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Analysis of Post-Consumer Solid Textile Waste Management among Households in Oyo State of Nigeria

Journal of Environmental Protection, 2019, 10, 1419-1435
ISSN Online: 2152-2219
ISSN Print: 2152-2197
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 Nov. 4, 2019 1419 Journal of Environmental Protection
Analysis of Post-Consumer Solid Textile Waste
Management among Households in Oyo State of
K. O. Ajila
Department of Family, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
This research work viewed issues relating to post-
consumers’ solid textile
waste management among households from a sociological perspective. The
study was carried out in Oyo state of Nigeria. It specifically identified sources
of post-consumer solid textiles waste, assessed waste
management practices in
the study area and, examined knowledge of respondent’s on impact
post-consumers solid textile waste on the environment. Eight Local Govern-
ment Areas were randomly selected from the state and, multistage
sampling procedure
was applied in selecting 880 households for the study.
Solid wastes generated by each of this household
were collected twice a week.
Sensitive and micro-
census calibrated scale machine and weighing balance
was employed in taking weight of the sorted textile wastes. Calibrated cylind-
er of radius 10 cm and height 40 cm was used in taking volume of the shred-
ded waste. Mean value of post-
consumer solid textile waste generated by
individual was 0.11 kg ± 0.08, of volume 354 cm3
per day. Major identified
waste d
isposal systems practiced by the respondents were open land surface
dumping and open air burning. The respondents (100%) strongly agreed that,
wastes are often discards indiscriminately in the street by individuals. Level
awareness on danger created by poor waste disposal system
among 78% of
the respondents was low. None of the respondents
have training on waste
management neither is there any accessible training center in the studied
area. Part of procedures to solve environmental problems can be by
levels of awareness of individual household’s, markets and institutional sec-
tors on danger posed by poor handling of textile wastes to life and the envi-
and be trained on waste management techniques. A functional and
practically ideal waste management scheme should be established by the var-
ious organs of government mostly at the Local Government Area levels,
some investors could also be encouraged in instituting such schemes. Re-
How to cite this paper:
Ajila, K.O. (2019
Analysis of Post
Consumer Solid Textile
Waste Management among Households in
Oyo State of Nigeria
Journal of Enviro
mental Protection
, 1419-1435.
August 8, 2019
November 1, 2019
November 4, 2019
Copyright © 201
9 by author(s) and
Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International
License (CC BY
Open Access
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1420 Journal of Environmental Protection
search institutes in the country should develop appropriate technologies and
trainings on waste management. Apart from salvaging the environment,
schemes will also provide job to cushion poverty mitigation in Nigeria.
Post-Consumers, Household, Textile, Waste, Management
1. Introduction
Textile is a general term used for fiber, yarn and fabrics or any product made of
these three materials. It is used for broad specification of purposes so much be
that life is not likely to be sustained in its absence. Textiles are used in the pro-
duction and processing of many items used in day to day living such as food,
and manufacturing goods. No individual is independent of textile from cradle to
earth, even the death and mad man in the street. Either synthetics or man-made,
textile humanized the environment more than any other object [1]. Globally,
textiles represent the second largest industrial sector that creates employment
for people [2]. Apart from job provision, the industries feed several other manu-
facturing industries in producing materials for human and non-human con-
sumptions. The industry is multiphase and has developed tremendously with
discoveries of sophisticated technologies for its vast operations. Textile produc-
tion passes through several mechanisms stages and each stage requires peculiar
technologies with the use of large amounts of chemicals, heavy machines, water,
and heat. Outside textile production mechanisms that generate a huge amount
of waste (pre-textile waste), enormous quantities of waste are also generated
with its use and discards (post-textile waste) [3]. Post-consumer solid textile
wastes are generated from any solid textile articles that the owner no longer
needs and decides to discard. In the context of the study, solid textile articles
consist of solid materials used in food processes and packaging, clothing and fa-
shion accessories, soft home furnishing materials such as paper, plastic, rubber,
fabric, and leather products.
Vital sustainability issues facing Nigeria in the past three decades is the quan-
tity of waste being generated, and sent to landfill every day at a great cost to the
environment. [3] estimated the average waste generated by an individual per day
in Nigeria as 0.69 kg. [4] had earlier specified that 25 million tonnes of munici-
pal solid wastes is generated annually in Nigeria and the density of these wastes
ranged from 250 kg/m3 to 370 kg/m3. As in 2019, the quantity of solid waste ge-
nerates per annum assumed 32 million tons, out of which only 20% - 30% is col-
lected [5]. For instance, Oyo State where this study was conducted, is one of the
largest States in Nigeria with an estimated population of six million people. The
headquarter of the State (Ibadan) alone generates 0.51 kilogrammes of solid
waste per day [4]. [6] specified that the quantity of waste generated in Oyo State
shows a positive correlation with rate of urbanization and population growth
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1421 Journal of Environmental Protection
in the area. However, textile represented a high volume of these wastes because
of its dominant value in the society. Textiles products are indispensable to hu-
man psychosocial and emotional wellbeing, and as such men will continue to use
the products. As individual economics standard increases, uses of textile among
households also increases, and so, increase in waste generated. [7] signified that
the rate of consumption of textile materials increases everyday relative to popu-
lation growth. There were several sources of textile waste generation such as tex-
tile manufacturing industries, the customers in the industrial manufacturing
sector that uses textile as raw materials, and end-users of the products from
these industries such as companies, hospitals and hotels, schools and individuals,
food and agricultural sector.
Farming both aquatic and terrestrial still remains the mainstay of this country.
The results of recent research have indicated that the country is facing severe
problems of land leaching and degradation, as well as air and water pollution [8].
Part of government efforts towards achieving eco-friendly system includes
promulgation of laws and regulations to safeguard the environment. These reg-
ulations include the Federal Environmental Protection Agency [FEPA] Act of
1988 and, Federal Ministry of Environment of 1999. In which each state and lo-
cal government in the country was mandated to create environmental protection
agency within its jurisdiction. The government further instituted National Inte-
grated Municipal Solid Waste Management Intervention Programme. Despite
these efforts, gradient line of waste problems in the country rises yearly. For
example, the Oyo State Solid Waste Management Authority (OYOWMA) that
was established to regulate solid waste in the area was restricted to the head-
quarter and its fringes. Hence, the failure of government efforts in achieving
adequate waste management services led to privatization of this sector. Private
participation in waste management has not been successful in Nigeria because
such companies are profit driven and they are not monitored or regulated by
government. Recently, some State governments in Nigeria such as Lagos, Osun,
Oyo, Ondo, Portharcourt, Edo among others established waste management
system and integrate this into its youth employment schemes, by employing able
bodied men and women, who are mandated to keep the environment clean. This
job specification involves keeping the environment clean by clearing of weeds
and, removal of waste from the main streets. Their efforts have however not
made significant impact in the society. Again, some investors also established
waste management industries dealing with recycling of post consumers’ solid
waste like plastics, metal and rubbers, but problem of pollution persist and un-
In the developed world apart from the hospital textile waste, most of the un-
used textile wastes were of reasonable to good quality that can be recovered and
subsequently recycled. Clothing that is unlikely to be worn again is potentially
functional as it may be shredded into fibre to be used in producing similar in
nature to those manufactured from pre-consumer textile waste. Recycling of this
nature is achieved with supportive technologies and hence generates job oppor-
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1422 Journal of Environmental Protection
tunities. As at the time of this study, apart from higher level of joblessness in
Nigeria, environmental problems is getting worst everyday with increase global
warming, land degradation, water and air pollution. [9] indicated that the level
of effectiveness of these various efforts towards solving environmental problems
in Nigeria was low and their impact was not felt in most cities and towns, and
that its citizens lack training on waste disposal. In 2019, the government adopted
a new strategy in solving this grandiose problem by passing a bill to ban plastics
bags. The plastic bag prohibition bill provides for an act to prohibit the use,
manufacture and importation of plastic bags used for commercial and household
packaging. This is to address harmful impacts of this material to oceans, rivers,
lakes, forests, environments as well as human being and, also to relieve pressure
on landfills and waste management and other related matters [10].
The study therefore, focused on issues relating to post-consumers’ solid textile
waste management and, it sociologically;
- identified sources of post-textiles waste, and physical composition of the
waste generated,
- assessed various waste management systems practices in the study area and,
- examined knowledge of respondents on impact of post-consumer solid tex-
tile waste on the environment.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
The study was carried out in Oyo State of Nigeria. The State lies in the South-
western region of the nation. It shared boundary in the south by Ogun State, in
west by Republic of Benin, east by Osun State and in the north by Kwara State.
The study area is highly urbanized with clusters of industries and, it consists of
thirty three Local Government Areas (LGAs). According to Nigeria population
census of 2006, the population of this State was about 5,591,589. Administra-
tively, each of the LGAs is divided into wards based on the land mass and
population density. Traditionally, people from this area are farmers, traders, and
craftsmen. The high level of industrialization in the area does not change the
State cultural mainstay.
2.2. Sample Selection and Research Instruments
Eight LGAs (number of wards) in the State viz as Akinyele (12), Iba-
dan-South-East (12), Ogbomosho-North (10), Saki-West (11), Orelope (10),
Ibarapa-East (10), Afijio (10), and Oyo-East (10) were randomly selected for the
study. Multistage sampling technique was applied in selecting 50 percent of the
administrative wards from each selected LGAs totaling 44 wards. Cluster and
simple random sampling procedure was applied in selecting 20 households from
each ward making a total of 880 households for the study throughout the State.
Household in the study comprises of groups of family that dwell in the same
house. Data was collected within the period of March, 2019-June, 2019. Ques-
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1423 Journal of Environmental Protection
tionnaires, personal interactive and observation, including Focus Group Discus-
sion (FGDs) sessions were used in gathering primary data from the respondents
on sources of post-consumer solid textile waste; waste management system prac-
tices and, knowledge on impact of textile waste on the environment. Again, la-
boratory analysis was applied to identify physical compositions, weight and vo-
lume of waste generated by respondents. Secondary data were collected from ex-
isting studies on fibre characteristics; impact of textile waste on the environ-
ment, and globally existing waste management system.
2.3. Measurement Survey and Data Analysis
Solid wastes generated by each of the households were collected twice a week.
Wastes gathered were aired and dried in the sun for two days before subjected to
manual sorting, where solid textile waste products were separated from
non-textile waste. Solid textile wastes were further sorted into groups based on
their visual components. Sensitive and micro -census calibrated scale machine
and weighing balance was employed in taking weight of the sorted wastes and
recorded as data bank The solid textile waste was later shredded into a small
particle by a shredding machine. Calibrated cylinder of radius 10 cm and height
40 cm was used in taking volume of the shredded waste. Descriptive tools such
weighted mean value, percentage and standard deviation was used in describing
the collected data. Again the respondents were given statements of opinion
about knowledge on impacts of textile waste on the environment in relation to
the selected variables, and was based on five point Likert scale; Strongly Agreed
(SA = 5), Agreed (A = 4), Undecided (U = 3), Disagreed (D = 2), and Strongly
Disagreed (SD = 1).
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Sources of Post Consumers Textile Waste and, Composition of
the Waste Generated
In-depth analysis showed that every individual (100%) household in the studied
area feed or drinks from outside their home daily in the form of industrially
manufactured snacks or real meal. Fabrics of composite fibre were used for
packages in form of disposable nylon and plastics as indicated in Figure 1, in-
cluding cartons, papers among others as indicated by all (100%) the respon-
dents. While 91% (8001) of the studied households strongly preferred imported
textile goods from developed nation because of durability of such goods, 73%
(642) often opt for imported fairly used materials. This was attached to the fact
that the cost prices of imported textile fairly used materials are relatively low
compared to new ones. Nigeria has been suspected to be one of the greatest
producers of waste, and one of the causative factors was found to be as a result of
high importation of fairly used materials, mainly from developed countries [11].
These goods permeate every family to every organization without adequate sys-
tem of disposing and management after used. Improved style of living through
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1424 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 1. Textile wastes from disposable water sachets and plastics bottles dumped at the
service unit of an eatery. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
globalization, coupled with poor economics faced by individual household in
Nigeria are major causes of these odious importations. [12] identified high rate
of importation of fairly used materials into Nigeria. According to the ratio of
fairly used materials to a new one among household in Nigeria was 9:1, this as-
sessment involves textiles and every others household goods. He further identi-
fied that the ratio of fairly used cars to new one was 255:1 among Nigerian. The
end use of these properties poses danger to the environment and the users be-
cause most textile processing involved used of heavy metal ions [13].
In-depth analysis identified mean value of solid textile waste generated by
individual as 0.11 kg ± 0.08 of volume 354 cm3 per day
The study revealed that
textile has the highest volume of the total waste generated per day but not the
highest weight. It was also identified that women generated more waste than
men mostly in the area of clothing’s (apparels, cosmetics, and baby toiletries).
Average wardrobe size of the respondents was 26. This includes clothes and
every other fashion items consumed by an individual such as garments, bags,
shoes, among others. The mean value of other textile items consumed/owned by
the selected household was 41. This includes plastics and rubbers (bowls, plates,
cups etc.) and soft furnishings materials (beds and beddings, curtains, rugs, car-
pet and others). It was also identified that textile care (cleaning and storage)
procedure and additives used releases toxic wastes into the environment. The
average services outlets per square kilometer in the studied area were 3. This in-
volved food services centers (such as farm products, industrially manufactured
cooked and uncooked food), and apparel/clothing industries (viz as cosmetics,
leather work, fashion designer, textile care and merchandiser), and about 83%
packaging materials used from these service outlets were textile. It was isolated
that, highest percent (60%) of the solid textile waste generated by individual per
day was originated from food and drinks packages. This is in accordance with
[14] finding that, the highest proportion of municipal solid waste was generated
from the kitchen. This was followed by apparel/clothing (36%), while paper such
as magazines, newspapers, notebooks and others was 4% of the waste generated
by individual/day. The negative effects of all these wastes on the environment
have not received adequate attention from individuals, governments, industries
and the community.
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1425 Journal of Environmental Protection
The lifecycle of textile are in the following order; production → use → disposal.
Each of the stages has peculiar ways of generating waste of high intensive
energy, generation of hazardous air emission, and degradation of the land [15].
The basic unit block in textiles is fibre (carboxylgroup). The polymers in these
carboxyl groups differ from each other in types of chains length and attached
additives. According to [16], natural fibres are more environmental friendly in
contents than synthetic fibres. In his analysis of some selected synthetic fibres
it was showed that; acetate is renewable, reusable and biodegradable but, it
uses catalytic agents containing cobalt or manganese in it production: and that
Polyester (PET) is non-renewable, non degradable, and involves use of carci-
nogenic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, arsenic, and heavy metals includ-
ing antimony. An allergy-provoking dyes and carriers are added to its con-
tents. Olefin (Polypropylene and Polyethylene) involves use of many carcino-
genic chemicals such as lead based pigments. Additives such as anti-oxidants, Ul-
tra-Violentstabilizers and flame retardants were added. It is non-degradable.
Acrylic contents include carcinogenic chemicals such as vinyl acetate, acryl
amide, N,N-dimethyl-formamid and acrylonitrile also known as vinyl cyanide
[17]. It is non-degradable. [18] indicated that in the production of nylon, many
carcinogenic chemicals such as benzene and hydrogen cyanide gas (nylon 6,6)
are added as part of it components. Its manufacturing process creates nitrous
oxide, a greenhouse gas, which is about 300 times more potent than carbon dio-
xide for producing global warming. In the production of Polyvinylchloride
) several carcinogenic chemicals such as phthalates are added. Phthalates
are known as endocrine disrupters. Further again, PVC production generates
dioxins, highly toxic substances that are linked with cancer. Dioxins are a global
health threat because they persist in the environment and in mammals. It is
non-degradable and harmful to the environment after disposal [19].
3.2. Waste Management Systems Practice in the Study Area
All (100%) the respondents were aware of the following system of waste disposal;
open land dumping, open air burning, burying, land filling, and decomposition.
Major identified waste disposal system practiced among the studied households
(100%) were open land dumping Figure 2 and open air burning Figure 3. Anal-
ysis revealed that 34% of the respondents seldom practiced re-use system, inci-
neration system (8%) and, 2% practiced recycle and regenerating system respec-
tively. This showed that households in the studied area are not aware of most
available waste management’s system. The common waste disposal practiced in
the studied area was attached to the fact that most waste generated by the res-
pondents lack second hand qualities. About 23% disposed waste through city
council (government) issued rubbish bags via trunks and 77% were not. It was
observed that waste collected by the government city council and its youth em-
ployment scheme are often dumped to formed a huge heaped on land surface in
an undeveloped site in the city and along highway in the fringes Figure 4(a) and
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1426 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 4(b), and seldom set on open air burning. Sixty percent of the respon-
dents are also involved in dumping wastes along the highway within the com-
munity Figure 5. All the aforementioned system leads to poor sanitation and
unaesthetic environment. The government charges its households and industries
for the volume of waste they produce. The performance of waste disposal via
government mechanism was rated poor because in most cases waste items are
left uncollected for months as signified by all the respondents. All (100%)
strongly agreed that, wastes are often been discarded indiscriminately in the
street by individual. It was also indicated that wastes generated are dumped at
home yards (mostly at the services and living units of the yard) by individual
and, 81% dumped waste in an abandoned/under-developed site within the
community Figure 6 which later find their way to the street as litters. The gen-
erated waste littered the streets to developed un-healthy environment Figures
7(a)-(c). It was specified that rain and wind often swept most of these wastes
from street to gully and water core Figure 8. Fifty one percent dumped wastes
on water trench Figure 9 and, once in a while all (100%) of the respondents
practices open air waste burning. None of the respondents have access to train-
ing on waste management system.
Figure 2. Solid wastes from different origin dumped on open land surface
with high contents of solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
Figure 3. Open air burning wastes managements system on an undeveloped
site within a residential area. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1427 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 4. (a) Heap of wastes dumped in an undeveloped property within the community
with high contents of solid textile materials; (b). Waste dumped along highway in the
fringes with high contents of solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
Figure 5. Waste dumped along highway in the metropolis with high contents
of solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
Figure 6. Wastes littering an under-developed property within the community
with high contents of solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1428 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 7. (a) Wastes dumped within residential areas with high contents of
solid textile materials; (b) Wastes dumped within the business areas with high
contents of solid textile materials. (c). Wastes scattered within industrial areas
with high contents of solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
Figure 8. Wastes swept into water channel with high contents of
solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1429 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 9. Wastes dumped into water channel with high contents of
solid textile materials. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
Globally, there exist several management systems for textile waste viz and viz:
- Reuse reduction;
this can effectively be achieved by internal -reuse of waste
by given to others or reconstruct to something else that will be useable in the
household. This study discovered that 80% waste generated by the respon-
dents cannot be reused in its original form.
- Incineration; means burning of waste to generate heat energy. This study
specified that majority (69%) of the respondents are aware that textile goods
can be used to generate heat but were not practicing it because the smolder
produced in the process is very thick and dangerous. Also, 67% of the res-
pondents’ indicated that most solid textile waste explodes in fire while, 43%
identified that the fume produce causes eyes irritation, 39% indicated that the
ashes generated represent another toxic material in the environment. [18]
specified that the chimney uses in incineration method do emit organic sub-
stances that pose danger to the environment such as dioxins, heavy metals,
acidic gases and dust particles.
Appropriate technological waste management method refers to as recycling
[16]. He identified recycling method as a key concept of modern waste manage-
ment which means reprocessing of waste materials into new or reusable prod-
ucts and that ninety-nine percent of used textiles polymers are recyclable. [20]
highlighted the major effective way of salvaging the environment from pollution
as recycled and, indicated that the least expensive and least adverse effect on the
environment is when a component can be recycled into its original product. The
second best is when it can be used in another article. According to [21], recy-
cling technologies are categorized as primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary
approaches involve recycling a product into its original form; secondary recy-
cling involves melting and processing materials into a new product that has a
lower level of physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Tertiary recycling
involves conversion of wastes into basic chemicals or fuels. Detail analysis iden-
tified that textile waste recycling project was instituted in Nigeria in the early
90’s but the project crashed prematurely within a few years. Reason has been
that most industries that could absorb the recovery folded up. [7] indicated that
uptill late 90’s, the country has about 450 registered textile and garment indus-
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10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1430 Journal of Environmental Protection
tries that were functional, unfortunately before the mid 2000’s, about 90% the
industries folded up except the garment industries that managed to survive. As
at the time of this study there were, but little evidence of newly organized recov-
ery of textile waste for reprocessing industries in some major cities of Nigeria.
There are numbers of ways by which textile wastes can be turned into an asset
with investment in appropriate and intellectual technologies. For example, all
textile wastes can be repurposed or regenerated into saleable and usable products
by intelligent collection, sorting, reengineering and reprocessing. Products made
by regenerating textile waste include acoustic textiles used for soundproof
blocks, insulation, roofing felt, bank stabilization, and as pollution control filters.
Other patents include technology to turn leather scraps into book covers and
auto seating and, utilizing wood waste to manufacture moldable tiles, trim and
panels. Carpet underlay, furniture removal felt, weed suppression and water re-
tention felts are just some of the examples of products produced by regenerating
textile wastes. Other methods of regenerating fiber from fabrics are to break-
down fabric to fiber. The fiber could be re-engineered into:
- Re-granulation that connotes processing of waste from thermoplastic fibres to
make free flowing granulates which can be used to produce fibres that could be
melted to produce heavy viscous. This product is used as heavy-insulation
layers or as a powdery binder agent to substitute phenolic resin when pro-
ducing thermally bonded nonwovens and mats.
- Textile chips (TC) which mean converting nonwoven waste into textile chips.
One may cut, mill or shred it. TC can be added as auxiliary material to pro-
duce textile concrete in building and road construction.
- Re-use of nonwoven waste typically involves conversion of textile fibre that
has lost its intended values, into a new application with little or no alteration
in the fibre generic. Example is the application of nonwoven waste in form of
fibre-webs in road construction and other civil engineering works. The above
claim is in accordance with [22]. Major identified re-use of nonwoven waste
in the studied area, is the application of fibre waste in mattresses and pillow
Detailed analysis specified that, recycling industries were sited in few cities in
Nigeria by individual investors with low level of performances. Major reason
given by these investors for low performances includes poor funding and gov-
ernment policies mostly on high tax. It was revealed that supporting textile waste
management technologies is sustainable for job creation towards national eco-
nomic development. Regeneration verifiably reduces environmental impact of
carbon emissions, energy use and toxic chemical up to 70% [23]. It was also
identified that huge volumes of scrap metal recovered from end-of-life products
in Nigeria are being regenerated and shipped to China and other rapidly indu-
strializing countries by few foreign investors. Hence, it is possible to use tech-
nologies and innovations to transform materials and resources regarded as waste
into marketable products that will be of benefit to the Nigeria economy and en-
vironment. A paradigm for the study of textiles wastes management is as showed
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10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1431 Journal of Environmental Protection
in Figure 10. Globally, recycling of textile still represents the most laudable me-
thod of waste management, and can be broadly grouped into thermal, material
and chemical sectors [24]. 1). Thermal recycling basically produces electrical
energy from textile wastes. The processes involve recovering of heat energy from
incineration of fibre waste, and finally convert heat generated into electrical
energy. This could have informed the submission of [25] that thermal recycling
does not mean recycling of resources. In the course of this study, it was identi-
fied that heat generated during waste recycling among the few available recycling
industries and other firms that generates heat energy as by-products in Nigeria
are let loose into the air with strong atmospheric congestion. 2). Material recy-
cling recuperates polymers from textile wastes of fibers or plastics materials.
This method often produces polymers of low quality and spinning stability,
which is linked with the method is suitable to let impurities mix with recovered
polymers. Material recycling is the major highlighted recycling system practices
among waste management investors in the studied area. 3). Chemical recycling
is when polymers of fiber wastes are broken down into monomers. Recovered
monomers can be cleaned off impurities to attain exact quality of the original
monomers. Indepth analysis revealed that, this method is highly expensive
hence, not practiced.
3.3. Knowledge on Impact of Textile Waste on the Environment
Level of awareness on danger caused by poor waste disposal system among the
respondents (78%) was low. All (100%) the respondents identified unaesthetic,
unhygienic, stench environment as well as blocked drainages as major impact of
poor waste management in the studied area. They were strongly agreed those
post-textile waste products are major components of the wastes in most drainage
channels. There was incessant blocked drainage in the studied area that often led
to flooding during rainy seasons which had eventually claimed lives and proper-
ties. [26] identified that, most textile waste in landfill contributes to the forma-
tion of leachate as it decomposes, which has potential of contaminating
groundwater. This might have been part of reasons of high level of groundwater
contaminations in Nigeria as identified by [3]. Chemical Oxygen Demand
(COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of several water sources in the
nation have increased, and as such become inhabitable for aquatic plants and
animals [27]. About 78% of the respondents agreed that post-consumer textile
wastes can contaminate surface ground water, but 71% disagreed that
post-consumer textile waste can contaminate underground water. Another
product of decomposition in landfill is methane gas, which is a major cause of
greenhouse gases and this contributes significantly to global warming. [28] sug-
gested that, a major factor in the high rate of health deterioration in Nigeria was
attached to high level of global warming. Sixty nine percent of the respondents
were aware of high level of global warming in Nigeria, but 58% disagreed that
global warming can be induced by poor post-consumer textile waste manage-
ment. Again, 65% disagreed that poor post-consumer textile waste management
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10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1432 Journal of Environmental Protection
Figure 10. Paradigm for the study of textile waste management. : Arrow indicating
direction of influence. Source: Field of survey, 2019.
is a contributing factor in land degradation and, 35% agreed. Sixty-two percent
disagreed that poor textile waste management influence rate of health deteriora-
tion. [29] indicated that decomposition of organic fibers and yarn such as wool
produces large amounts of ammonia as well as methane. However, ammonia is
characterized as highly harmful and became more deadly in gaseous form to life
and the general environment. Since major household waste management prac-
ticed in the study area are open landfill and open air burning therefore, there
will be constant and high rate of ammonia gas release into the environment.
This study established that synthetics fibres are used in larger quantities among
Nigeria households, and wastes generated with the use were often dumped to litter
the environment without any proper disposal system. The wastes will eventually
result in land degradation and greenhouse gas formation for global warming.
Apart from the fact that synthetic fibers are cheap and easy to maintain as com-
pared to natural fibre [1], it was identified that inability of natural fibre produc-
tion to meet the ever growing population had led to the usage of synthetic fibre
quantitatively. Among studied households it’s hard to find a textile material
made of 100% natural fibre, even the indigenous fabrics. Most are either 50:50,
or 75:25 synthetic to natural fibre. Howbeit, synthetics textile production in-
volve used of more toxic chemicals, which are very hard to recycle [19]. These
fibres prolong the adverse effects of both leachate and gas production due to
the length of time it takes them to decay. Detailed analysis revealed that textile
materials have no second hand value in Nigeria, coupled with the facts that,
major methods of waste disposal are open land dumping and open air burning,
hence there is continuous addition of waste to the environment. Burning of
post-consumer textile waste, mostly the synthetics textiles emits high magnitude
of organic substances such as dioxins, heavy metals, acidic gases and dust par-
K. O. Ajila
10.4236/jep.2019.1011084 1433 Journal of Environmental Protection
ticles [30]. These are potentially hazardous to both humans and the environ-
4. Conclusions and Recommendations
Major post-consumer textile waste disposal systems practiced in the studied area
were open land dumping and open air burning. Level of awareness on danger
caused by poor post-consumer textile waste disposal system among the respon-
dents was low. There was no accessible waste management training center in the
studied area and, individual household lacked knowledge on effective waste
management system.
It is therefore, recommended that individual consumers, households, and the
society in general can be educated on threats posed by poor handling of textile
wastes to life and the environment. Professional training courses on waste man-
agement should be made accessible to meet the manpower need of the waste in-
dustry. Constant public enlightenment and training on proper wastes handling
and economics potentials of waste management should be provided by the gov-
ernment and, such enlightenment could be managed by the extension agency,
health, and other environmental crusaders. Again,
every State and Local Gov-
ernments in the nation should institute an appropriate and functional wastes
management policy and control that will be community based. At the same time,
an ideal waste management scheme should be inaugurated at the Local Govern-
ment Area levels, and private investors could also be encouraged in instituting
such schemes. Research institutes in the country should be supported to develop
suitable technologies for the scheme. Involvement of the civic via some of the
community based organizations is very vital towards the success of such training
and scheme. Apart from the fact that this will salvage the environment, it will
also create job opportunities for the unemployed sector mostly the youth.
Conflicts of Interest
The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this
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An Evaluation of Textile Extension Services of Ondo State Agricultural Development Programme
  • K O Ajila
Ajila, K.O. (2011) An Evaluation of Textile Extension Services of Ondo State Agricultural Development Programme, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.