahmen, ähnliche Befindlichkeitsveränderungen wie Fußball- und Tennisspieler zeigten und ebenfalls Anzeichen von ergebnisabhängigen Emotionen. Umgekehrt zeigten sich im Fußball und Tennis im wettkampffernen Kontext keine so eindeutigen Parallelen zum Ausdauersport. Allerdings findet sich auch kein Disäquilibrationseffekt. Darüberhinaus deuten sich unterschiedliche emotionale Reaktionen von Fußball- und Tennisspielern an.
Article
Full-text available
The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and facilitate physical activity. It also addresses the additional physiological and mental health benefits that appear to occur when exercise is performed in an outdoor environment. However, people's connectedness to nature appears to be changing and this has important implications as to how humans are now interacting with nature. Barriers exist, and it is important that these are considered when discussing how to make exercise in the outdoors accessible and beneficial for all. The synergistic combination of exercise and exposure to nature and thus the 'great outdoors' could be used as a powerful tool to help fight the growing incidence of both physical inactivity and non-communicable disease.
Article
Full-text available
The affective changes associated with acute exercise have been studied extensively in exercise and health psychology, but not in affective psychology. This paper presents a summary of the relevant findings and a tentative theoretical model. According to this model, affective responses to exercise are jointly influenced by cognitive factors, such as physical self-efficacy, and interoceptive (e.g., muscular or respiratory) cues that reach the affective centres of the brain via subcortical routes. Furthermore, the balance between these two determinants is hypothesised to shift as a function of exercise intensity, with cognitive factors being dominant at low intensities and interoceptive cues gaining salience as intensity approaches the individual's functional limits and the maintenance of a physiological steady-state becomes impossible.
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Überlegungen ist das Paradox des subjektiven Wohlbefindens, das darin besteht, daß viele Menschen sich auch unter widrigen Umständen wohlfühlen. Der empirische Mittelwert des Wohlbefindens scheint zudem im moderat positiven Bereich zu liegen. Es wird gezeigt, daß dieses Paradox des subjektiven Wohlbefindens nicht nur ein Methodenartefakt ist. Subjektives Wohlbefinden läßt sich mit relativer Reliabilität und prädiktiver Validität messen. Das Paradox läßt sich auch nicht durch ungenaue Messung der Risikoindikatoren aufklären, wenn auch abmildern. Ebenso tragen bereichsspezifische, dimensionale und längsschnittliche Erfassung des Wohlbefindens einiges zur Aufläsung des Paradox bei. Zentral sind für die Wohlbefindensregulation jedoch Merkmale und Mechanismen von Selbst und Persänlichkeit, wie Vergleichsprozesse, Anspruchsniveauveränderungen, Zielanpassungen, Bewältigungsformen und aber auch die Struktur der Selbstdefinition und trait-ähnliche Persänlichkeitscharakteristiken. Aspekte biologischer und kultureller Evolution scheinen dazu beigetragen zu haben, daß der empirische Mittelwert des subjektiven Wohlbefindens im positiven Bereich liegt, aber auch daß der Wohlbefindensregulation Grenzen gesetzt sind. Schließlich wird ein übergreifendes Entwicklungsmodell, das der selektiven Optimierung mit Kompensation, als integrativer Denkrahmen angeboten.
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown repeatedly that the “feeling better” effect of exercise is far more moderate than generally claimed. Examinations of subgroups in secondary analyses also indicate that numerous further variables influence this relationship. One reason for inconsistencies in this research field is the lack of adequate theoretical analyses. Well-being output variables frequently possess no construct definition, and little attention is paid to moderating and mediating variables. This article integrates the main models in an overview and analyzes how secondary analyses define well-being and which areas of the construct they focus on. It then applies a moderator and/or mediator framework to examine which person and environmental variables can be found in the existing explanatory approaches in sport science and how they specify the influence of these moderating and mediating variables. Results show that the broad understanding of well-being in many secondary analyses makes findings difficult to interpret. Moreover, physiological explanatory approaches focus more on affective changes in well-being, whereas psychological approaches also include cognitive changes. The approaches focus mostly on either physical or psychological person variables and rarely combine the two, as in, for example, the dual-mode model. Whereas environmental variables specifying the treatment more closely (e.g., its intensity) are comparatively frequent, only the social support model formulates variables such as the framework in which exercise is presented. The majority of explanatory approaches use simple moderator and/or mediator models such as the basic mediated (e.g., distraction hypothesis) or multiple mediated (e.g., monoamine hypotheses) model. The discussion draws conclusions for future research.
Article
Full-text available
Several meta-analyses have investigated the association between physical activity and affective states and have found evidence suggesting that exercise exerts a positive effect on affective state. However, in this field of research, most studies have conducted between-subject analyses. Nonetheless, there is more and more interest in the within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. This position statement pertains to this up-and-coming field of research and provides methodological recommendations for further studies. The paper is divided into three parts: First, we summarise and evaluate three methodological requirements necessary for the proper evaluation of within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. We propose that the following issues should be considered: a) to address the dynamic nature of such relationships, repeated assessments are necessary; b) as activities performed in everyday life are mostly spontaneous and unconscious, an objective assessment of physical activity is useful; c) given that recall of affective states is often affected by systematic distortions, real-time assessment is preferable. In sum, we suggest the use of ambulatory assessment techniques, and more specifically the combination of acceloremeter-assessment of physical activity with an electronic diary assessment of the momentary affective state and additional context information. Second, we summarise 22 empirical studies published between 1980 and 2012 using ambulatory assessment to investigate within-subject associations between momentary affective states and physical activity in everyday life. Generally, the literature overview detects a positive association, which appears stronger among those studies that were of high methodological quality. Third, we propose the use of ambulatory assessment intervention strategies to change people's behaviour (ambulatory assessment int
Article
Full-text available
Feelings are mental experiences of body states. They signify physiological need (for example, hunger), tissue injury (for example, pain), optimal function (for example, well-being), threats to the organism (for example, fear or anger) or specific social interactions (for example, compassion, gratitude or love). Feelings constitute a crucial component of the mechanisms of life regulation, from simple to complex. Their neural substrates can be found at all levels of the nervous system, from individual neurons to subcortical nuclei and cortical regions.
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetics is a burgeoning area of biomedical research into the mechanisms by which genes are regulated—how the activity of producing proteins is run. If genetics is concerned with how genetic variation produces differences in body and behavior, epigenetics concerns how similar genetics can produce different outcomes. Though molecular epigenetic research is highly biochemical in nature, it is of interest to sociologists because some epigenetic changes are environmentally induced and persist, potentially across the life span, or into the next generation. Further, much epigenetic research tracks mechanisms by which social forces—from pollution, to nutrition, to mothering, to traumatic experience—become molecularly embodied, affect gene expression, and induce durable changes in behavior and health. We begin with an introduction to the science of environmental epigenetics focused on articulating the logic of experimentation and explanation in this field. Turning to sociologists’ key interests, we review the ...
Article
Full-text available
HINTERGRUND UND ZIELSETZUNG: Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) wird als Oberbegriff für unterschiedliche Konzepte zur Messung subjektiv empfundener Gesundheitszustände verwendet. Sie sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Patient selbst seine Einschätzung berichtet. Um den Stellenwert von PRO im Kontext von HTA-Verfahren (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) zu beschreiben, wird zunächst eine Übersicht über Konzepte, Klassifikationen und methodische Messansätze erstellt. Diese Übersicht wird ergänzt um eine empirische Analyse von klinischen Studien und HTA-Berichten mit dem Ziel, Art, Häufigkeit und Konsequenzen der verwendeten PRO zu dokumentieren. METHODIK: Beide Fragestellungen werden mithilfe von systematischen Literaturübersichten bearbeitet. Für den methodischen Teil wird in den medizinnahen Datenbanken des Deutschen Instituts für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information (DIMDI) mit einer Recherchestrategie aus drei Modulen im Zeitraum von 1990 bis 2009 gesucht. Die Recherche nach randomisierten klinischen Studien (RCT) zu den Krankheitsbildern rheumatoide Arthritis (RA) und Mammakarzinom erfolgt ebenfalls in den Datenbanken des DIMDI, für den Zeitraum von 2005 bis 2009. Die Recherche nach HTA-Berichten und -Methodenpapieren umfasst die Datenbanken des Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) und Handsuchen. Für alle Fragestellungen werden spezifische Ein- und Ausschlusskriterien zur Literaturselektion definiert. Die methodische Qualität der RCT wird mithilfe eines in Anlehnung an das „Risk of Bias Tool“ der Cochrane Collaboration konzipierten Instruments bewertet. Die Informationsextraktion erfolgt für den methodischen Teil strukturiert durch die Kapitelgliederung, für den empirischen Teil in Extraktionsbögen. Alle Informationen werden qualitativ beschreibend zusammengefasst. ERGEBNISSE: Aus den Recherchen können 158 Dokumente zur Bearbeitung der methodischen Fragestellungen (87 Dokumente zu Definition/Klassifikation; 125 Dokumente zur Operationalisierung) und 225 RCT (77 RA, 148 Mammakarzinom) sowie 40 HTA-Berichte zur Bearbeitung der empirischen Fragestellungen gewonnen werden. Die Analysen zu Definitionen bestätigen PRO als Oberbegriff für eine Vielzahl von patientenberichteten Endpunkten. Das neueste Klassifikationssystem ermöglicht die Beschreibung der PRO nach dem Konstrukt, der Zielpopulation und der Messmethode. Ausführungen zur Operationalisierung beziehen sich auf den Konzeptrahmen, die Instrumentenentwicklung, -eigenschaften und -modifikationsmöglichkeiten. Von 59 Studien zur Antikörpertherapie der RA verwenden sieben ausschließlich PRO, 38 gemischte Zielgrößen (American College of Rheumatology [ACR], Disease Activity Score [DAS]) und zehn rein klinische bzw. radiologische Parameter als primäre Outcomes. Von 123 Studien zur Chemotherapie des Mammakarzinoms stützen sich nur sechs auf PRO als primäre Zielgröße; 98 Studien gebrauchen klinische Parameter (Überlebenszeit, Tumoransprechen, Progression). Abweichungen von der Gesamtzahl resultieren aus ungenauen Angaben der Zielgrößen. Diese Verteilung spiegelt sich auch in den analysierten HTA-Berichten wieder. In den Berichten zur RA werden durchweg PRO-Zielgrößen berichtet, während in den Berichten zum Mammakarzinom dies in knapp der Hälfte der Publikationen der Fall ist. Zusammenhänge zwischen Studienqualität und der Verwendung von PRO sind nicht erkennbar. SCHLUSSFOLGERUNGEN: Für die Definition und die Klassifikation von PRO existieren inzwischen schlüssige Konzepte, deren Umsetzung wissenschaftlichen Kriterien genügen muss. Die Häufigkeit und die Art der in klinischen Studien verwendeten PRO variieren abhängig vom untersuchten Krankheitsbild. Im Kontext von HTA wird die Notwendigkeit zur Erfassung von PRO wahrgenommen, bei fehlenden Daten wird Forschungsbedarf formuliert. BACKGROUND: “Patient-Reported Outcome“ (PRO) is used as an umbrella term for different concepts for measuring subjectively perceived health status e. g. as treatment effects. Their common characteristic is, that the appraisal of the health status is reported by the patient himself. In order to describe the informative value of PRO in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) first an overview of concepts, classifications and methods of measurement is given. The overview is complemented by an empirical analysis of clinical trials and HTA-reports on rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer in order to report on type, frequency and consequences of PRO used in these documents.METHODS: For both issues systematic reviews of the literature have been performed. The search for methodological literature covers the publication period from 1990 to 2009, the search for clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer covers the period 2005 to 2009. Both searches were performed in the medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). The search for HTA-reports and methodological papers of HTA-agencies was performed in the CRD-Databases (CRD = Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) and by handsearching the websites of INAHTA member agencies (INAHTA = International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment). For all issues specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined. The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was assessed by a modified version of the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. For the methodological part information extraction from the literature is structured by the report’s chapters, for the empirical part data extraction sheets were constructed. All information is summarized in a qualitative manner. RESULTS: Concerning the methodological issues the literature search retrieved 158 documents (87 documents related to definition or classification, 125 documents related to operationalisation of PRO). For the empirical analyses 225 RCT (rheumatoid arthritis: 77; breast cancer: 148) and 40 HTA-reports and method papers were found. The analysis of the methodological literature confirms the role of PRO as an umbrella term for a variety of different concepts. The newest classification system facilitates the description of PRO measures by construct, target population and the method of measurement. Steps of operationalisation involve defining a conceptual framework, instrument development, exploration of measurement properties or, possibly, the modification of existing instruments.Seven out of 59 RCT analysing the effects of antibody therapy for rheumatoid arthritis define PRO as the pri-mary endpoint, 38 trials utilize composite measures (ACR, DAS) and ten trials report clinical or radiological parameters as the primary endpoint. Six out of 123 chemotherapy trials for breast cancer define PRO as the primary endpoint, while 98 trials report clinical endpoints (survival, tumour response, progression) in their primary analyses. Discrepancies in the number of trials result from inaccurate specifications of endpoints in the publications. This distribution is reflected in the HTA-reports: while almost all reports on rheumatoid arthritis refer to PRO, this is only the case in about half of the reports on breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: s definition and classification of PRO are concerned, coherent concepts are found in the literature. Their operationalisation and implementation must be guided by scientific principles. The type and frequency of PRO used in clinical trials largely depend on the disease analysed. The HTA-community seems to pursue the utilization of PRO proactively – in case of missing data the need for further research is stated. DISCUSSION: Concerning clinical outcomes as well as cost-effectiveness, there is a lack of high quality studies. Clinical effectiveness and safety as well as cost-effectiveness of bariatric procedures in the short- and medium-term course are agreed on, but long-term evaluations that focus not exclusively on weight loss, but also on comorbidities and patient relevant outcomes such as quality of life, are needed. Also within the economic views are missing long-term evaluation particularly for the German health care system. CONCLUSION: Based upon the available literature the short- and medium-term effectiveness of bariatric procedures on weight loss, comorbidities, e. g. diabetes, and mortality can be assumed and also seems to be cost-effective. No recommendation can be given with respect to the choice of a certain bariatric procedure or to the selection of particular groups of patients.
Article
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine (a) the effects of upper body high-intensity strength training on muscular strength, activities of daily living (ADLs), and subjective well-being within an aging population, and (b) whether changes in strength were related to subsequent changes in subjective well-being and ADLs. The main effects of the training program were significant for all five individual muscle groups examined, indicating that subjects who participated in the strength program had greater increases in muscular strength than did controls. There was limited support for the contention that strength training enhances subjective well-being and ADLs in older adults. Strength gains were related to moderate reductions in negative affect, greater satisfaction with life, and higher ADLs. Findings are discussed in terms of design and measurement improvements, the need to focus research efforts on multiple components of fitness in relation to subjective well-being, and relations among streng...
Article
Health literacy represents an increasingly important subject in health sciences. This article initially illustrates a domain-specific model of physical activity-related health competence. Movement competence, control competence, and PA-specific self-regulation competence are described as sub-competencies. This article further aims to develop and validate a questionnaire for certain aspects of physical activity-related health-competence, especially to record control competencies, which has yet to be operationalized. The questionnaire was tested after a pilot study in two study groups: In Study A, 1,028 persons were interviewed in written form at the beginning of a medical rehabilitation program (female: 44.0%; Mage = 53.8 years; SDage = 9.2 years). In Study B, 1,331 participants in fitness- and health-related programs of the university sports were interviewed via an online questionnaire (female: 83.0%; Mage = 53.8 years; SDage = 9.7 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses show that domain-specific facets can be differentiated for physical activity-related health competence. Further, the results of structural equation modeling analyses provide evidence that control competence is associated not only with the amount of physical activity but also with motor function. These findings support the assumption that physical activity-related health competence contributes to the health benefits of physical activity. The questionnaire developed in this study thus enhances the possibilities of competence-orientated research within sport-scientific applications in the area of exercise therapy and health sports.
Article
Playing hurt is a widespread phenomenon in elite sports that often goes along with using painkillers, disregarding medical guidelines, and hiding pain from coaches, teammates and medical staff. This paper theoretically conceptualizes the phenomenon of playing hurt as a sport-specific sickness presenteeism problem. To empirically analyse the willingness to play hurt, we refer to survey data from 723 elite German athletes, both male and female, in the sports of handball and track and field. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binary logistic regression analysis are applied to reveal the athletes’ cognitive representation of absence legitimacy and to identify athlete groups with varying levels of willingness to compete hurt. Our results show that subtle distinctions are made between different kinds of health problems. In particular, there is a high willingness to compete despite psychosocial complaints. Cluster analysis reveals two clusters: ‘athletes conditionally willing to rest’ and ‘rest-averse and pain-trivializing athletes’. Athletes who perceive more social pressure to compete hurt, who have a higher performance level and who participate in handball, are more likely to be in the group of rest-averse and pain-trivializing athletes. The findings enhance our understanding of presenteeism and absenteeism in a highly competitive work context, and can contribute to the development of more target-group-specific health prevention programmes for athletes.
Book
WHO developed the Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health with the overall aim of providing national and regional level policy makers with guidance on the dose-response relationship between the frequency, duration, intensity, type and total amount of physical activity needed for the prevention of NCDs. The recommendations set out in this document address three age groups: 5-17 years old; 18-64 years old; and 65 years old and above. The section below includes the recommendations for each age group. For further information click below and download the complete document or click on the individual age groups for specific recommendations.
Article
Consistent with hedonic theories of behavior, the affective response to physical activity has been posited as an important determinant of future physical activity; yet, we are unaware of an overview of evidence regarding this relationship. The purpose of this study was to review the published literature regarding whether the affective response to physical activity relates to future physical activity behavior and key motivational constructs. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. A positive change in the basic affective response during moderate intensity exercise was linked to future physical activity, but postexercise affect had a null relationship. Affective responses during and after exercise had a relatively negligible relationship with intention, mixed results for self-efficacy, and a reliable correlation with affective judgments about future physical activity. The findings support the basic premise of hedonic theory. Practical application studies with a focus on sustained behavioral interventions are warranted.
Article
Differences in physical performance and health status as well as the impact of physical activity on these parameters can only partly be explained by the genetic code. Epigenetics play a key role in the understanding of the discrepancy between the human geno- and phenotype. Reversible alterations in the DNA and in histone proteins can activate or silence genes for different time periods, resulting in short term or even generation-overlapping changes. These epigenetic regulations of the DNA and the histones are basically driven by methylation and acetylation. Lifestyle can have a severe influence on these epigenetic modifications and therewith regulate gene activity. Knowledge about concrete epigenetic short- and long term modifications which are influenced by physical activity is still sparse. However, studies show that physical exercise has an impact on the acetylation status of histones, resulting in altered gene activity in muscle and brain tissue. Long-term exercise-induced changes regarding methylation patterns of the DNA can only be assumed. First studies have shown that physical activity may change the DNA methylation of genes which are involved in tumor suppression and chronic inflammation. Further, an exercise-induced demethylation of the BDNF gene, which encodes for a nerval growth factor, could be observed. In the future, several epigenetic modulations which are induced by physical activity can be expected. There with some long-term effects of physical activity might be better understood. These findings may help define and control exercise programs more precisely and efficiently in the future.
Article
Meta-analyses document acute positive effects of exercise on affective wellbeing. But, the generalization of these effects is limited due to the increasingly observed high inter-individual variability as well as the lack of consideration for processes during exercise activities. This article focuses on the extent of inter-individual variability of affective responses in the course of group-based leisure time and health-oriented exercise programs. Moreover, it addresses the impact that personal preconditions (fitness level, affective wellbeing) and subjective experiences of exercise (perceived exertion, perceived competence, and positive group experiences) have. It is of special interest to what extent affective responses are influenced by varying factors depending on the time within the progress of an exercise session as well as the exercise intensity. Therefore 110 university staff members (M = 49.5 years) were repeatedly questioned in the context of different exercise programs. At a total of six timepoints, handheld PC surveys were conducted before, twice during, and after the session to gather changes in affect and possible influencing factors. The results show that the variability of affective responses is greatest during the first part of a single exercise session, whereas the responses are generally more positive and uniform at the end. Personal preconditions are important influencing factors during the first part of an exercise session. In contrast, the perceived competence and positive group experiences gain in importance over the course of an exercise session. In accordance with the dual mode theory the perceived competence has a greater influence on affect in the high intensity exercise compared to the moderate intensity exercise.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Mit diesem Beitrag wird, ausgehend von einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit den Unzulanglichkeiten traditioneller psychologischer Grundauffassungen und Schulen, ein integratives theoretisches Rahmenkonzept fur sportpsychologische Forschung und Praxis vorgestellt. Das Kernstuck bildet dabei die Handlung als intentionale Verhaltensorganisation im situativen Kontext. Demgemas sind alle psychischen Zustande und Prozesse in ihrem funktionalen Bezug zum Handeln zu betrachten. Die Grundannahmen der handlungstheoretischen Perspektive werden erlautert, insbesondere das System-, Situations- und Intentionspostulat. Abschliesend wird auf die Funktionsstruktur von Handlungen mit Bezug auf Handlungsphasen (Antizipation, Realisation und Interpretation) sowie handlungsregulierende Systeme (Automatisches, Emotionales und Kognitives Regulationssystem) naher eingegangen. Damit werden allgemeine theoretische Koordinaten fur spezifische psychologische Theorien, fur die Entwicklung von Forschungsstrategien ...