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Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy

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... 7 In addition to the seminal works of Olson (1971) and Putnam et al. (1993), see for example Knack and Keefer (1997) and, for a review of the literature, Degli Antoni and Grimalda (2016). 8 There are approximately 1.7 million active post codes in the UK. ...
... We now study the effect of broadband access on civic engagement, measured as participation in voluntary organizations. Since its introduction in the pioneering work of Putnam et al. (1993), membership in organizations is commonly considered as one of the most significant and reliable indicators of social capital, since it captures individuals' interest in public affairs and their propensity for contributing to the public good (see for example Knack and Keefer, 1997;Guiso et al., 2004;2016). We define participation as either being a member or actively participating in an organization's activities. ...
... In addition, broadband penetration significantly displaced civic engagement and political participation, i.e. time consuming activities that usually take place during leisure time, are not pursued in order to reach particularistic goals, and generally relate to a non self-interested involvement in public affairs. Associational activities have been often mentioned as forms of bridging social capital creating positive societal and economic externalities (Putnam et al., 1993;1995), which has recently started to decline in many OECD countries (e.g. Putnam, 2000;Costa and Kahn, 2003b). ...
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We study how the diffusion of broadband Internet affects social capital using two data sets from the UK. Our empirical strategy exploits the fact that broadband access has long depended on customers’ position in the voice telecommunication infrastructure that was designed in the 1930s. The actual speed of an Internet connection, in fact, rapidly decays with the distance of the dwelling from the specific node of the network serving its area. Merging unique information about the topology of the voice network with geocoded longitudinal data about individual social capital, we show that access to broadband Internet caused a significant decline in forms of offline interaction and civic engagement. Overall, our results suggest that broadband penetration substantially crowded out several aspects of social capital.
... The failure of social distancing to penetrate and dismantle social capital on Rouxdale (R/E) farm shows that beneficiaries have established solid norms which are the basis of reciprocity (Coleman, 1990;Putnam et al., 1993). Norms provide protection of shared interests from outside influence and reinforce those interests (Coleman, 1990). ...
... Norms provide protection of shared interests from outside influence and reinforce those interests (Coleman, 1990). Beneficiaries' networks were based on trust, which facilitates collaboration while giving assurance that people's favours will be reciprocated (Coleman, 1990;Putnam et al., 1993). Scholarly literature has shown that social network relationships can only be maintained through constant communication for them to remain beneficial and reciprocal failure to which they wither over time (Coleman, 1990;Putnam et al., 1993). ...
... Beneficiaries' networks were based on trust, which facilitates collaboration while giving assurance that people's favours will be reciprocated (Coleman, 1990;Putnam et al., 1993). Scholarly literature has shown that social network relationships can only be maintained through constant communication for them to remain beneficial and reciprocal failure to which they wither over time (Coleman, 1990;Putnam et al., 1993). Social distancing is an agent for destroying social capital because it limits interpersonal connection and communication within social networks. ...
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This article examines the effect of social distancing on the social capital of beneficiaries of the A1 villagised model of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP). In the A1 model beneficiaries were allocated individual arable and residential plots, but shared grazing land, social infrastructure, and services. A1 model beneficiaries rely on social capital to access resources, support agricultural production and other livelihood activities. In this setting, social capital is central to the normal functioning of these communities. When social distancing as a measure to contain the spread of the Covid-19 virus was introduced, this presented many challenges in A1 communities. This article looks at the challenges of observing social distancing in A1 beneficiary communities, which rely on interpersonal interaction to sustain livelihoods and life in general. Drawing from interviews with key informants in these communities, the article shows that social distancing is difficult to implement in communities that are built around strong social capital. The article illustrates that when confronted by challenges which come with practicing social distancing, beneficiaries of A1 communities opted to unite and protect their social capital and livelihoods.
... Here, by governance systems we mean the interlocking sets of formal and informal norms and rules that limit conflict and structure the scale and stability of collective action in social groups (North et al., 2009), and by norms and rules we mean the socially learned information shared between a group of peers and/or across generations, that shapes the opportunity costs of social interactions (e.g., North, 1990;Richerson & Boyd, 1998). Long-standing arguments in the social sciences posit that variation in how human groups construct their governance systems impacts, via a positive feedback process, the performance of human economies (e.g., Fukuyama, 2014;Hammel, 2005;Henrich, 2020;North et al., 2009;Putnam et al., 1993). If correct, then variation in governance systems should modify human behavior in ways that modify the basic scaling of population and energy use in human societies. ...
... First, governance systems vary along a continuum from exclusive, patronclient dominated networks, often structured along lines of blood kinship, to more inclusive (though not universally so) voluntary associations of kin and non-kin alike that allow/favor cooperation across many unrelated individuals (e.g., Blanton & Fargher, 2008;Fukuyama, 2014;Henrich, 2020;North et al., 2009;Putnam et al., 1993). Henrich and colleagues coin the concept of kinship intensity to describe this continuum (Henrich, 2020;Schulz et al., 2019a). ...
... Importantly, any governance system contains actors engaged in reinforcing tight-knit groups via patron-client strategies and actors engaged in strategies that increase the size and scope of social groups through voluntary clubs, rituals, and gifts that establish social bonds. Governance systems vary in the mix of strategies used and reinforced through norms and rules from more inclusive-well developed civic institutions that cross-cut many social groups-to less inclusive, more modular social groups (e.g., Blanton & Fargher, 2008;North et al., 2009;Putnam et al., 1993). ...
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This paper integrates scaling theory with variation in systems of governance to help explain cross-cultural differences in the energy use of human polities. In both industrial and pre-industrial polities, systems of governance moderate the scaling of population and energy use. Polities with more inclusive governance systems display, on average, lower energy use per agent. However, as populations increase in size, the energy consumed by polities with more inclusive governance increases faster than among polities with less inclusive governance. These results support the hypothesis that more inclusive governance systems help generate a virtuous cycle of increasing trust, larger-scale cooperation, and more productive economies; however, a byproduct of this process is an expanding network–energy throughput tradeoff: Good governance empowers individuals and firms to connect and cooperate. At the same time, similar to Jevons’ classic efficiency paradox, scaling-up this empowerment requires a system, as a whole, to consume ever greater amounts of energy and materials from the earth’s ecosystems.
... Consistent with the latter consideration, our benchmark measure of social capital-retrieved from the Institutional Quality Index (IQI) of Nifo and Vecchione (2014)-is computed at the provincial level. This measure captures important features of social capital as defined by Putnam et al. (1994): interpersonal trust, civic engagement, and features of social organisation that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. Our benchmark results are corroborated even when adopting proxies of altruism and civic-minded behaviour, which can be considered more specific measures of social capital à la Putnam. ...
... org/ 2012/ 10/ the-eu-efige brueg el-unicr edit-datas et/), while balance sheet data (from 2004 to 2014) come from the Amadeus database managed by Bureau van Dijk. 5 Our benchmark measure of local social capital is the dimension "Voice and Accountability" of the Institutional Quality Index (IQI) proposed by Nifo and Vecchione (2014), and recently employed by Batinti et al. (2019), and Agostino et al. (2022). 6 This dimension, available for the period 2004-2014 at the Italian provincial (NUTS3) level, summarizes the participation of citizens in public life (turnout in elections, participation in associations, number of social cooperatives) and their level of culture (number of published and purchased books), proxying two crucial aspects of the social fabric: interpersonal trust and civic norms, that are expected to facilitate cooperation for mutual benefit (Knack & Keefer, 1997;Putnam et al., 1994). As robustness checks, we use the regional number of blood donations, drawn from the registers of blood and plasma (held by the Italian National Institute of Health), and an indicator of local social participation obtained from ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics), defined at the regional level as the percentage of people aged 14 and over who carry out at least one civic and political participation activity out of the total of the population aged 14 and over. ...
... Therefore, we employ "Voice and accountability" as a measure of local social capital. Indeed, by summarizing participation of citizens in public life (turnout in elections, participation in associations, number of social cooperatives) and their level of culture (number of published and purchased books), this dimension captures important features of social capital as defined by Putnam et al. (1994): interpersonal trust, civic engagement, norms and features of social organisation that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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We investigate whether technical efficiency is affected by family involvement in management, considering a sample of small and medium sized firms (SMEs) operating in the traditional manufacturing sector. A positive and significant relationship between family management and efficiency is found when adopting one-step procedures based on Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Furthermore, according to our results, local social capital seems to moderate the influence of the family involvement on the performance of firms, corroborating the idea that trust and reputational assets associated with family ties can compensate for the lack of cooperative behaviour and social networks characterizing some communities where firms operate.
... In China, personal relationships are extremely important in society; thus, social capital exists among family, kinship, and neighborhood relationships. Therefore, it is widely believed that social efficiency can be improved through the network relations, norms, and trust that comprise social capital [5]. Especially in rural areas, where market systems may not yet be perfected, this traditional "Chinese guanxi" plays an important role in resource allocation, such as creating employment opportunities, increasing the income of the most disadvantaged, narrowing the income gap, and mitigating risk impact, which all play an immeasurable role in reducing the incidence of poverty [6]. ...
... To test H4, whether the scale of rural land transfer exhibits threshold characteristics, the threshold regression model was set to Equation (5). ...
... Table 2 reports the empirical results of the OLS, 2SLS and GMM models. Models (1) to (5) show the step-by-step addition of control variables; the results of Models (6) and (7) were obtained after adding instrumental variables. Note: Standard errors in parentheses; * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. ...
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Under the background of rural revitalization in China, with the process of urbanization and the implementation of China’s land system reform, rural workers gradually gain multiple income streams. However, increasing agricultural income remains the final guarantee for professional farmers to shake off poverty, and land is still their last security. We applied the OLS model and mediation model to a dataset of 3789 households in 25 provinces obtained from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) to investigate the influence of farmland transfer and social capital on farmers’ agricultural incomes. The results show that farmland “transfer in” and social capital significantly help to increase agricultural income directly, and farmland “transfer in” behavior plays a vital mediating role, influencing the positive effect of social capital on agricultural income. The study examined the logical social capital-agricultural land transfer-agricultural income correlation in the progression of rural society, from “hollow” to “reflux”, under the continuous expansion of rural revitalization strategies, which is of great practical significance for re-recognizing the positive role of rural social capital and agricultural land transfer in improving the income of professional farmers and realizing the overall goal of rural revitalization. The results also provide a theoretical basis for guiding and leveraging the effective use of social capital to promote agricultural land transfer.
... Since the beginning of human society, social tolerance has been a key factor in building a moral society. Especially in modern society, social tolerance can be ranked alongside other social capital elements in the traditional sense, such as interpersonal trust, and is an important social capital indispensable to residents' subjective well-being [41,42]. Without tolerance, society will fall into various "cultural, social, and political conflicts. ...
... In the matched sample, mediating effect 37 accounts for 23.62% and mediating effect 2 accounts for 9.28%, and the coefficients of th 38 mediating effects are both significant, indicating that the two variables of social clas 39 mobility and social tolerance have significant mediating effects between subjectiv 40 well-being and online education. 41 42 Figure 2. The intermediary relationship between OE and SWB and non-standardized regressio 43 coefficient. **p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. ...
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(1) Background: Online education has developed into a new form of education. However, the relationship between online education and subjective well-being has seldom been extensively studied in the literature. Thus, this study provides quantitative evidence regarding the effect of online education on subjective well-being. (2) Objective: The objective of this study was to reveal the net effect of online education on subjective well-being and explore the mediating roles of social class mobility and social tolerance between online education and subjective well-being. (3) Methods: Based on the 2019 China Comprehensive Social Survey data, the “counterfactual framework” was constructed using the propensity score matching method, and 1029 matched samples were analyzed. (4) Results: Online education is significantly positively correlated with subjective well-being (average treatment effect on the treated, ATT = 0.189, p < 0.01). Social class mobility and social tolerance serially mediate the relationship of online education and subjective well-being (the intermediary role of social class mobility is 0.0163; the mediating role of social tolerance is 0.0064). (5) Conclusion: This study confirms the positive predictive effect of online education on subjective well-being and affirms the multiple mediating roles of social class mobility and social tolerance between online education and subjective well-being.
... Reciprocity refers to the simultaneous exchange of items of equivalent value. A general reciprocal relationship refers to a continuous relationship of exchange that is not reciprocated or unbalanced (Putnam et al., 1994). ...
... Apart from Bourdieu, several experts also conveyed their views on social capital. According to Putnam et al. (1994), social capital is a mutual trust between community members and the community toward their leaders. Social capital is defined as social institutions that involve networks, norms, and social trust that encourage social collaboration (coordination and cooperation) for the common good. ...
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This research discusses the modalities in the victory of migrant Minangkabau candidates in the 2019 Legislative Election. Minangkabau is one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia synonymous with a matrilineal kinship system and an institutionalized tradition of migrating. Migrating is a valuable capital utilized by Minangkabau migrant Legislative Candidates to gain support for votes in electoral contests. The research was conducted on two Minangkabau migrant Legislative Candidates who took part in the contestation in the Legislative Elections for the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia. The research method is qualitative with a case study type. Data were collected through interviews with Minangkabau migrant candidates, voting communities, and people involved in winning candidates, such as traditional leaders and the Minangkabau community in the realm and overseas. The results of the research concluded that Fadli Zon (Gerindra Party Legislative Candidate, Electoral District of West Java V) and Jon Erizal (National Mandate Party Legislative Candidate, Electoral District of Riau I) as two of the Minangkabau migrants, the legislative candidates for the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia succeeded in utilizing existing social capital and successfully elected in the 2019 Legislative Election 2019 contestation overseas. Both are considered to have good leadership figures, able to carry out the mandate, and caring, humane, and responsible individuals. Joined in the same social entity, namely the network of Minangkabau migrants who gather through the Minangkabau migrant community, the Minangkabau Family Association. Fadli Zon became General Chairman of the Central Executive Board of the Minangkabau Family Association, and Jon Erizal served as Vice General Chairman of the Riau Minangkabau Family Association. Besides building intensive communication with the community in the election contestation.
... This article analyzes whether national attachments and different subtypes of these attachments are associated with better citizenship, in particular, what we call active and allegiant citizenship. We conceptualize active and allegiant citizenship as consisting of three parts that roughly correspond to the theories of Almond and Verba (1963) and Putnam et al. (1994). This is not a complete characterization of good citizens, or even of the theories of these authors, and is partially driven by data availability, but it does encompass some major parts of what is commonly perceived to be good citizenship (e.g. ...
... Indeed, patriotism could also be considered more similar to the ethnic conception than national identity. Figure 2 presents results for three dependent variables connected to what Putnam et al. (1994) call civic community. They are membership in civil society organizations, voluntary work, and generalized trust in others. ...
Article
The recent popularity of nationalist movements bears witness to the continued power of national feeling in politics. This article considers the potential relationship between different kinds of national attachments and what we call active and allegiant citizenship—support for democracy, community participation, and prosocial behavior. We analyze these relationships using data from two waves of the European Values Study. We find that a set of attachments often called civic nationalism—including patriotism, national identity, and respect for one’s country’s institutions—are connected with better citizenship on virtually all of our outcomes, whereas ethnic nationalism is frequently connected with worse citizenship. These associations, however, tend to be weaker in the postcommunist states which have a different experience with both nationalism and democracy. The results suggest that national feeling can be a double-edged sword for citizenship.
... Teoretiskt har integration snarare förståtts som att individer och grupper skapar bindningar till varandra, vilket inte behöver vara kopplat till invandring eller etnicitet.9 Robert D. Putnam (1993) ser integration som social sammanhållning och i ett integrerat samhälle är de sociala banden mellan människor och samhällsgrupper starka, vilket anses skapa tillit och solidaritet (Putnam 1993). Här innebär integration att människor och grupper är aktivt delaktiga och känner tillhörighet till en sammanhållen helhet -till "samhällsgemenskapen" som det formuleras i de integrationspolitiska målen (Prop. ...
... Teoretiskt har integration snarare förståtts som att individer och grupper skapar bindningar till varandra, vilket inte behöver vara kopplat till invandring eller etnicitet.9 Robert D. Putnam (1993) ser integration som social sammanhållning och i ett integrerat samhälle är de sociala banden mellan människor och samhällsgrupper starka, vilket anses skapa tillit och solidaritet (Putnam 1993). Här innebär integration att människor och grupper är aktivt delaktiga och känner tillhörighet till en sammanhållen helhet -till "samhällsgemenskapen" som det formuleras i de integrationspolitiska målen (Prop. ...
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During 2014–2016, Sweden received almost 300,000 people seeking protection. Politically, this asylum reception has been presented as a “crisis”, and a threat both to the welfare system and the Swedish culture. At the same time, many argue that immigration contributes to the prosperity of society, both culturally and economically. The aim of this ethnographic study is to examine how problems are formulated and handled within contemporary Swedish integration policy. The study includes formal political policy, as well as the policy produced within the Public Employment Office – the authority that manages the Swedish introduction programme for newly arrived migrants. The problems suggested by official policy actors are contrasted against newly arrived migrant’s problem representations, and the results show significant disparity in problem formulations as well as in understandings of integration as a phenomenon. It is argued that Swedish integration policy has become more conservative and protectionist over time.
... Social capital is often seen as an important factor when studying influences on political participation (Hu, 2008). Leonardi et al. (2001) argues that citizens' participation is influenced by social capital. When the amount of social capital increases, citizens tend to show more active participation. ...
... Social fairness perceptions are divided into opportunity fairness perceptions and outcome fairness perceptions (Xu et al., 2020). Social capital is divided into the social network and social trust based on the interpersonal network perspective (Leonardi et al., 2001). The specific operational indicators, assignments, and descriptions are shown in Table 2. ...
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Introduction Political scientists have conducted extensive research on the factors influencing political participation, but empirical analyses examining them from the perspective of social fairness perceptions are not common. Methods Using large-scale data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), this study explores the intermediate mechanisms of social fairness perceptions in the influential relationship between social capital and farmers’ diversified political participation based on the structural equation modeling (SEM). Results The results show that the positive relationship between social capital and farmers’ political behavior is indirectly influenced by different dimensions of the sense of social fairness. Among them, social trust and social network variables affect political participation mainly through the mediating role of outcome fairness perceptions, while opportunity fairness perceptions significantly widen the gap in political participation between low and high social trust. Discussion Therefore, the government should nurture the social capital of rural geo-relational networks and formulate policies based on a social justice perspective inorder to enhance rural residents’ outcome fairness perceptions and increase the political participation of farmers.
... Research on critical junctures has relied heavily on qualitative methods. All of the twentieth-century exemplars are based fully or largely on qualitative research (e.g., Moore 1966;Lipset and Rokkan 1967;Collier and Collier 1991;Baumgartner and Jones 1993;Putnam 1993). Furthermore, inasmuch as this research has been methodologically self-conscious, it has drawn on general discussions about qualitative methodology (Smelser 1976;King et al. 1994;Brady and Collier 2010) and on reflections regarding the study of historical processes (Collier and Collier 1991: Ch. 1;Grzymała-Busse 2011;Mahoney and Thelen 2015: Parts III and IV). 8 (3) Substantive Questions. ...
... 13. Putnam (1993). 14. ...
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This chapter introduces the volume, Critical Junctures and Historical Legacies: Insights and Methods for Comparative Social Science. We first situate research on critical junctures within the historically oriented social sciences and identify its key aims and characteristics. We then consider debates and disagreements concerning the framework and methods, and spell out the book’s approach to contrasting views about this research. Finally, we present a detailed overview of the book, mapping out its organization and briefly discussing each chapter.
... He claimed social capital manifests in networks of relationships derived from human desires for utility-maximization and self-interestaligned with sociology and mainstream economic theory (Coleman, 1988). Putnam (1993) contributed to popularizing the theory arguing social capital is a public good rather than primarily a feature of individuals; its key conceptual componentsnetworks, norms, and trustcontribute to coordination and collaboration by individuals and organizations to achieve mutual benefits. More contemporary and internationalized social capital theorizations tend to concentrate on relations of trust, reciprocity, shared values, cooperation, and connectedness (Heemskerk & Wennink, 2004;Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2020). ...
... We first developed a theoretical structure for the review, which was modified slightly throughout the progression of the review (Torraco, 2005). The guiding social capital theoretical frame was constructed from peer reviewed seminal works by Bourdieu (1986), Coleman (1988), and Putnam (1993). Additionally, more recent theorizations and critiques, gender perspectives, and the UMN Social Capital Model (n.d.) were also incorporated into the frame. ...
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Various types of relationships within a farmer-to-farmer (F2F) extension system can influence farmers’ access to advancement opportunities, resources, capacity building, and social and professional networks. Using a social capital theoretical lens, this review elucidates the nature of these relationships and networks to better understand how bonding, bridging, and linking social capital may be leveraged in positive and negative ways and how relationship dynamics relate to farmers’ power, opportunities, and gender equity. This research demonstrates that all three types of social capital are instrumental but play different and often complementary roles in F2F extension. While bonding social capital is crucial for social cohesion, too few connections to outside actors and networks may cause farmer communities to become wary and unreceptive to innovation and change. On the other hand, outside linkages without sufficient bonding social capital to build trust may lead to inequitable distribution of desirable resources and power. Our most fundamental recommendation is to use social capital conceptualizations – specifically bonding, bridging, and linking – in the design, implementation, and evaluation of F2F extension systems. Participatory mapping of social capital, using a social equity lens, could help farmer groups identify where social capital is plentiful and where it is scarce. Building awareness among diverse farmer communities about social capital dynamics, especially linked to gender, may encourage shifts in attitudes and decision-making to reduce barriers and help marginalized farmers build social capital. Finally, we recommend making host communities and farmer groups attractive to outside interests, investments, and networks, to promote development and innovation.
... Does social capital, which is commonly defined as the ties and relationships binding members of a society (Hanifan, 1916;Keeley, 2007;Putnam et al., 1994), 1 affect people's views on migration? The determinants of anti-immigrant sentiments are of major interest today (Bello, 2017;Ceobanu and Escandell, 2010;Dinesen et al., 2016;Hainmueller and Hopkins, 2014;Haubert and Fussell, 2006;Mayda, 2006), and shifts in public attitudes toward immigration strongly influence policy discussions and election campaigns and can translate into restrictions to existing immigration policies (see Böhmelt, 2020;Bove et al., 2021). ...
... Social capital as the general, underlying concept is commonly viewed as a potentially powerful element binding members of a society and, especially given the emphasis on "improved efficiency," comprises a built-in normatively positive impact (see Coffé and Geys, 2007;Grießhaber and Geys, 2012). Not surprisingly, scholars have developed an impressive body of research suggesting that social capital indeed allows individuals, companies, and nations to flourish (see, for example, Algan and Cahuc, 2010;Borgonovi, 2008;Helliwell, 2006;Moore and Kawachi, 2017;Nannicini et al., 2013;Putnam, 2000;Putnam et al., 1994;Ward, 2006). Kwon and Adler (2014: 420) review the literature over the past two decades and conclude that "the term has penetrated so many social science fields, it is difficult to avoid the impression that the basic thesis-that social ties can be efficacious in providing information, influence, and solidarity-is no longer in dispute." ...
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We explore how associational activity—a key aspect of social capital—affects migration attitudes. It is argued that people’s membership in sports clubs and associations likely leads to more negative views on migration. Exploiting the panel structure of the German Longitudinal Election Data, the empirical analysis provides support for our expectations. We also show that individuals’ political orientation moderates the postulated effect. The findings further our understanding of how public opinion on migration is formed and we add to the literature on social capital by highlighting the potentially negative consequences one of its components can have.
... Red (Putnam et al., 1993) 630 Red (Arnstein, 1969) "How Accessibility Shapes Land Use" ...
Article
The global population has rapidly urbanized over the past century, and the urbanization rate is projected to reach about 70% by 2050. In line with these trends and the increasing recognition of the significance of cities in addressing local and global challenges, a lot of research has been published on urban studies and planning since the middle of the twentieth century. While the number of publications has been rapidly increasing over the past decades, there is still a lack of studies analyzing the field's knowledge structure and its evolution. To fill this gap, this study analyzes data related to more than 100,000 articles indexed under the “Urban Studies” and “Regional & Urban Planning” subject categories of the Web of Science. We conduct various analyses such as term co-occurrence, co-citation, bibliographic coupling, and citation analysis to identify the key defining thematic areas of the field and examine how they have evolved. We also identify key authors, journals, references, and organizations that have contributed more to the field's development. The analysis is conducted over five periods: 1956–1975 (the genesis period), 1976–1995 (economic growth and environmentalism), 1996–2015 (sustainable development and technological innovation), 2016–2019 (climate change and SDGs), and 2020 onwards (post-COVID urbanism). Four major thematic areas are identified: 1) socio-economic issues and inequalities, 2) economic growth and innovation, 3) urban ecology and land use planning, and 4) urban policy and governance and sustainability. The first two are recurring themes over different periods, while the latter two have gained currency over the past 2–3 decades following global events and policy frameworks related to global challenges like sustainability and climate change. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, issues related to smart cities, big data analytics, urban resilience, and governance have received particular attention. We found disproportionate contributions to the field from the Global North. Some countries from the Global South with rapid urbanization rates are underrepresented, which may have implications for the future of urbanization. We conclude the study by highlighting thematic gaps and other critical issues that need to be addressed by urban scholars to accelerate the transition toward sustainable and resilient cities.
... Some studies focus on known targets which serve as the source of trust transfer to unknown targets (e.g., [56]). Some researchers argued that if the third party stands in the same position as a trustor in the former transition, the current trustor also tends to trust the trustee who has been trusted by the third party. ...
... We conceptualize active and allegiant citizenship as consisting of three parts that roughly correspond to the theories of Almond and Verba (1963) and Putnam et al. (1994). This is not a complete characterization of good citizens, nor even of the theories of these authors, and is partially driven by data availability, but it does encompass some major parts of what is commonly perceived to be good citizenship (for example, Van Deth et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent popularity of nationalist movements bears witness to the continued power of national feeling in politics. This article considers the potential relationship between different kinds of national attachments and what we call active and allegiant citizenship—support for democracy, community participation, and prosocial behavior. We analyze these relationships using data from two waves of the European Values Study. We find that a set of attachments often called civic nationalism—including patriotism, national identity, and respect for one’s country’s institutions—are connected with better citizenship on virtually all of our outcomes, whereas ethnic nationalism is frequently connected with worse citizenship. These associations, however, tend to be weaker in the postcommunist states which have a different experience with both nationalism and democracy. The results suggest that national feeling can be a double-edged sword for citizenship.
... Social capital is a concept developed for over 100 years. One of the classic works on this subject are works by Bourdieu (1986), Coleman (1988), Fukuyama (1997), Putnam (1993), Woolcock (1998), Burt (1992), Portes (1998), Westlund (2007), Glaeser (2001), Lin (2001) or Grootaert (1998). The literature indicates different types of capital. ...
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The experience of the SARS-CoV-19 pandemic can be a source of valuable information for public health authorities. As we have seen, the incidence is not evenly distributed in space, and the factors influencing it are not fully understood. Aspects of biological, demographic, economic, environmental, and political nature are considered, but it is believed that the social factor may be of critical importance. The density and intensity of social relations, general trust and trust in the authorities, norms and values-i.e., social capital-may have a key impact on the scale of infections. The research conducted so far on this subject does not provide clear conclusions, and the post-communist society, inferior in social capital, has hardly been analyzed. Using data for 73 subregions of Poland and performing regression analysis, we investigate how social capital explains the level of infection rate in the first three waves of the epidemic. The analysis results have shown that the factor of "political leaning" was strongly and negatively related to the infection rate in Poland. The research results indicate that, contrary to the previous studies, structural capital has the same positive effect on reducing the epidemic. However, relational social capital promotes more significant morbidity. JEL Classification: C21, C5, E7, I12
... The structural components of networking involve the building and maintaining of linkages or ties that form the conduits for moving information and enhancing success (Granovetter, 1982). Social capital concepts underpinning networking have been explicitly integrated to build understanding about the strength of group-oriented actions such as an alliance of Italian knitting and apparel manufacturers (Putnam et al., 1993), embeddedness in the New York City apparel industry (Uzzi, 1996), and networking among apparel business owners (Besser and Miller, 2011;Miller et al., 2007). ...
Article
Studies have highlighted the benefits of external knowledge building as a means of heightening a firm’s innovation activities. Simultaneously supply chain scholars have highlighted the lack of focus on social facets at the micro behavioral level, as well as the limited endeavors to build upon existing theories for new perspectives. Taking an exploratory approach to addressing literature gaps, the objectives of this research involve integrating constructs from social capital theory and the knowledge-based view of the firm to examine associations and interactions among network ties, social interactions, knowledge absorptive capacity, and knowledge acquisition in the development of new product innovations by US apparel and sewn products manufacturers (N=125). Quantitative data were collected via an online survey of both a national and state sample of small sized manufacturers. Findings regarding new product development indicated: positive associations for network ties, social interactions, knowledge absorptive capacity, and knowledge acquisition; network ties and knowledge acquisition; mediated relationships with social interaction and absorptive capacity; and moderated social interaction relationships with absorptive capacity and network ties­. These empirical insights highlight the importance of building external relationships for generating knowledge in amplifying innovation. Theoretical contributions, managerial implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are presented.
... Although much research has shown how large and toothless social networks are able to improve access to different types of social resources and mediate better psychophysical health (Kim, Fredriksen-Goldsen, Bryan and Muraco, 2017), in the case of TGD people there is very little literature on this subject. It is important to remember that there is another way to define social relations and their relevance to health, namely, the so-called concept of social capital (Coleman 1988, Putman, Leonardi andNanetti, 1993). ...
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This article aims to analyze the current literature on the social capital of transgender and gender diverse(TGD) people, given their fragility in social and health terms. The paper followed the guidelines developed by Tricco, Langlois, and Straus. The results of this paper reveal significant gaps in the literature relating to the social capital of TGD people and highlight how the various types of shared capital are for sexual health to be considered in future research on transgender health. This is the first article that analyzes in detail the relationship between social capital and TGD individuals. To date, there is no other scientific evidence in the literature in this regard. The paucity of scholarly evidence available for paper limits our ability to make conclusive statements about social capital of TGD people. Small sample sizes in the included studies warrant caution when deriving generalized conclusions about social capital.
... Ce système coopératif-dense et comparable à celui de régions italiennes telles que la Toscane et l'Émilie-Romagne (Porcheddu, 2004) qui, selon les études, ont un degré étendu de civilité et de capital social (Putnam et al., 1993)-réfute le stéréotype culturaliste selon lequel la Sardaigne (et le sud de l'Italie), soit « culturellement arriérée », enfermée dans un famillisme amoral ou exclusif (Banfield, 1958;Pinna, 1971) qui empêcherait le développement (Barbagli et Santoro, 2004). La coopération a beau être forte, elle est constamment menacée par un environnement de haute compétition et une méfiance envers le système coopératif en raison de ses échecs : 70 % des coopératives sont nées entre les années 1950-1970, mais seulement 45 % d'entre elles ont survécu jusqu'à aujourd'hui (Porcheddu, 2004). ...
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Dans le débat actuel, l’innovation sociale est analysée comme un outil politique utile pour renforcer le développement rural et contrecarrer la marginalisation dans les zones rurales. Dans ce contexte, il est nécessaire de valoriser la fonction sociale de l’agriculture en tant que productrice de valeurs hors marché et ancrées dans le territoire. La coopérative agricole peut être un vecteur d’innovation sociale et de développement rural dans les zones marginales en tant qu’organisation hybride qui, tout en s’inscrivant dans un contexte de marché et de profit, fonctionne selon une logique d’utilité sociale, orientée vers le soutien de ses membres et des communautés locales. Toutefois, il ne s’agit pas d’un processus automatique. Comment et pourquoi la coopération agricole émerge-t-elle et nperdure-t-elle sur un territoire? Quel est le rôle de la confiance? Dans quelle mesure les structures coopératives actuelles subissent-elles la dépendance au chemin emprunté? Comment les coopératives agricoles innovent-t-elles et quelles sont leurs limites? Cet article vise à répondre à ces questions à partir d’une étude de cas : le système coopératif de bergers sur une île rurale méditerranéenne.
... Güvene dayalı ilişkilerde normlar ortaya çıkmaktadır. Paylaşılan ortak hayatın kolaylaştırılmasına katkı sağlayan normlar ayrıca sosyal sermayenin üretim süreci ve devamlılığı için de gereklidir (Putnam, 1993). Kurulan ilişkiler aile, yakın arkadaş gibi sadece yakın çevreyle sınırlı ise bağlayıcı sosyal sermaye söz konusudur. ...
... Banks (2008) indicated that equivalent status among different ethnic groups is important for effective intergroup interactions and communication. Likewise, Putnam (1993) indicated that social networks must be organized horizontally among diversified groups in order for democracy to work. Engagement in different social groups provide a setting for civic interactions as well as a platform for addressing civic needs (Brennan et al. 2009). ...
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Marriage-related traditions and gender norms have been reinforced and reproduced in daily life thanks to marriage shows that have been shown since 2007 in the afternoon and have received great ratings from viewers. Until they were outlawed on April 29, 2017, these programs accounted for a sizable portion of daytime television in Turkey. There have been 12 distinct wedding programs broadcast on Turkish television during the day from 2007 to 2017. These reality show-style programs are the ones with the highest daytime ratings. The goal of this study is to determine whether patriarchy has changed and how masculine ideology orientations manifest in marriage counseling programs. The main goal of this research is to add to the body of knowledge in the social sciences related to gender stereotypes. The marriage programs have come under fire because they undermine social norms. By questioning "Kısmetse Olur", the most-complained-about marriage program to RTUK in 2016, this study is significant in the context of the acknowledgment of patriarchal attitudes toward marital practices. Studies on television and gender issues in Turkey and around the world were used to examine the show. The purpose of this study is to clarify how television plays a part in establishing gender norms and how those patterns are maintained. The study demonstrates how social behaviors are reflected on television while also revealing key details regarding the strength of the relationship between gender roles and the institution of marriage. In order to clarify how the traditions and practices become compatible with mass media, discourse analysis and qualitative content analysis are applied.
... Endogenous theories (new growth theory) and theories based on innovation (innovative milieu, regional innovation systems, clusters) of growth of countries and regions, and the theory of Schumpeter pointed out in particular such development factors as innovation, R&D in companies, investing in knowledge, local resources, human resources, learning, pro-innovation infrastructure, innovation networks, social networks, the benefits of agglomeration, clustering, creativity, entrepreneurship, the diffusion of knowledge, and the availability of external finance for entrepreneurs (Capello and Nijkamp 2009;Lucas 1988;Marshall 1890;Porter 1990;Putnam, Leonardi, and Nanetti 1993;Romer 1990;Schumpeter 1939) . ...
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Growth pole strategies have been undertaken in the world since the 1960s with mixed results. In the article a complex approach to this phenomenon is proposed and tested for Poland. The territorial growth pole is considered to be based on a system of developmental factors forming natural, financial, physical, intellectual, socio-economic and administrative types of capital that create suitable conditions for location of innovative branches and the positive externalities connected with them. Areas affluent in developmental factors forming the above forms of capital have the best results both in terms of GDP dynamics and its level.
... The most commonly agreed definitions for institutions is a set of formal (laws, contracts, regulations etc…) and informal or rules of conduct or tacit institutions (conventions, traditions, taboos, customs, norms of behaviour, self-imposed rules of conduct, individual habits, beliefs etc…) that facilitates co-ordination and govern relationships between individuals (North, 1990, World Bank, 2002. Furthermore, trust is an important category of institutions one requires to carry out exchanges among individuals and groups as it lowers transactions costs and has an enhanced capacity for collective actions (Coleman, 1988, Putnam, 1993. ...
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As a former colonial labour reserve, the periphery and less developed district compared with other districts in Mbeya region and Tanzania at large, Ileje is still a major area of rural-rural and rural-urban migration. Out- migration in the district is increasing despite the introduction of various land reforms and crop innovations aimed at increasing productivity. Migration from Ileje is also increasing despite the area being turned into autonomous district in 1975 (formally part of Rungwe district). Th is occurs despite the growth of trading centres and non-agricultural employment. Also, as a result of an increase of population pressure, the number of people migrating to search for livelihoods away from their areas of domicile is rising with time. Due to soil erosion, coupled with inadequate replenishment of soil nutrients after harvests, the productivity of the land suffers immensely. This severe land degradation and poverty have led the Ndali and Lambya people, the major ethnic groups in Ileje district, to migrate especially to Mbozi district. Therefore, by using 496 heads of the households sampled, this paper attempts to answer the research question: what are the determinants of migration in Ileje district? The major finding is that population pressure is a major determinant of out-migration in Ileje district particularly its Bundali division. This is because most of the heads of households in the area have less than one acre of land with poor quality. In fact, land shortage and fragmentation is a threat to the people in the district. In order to reduce excessive soil erosion people should be encouraged by the government and other stakeholders to conserve that environment by planting trees in steep slopes especially in Undali hills and sustainable use of forest resources by introducing improved cooking stoves as well as management of forests so as to reduce the rate of tree cutting for fuel woods and commercial logging.
... Social capital (SC). According to Professor Putnam's definition, social capital refers to the characteristics of social organizations, such as trust, norms and network forms [32]. Scholars point out that social capital can promote the sustainable development of public governance. ...
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Governance innovation is an important topic in public administration research. Based on the empirical evidence of governance innovation in China, this paper analyzes the pathways to the sustainability of project-driven innovation in urban grassroots governance and reveals its complex causal relationships. Using the selected cases, a multidimensional analysis framework is constructed, and the qualitative comparative analysis method of fuzzy sets is used. It is found that there are three combined paths for the sustainability of innovation, namely dependent development, social embeddedness and government–society cooperation. The first two paths are the most common for the sustainability of innovation, and they cover most of the selected cases. Case tracking also reveals that innovation driven by project operation can stimulate the behavior of grassroots governance innovation, but it does not guarantee the sustainability of the innovation. The sustainability of innovation requires more mobilization of the grassroots society to enhance social embeddedness. Moreover, this study results provide inspiration for the sustainability of innovation in the later stages of projects.
... Ostrom, (2010) menekankan pentingnya modal sosial sebagai nilai, pemahaman, dan aturan yang memelihara interaksi sosial antar kelompok individu dalam aktivitasnya. Pentingnya modal sosial juga diungkapkan secara luas oleh Putnam, Leonardi and Nanetti, (1992) di mana masyarakat memiliki kepercayaan, norma, dan jaringan sebagai atribut mereka untuk berkembang. Stanley, (2003) menekankan nilai-nilai dan kemauan untuk melakukan kerja sama antar individu untuk kesejahteraan semua anggota. ...
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Buku ini terdiri dari 15 (lima belas) bab yaitu: Bab 1 Konsep Dasar Manajemen Pariwisata Bab 2 Perencanaan Pariwisata Bab 3 Pengorganisasian Pariwisata Bab 4 Motivasi Pariwisata Bab 5 Pengendalian Pariwisata Bab 6 Pariwisata dan Perubahan Sosial Bab 7 Dampak Ekonomi Pariwisata Bab 8 Dampak Sosial Pariwisata Bab 9 Dampak Lingkungan Pariwisata Bab 10 Pemasaran Pariwisata Bab 11 Pengembangan Potensi Pariwisata Bab 12 Pembangunan Pariwisata Berkelanjutan Bab 13 Manajemen Kunjungan Wisatawan Bab 14 Modal Sosial Dalam Pariwisata Bab 15 Industri Pariwisata
... Fulkerson and Thompson (2008) identify a critical difference in how social capital is defined and used in social science research. Perhaps most common is the "normative" definition, in which social capital refers to collective networks and norms of trust and reciprocity (Coleman, 1988(Coleman, , 1990Putnam et al., 1993;Putnam, 2000). Brehm and Rahn (1997) offer a slight variation that defines it as the cooperative relationships that can resolve collective action problems. ...
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This study examines the effects of a COVID-19 outbreak on levels of social capital on a college campus, drawing on survey data collected from students at two colleges—one that experienced an outbreak and one that did not. Social capital is examined as an individual level resource and as a campus level normative tool used to fight collective action problems. We test the hypothesis that the outbreak, as a “shock” to the campus, diminished social capital. We also test hypotheses on gender, race, and ethnicity and social capital, informed by prior research. Our findings suggest that the outbreak did reduce social capital at both the individual and campus levels, though individual social capital had a mitigating effect that increased campus social capital. We find also that gender was significantly linked to campus social capital, while race was predictive of individual level social capital.
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Community public safety is facing great challenges in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. While helping communities identify crises and prevent risks, and improving community public safety governance, collaborative governance is changing the trends of a complex, uncertain, and ever-changing environment, and helping to drive communities toward higher levels of development and improved community sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to design a model of collaborative governance regime (CGR) that better fits the particular context of COVID-19 to enhance community safety and achieve sustainability of collaborative governance. This paper investigated and empirically analyzed the COVID-19 response in Chinese and Korean communities. It is found that collaborative dynamics can positively contribute to collaborative performance; collaborative dynamics can positively contribute to collaborative actions; collaborative actions can positively contribute to collaborative performance; collaborative actions play a partially mediating role between collaborative dynamics and collaborative performance; and there is heterogeneity in collaborative governance regimes in different system contexts. The paper suggests several insights: collaborative governance can deal with uncertainty and unpredictable turbulence; enhancing the capacity for joint action is more conducive to collaborative performance; and the role of government in collaborative governance is valued. Our study provides data support for validating the operating principles and internal logical relationships of collaborative governance and provides an empirical basis for responding to large-scale public crises in different contexts.
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In many democracies, gender differences in voter turnout have narrowed or even reversed. Yet, it appears that women participate more in some circumstances and men in others. Here we study how life trajectories – specifically, marriage and having children – will impact male and female turnout differently, depending on household-level context. To this end, we leverage a unique administrative panel dataset from Italy, an established democracy where traditional family structures remain important. Our within-individual estimates show that marriage increases men's participation to women's higher pre-marital levels, particularly so in low-income families. We also find that infants depress maternal turnout, especially among more traditional families, whereas primary school children stimulate paternal turnout. Exploring aggregate-level consequences, we show that demographic trends in marriage and fertility have contributed to recent shifts in the gender composition of the electorate. Together, our results highlight the importance of the family as a variable in political analyses.
Chapter
Institutions are durable, socially organized elements of social structure that meet social and individual needs and in return influence and maintain social order and the continuity of social life. Institutions shape all aspects of coexistence, including new media and virtual reality. They reflect social norms, social roles, and expectations, and therefore regulate social relations, organizing social life in a structured manner.
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This study examines the moderating effects of national female labor force participation, women in sport leadership positions, and female medalists in recent Olympic Games on women's probability to volunteer in sport. Based on social role theory and the similarity attraction paradigm, we predict that all three factors result in a higher probability of women to volunteer in sport, but with differences among age groups. Linear probability models before and after applying coarsened exact matching were estimated using data from the 2017 Eurobarometer (n = 18,529). The results show that women have a significantly lower probability to volunteer in sport in countries with high female labor force participation and a high share of women in leadership positions in sport organizations. The likelihood of women volunteering in sport is significantly higher in countries with a high share of female Olympic medalists. The age group‐specific analysis asking whether volunteering should be considered an investment in human capital by younger women and/or an acquisition of social capital by older women, reveals that a high presence of women among leaders in sport organizations and Olympic medalists is significantly positively correlated with the probability for young women to volunteer in sport. Managers and leaders of nonprofit sport organizations learn from our study that volunteering should be perceived as an investment in human capital by younger women rather than an attempt to acquire social capital by older women.
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This chapter does the following things. First, we provide an overview of conventional strategy tools. Since the genesis of the discipline from the early 1900s, strategic management produced some frameworks with enduring popularity. We focus on these concepts and explain how they work. Second, we trace the evolution of these frameworks over time with the specific purpose of identifying their theoretical underpinnings. The main purpose of doing this is to make clear what these frameworks can and cannot do. Third, we identify the strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks. Using the FRL classification developed in Chap. 2, we show how these frameworks are useful in specific domain(s). As uncertainty is the key attribute that makes the domains different from each other, we stress-test how capable these frameworks are in coping with conditions of high uncertainty.
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Civil religion as formulated in Robert Bellah’s seminal 1967 article, recalling Rousseau’s Social Contract, has recently been proposed to build shared values and bridge deep partisan divides. A competing approach to shared values, based on public reason, relies on overlapping consensus in the works of John Rawls. In this paper, we present an in-between strategy that recognizes the insuperable empirical and normative problems of civil religion while using university civic engagement programs to bring about a public square in which religious reasons are found alongside neutral ones, ultimately for the sake of public justification. Having documented recent polarization trends, we consider the last major attempt to defend civil religion from the perspective of democratic solidarity, Phil Gorski’s American Covenant, but believe it falls short: based on sociological work and Augustinian insights, we show the risk of domination that Gorski’s strategy still entails, not least because of the definitional indeterminacy of civil religion and its overlap with religious nationalism. Paradoxically, a late Rawlsian approach that allows for the initial use of religious reasons, with a generosity proviso of necessary translation into public reason at some point, can lead to a public square with more religious arguments than one theorized explicitly from the perspective of civil religion. This is especially important because, given the discussed polarization trends, universities have taken on an increasingly important civic engagement role even as some still rely on a civil religion approach. We insist on public justification in university civic engagement, and for the sake of doing so take as a starting point Ben Berger’s work in favoring civil engagement, which we define as combining moral, political, and social rather than exclusively political commitments. In proposing a novel university shared values mechanism, intended to expose learners to a maximum diversity of opinions and lived experiences, we offer a fresh approach to building trust in cohorts that increases the likelihood of true dialogue across difference.
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İşgörenlerin belirli bir bilgiye sahip olması işletmeler açısından tek başına yeterli değildir. İşgörenlerin içinde bulunduğu ortam, işyerindeki bağlar, ortak dil kullanımı, işgörenlerin motivasyonları işgörenlerin bilgi paylaşma niyetini etkileyen önemli unsurlar olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. İşletme literatüründeki sosyal sermaye çalışmalarına bakıldığında daha çok bilgi paylaşımı ile olan ilişkiye odaklanıldığı görülmektedir. Çok az araştırma sosyal sermayenin motivasyonu nasıl etkilediğini ve sosyal sermaye ile paylaşma niyeti arasındaki ilişkide bireysel motivasyonun rol oynayıp oynamadığını incelemiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, sosyal sermayenin bilgi paylaşma niyeti üzerindeki etkisinde bireysel motivasyonun aracılık rolünün araştırılmasıdır. Araştırmadaki veriler, İstanbul’da hizmet sektöründeki işletmelerde çalışan toplam 262 beyaz yakalı çalışandan elde edilmiştir. Nicel araştırma yöntemi uygulanmış ve veriler yüz yüze ve e-posta anket teknikleri ile elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada korelasyon analizinden ve regresyon testlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda sosyal sermayenin bilgi paylaşma niyetini ve bireysel motivasyonu pozitif ve anlamlı olarak etkilediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Aracılık rolüne dair analiz neticesinde bireysel motivasyonun sosyal sermaye ve bilgi paylaşma niyeti arasındaki ilişkide kısmi aracılık rolü olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Diğer bir deyişle çalışanların sosyal sermayeleri ve bilgi paylaşma niyetleri arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklamada bireysel motivasyon faktörlerinin de iyi anlaşılması gerekmektedir.
Chapter
Based on Bourdieu’s cultural capital argument, this chapter reviews a broad selection of literature on the impact of parental socio-cultural background on the provision of parental support and how this influences the intergenerational transmission of cultural capital and students’ musical development. Socialisation is a central way of facilitating the intergenerational transmission of cultural capital and requires significant levels of parental support to put into effect. Parental cultural capital and support for students’ cultural activities may contribute to their academic success (DiMaggio, 1982; DiMaggio and Mohr, 1985) and reproduce parents’ social status in students. Moreover, familial factors (e.g., parental educational attainment and cultural background) affect parental involvement in and support for students’ cultural development. Parents with diverse cultural backgrounds or social classes show different parental strategies for and parental support for students’ cultural development and music learning. Through parental support, parental cultural capital may be directly or indirectly imparted to students and displayed through students’ disposition towards high-brow culture and possession of cultural knowledge.
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Intergovernmental collaboration is essential for regionally coordinated air pollution prevention and control. An evolutionary game model of local government behavior strategy selection taking into account the fixed cost of the local government, the total amount of network production factors, and the total amount of total network factors of production that can be moved is built based on the social capital theory in order to realize the cross-border collaborative control of regional air pollution. The issue of an intergovernmental cooperation framework for collaborative prevention and control of large-scale air pollution is addressed from the standpoint of the multi-stakeholder “benefit–cost” drive. Additionally, the major variables influencing the behavioral approach selection for intergovernmental cooperation are considered. The initial sensitivity of the evolution path of the local government behavioral strategy is also analyzed. The results of this study are: (1) The primary elements impacting intergovernmental cooperation on joint prevention and control of air pollution are fixed costs and fixed benefits, and reducing the fixed costs of such cooperation in an appropriate manner without compromising local governments’ pollution control can do so. (2) Under the assumption that local governments have fixed expenses, the total amount of network factors of production and total network factors of production that can be moved factors of production have a direct impact on intergovernmental cooperation. When local governments’ fixed costs are constant, they are more likely to choose the cooperative behavior option if the sum of their network production factors and total network factors of production that can be moved is higher. (3) The initial probability of cooperation among the three parties and the total amount of production factors have an impact on the system’s ESS when local governments in the area have equal total production factors. The study’s findings can offer theoretical justification for the “profit-driven” intergovernmental coordination of joint prevention and management of air pollution.
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The climate change issue is showing an unprecedented level of awareness in the political realm. Changing occasional sustainable practices into stable behaviors is the challenge that policymakers face. However, what makes people environmentally aware is an unsolved question, and research on this direction is in evolution. This paper examines factors that promote environmentally responsible behaviors. The study tests the hypothesis that people's wellbeing (SWB) predisposes individuals toward environmentalism. The mechanism of social and civic capital may underlie this association since people reporting higher wellbeing levels show empathy, solidarity, and greater civic engagement. This hypothesis is examined in the context of the European Union using micro-data from the European Values Study—EVS (wave 2017–2022). Results support the hypothesis that people's life satisfaction is compatible with the environmental mindset, given that those who report higher wellbeing express civicness and share pro-environmental beliefs and values. Evidence from this research suggests that supporting SWB growth may offer a fertile ground for promoting ecological awareness and developing more sustainable societies.
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In Nepal, the lowest group in the Hindu caste system has been termed as Dalit. The Dalit women are a marginalized ground and continue to face caste and gender discrimination in society. In such circumstances, the Dalit women have started microfinance (MF) which have been effective in improving their income by starting businesses with small loans. The concept of social capital (SC), which is defined as trustworthiness, the norms and networks that enable people to act collectively, is getting more important in social development programs.The objective of this chapter is to verify the effectiveness of SC with specific reference to the MF programs practiced by Dalit women’s groups and investigate their relationships with Governmental Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s). This paper is based on field surveys including interviews conducted with Dalit women in Nepal from 2009 to 2018.The study concludes that the MF program and SC have synergistic effects, as a result of empowering such as awareness building, capacity building, and decision making on women’s group of the Dalits. It also found that NGOs have played an important role since they connect women’s groups and Nepalese geographic regions to the market economy and international networks. The empirical findings suggest that building SC through MF promotes sustainable development.KeywordsDalit womenEmpowermentMicrofinanceSocial capitalSustainable development
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In Israel, a large number and a wide range of non-governmental volunteering organizations exist in various fields. At the same time, due to the multiplicity of security incidents and other national crises, there are also numerous independent volunteer initiatives emerging within specific communities, small communities, or cities. Private initiatives that started as small volunteer aid have grown mainly thanks to the technological possibilities that enable the transfer of information about a crisis and the needs associated with it. This study examines the volunteers’ perception of effectiveness in a self-organized spontaneous setting, and their sense of belonging to the community and the State of Israel. This article presents a case study of unorganized, spontaneous volunteer activity in Israel in situations of stress and crisis. The study is based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews with those who engaged in spontaneous self-organized volunteer activity. The study findings show that mobilizing volunteers through WhatsApp messages strengthened the sense of effectiveness in performing the task, fostered the volunteers’ sense of belonging to their community, and contributed to the rapid achievement of the task. The study also highlights the socio-moral dimensions that intensify in such a volunteering process and the individual’s feelings about his place in society and his observation of society’s behaviour in general.
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El libro ofrece un análisis en profundidad del denominado síndrome NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) en el contexto de la implantación de servicios relacionados con las políticas de reducción de daños en drogas y, desarrolla una propuesta metodológica operativa consecuente con el tipo de análisis teórico propuesto. Así pues, se trata de un texto con una doble utilidad: por un lado, es una aportación al acervo teórico de las Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, pues no renuncian al análisis serio y riguroso del fenómeno; al mismo tiempo, es un libro que tendrá una gran utilidad social, pues podrá ser utilizado por los distintos técnicos, profesionales y administraciones (aunque éstas, como más cerca del nivel local, mejor) cara a resolver uno de los problemas relacionados con las drogas que con más frecuencia han conflictuado las relaciones sociales y obstaculizado el desarrollo de servicios o dispositivos de drogas de reducción de riesgos y daños en lo estos últimos años.
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The emergence and recurrence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2, which causes COVID-19) of unknown origin in Wuhan, China in late 2019 has become one of the most serious and complex crises in the world, including Hungary, since March 2020. The pandemic has brought extreme uncertainty and the ideal means to ensure protection against it is anything but clear. This paper sets out to review the policy challenges of coping with the COVID-19 pandemic, which was experienced as an exogenous shock in Hungarian society.
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It is often argued that rebuilding state capacity following intrastate conflict will serve to stabilize the post-conflict environment. Past scholarship has sought to formally model the effect of rising state capacity. Yet, two models of post-conflict environments produce conflicting expectations for the effect of state capacity on the commitment problem and the prospect for peace agreement implementation. This project summarizes the core logic of the two models, compares and contrasts their assumptions, and derives a set of hypotheses about the implementation of peace agreements. These hypotheses are tested using data from the Peace Accords Matrix. The empirical findings indicate that increases in military capacity are associated with lower levels of peace agreement implementation. However, increases in state capacity related to the rule of law are associated with higher levels of implementation. The starting level of coercive and administrative capacity appears to be uncorrelated with the degree to which peace agreements are implemented. This finding points to a possible early warning for peace agreement breakdown. Likewise, it suggests that state building may be less a driver of post-conflict success than it is a manifestation of the preferences of key actors.
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Pacific Island countries have among the lowest access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation services in the world. Due to geography, climate, the high frequency, and severity of disasters, transportation difficulties and resource constraints, government and private sector support to rural populations are limited and likely to remain so. However, the unique demographic characteristics of the region see considerable support flowing to rural areas from village kin in urban centres and overseas, hinged on strong socio-cultural norms of reciprocity, self-help, and obligation. Focusing on Fiji, this paper examines how select social networks are being used to support improved rural water and sanitation outcomes. Results demonstrate that kinship-orientated urban–rural linkages, select customary norms, relations and practices, common interest associations (such as village development committees), and select social media groups, all constitute critical components of the WaSH enabling environment in Fiji. Given the unique character of the Pacific Islands region, leveraging existing social networks to support improved rural water and sanitation outcomes may constitute a fruitful community water management ‘plus’ strategy for both governments and non-government organisations seeking to strengthen rural water and sanitation service outcomes.
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Current approaches to voting behavior in clientelist contexts either predict that clients leave their preferences aside for fear of having their benefits cut off or voluntarily support politicians they perceive to be reliable patrons. These two approaches cannot account for clients’ vote choices in the Sertão of Bahia, Brazil, where voters were free to choose among competing candidates but supported patrons they knew were unreliable. This article argues that clients voluntarily voted for bad patrons as a strategy to gain symbolic power in their negotiations with politicians. By explaining clients’ paradoxical choices in the Sertão, this article reveals how clientelism can persist without monitoring mechanisms or positive attitudes toward patrons. In addition, this study shows the importance of incorporating voters’ perspectives and their everyday survival strategies to better account for clients’ political behavior.
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Purpose This study aimed to investigate the association between participation in community seniors' organizations (CSOs) and mental health among retired adults in urban China, and illustrate the causal mechanism. Methods We collected data on participation from a community seniors' organization and mental health survey in Shenzhen City, China, in July 2022. The survey used a two-stage cluster sample design, based on administrative divisions as the primary sampling unit and communities as the second sampling unit, where retired adults were randomly sampled. The inclusion criteria were individuals >60 years old (the mandatory age for retirement in China) or women who retired early at the age of 45 years. We used three multivariable regression models to estimate the effects of participation in CSOs on mental health. Furthermore, we used structural equation models to examine the mediator of acquired interpersonal needs in the association between CSOs participation and mental health. Results The study examined the values of CSOs, generated explicitly for older adults and explained how participation in such organizations benefits retired adults' mental health. Mental health is defined in three dimensions: aggregate mental health, positive emotions, and negative emotions. The results show that constituting social networks with like-minded individuals and perceiving interpersonal needs are the two main benefits of CSOs on mental health. The retired individual who participated in CSOs with a higher level of diversity and frequency, joined specific types such as health- and study-related CSOs, could receive more interpersonal needs and were probably mentally healthier. The mediating mechanism of interpersonal needs associated with participation in mental health was significant. Besides, mental health is generally affected by physical health, sleep quality, and socioeconomic status. Conclusion This study suggested that CSOs have expanded the social interaction channels of retired adults and affected their mental health by providing basic interpersonal needs such as inclusion, dominance, and affection. Among the types of CSOs, health and study organizations might enhance mental health most effectively, while semi-official organizations have no effect.
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Rośnie liczba empirycznych dowodów na to, że kapitał społeczny przyczynia się do rozwoju gospodarczego w skali lokalnej i regionalnej i jest wszechobecnym składnikiem i wyznacznikiem postępu w wielu rodzajach projektów rozwojowych oraz istotnym narzędziem ograniczania ubóstwa. Współcześnie znaczenie kapitału społecznego dla gospodarki jest bezsporne. Powstało na ten temat wiele prac naukowych. Brakuje natomiast prac na temat narzędzi i sposobów jego pobudzania i rozwijania. Niniejszy artykuł podejmuje próbę wypełnienia tej luki.
Article
We synthesise the empirical archival research on the consequences of local social norms on accounting, finance, and corporate governance outcomes in an international setting. The literature reviewed is premised on the theory that corporations do not make decisions, but managers do, and managers are likely to be influenced by the socioeconomic environment of the region in which they operate and/or by the people with whom they interact. To provide a structure to our review, we identify social capital, religiosity, gambling norms, and corruption culture, as four constructs of local social norms and link these with financial reporting and external auditing, financial, investment, and dividend decisions, capital market consequences and finally, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility behaviour of firms. We highlight some limitations of the existing research and offer some suggestions for future research.
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