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The side effects of mass tourism: the voices of Bali islanders

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The side effects of mass tourism: the voices of Bali islanders

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Abstract

This research extends preceding academic efforts concerning the impacts of mass tourism to the socio-cultural well-being of the hosts. A total of 20 Bali islanders who have met the predetermined criteria were sampled. Results suggesting that mass tourism development not only influences the local environment, economy, and business governance but more importantly the people, culture, heritage, and traditions. Even though that mass tourism in Bali remains to offer financial opportunities and stimulating infrastructural growth, nevertheless, the opportunity costs that the tourism development of Bali has to bear is the trade-off of environmental, cultural, and social meaning to the local community.

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... Similar backlash was observed as local religious and cultural icons are absorbed into products for tourist consumption. As an example, Bali has to grapple with tourist intrusion into temples, performing sacrilegious acts on venerated temple icons (Adams, 2019;Chong, 2020). ...
... Similarly, the belief that cultural practices in Bali are being diluted had been noted by Chong, (2020) in his study among the local population in Bali. This is aggravated by the fact that overtourism had allowed for the practices of the visitors being increasingly accepted as the norm by the host population especially in areas receiving high number of tourist (Chong, 2017(Chong, , 2020Markwick, 2018). ...
... Similarly, the belief that cultural practices in Bali are being diluted had been noted by Chong, (2020) in his study among the local population in Bali. This is aggravated by the fact that overtourism had allowed for the practices of the visitors being increasingly accepted as the norm by the host population especially in areas receiving high number of tourist (Chong, 2017(Chong, , 2020Markwick, 2018). Dilution of cultural practices due to touristification brings in the debate of identity politics in Bali. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to intend to contextualize touristification with a focus on Asia. It argues that touristification in Asia extends beyond physical transformation and is used as a socio-political mechanism by the state and communities alike. This study aims to broaden the discussions on touristification by noting how the issue of authenticity and state intervention is approached in Asia. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on literature review, sourced from academic material discussing touristification and the influence of tourism. Findings Aside from undertaking physical changes, states in Asia adopt a socio-political angle in the commercialization of culture for tourism so that the culture that is presented to tourists is aligned to its national image. The construction of culture and narration of history for tourism branding predominate touristification in Asia. Conversely, minority culture had also used cultural touristification in asserting their identity, as can be seen in South Thailand and Bali, Indonesia Also, hybridization and recreation of cultural activities in Asia contribute to the evolving debate on authenticity in tourism within Asia. Practical implications The paper suggests the implication of state intervention in branding and commodification of tourism among minority communities in Asia. Originality/value The paper contributes to an extended discussion on touristification by contextualizing the issue within Asia.
... Lundup (2018) states that the authorities and tourism developers are continuously exploiting host culture to revive and reinvent their identity. Similarly, Chong (2020) stresses that in Bali, a mass tourism hotspot, cultural ceremonies have been reshaped so that they would fit into such timing that tourists would not lose interest. These examples bring light on how tradition advertisement happens because of crowded tourism. ...
... Thirdly, crowded tourism increases tension between the host and the guest while creating disregard in tourists about the host culture which leads to negative perceptions of visitors in hosts. Respondents to Chong's (2020) study emphasized that mass tourism raised tensions between locals and guests, and hosts believed that this was because of the misbehavior of tourists towards the local culture and identity. Results from this survey shows that dislike among hosts and guests is derived from overtourism. ...
... Furthermore, this abandonment causes a traditional shift in the region as visitors fill up the remaining buildings from fleeing inhabitants. Di Lernia (as cited in Chong, 2020) asserts that as mass tourism expels locals, historic and religious buildings will gradually become converted according to the culture of incomers. As a result of this, overtourism exerts gradual dilution and oblivion of cultural practices among locals. ...
Research
Full-text available
A research into the notion of mass tourism was conducted to determine whether the benefits of mass tourism outweigh its negative aspects. It was concluded that mass tourism's harmful effects were more impactful than its benefits.
... For developing countries, especially if the industrial development is not good, usually the tourism sector still has a large contribution to the state revenue (Akis, 2011). For example, in Bali, Indonesia, tourism is even able to contribute around 60-70% to the local economy, creating broad employment opportunities, and attracting investment both locally and internationally (Chong, 2020). Thus, in general, tourism is considered to have an important role in improving the quality of life (Garau-Vadell et al., 2018). ...
... Mass tourism also drives an increase in demand for clean water supply. This condition has a significant impact on water scarcity (Chong, 2020). In various historical objects, mass tourism has a negative impact in the form of mechanical damage and conflicts of use (Drdácký & Drdácký, 2010). ...
... In addition, it also becomes a heavy social burden due to increased crime, prostitution, and other social problems (Das & Chatterjee, 2015). Mass tourism in Bali, for example, has had a significant impact: 1) a big burden on waste management, 2) traffic congestion, 3) cultural dilution, 4) tourist misbehaviour (Chong, 2020). In the shallow ecotourism scenario, the number of tourists increased by 103.3% (from 12,584 people to 25,587 people). ...
Article
Full-text available
As a freshwater swamp forest that still remains in Java, the existence of Rawa Danau as an ecotourism destination is important to be explored, because its utilization is not yet based on sustainable management principles. For this reason, a system dynamics modeling was then made that integrates various factors in the biophysical, social, and economic dimensions to obtain the best alternative for managing the future ecotourism destinations. Management alternatives are designed in three scenarios: deep ecotourism oriented to very strong/strong sustainability; shallow ecotourism oriented to weak sustainability; and mass tourism oriented to very weak sustainability. The results showed that deep ecotourism was the most suitable scenario to be implemented. Through this scenario, the control of several parameters that were successfully carried out during the 10 years of the simulation are as follows: 1) restrain the growth rate of tourist numbers so as not to burden the environment; 2) reforesting almost all forest land converted so that the restoration of forest functions goes well; 3) increase local community income so that the community gets adequate economic benefits; 4) increase environmental investment so that stakeholders benefit economically, ecologically, and socially in an integrated manner; 5) maintaining biodiversity at a high level; 6) maintain swamp water reserves at a very good level; 7) reduce the volume of solid waste so that it does not burden the environment.
... For developing countries, especially if the industrial development is not good, usually the tourism sector still has a large contribution to the state revenue (Akis, 2011). For example, in Bali, Indonesia, tourism is even able to contribute around 60-70% to the local economy, creating broad employment opportunities, and attracting investment both locally and internationally (Chong, 2020). Thus, in general, tourism is considered to have an important role in improving the quality of life (Garau-Vadell et al., 2018). ...
... Mass tourism also drives an increase in demand for clean water supply. This condition has a significant impact on water scarcity (Chong, 2020). In various historical objects, mass tourism has a negative impact in the form of mechanical damage and conflicts of use (Drdácký & Drdácký, 2010). ...
... In addition, it also becomes a heavy social burden due to increased crime, prostitution, and other social problems (Das & Chatterjee, 2015). Mass tourism in Bali, for example, has had a significant impact: 1) a big burden on waste management, 2) traffic congestion, 3) cultural dilution, 4) tourist misbehaviour (Chong, 2020). In the shallow ecotourism scenario, the number of tourists increased by 103.3% (from 12,584 people to 25,587 people). ...
Article
Full-text available
As a freshwater swamp forest that still remains in Java, the existence of Rawa Danau as an ecotourism destination is important to be explored, because its utilization is not yet based on sustainable management principles. For this reason, a system dynamics modeling was then made that integrates various factors in the biophysical, social, and economic dimensions to obtain the best alternative for managing the future ecotourism destinations. Management alternatives are designed in three scenarios: deep ecotourism oriented to very strong/strong sustainability; shallow ecotourism oriented to weak sustainability; and mass tourism oriented to very weak sustainability. The results showed that deep ecotourism was the most suitable scenario to be implemented. Through this scenario, the control of several parameters that were successfully carried out during the 10 years of the simulation are as follows: 1) restrain the growth rate of tourist numbers so as not to burden the environment; 2) reforesting almost all forest land converted so that the restoration of forest functions goes well; 3) increase local community income so that the community gets adequate economic benefits; 4) increase environmental investment so that stakeholders benefit economically, ecologically, and socially in an integrated manner; 5) maintaining biodiversity at a high level; 6) maintain swamp water reserves at a very good level; 7) reduce the volume of solid waste so that it does not burden the environment.
... Rapid increase in tourism could provide a good source of income [88,89], but uncontrolled tourism would also degrade the local environment [88,90]. Mass tourism has considerable negative environmental impacts and threatens local biodiversity, and thus ultimately can degrade the ecosystem [91,92]. ...
... Rapid increase in tourism could provide a good source of income [88,89], but uncontrolled tourism would also degrade the local environment [88,90]. Mass tourism has considerable negative environmental impacts and threatens local biodiversity, and thus ultimately can degrade the ecosystem [91,92]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Trophy hunting and mass tourism are the two major interventions designed to provide various socioeconomic and ecological benefits at the local and regional levels. However, these interventions have raised some serious concerns that need to be addressed. This study was conducted in Khunjerab National Park (KNP) with an aim to analyze comparatively the socioeconomic and ecological impacts of trophy hunting and mass tourism over the last three decades within the context of sustainability. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with key stakeholders and household interviews were conducted to collect data on trophy hunting and mass tourism, and on local attitudes towards these two interventions in and around KNP. The results revealed that 170 Ibex (Capra sibirica) and 12 Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) were hunted in the study area over the past three decades, and trophy hunting was not based on a sustainable harvest level. Trophy hunting on average generated USD 16,272 annual revenue, which was invested in community development. However, trophy hunting has greatly changed the attitudes of local residents towards wildlife: a positive attitude towards the wild ungulates and strongly negative attitude towards wild carnivores. In addition, trophy hunting has reduced the availability of ungulate prey species for Snow leopards (Panthera uncia), and consequently, Snow leopards have increased their predation on domestic livestock. This has, in turn, increased human–snow leopard conflict, as negative attitudes towards carnivores result in retaliatory killing of Snow leopards. Furthermore, according to official record data, the number of tourists to KNP has increased tremendously by 10,437.8%, from 1382 in 1999 to 145,633 in 2018. Mass tourism on average generated USD 33,904 annually and provided opportunities for locals to earn high incomes, but it caused damages to the environment and ecosystem in KNP through pollution generation and negative impacts on wildlife. Considering the limited benefits and significant problems created by trophy hunting and mass tourism, we suggest trophy hunting should be stopped and mass tourism should be shifted to ecotourism in and around KNP. Ecotourism could mitigate human–Snow leopard conflicts and help conserve the fragile ecosystem, while generating enough revenue incentives for the community to protect biodiversity and compensate for livestock depredation losses to Snow leopards. Our results may have implications for management of trophy hunting and mass tourism in other similar regions that deserve further investigation.
... There are some land use implications of the different types of tourism that may serve as guidance for the case of land planning for stargazing tourism [55]. Mass tourism has been shown to have a large impact on land resources because it requires large accommodation facilities, while niche market tourism has been associated with a more modest or integrated occupation of the territory, sometimes attending to the concept of carrying capacity as in the case of some ecotourism destinations [85][86][87]. Thus, in order to focus on sustainable development, stargazing tourism needs to ascertain what are the land use requirements in terms of the facilities demanded by tourists and which need to be implemented in the territory [88]. ...
... The results are also consistent with other research that has shown that stargazing tourism has the potential to raise the competitiveness of destinations, by enhancing the tourist experience and excitement with nature [16,104]. In this regard, planning land resources for stargazing tourism should take care of the environmental impacts that can lead to unsustainable processes of tourism development [87,88,105]. When planning land resources for stargazing tourism, special care should be taken in controlling the flow of tourists so that the valuable experience of night sky observation is not damaged by congestion or environmental impacts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Stargazing tourism is an expanding market niche that requires the development of territorial resources for its implementation and attraction. This paper’s objective is to investigate the preferences and willingness to pay of tourists for the development of strategic land resources for stargazing tourism activities. The field work was conducted on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands), which is promoting the territorial development of infrastructures for stargazing tourism. A random sample of 734 tourists were interviewed in person on-site in December 2019 following the methodology discrete choice experiments that enabled an estimation of tourists’ preferences and willingness to pay for the implementation of key land resources for stargazing. The data are modeled using a latent class model that allows for the consideration of heterogeneous preferences. The results show that there are three groups of tourists with different preferences for land resources of stargazing observation. These segments are respectively related to the interests in culture, active, and astronomic tourism. Those tourists in the active stargazing segment share the largest proportion of the market and favor the implementation of facilities that allow the combination of active tourism with stargazing. The results are useful for land product development and territorial strategies aimed at positioning destinations in the identified demand niches of stargazing tourism.
... The conclusions of the literature on residents' attitudes towards tourism are mostly negative; that is, the residents' negative attitudes towards tourism are found. Tourism has brought sufferings, such as cultural dilution [62] and resource plundering [63], to the locals. The literature on the (negative) impact of tourism on the community provides the following three insights: first, improving resident wellbeing and quality of life can support residents' hospitality towards tourists, thereby leading to tourists' satisfaction and repeat tourism; second, the situation between locals and tourists remained tense, and locals forced themselves to be marginalized by keeping silent; third; fortunately, the locals have not shut themselves down completely, meaning that the locals are seeking opportunities from the tourism industry to sustain their livelihoods. ...
... Chong (2020) [62], based on the case analysis of Bali, noted that the suffering caused by tourism to local people includes (1) [ 69] c. From the perspective of residents (resident engagement and their wellbeing) ...
Article
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A large body of evidence suggests that sustainable destination development (SDD) is not only multidisciplinary but interdisciplinary as its research involves the integration of knowledge, methods, theories or disciplines. The word inter- is a “dangerous” one as it implies a “dangerous connection” attempting to reconcile irreconcilable people (i.e., North institutions and South institutions), but it is also very inclusive as, for example, economic behavior is related to social background and cultural issues. Although a common view is that SDD is interdisciplinary, what disciplines does it cross exactly? With the attendant “semantic confusion”, research on SDD is working in different directions, but what exactly does the existing research take as its object of study? What are the leading themes and perspectives in the field? How do we evaluate these diversification efforts? Trying to add one more seems redundant. We believe that after nearly two decades of productive scholarship, it is now time to try to identify some potential paradigms in SDD. A content-analysis-based literature review to explore previous studies is undoubted of value, as these diverse efforts point to current trends in SDD research. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory and descriptive analysis of the literature on SDD from 2015–2020 to provide specific indications for its interdisciplinary character. As a result, a total of 175 articles in 31 crucial journals from 2015 to 2020 are reviewed. Based on content analysis, five leading themes and five leading perspectives in the SDD literature were identified. We adopted an immanent critique method to discuss our findings. We appeal for consensus instead of definition and balance instead of choice in the discourse of SDD. We suggest ways in which past academic research can be used smartly and point out some important but neglected areas to stimulate a more creative research production.
... Rapid increase in tourism could provide a good source of income [88,89], but uncontrolled tourism would also degrade the local environment [88,90]. Mass tourism has considerable negative environmental impacts and threatens local biodiversity, and thus ultimately can degrade the ecosystem [91,92]. ...
... Rapid increase in tourism could provide a good source of income [88,89], but uncontrolled tourism would also degrade the local environment [88,90]. Mass tourism has considerable negative environmental impacts and threatens local biodiversity, and thus ultimately can degrade the ecosystem [91,92]. ...
Article
Simple Summary: Trophy hunting and mass tourism were introduced to Khunjerab National Park, northern Pakistan to generate income for the community and help conserve and sustain the ecosystem in the region. These initiatives have provided economic benefits, but only at the cost of other environmental problems, as both trophy hunting and mass tourism have resulted in various ecological issues. Trophy hunting has not been based on scientific population data and has thus not helped increase numbers of wild ungulates or wild carnivores. Although mass tourism has increased enormously in this region, it has damaged the ecosystem through pollution generation and negatively impacted wildlife. We suggest that trophy hunting should be stopped, and mass tourism should be shifted to ecotourism as a sustainable solution to help improve the ecosystem, while generating income for the local community. Further studies are required to investigate ecotourism as a potential mitigation measure for the conservation issues in this region. Abstract: Trophy hunting and mass tourism are the two major interventions designed to provide various socioeconomic and ecological benefits at the local and regional levels. However, these interventions have raised some serious concerns that need to be addressed. This study was conducted in Khunjerab National Park (KNP) with an aim to analyze comparatively the socioeconomic and ecological impacts of trophy hunting and mass tourism over the last three decades within the context of sustainability. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with key stakeholders and household interviews were conducted to collect data on trophy hunting and mass tourism, and on local attitudes towards these two interventions in and around KNP. The results revealed that 170 Ibex (Capra sibirica) and 12 Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) were hunted in the study area over the past three decades, and trophy hunting was not based on a sustainable harvest level. Trophy hunting on average generated USD 16,272 annual revenue, which was invested in community development. However, trophy hunting has greatly changed the attitudes of local residents towards wildlife: a positive attitude towards the wild ungulates and strongly negative attitude towards wild carnivores. In addition, trophy hunting has reduced the availability of ungulate prey species for Snow leopards (Panthera uncia), and consequently, Snow leopards have increased their predation on domestic livestock. This has, in turn, increased human-snow leopard conflict, as negative attitudes towards carnivores result in retaliatory killing of Snow leopards. Furthermore, according to official record data, the number of tourists to KNP has increased tremendously by 10,437.8%, from 1382 in 1999 to 145,633 in 2018. Mass tourism on average generated USD 33,904 annually and provided opportunities for locals to earn high incomes, but it caused damages to the environment and ecosystem in KNP through pollution generation and negative impacts on wildlife. Considering the limited benefits and significant problems created by trophy hunting and mass tourism, we suggest trophy hunting should be stopped and mass tourism Animals 2020, 10, 597 2 of 20 should be shifted to ecotourism in and around KNP. Ecotourism could mitigate human-Snow leopard conflicts and help conserve the fragile ecosystem, while generating enough revenue incentives for the community to protect biodiversity and compensate for livestock depredation losses to Snow leopards. Our results may have implications for management of trophy hunting and mass tourism in other similar regions that deserve further investigation.
... Air travel is a key contributor to Green House Gas Emissions (van Goeverden et al., 2016) and increased tourism arrivals have resulted in increased CO 2 emissions at destinations (Koçak et al., 2020). Aside from contributions to global climate change, in terms of the impact of mass tourism, it is evident that a 'trade-off' between economic and infrastructure development and adverse impacts on the environment, people, culture, and heritage often exists (Chong, 2020). This is particularly true for developing countries such as Indonesia (Chong, 2020). ...
... Aside from contributions to global climate change, in terms of the impact of mass tourism, it is evident that a 'trade-off' between economic and infrastructure development and adverse impacts on the environment, people, culture, and heritage often exists (Chong, 2020). This is particularly true for developing countries such as Indonesia (Chong, 2020). Slow tourism has the potential to balance this 'trade off' by stimulating local economies through increased duration of visitor stays, purchasing of local products and food, staying in small-scale accommodation, and participating in activities that minimise adverse environmental impacts (Dickinson & Lumsdon, 2010). ...
Article
Slow tourism is a holistic tourism concept that promotes sustainability in all aspects of a traveller’s journey. Slow tourism promotes positive outcomes for local communities such as stimulating local economies and minimising aversive environmental impacts; however, little is known about what the term ‘slow tourism’ means to tourists. The current study analysed 600 user generated images including the hashtag ‘slowtourism’ on Instagram to determine the locations and activities associated with slow tourism on the social media platform. Images were coded for geotag location and elements including landscapes, architecture, and transport. Results indicated most images were from Italy and France, and while some trends emerged such as images commonly featuring natural landscapes and architecture, there was substantial variance of content within these trends which suggests that people are associating a variety of types of tourism destinations and architecture with slow tourism. However other elements of slow tourism such as culinary experiences and transportation choices were evident less frequently. This research highlights how social media can be used to effectively investigate trends and future research opportunities within the tourism sector.
... Uncontrolled tourism has negative consequences for the environment and degrades the environment [143,144]. Environmental degradation is partly due to the generation of solid waste pollution in the region [145]. Moreover, emissions from the transport vehicles of tourists are responsible for degrading the air quality [146]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Sultan, H.; Rashid, W.; Shi, J.; Rahim, I.u.; Nafees, M.; Bohnett, E.; Rashid, S.; Khan, M.T.; Shah, I.A.; Han, H.; et al. Horizon Scan of Transboundary Concerns Impacting Snow Leopard Landscapes in Asia. Land 2022, 11, 248. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020248
... Advances in tourism can bring significant gains in the context of ensuring the development of society in social, cultural, environmental and economic terms (Edson, 2004;Aquino et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2020). On the other hand, the increase in tourism-related activities brings many negative consequences to a destination, such as excessive consumption of natural resources and damage to cultural assets (Postma and Schmuecker, 2017;Rasoolimanesh et al., 2017;Drius et al., 2019;Chong, 2020). In response, residents who feel that they are part of the tourism development process in a region, will often try to minimize negative consequences and maximize the positive contributions of tourism development. ...
Article
Purpose Heritage tourism is vital to the preservation of cultural resources and economic growth and tourism can be utilized to protect and promote cultural heritage. However, if cultural heritage tourism is not developed following sustainable development principles, it can negatively affect a region's cultural legacy. This study aims to analyze expert opinion on sustainable heritage tourism in the geographical setting of North Cyprus. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative method was used to conduct in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews with seven heritage tourism experts in North Cyprus. Theme analysis of the transcripts was undertaken and triangulated utilizing the automated content and thematic analysis capabilities of the Leximancer software program. Findings The analysis revealed six themes in descriptions of sustainable cultural heritage tourism provided by the experts. These are “history”; “promotion”; “institutions”; “protection and maintenance”; “museums” and “technology”. Originality/value This is one of the first studies to analyze the key aspects affecting the long-term viability of cultural heritage tourism in North Cyprus.
... udaya pertanian di Balipun turut terancam kelestariannya (Adnyawati, 2019). Selain itu, pembangunan hotel dan villa yang tidak terkontrol juga berkontribusi terhadap terjadinya krisis air di Bali. Penggunaan air tanah yang berlebihan oleh akomodasi pariwisata tersebut menyebabkan pemakaian air melebihi kapasitas siklus hidrologinya (D. Chong, 2019;K. L. Chong, 2020;Dhae, 2019;J. Smith, 2018;Wardana, 2019). ...
... Mass tourism has created a demographic phenomenon that congregates a high density of people into a relatively small and confined space (Chong, 2020;Dodds and Butler, 2019;Dodds and Butler, 2022). For example, locations such as Hanauma Bay (Hawaii, USA), Maya Bay (Krabi, Thailand), La Concha Bay (Biscay, Spain), Playa Delfines (Cancun, Mexico), and Trunk Bay (U.S. Virgin Islands) can see between 2,000 to 15,000 people per day (Downs et al., 2011;Castillo-Pavon, 2017;Downs et al., 2021aDowns et al., , 2021bKainthila et al., 2022). ...
Article
In 2019, sands in nearby runoff streams from public beach showers were sampled on three islands in the State of Hawaii and tested for over 18 different petrochemical UV filters. Beach sands that are directly in the plume discharge of beach showers on three of the islands of Hawaii (Maui, Oahu, Hawai’i) were found to be contaminated with a wide array of petrochemical-based UV-filters that are found in sunscreens. Sands from beach showers across all three islands had a mean concentration of 5,619 ng/g of oxybenzone with the highest concentration of 34,518 ng/g of oxybenzone at a beach shower in the Waikiki area of Honolulu. Octocrylene was detected at a majority of the beach shower locations, with a mean concentration of 296.3 ng/g across 13 sampling sites with the highest concentration of 1,075 ng/g at the beach shower in Waikiki. Avobenzone, octinoxate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and benzophenone-2 were detected, as well as breakdown products of oxybenzone, including benzophenone-1, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, and 4-hydroxybenzophenone. Dioxybenzone (DHMB) presented the highest concentration in water (75.4 ng/mL), whereas octocrylene was detected in all water samples. Some of these same target analytes were detected in water samples on coral reefs that are adjacent to the beach showers. Risk assessments for both sand and water samples at a majority of the sampling sites had a Risk Quotient >1, indicating that these chemicals could pose a serious threat to beach zones and coral reef habitats. There are almost a dozen mitigation options that could be employed to quickly reduce contaminant loads associated with discharges from these beach showers, like those currently being employed (post-study sampling and analysis) in the State of Hawaii, including banning the use of sunscreens using petrochemical-based UV filters or educating tourists before they arrive on the beach.
... This reliance on the global tourism industry has created significant benefits for the island, including an impressive reduction of the overall poverty rate, but also created a range of social-economic, environmental and cultural problems (Lewis & Lewis, 2009;Pickel-Chevalier, Violier, Parantika, & Sartika, 2017;Rindrasih, Witte, Spit, & Zoomers, 2019). From the 1990s onwards there have been constant worries about cultural dilution and landscape transformation among the locals, especially in villages nearby tourist attractions, in relation to capital-intensive tourism development (Chong, 2020). This development accelerated as part of a planned national programme. ...
Article
Full-text available
The island of Bali and its cultural heritage have been inseparably entwined with the global tourism industry. In recent years, outbound tourism from India and China to Bali has skyrocketed, but very few studies examine this important development. This article uses the concepts of ‘affinity tourism’ and ‘exotic tourism’ to discuss and analyse the contemporary relationship between the large Chinese and Indian tourism influx and the different historical and cultural layers that constitute the Asian tourist gaze towards Balinese cultural hotspots. In particular, the article concentrates on Bali's newest tourist attraction, the recently unveiled Garuda Wisnu Statue in the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Cultural Park in south Bali, to examine the cultural touristic experiences for Indian and Chinese tourists visiting this site. It shows that Bali’s cultural heritage and its representations have many different historical and religious roots, and do not necessarily generate the same enthusiasm or feelings of cultural similarity and affinity for all Asian tourists.
... The trash issue is a severe problem on the island as there is a lack of sewage and garbage treatment (Kossmann, 2015). This is in line with previous studies (Chia et al., 2018;Chong, 2020;Jitpakdee & Thapa, 2012) that found a lack of marine waste management on islands. The trash in the ocean can entangle, entrap or be eaten by marine species. ...
Article
Nusa Penida is not only the leading diving destination in Indonesia but also one of the most famous diving points in Southeast Asia. However, it is not a mature tourist area due to its unsustainable tourism development. Furthermore, the problems experienced by diving tourism businesses in this area have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study aims to explore the challenges that affect tourism sustainability in the scuba diving tourism industry in Nusa Penida, from the perspective of dive operators. Drawing on qualitative data collected through 10 semi-structured interviews with diving operators, seven themes emerged from the study (i.e. environmental issues, lack of trained staff and guides, water sport activity, lack of enforcement, lack of government support, unhealthy competition, and irresponsible operators). These findings are expected to provide substantial theoretical and practical implications for researchers, diving business managers, and local governments in sustainable business management.
... Literature focused on residents' behaviours, shown in Table 3, correspondents to almost one third (27%) of the analysed publications. It often refers to urban heritage, for instance, measuring factors affecting residents' support for sustainable heritage tourism development (e.g., [81,[161][162][163]). Centred on built heritage, Cai and Lu [164] determined aspects affecting residents' social integration in historic blocks, while Judson et al. [165] analyse how residents balance energy needs and heritage significance in renovation processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research addresses the performance gap between intentions towards a sustainable conservation of built heritage and its actual implementation. Socio-psychological models of human behaviour, such as the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), have been studying this dissonance between intention and behaviour, and allow to recognise latent critical factors. This paper provides a systematic literature review of research publications on the intersection of the topics of human behaviour, heritage, and sustainability. It aims to analyse how the TPB has been used in the field of sustainable conservation of built heritage. The studies are categorised according to the type of heritage, main actors targeted, aims, and methodology. A total of 140 publications were analysed. The results show a recent field of research. In the domain of built heritage conservation, behaviour is commonly addressed as a synonym of performance, targeting the building itself. Most publications relating socio-psychological constructs of behaviour and heritage sustainability can be found in the tourism and hospitality field, focusing on tourists' and residents' behaviours. The review shows that practitioners are still absent from the literature. However, research addressing other stakeholders shows that the theoretical framework can play an important role in the implementation of sustainable conservation practices in the built heritage.
... Additionally, the sociocultural impacts of tourism are related to interactions between people who have different cultural backgrounds, attitudes, and behaviours (Carneiro et al., 2018). Moreover, building facilities and investing in the arts and culture, as well as developing a holistic approach to increasing community pride are examples of these effects (Chong, 2020;Özel & Kozak, 2016). ...
Article
This paper aims to systematically review and analyze the current research on tourism impacts on destinations during 2016-2020. The Scopus database was used to search for tourism impact studies. The study evaluated 80 published articles to identify different types of tourism impacts and subthemes to indicate their pattern. The majority of the studies examined economic, sociocultural, and environmental dimensions, both positively and negatively. Often, the political, technological, and tourism aspects were neglected. Therefore, a thorough analysis of tourism consequences will offer new tourism views in economic, sociocultural, environmental, political, and technological dimensions. Moreover, the most used theory to study the tourism impact is Social Exchange Theory (SET). In addition, this study highlighted the use of quantitative research to analyze tourist impact on destinations. Equally important, it was found that the majority of scholars conducted tourism impacts on residents’ perceptions. The findings can highlight the directions for future studies on tourism impacts and provide practical implications to manage tourism development in destinations in a sustainable direction
... The social bonding that arises in the form of attachment to the local community and its traditions makes it difficult to de-identify from the social culture [32]. While IOM do lead to new, and perhaps more opportunities for livelihood, the trade-off with the social culture [33] is something significant and can lead to opportunity costs for the people involved. Designing sustainable IOM is possible by balancing it with user research and lead to a real combination of design, industry and social culture [34]. ...
Article
This paper presents an ontology which encapsulates 6,480 pathways for sustainable social development through innovation of materials (IOM). After reviewing evolution of perceptions on IOM, and their strong links with society and its sustainable development, different dimensions of an ontological framework are identified and deliberated upon leading to the comprehensive ontology. As illustrated by a few examples presented in the paper, the ontology can be applied to develop a roadmap for future research while balancing IOM according to the relevance and potential impact on sustainable social development.
... Another factor that reduces the RBS of RTM is mass visits. Although mass traveling could create significant income for owners of housing, flats and hotels, the masses of visitor inflows bring notable negative impacts to the host's settlements (Chong, 2019). Indeed, mass religious-tourism in RTMs leads to physical changes and ecological damages in accommodation (Abdollahi and Abbasi, 2016). ...
Article
In light of the importance of religious-tourism metropolises (RTMs), and the lack of research about the residential buildings sustainability (RBS) of these cities, the study aims to identify the dimensions of RBS that have received less attention in previous studies and examine both the level of RBS and the correlation between less noticeable sustainable dimensions in a case of the Region-one of Mashhad RTM, as a hub of tourism and pilgrimage. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to analyze the research data. The research instrument used was the structured questionnaire, using a five-point Likert scale. The data collected through the relevant documents , experts' consensus opinion, and respondents were analyzed respectively with NVivo software ver. 10, Delphi technique and SPSS software ver. 22.0. The findings of this paper highlight that despite numerous articles on the diverse aspects of RBS, the physical and environmental dimensions have been taken into account less than other aspects such as socio-cultural or economic sectors, and the studied residential buildings in physical and environmental dimensions scored at the medium and high levels of sustainability, respectively. Also, there is a strong positive linear correlation between the physical and environmental dimensions.
... Tourism in these areas have been predominantly facilitated by large hotels and megaresorts, which are owned by ex-patriots and provide limited benefits to local people. Mass tourism within Bali has also been associated with water pollution due to insufficient waste management, as well as water scarcity and loss of ecologically diverse and agriculturally productive land (Chong, 2020). ...
Article
Bali, Indonesia sits within the coral triangle and is internationally recognised for its high coral reef diversity. The health of Bali’s marine ecosystems has declined in recent decades, and this is thought to be due to threats from climate change, destructive fishing practices, pollution, outbreaks coral eating invertebrates, coral disease and unsustainable tourism. As a response, multiple conservation strategies have been introduced by the island’s communities, non-government organisations and governments, with the aim of preventing further decline, as well as restoring already degraded coral reefs. This literature review provides an in-depth analysis of the tools used to conserve Bali’s coral reefs, and compares them to those used in other countries. In light of international ‘best practice’ in coral reef conservation, this review makes suggestions on how Bali could better conserve its coral reef ecosystems. These include (1) increasing its designation of official Marine Protected Areas (MPAS) and strengthening management of existing ones, (2) creating an MPA network, (3) substantially reducing marine plastic pollution, (4) continuing artificial reef construction in degraded habitats, (5) continuing to develop Bali as an ecotourism destination, (6) increasing engagement in global science to inform marine conservation decision-making, and (7) developing more marine monitoring programmes.
... [3] The rise in tourists also demands a plentiful supply of water, which triggers a conflict between the tourism industry and local communities. [16] The reason why the Bali tourism industry prefers mass tourism is for economic benefit. Mass tourism also easier to bring profit than cultural tourism, as suggested by SCETO. ...
Article
(Title: Axiological Reflections on Noam Chomsky’s and M.A.K Halliday’sLanguage Theories). This article is meant to philosophically reflect Chomsky’s and Halliday’s language theories by focusing on the axiological dimension of their theoretical constructs, that is, what are the hidden values therein. To draw basic sketches of their theoretical constructs, their ontological and epistemological assumption are explored. Furthermore, Gruenberg’s axiological scheme is adopted to discuss them. From the chains of reflection, it is found that in Chomsky’s the positive pole of human­language relation exists in language with internal, mental, logical-objective, formal, neutral, innate, certain, transparent, stable, alogarithmic and closed or un-contextual characteristics. The superior language is scientific, positivistic and logical language. Meanwhile, in Halliday’s the positive pole exists in language with practical, external, semiotical, social, cultural, participatory, concrete, critical, dynamic, discursive, authentic, interpretative and open or contextual. The superior language is authentic language which is rich of signification.Key words: axiology, language theory, Chomsky, Halliday
... Achievement of tourism appears when then sector of the travel industry starts to consider and faith in the ability owned by the destination island. During certain period, there was a quick growth of tourism within the island of tourisms (Chong, 2020;Dolezal & Miezelyte, 2020;Karmini, 2020;Shavit, 2019). Numerous destinations are consequently active to evolve the growth of tourism and to enhance the entire destination quality, joint with learning behaviour of tourists for the purpose to be competent to contend with various destinations concerning the created trips and traveling, entire image and whether or not public suggests the destination to other people (Castro et al., 2007;San Martín & Del Bosque, 2008). ...
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The study aimed to examine the impact of nature activities, cultural activities, recreation activities, and infrastructure development on tourism development along with the moderating effect of destination quality in context of tourism industry. The quantitative approach using purposive sampling was used for collecting data that was further analyzed using PLS-SEM. The current study had helped in a wide range and provided various theoretical and empirical findings for the advancement of research regarding tourism development and destination quality affects its development. This study had provided in-depth knowledge regarding how different tourism activities could help in enhancing the experience and tourism-host interaction was also highly identified. The results showed that destination quality negatively moderates the relationship between policy for cultural activities and tourism development while destination quality does not moderate the relationship between policy for infrastructure development and tourism development. Moreover, the results also showed that the relationship of policy for nature activities and policy for recreation activities with tourism development has been positively moderated by the destination quality. The paper in the end included the policy implications along with limitations and future recommendations.
... The development of tourism in the form of mass tourism brings along many negative economic, socio-cultural, and environmental problems at tourism destinations and on the local people living in the region (Chong, 2020). Solving these problems with a socially innovative approach is important for both the sustainable development of tourism (Moscardo, 2008) and the economic development of the local people, reducing poverty and increasing social welfare. ...
... [3] The rise in tourists also demands a plentiful supply of water, which triggers a conflict between the tourism industry and local communities. [16] The reason why the Bali tourism industry prefers mass tourism is for economic benefit. Mass tourism also easier to bring profit than cultural tourism, as suggested by SCETO. ...
... The publication illustrated how Bali, one of the most visited tourist destinations in the world, faces severe environmental problems such as water scarcity and waste management (Hutton 2019). Severe environmental problems have emerged in developing countries due to mass tourism development that neglects the carrying capacity of the environment -and this situation has worsened with inefficient tourism management in these countries (Nugroho et al. 2021;Holden 2017;Obrador 2017;Chong 2020). ...
Article
Using the political ecology approach, we investigated the Indonesian government’s decision to commercialize protected areas (PAs) and promote its tourism sector aggressively, and examined how this commercialization is enabled through various institutions and governing structures. We confirmed that the commercialization of PAs in Indonesia was an alternative accumulation, dealing with the crisis of capitalist accumulation. Our empirical finding showed that the commercialization of PAs in Indonesia had detimental environmental and social impacts, such as deadlocks or monopoly or management, and environmental deterioration. This commercialization pattern was different from accumulation by conservation in other regions, such as Africa, where local people were deprived of their access to the means of production, consequently becoming laborers in the tourism industry. In Indonesia, local people were given access to resources; however, as these resources were of little value, they became laborers in the tourism industry. Further research is needed to test whether different patterns of accumulation by conservation also apply to other types of PAs in Indonesia, such as national parks and customary forests, including various coral reef conservation areas in remote and small Islands used as tourist attractions.
... Research literature is actually rich in publications related to mass tourism in island regions, elaborating on a number of different dimensions or repercussions of this resource-intensive model on that particular type of region. Indicative topics explored are the: environmental and socio-cultural impacts of mass tourism on islands [31]; residents' quality of life [32]; aspects related to alternative forms of tourism on islands [33]; linkages of tourism with cultural heritage [34]; cooperation, stakeholders' participation and leadership in cultural tourism planning [35]; climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic and their impacts on (mass) tourism [24], to name but a few. ...
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Global key drivers—e.g., climate change, COVID-19 outbreak—have initiated critical debates as to the sustainable future pathways of many regions around the globe. Among these fall islands, as distinct types of regions that are marked by insularity drawbacks and a mono-sectoral economic profile, grounded in mass tourism. Having as a case study area all Greek islands, this work addresses: sustainability concerns that are due to the mass tourism repercussions in these heritage-endowed territories; and efforts undertaken by the Greek insular municipalities to deploy, in a collaborative manner, strategic cultural tourism plans in support of the transition from a resource-intensive mass tourism pattern to natural and cultural heritage-led future developmental trails. Towards this end, a two-stream methodological approach is used that relies on: quantitative, spatially-defined data elaboration/interpretation and visualization, highlighting the dynamics of tourism development in island territories; and qualitative data on issues related to the aforementioned plans from all insular municipalities, gathered through a web-based questionnaire. Research results unveil the unsustainable spatial and developmental patterns of Greek insular contexts and the shortage of mainstream planning expertise for collaboratively establishing attractive cultural-tourism ensembles. These factors restrain sustainability achievements and the repositioning of Greek islands in the global scenery as authentic heritage-led destinations.
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The importance of the tourism sector to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) relies on their "islandness". Tourism contributes to its socioeconomic development in many ways. However, their heavy dependence on foreign entities and expertise has encumbered processes that ensure greater local control, ownership, participation, and avoidance of leakages. Unshackling these dependencies is one of the biggest challenges faced by SIDS in their quest to self-determination and emancipatory futures. The article argues that new pathways and trajectories have to be found to induce the required change where sustainability and inclusivity become fundamental for self-determination, social justice, and a just tourism. The article suggests the establishment of specific island policies that support sustainability and Community-based Tourism (CBT). The suggestions also include the establishment of a regional CBT hub for Islands within a region. This article is a conceptual paper based on secondary data, journal articles, books and government documents. Rezumat. Turismul durabil și turismul comunitar în insulele mici: o analiză a politicilor Importanța sectorului turistic pentru micile state insulare în curs de dezvoltare (SIDS) se bazează pe "insularitatea" lor. Turismul contribuie la dezvoltarea socio-economică în multe feluri. Cu toate acestea, dependența mare față de entitățile și expertiza străină a împiedicat procesele care asigură un control local mai mare, proprietatea, participarea și evitarea problemelor. Renunțarea la aceste dependențe este una dintre cele mai mari provocări cu care se confruntă SIDS în căutarea lor de autodeterminare și a unui viitorul emancipator. Articolul susține că trebuie găsite noi căi și traiectorii pentru a induce schimbarea necesară în care durabilitatea și incluziunea devin fundamentale pentru autodeterminare, justiție socială și un turism corect. Articolul sugerează stabilirea unor politici insulare specifice care să susțină sustenabilitatea și turismul comunitar (CBT). Sugestiile includ, de asemenea, înființarea unui hub regional CBT pentru insulele dintr-o regiune. Acest articol este o lucrare conceptuală bazată pe date secundare, articole de specialitate, cărți și documente guvernamentale.
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This paper develops a theoretical model for oligopolistic competition in the hotel industry for sun and beach destinations. The aim of the model is to identify in which cases the market structure is biased towards luxury hotels with high‐quality investment levels or towards medium and low‐quality hotels with cheaper prices. The willingness to pay and the number of customers in each income‐level segment and hotels' location are the most relevant factors in understanding the market structure. These determinants of market structure are relevant not only for market participants but also for policymakers with responsibilities in designing tourism policies.
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The coronavirus pandemic has disturbed industries globally. Unlike agriculture and manufacturing, the services sector, particularly tourism, which primarily involves social activities requiring human interaction, is devastated. Against the backdrop of measures to contain the pandemic, travel behaviors have altered. Without an effective recovery plan, the effect of the pandemic on tourism may be felt over a prolonged period of time. With the objective of contributing to a better understanding of how tourism can recover, we use systems thinking to recommend interventions to help restart local tourism. Through causal loop diagrams, we argue that rebooting tourism is key to rebooting the economy. We propose insights for policy action well before the crisis deepens and permanently derails the tourism industry.
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The emerging body of knowledge has indicated the positive relationship between spirituality and corporate social responsibility (CSR), yet our understanding of how spirituality can play a role in CSR in general, and in tourism in particular, remains limited. This research takes a qualitative case study approach to the role of spirituality-inspired CSR by providing an empirical investigation of tourism businesses in Bali, Indonesia, where the Hindu based Tri Hita Karana philosophy drives its cultural identity. A total of 20 qualitative interviews and two focus groups were conducted with Bali tourism stakeholders including businesses, government, community and NGOs. The findings show that spirituality plays an important role in CSR in Balinese tourism in three dimensions, namely (1) as a key element of the broader social and cultural context to create a conducive external environment for CSR; (2) as a CSR driver to inspire business leaders; and (3) as a complement to CSR governance, though with limitations. This research contributes to the literature by providing an empirical narrative that demonstrates strong multi-layered links between spirituality and CSR and the implications for tourism destinations in spirituality-oriented cultures. © 2018
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The study examines economic and environmental impacts of mass tourism on regional tourism destinations, particularly the establishment of “Ten New Bali”, in Indonesia. The sample is restricted to the period of time in which annual data is available and comparable among variables from 1980 to 2015 (36 observations). All of the time series data was collected and retrieved from the World Development Indicator database published by the World Bank. This study applies cointegrating regression analysis using the fully modified OLS, canonical cointegrating regression, and dynamic OLS. The results of the study suggest that 1) there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between tourism receipts, environmental degradation and economic growth in Indonesia, 2) tourism growth and agriculture land growth are positively related to an increase of total output in the short-run in Indonesia, and 3) arable land is significant at the 0.01 level, but forest rents and CO2 from transport are not significant in the short-run in Indonesia. The results confirm that arable land is negatively related to an increase of total output in Indonesia. That is, when tourism growth in the economy is getting realized it shows that the environmental degradation increases greatly in inverse in the model, eventually negative impacts to the environment.
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Bali is famous as the tourist destination in the world. Ironically, most of the people of Bali thought that tourism in Bali is a failure. The negative impact showed on modernization in South Bali, including Denpasar, Kuta, and Ubud. Cultural imperialism has shifted local culture in many aspects, especially the traditional houses and buildings. The climax of this problem is the development of Benoa Bay Reclamation, where the sacred location for the traditional ceremony will be built for new tourism development that offers pleasure and leisure. This raised hard protest from the people of Bali. They are also afraid that the Balinese cultural and natural environment will vanish. On the other hand, some movement of sustainable tourism in North Bali, that ran by the local community has also arisen. What is tourism? Is it only for pleasure and leisure only? This research will discuss the rethinking of tourism definition with Bali as a reflection case. The purpose of this paper is to find its right definition with qualitative methodology. A more sustainable tourism that more on local context would be a research result.
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Tourists' green behavior has recently attracted much academic interest. The majority of the existing studies use quantitative research methods and explore how tourists' cognitive and emotional factors influence their environmental actions. This study assesses tourists' green behavior from a unique perspective, that is, how hosts at rural Chinese B&Bs interact with tourists and shape their sustainable actions. The research team analyzed why the rural hosts are motivated to promote tourists' green behavior, and identified the strategies they pursue to convince the tourists to be more sustainable. Guzhu Village, well known for its rural tourism and popular with senior tourists in the Yangtze River Delta, was the site for the study. Auto-ethnography was used as the key research method. It was found that both tangible and intangible environmental benefits motivate the hosts to guide tourists' sustainable behavior. Hosts specifically structure some leisure activities and use compelling signage to both promote positive environmental actions and simultaneously enhance tourists' satisfaction. This is the first study to emphasize the active roles of the hosts in shaping tourists' green behavior through dynamic social interaction. The findings highlight the processes, such as humor and social approval, which have broad international applicability. Further, it was noted that the hosts employ 'face', a distinctive Chinese concept, to limit tourists' less-desirable behaviors. Practical implications are also offered for sustainable destination management.
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Prior research, using correlational and self-report methodologies, suggests that religion and public welfare function as alternate security/insurance systems. Consequently in countries with more expansive public welfare systems people report less religiosity. The present studies expand this field by utilizing experimental methodology and by replicating and extending two previous experiments in both a secular/welfare state context (Sweden) and a religious/non-welfare state context (the United States). In the first set of experiments, we tested if cognitive access to religious and welfare-related mental schemas differ depending on context. We also tested whether previous findings indicating that people cognitively turn to religion when exposed to threat replicate and extend to the welfare system. In the second set of experiments, , we tested whether religious and welfare reminders lead to increased risk-taking in these contexts. Our findings show that participants in the secular/welfare state context had lower cognitive access to religious schemas and were less willing to take risks after religious reminders. However, our findings did not replicate those from previous studies; our participants did not have increased cognitive access to religion, nor public welfare, after threat primes. Similarly, our participants were generally not more prone to risk-taking after reminders of religion (or public welfare), although such an effect was obtained specifically on high-religious participants. We conclude that cultural context is important to consider when studying psychological functions of religion, and we suggest that the failed replications may be due to cultural, contextual factors. Finally, religious reminders may have contradictory influences on risk-taking.
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This article contributes to extant knowledge by analysing differences in the attitudes towards tourism of residents living in several micro-destinations (cities) within a larger tourism destination, and by using a new approach, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Results show that a significant part of the gap in attitudes among cities is explained by residents’ perceived tourism impacts; the relevance of each of them in generating gaps is also identified and quantified. However, there is also a significant community adjustment to tourism impacts source of gap, different among cities
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By 2014, it became apparent that a popular debate was emerging in many destinations about the “annoyances” felt by local residents in the face of an upsurge in inbound tourism. This study investigates residents’ attitudes toward mass tourism and tourism development in Macau. It comprises an examination of three emotional solidarity factors of residents’ perceptions of the contribution of tourism to the community and the community's experiences of so-called “annoyances” from tourists that may ultimately influence residents’ attitudes toward community tourism development. The results of this study reveal that three emotional solidarity factors play different roles in influencing residents’ attitudes about community tourism and community tourism development. The theoretical contributions, as well as implications, are discussed and future research opportunities are proposed.
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Grounded theory was developed by Glaser and Strauss who believed that theory could emerge through qualitative data analysis. In grounded theory, the researcher uses multiple stages of collecting, refining, and categorizing the data. The researcher uses the strategies of the making constant comparisons and applying theoretical sampling to obtain a theory grounded in the data. The justification of this paper is to provide discussion on the validity of grounded theory and the constant comparative method as effective research strategies for educators. The qualitative design of grounded theory will be the focus of this paper, along with a discussion of the constant comparative method, issues related to trustworthiness, and limitations inherent in grounded theory methodology.
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The role of local agricultural products to support sustainable tourism in Bali is really important. This study was undertaken to ascertain the priority strategy that need to be implemented based on the criteria of sustainable tourism through optimizing the use of local agricultural products to reduce tourism leakage in order to be able to support sustainable tourism in Bali. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was undertaken which is a method to solve a complex situation which is not structured into several components in a hierarchical arrangement, by giving the subjective value of the relative importance of each variable, and specify which variable has the highest priority in order to affect the outcome of the situation. The study was conducted to analyze the priority strategy based on eight experts’ opinion which was conducted in Bali Province during the period of July up to October 2014. Seven criteria were constructed based on the basic concept of sustainable tourism namely economically viable, socially and culturally acceptable and environmentally friendly and eight alternative strategies were formed. The results show that the most important strategy was to develop agriculture, livestock, fisheries and handicrafts. The following recommended strategy was to optimize the potential of local product, and to empower the community. © 2016, International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All Rights Reserved.
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This study examines 83 IS qualitative studies in leading IS journals for the following purposes: (a) identifying the extent to which IS qualitative studies employ best practices of justifying sample size; (b) identifying optimal ranges of interviews for various types of qualitative research; and (c) identifying the extent to which cultural factors (such as journal of publication, number of authors, world region) impact sample size of interviews. Little or no rigor for justifying sample size was shown for virtually all of the IS studies in this dataset. Furthermore, the number of interviews conducted for qualitative studies is correlated with cultural factors, implying the subjective nature of sample size in qualitative IS studies. Recommendations are provided for minimally acceptable practices of justifying sample size of interviews in qualitative IS studies.
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This paper is a social-ecological systems (SES) analysis of tourism and water inequity in Bali. It uses Elinor Ostrom’s SES model to look at the particular niche of Bali’s tourism and water nexus. Re-analysis of previous qualitative research revealed that the vulnerability of the SES was due to numerous characteristics. In particular, user groups are highly diverse, transient and stratified, thereby inhibiting communication and knowledge sharing. This, in combination with weak governance systems and the economic power of the tourism industry, interact to affect declining water resources and the iniquitous impact of this. Whilst there are obvious indications that Bali’s water resources are over stretched, there is no feedback loop to the institutional structures that would help enable appropriate responses from the user groups or governance system.
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The relationship between tourism development and citizens' trust in government is an under-researched area. This study developed a model that established theoretical relationships between important variables of tourism development and two types of political trust: political trust in the specific context of tourism and general level of political trust. Findings suggest a significant relationship between the two constructs. Results indicate that communities should feel empowered in tourism, should be knowledgeable of the sector, and should derive benefits from development for them to trust local government. The most important lesson of the study is that if the tourism sector is properly managed and developed, it can have beneficial political effects for governments such as increasing their legitimacy vis-à-vis citizens. The paper argues that like defense and social policies, tourism development have a determining impact on political trust and the industry therefore deserves more respect among political scientists.
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Tourism development is a double-edged sword for local communities and attitude directly affects the current and future tourism industry development. Community positive attitudes will encourage tourists’ satisfaction levels and contributes to the word-of-mouth promotion among them. Therefore, the involvement and the participation of the host community are pertinent towards the success of the tourism development plan. The findings of the study indicated that the Tioman Island community supported future tourism development based on the personal benefit they received. It is a clear statement that the role of the residence is necessary to support tourism development and maintain its robust growth.
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Tourism development in Indonesia aims to alleviate poverty, to conserve nature, environment and resources, to develop culture, to improve nation's image, and to strengthen relationship with other country. Bali as the leading tourism destination in Indonesia is able to increase welfare of its people from tourism sector, however in tourism development there are many things to be care of in order to achieve Bali tourism sustainable for the future. There are some issues arise as impact of tourism development. An issue on tourism development in Bali is it is blamed as a cause of damage in agriculture sector as the land use has significantly changes. Also, tourism also creates impacts to culture. Some efforts have been made to reduce the negative impacts of tourism, including the empowerment of local community on tourism development. This paper aims to show how local community empowerment has been made possible through tourism. The paper also gives some case studies. Empowerment of the community will become a main key for tourism development because with empowerment and involvement of the community in tourism development, the community where the tourism is developed will participate in keeping their culture and nature so that at the end the sustainable tourism development will be reached and maintain.
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This chapter focuses on tourists’ ethical behaviour, offering an alternative view to the purely rational perspective of ethical choice by taking into account the role emotions play in the decision-making process. Many acknowledge the potential negative impacts of a growing tourism industry and, despite concerted efforts, a gap still exists with regard to our understanding of consumers’ ethical choice processes, as they often act in contradiction to their expressed ethical concerns. This chapter demonstrates the importance of emotional experiences, not only in motivating and reinforcing tourists’ ethical choices, but also as an integral part of the core consumption experience.
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Building on the model by Perdue, Long, and Allen, this study examined residents’ attitudes toward existing and future tourism development in several rural areas at different stages of tourism and economic development. Social exchange theory and destination life cycle model were used to examine the impacts of tourism development on residents’ attitudes when considered in conjunction with a community’s total economic activity. New social predictors and endogenous factors were tested in the model. Overall, residents of three distinct rural county-level areas were supportive of tourism development, and little evidence was found that suggests that attitudes toward tourism become negative with higher levels of tourism. After considering the level of tourism development in conjunction with the total economic activity, residents of the three county-level areas showed some signs of destination life cycle influencing their own relationship with tourism.
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This article revisits the question of tourism’s role in the commodification of culture. I argue that an acceptance of a cause and effect relationship between tourism and cultural commodification requires an acceptance of a problematic notion of ‘authenticity’. This is because the belief that tourism causes cultural commodification is based on a largely unexamined reliance on Marx’s labor theory of value, source of what Barbara Herrnstein Smith has referred to as a ‘double discourse of value’, in which an intrinsic and sacred cultural sphere of value is presumed to circulate independent of an unstable and profane economic sphere of value. Given the social fact that everything, including ‘culture’, is a potential commodity, it would be useful for research to focus on how individuals and groups in host societies gain access to new forms of exchange rather than simply on the fact of commodification.
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Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) is an ACE (adventure, cultural and ecotourism) high altitude destination. Many researchers argue that tourism development in the region is not sustainable and does not comply with ecotourism concepts. They report that SNP suffers considerable environmental, sociocultural and economic impacts. Health issues, despite the number of ailments commonly experienced by tourists, remain neglected in tourism literature. This study aims to investigate the health consequences of visiting SNP. Seven hundred and fifty questionnaires were given out during three separate seasons in 1999, of which 448 completed usable questionnaires were returned giving a 59.7% response rate. The results showthat despite good travel preparation, the majority of tourists (89.4%) suffer some form of health ailment. The most common ailments are mountain sickness, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhoea and respiratory infection. The study also shows several significant relationships between the incidence of health ailments and demographic profiles, motivation and satisfaction. It proposes that for high altitude ACE destinations like SNP, health issues should be a core component of destination management in order to ensure the sustainability of tourism development. High risk groups should be identified and tourism education should be targeted to both tourists and locals.
Book
Tourism, Tourists and Society provides a broad introduction to the inter-relationship between tourism and society, making complex sociological concepts and themes accessible to readers from a non-sociological academic background. It provides a thorough exploration of how society influences or shapes the behaviours, motivations, attitudes and consumption of tourists, as well as the tourism impacts on destination societies. The fifth edition has been fully revised and updated to reflect recent data, concepts and academic debates: • New content on: mobilities paradigm and the emotional dimension of tourist experiences. • New chapter: Tourism and the Digital Revolution, looking at the ways in which the Internet and mobile technology transform both tourist behaviour and the tourist experience. • New end-of-chapter further reading and discussion topics. Accessible yet critical in style, this book offers students an invaluable introduction to tourism, tourists and society.
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Bali faces serious environmental crises arising from overdevelopment of the tourism and real estate industry, including water shortage, rapid conversion of agricultural land, pollution, and economic and cultural displacement. This article traces continuities and discontinuities in the role of Indonesian environmental impact assessment (EIA) during and since the authoritarian ‘New Order’ period. Following the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, the ‘Reform Era’ brought dramatic changes, democratizing and decentralizing Indonesia's governing institutions. Focusing on case studies of resort development projects in Bali from the 1990s to the present, this study examines the ongoing capture of legal processes by vested interests at the expense of prospects for sustainable development. Two particularly controversial projects in Benoa Bay, proposed in the different historical and structural settings of the two eras—the Bali Turtle Island Development (BTID) at Serangan Island in the Suharto era and the Tirta Wahana Bali Internasional (TWBI) proposal for the other side of Benoa in the ‘Reform Era’—enable instructive comparison. The study finds that despite significant changes in the environmental law regime, the EIA process still finds itself a tool of powerful interests in the efforts of political and economic elites to maintain control of decision-making and to displace popular opposition forces to the margins.
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Recently, the sharing economy has made a disruptive incursion into the tourism industry. Companies like Airbnb or Wimdu have successfully developed platforms that grant access to accommodation in private homes. However, it seems that conflicts with locals have arisen in different destinations. This study provides an explanatory model to show how the perception of the impacts of the activity influences residents’ attitudes and support. The model was examined using a sample of 1,088 residents in Tenerife (Spain). Results confirm that resident support is directly and positively affected by their perception of the social and cultural impacts, and especially by the economic impacts. It has not been possible to prove the influence of their perception of environmental impacts. Evidence has been gained that perceptions strongly depend on whether locals benefit personally from the activity, and to a lesser extent on their attitude toward the sharing economy and on the state of the local economy.
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Over the past few decades, research focus in hospitality marketing and management has been shifting from product development approach to understanding consumer product evaluation in the purchase decision and the factors that are likely to influence customers' decision making process. As the field experiences maturity and scientific sophistication, it is important for hospitality marketing and management researchers to fully understand the breadth and depth of existing knowledge, the stages of development the field have experienced in the past few decades and the future of hospitality marketing and management research. Therefore, this short opinion piece aims to provide a brief overview of development of the hospitality marketing and management research throughout the last few decades and then discuss some of the topics that might be examined/studied by hospitality marketing and management researchers in the near future.
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Securitisation theory has contributed greatly to critical security studies. However, the Copenhagen School’s focus on discursive analysis fails to answer the “so what” question of why issues are securitised and for whose benefit. This article contends that more nuanced explanations can be provided by taking seriously the political economy context within which the process of securitisation is embedded. The article has two aims. First, it contributes to further refining securitisation theory by embedding Balzacq’s pragmatic act – which implies that securitising actors gain the assent of an audience based on a shared view of vulnerabilities – within a broad social conflict analysis. This latter can explain the socio-political struggles that create popular support for securitisation, and what social groups benefit from it. Second, it contributes to explanations of Bali’s contemporary political economy by operationalising the refined approach to explain how struggles over the spoils of tourism have created a receptive audience among a cross-class section of Balinese for the securitisation of “outside influences” – a euphemism for migrants, non-local investors and Western cultural influences. Securitisation has resulted in conservative elite groups marginalising progressive voices; “traditional” institutions being favoured in accessing state resources; and in a policing landscape in which migrants are harassed and exploited.
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In our study of the “perceptions–attitudes–behaviours” sequence, we explain how resident perceptions of tourism’s impacts on host communities influence not only their attitudes towards tourism, but also their attitudes towards tourists – i.e. a new variable that has recently been introduced in literature. Moreover, we introduce the behavioural support, a concept that denotes a higher level of involvement and engagement of residents with their communities in comparison with the traditional attitudinal support. Our results indicate: (1) the residents’ perception of the positive economic and cultural impacts of tourism are the main variables influencing their attitudes towards tourism and tourists; and (2) both types of attitudes influence on behavioural support for tourism in host communities.
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Conventionally, wine tourism is mainly popular in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the Europe regions. Interestingly, Thailand, despite being a young wine-producing country, has emerged as a potential wine tourism provider within the Southeast Asia regions. This research aimed to evaluate the competitiveness of Thailand wine tourism’s within its regional growth. Porter’s Four Diamond Model was used as a tool to assess this industry competitiveness. Three wineries in Thailand were visited and qualitative approaches comprising interview and observation were utilized as the means of data collection. Triangulation was used to analyze the reliability of the data gathered. The finding showed that wine tourism in Thailand was still an infant industry as most tourists and tourism operators were still not aware of the product offered. However, the wineries themselves had already owned the competency to serve the market.
Article
Valletta, European Capital of Culture 2018 offers the prospect of cultural tourism development and attracting more visitors. However, tensions and opportunity costs potentially arise in planning such change. Strategies could be to intensify or diversify Valletta’s cultural tourism during the run-up to 2018; however, their appropriateness could differ in terms of competitive advantage, social inclusivity and sustainability. This paper focuses on the rationales for different approaches to tourism product development, adopting a broad relational perspective on product assembly that directs attention to the relationships, processes and contexts involved. Analysis suggests that innovative, experimental combinations of selected forms of intensification and diversification are needed to avoid locally insensitive cultural change and unsustainable tourism development.
Article
Mass tourism, which has traditionally been associated with an unsustainable use of natural resources and intensive land use, is frequently identified as a major environmental stressor in coastal regions. Nonetheless, mass tourism resorts typically have a compact and vertical urban configuration and have been shown to make more efficient use of water resources than other low-density tourist destinations. This article investigates how the main variables identified by the literature as determinants of water consumption by hotels influences water efficiency in hotels in Lloret de Mar, a well-known mass tourism destination on the Costa Brava in Spain. The results of a generalized linear mixed model show that large, high-rise hotels that attract thousands of tourists annually also benefit from economies of scale in terms of water efficiency.
Book
Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management is a unique text, which links these three crucial areas of tourism - impacts, planning and management. Tourism impacts are multi-faceted and therefore are difficult to plan for and manage. This title looks at all the key players involved - be they tourists, host communities or industry members - and considers a number of approaches and techniques for managing tourism impacts successfully. Now in a third edition, this bestselling text has been fully revised to include: New material on: terrorism, sustainability, climate change, sex tourism, heritage tourism, theories of tourism planning and GIS. New chapter on Destination Planning and Management. Updated tourism data and statistics. Case studies on urban tourism, pro-poor tourism, cruise ship tourism, coral reef tourism, historic monuments, eco-labels, codes of conduct and sustainable tourism from both developed and developing regions, including Australia, Iceland, Spain, the UK, Namibia, the Arctic and Antarctica.. A companion website including PPTs, video and web links.. The text is written in an accessible style and includes a plethora of features that engage and aid understanding. This accessible yet academically rigorous introduction to tourism impacts, planning and management is essential reading for all tourism students.
Article
Mainland Chinese consumers are increasingly crossing borders to purchase luxury brands. However, a large influx of tourists to a given destination has the potential to impact the quality of life of local residents. In this research, the influx of Mainland Chinese visitors (particularly those purchasing luxury products) to Hong Kong was investigated using a case study approach. How Hong Kong residents perceive this phenomenon and how it affects Hong Kong as a whole were topics of particular interest. The case study involved observations of Mainland consumers purchasing in Hong Kong shopping malls, in-depth interviews, and a focus group with Hong Kong residents, and compiling data from documents and video sources. The results are categorized into three themes: the economy, the environment, and attitudes. While the purchases boost Hong Kong's economy and generate profits for luxury goods retailers, Hong Kong people were found to have negative perceptions of the Mainland consumers' activity. This is because of the negative effects on daily life in Hong Kong. The Mainland consumers were found to be unintended endorsers of luxury brands, which negatively impacted their image among Hong Kong people. Based on the findings, theoretical implications are built up. In addition, the implications of these findings for public policymakers and luxury brands both in Hong Kong and elsewhere are discussed and recommendations for further research are made.
Article
Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management is a unique text, which links these three key areas of tourism: impacts, planning and management. Tourism impacts are multi-faceted and therefore are difficult to plan for and manage. This book looks at all the key players involved - be they tourists, host communities or industry members - and considers a number of approaches and techniques for managing tourism successfully. Divided into four parts, this text discusses: * The growth, development and impacts of tourism* Tourism planning and management: concepts, issues and key players* Tools and techniques in tourism planning and management: education, regulation and information technology* The future of tourism planning and management: issues of sustainability and the futureUp-to-date, international case studies are used, for example the impacts of 9/11 and terrorism in Bali, to illustrate and provide a real-life context for the theories discussed. Exercises are also included to consolidate learning.
Article
With the rapid growth of tourism worldwide, the path towards sustainable mass tourism has become a critical issue for many destinations. Unlike most developed countries, China has its particular context and is testing a process of sustainable tourism development implemented through top-down institutional arrangements, using strict control systems to pursue both natural resource conservation and economic growth. Through a systematic analysis of the path towards sustainable development of a typical nature-based mass tourism destination, Huangshan Scenic Park, this research explores its successes and challenges. It finds that the Chinese government-dominated mass tourism nature-based development model has brought a dual structure with modern efficient management patterns at the core site and municipal scales, and a backward unsustainable situation at the community scale. It also reveals that this model risks running into a potential path-dependency trap, which creates barriers for an integrated resource- and community-based development. The study argues that while the government-dominated and learning-by-doing approaches toward sustainability are practical, the lack of integrated and systematic planning leading to transformation of the destination society as a whole may lead to a suboptimal situation, with problems exported out to surrounding inadequately managed villages and buffer zones. Parallels with other countries are discussed.
Article
This paper studies the urbanization impacts on tourism development in four regions Guangdong province, using time-series data of Guangdong province in China in 1996-2011. Urbanization has been operationalized by population, economic, geographical landscape and social cultural dimensions. This study suggests that urbanization, though in general increases tourism development, does not affect different regions in Guangdong uniformly. Tourism development in different regions will receive different impacts from urbanization. Therefore, policy-makers, while promoting tourism development, should be aware of the different levels of impact of urbanization towards tourism development.
Article
The article discusses the definition of richness and what it meant to zoologist and Harvard professor Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz. Agassiz taught his students to see the richness in objects or activities. The author uses a forest fire disaster that occurred in 1949 at the Mann Gulch to illustrate the importance of richness. There were so many factors and complex interactions that contributed to the fire that an analysis of the situation results in some lessons that can apply to other observable important moments.
Article
The involvement of host communities (or destination residents), particularly in developing countries, is critical to the success of tourism development and to the creation of a “Just Destination”. This paper investigates host community perceptions about obstacles to their participation in tourism development in Lombok, Indonesia, providing new insights into institutional influences on tourism opportunities and issues. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques targeted separate groups of destination residents who live in a developed tourism destination, a less developed tourism destination, a remote rural village far away from tourism destinations, as well as a group of university students. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, qualitative questionnaires and observation, and were analysed using content analysis. Results show three main institutional factors inhibit host community participation in tourism: tourism agencies, private sector providers and tourism infrastructure, and perceptions of the negative impacts of tourism. The underperformance of state tourism agencies and private sector providers resulted in a lack of tourism infrastructure and limitations on host community opportunities to participate in tourism development and businesses. The findings suggest the need for improvement in the training of state tourism agency employees, better coordination among government agencies, and improved education and training for tourism operators.
Article
Water availability in adequate quantities and qualities is a fundamental requirement for tourism. In the Mediterranean, one of the world’s leading tourist destinations, water availability is subject to modest and erratic precipitation figures which may decline with climate change. The tourist industry therefore may have to assure future supplies by either recurring to new technologies such as desalination or increasing efficiency in water use. A third and yet little explored alternative would be to seek for complementary of uses with irrigation, the traditional user in many coastal Mediterranean areas and holder of substantial amounts of water. In this paper we present the example of the Consorcio de Aguas de la Marina Baja to show how Benidorm, in Mediterranean Spain and one of the most important tourist centers of the Mediterranean, obtains part of its water through agreements with farmers by which these trade their water with Benidorm and other towns’ treated wastewater of enough quality to be used for irrigation, and obtain several compensations in return. The advantages and disadvantages of the water trade between farmers and tourist interests in the Benidorm area are discussed and we argue that solutions to the pending water crisis of many coastal Mediterranean tourist areas may not need to rely uniquely on expensive technologies to generate new resources but may attempt other alternatives.
Article
Governments at all levels have assumed greater responsibility for, and involvement in, tourism destination planning and development. In the post-Brundtland era local governments in particular have been under closer scrutiny for their role in driving the sustainable development agenda in tourism destination contexts. Yet, a notable research gap still exists despite the increased focus on local government, particularly in terms of empirical research investigating the roles and responsibilities of local government in addressing sustainable tourism development. Given this context, this paper explores the role of local government in facilitating, or indeed inhibiting, sustainable development objectives in a tourism destination context. To assess this issue, it uses in-depth interviews with local government representatives and key destination stakeholders from five local government areas in Queensland, Australia. It shows that local government had assumed responsibility for facilitating the sustainable tourism agenda, due to the absence of strong industry leadership and due to top-down directives from state and federal governments. However, power struggles, tokenistic public participation and the strong influence of the local government authority in local governance structures were found to be inhibitors to sustainable tourism development.
Article
The publication of the third edition of Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods offers the author an opportunity to reflect back over two decades of developments in qualitative inquiry. Major developments include: the end of the qualitative-quantitative debate; the flowering of diverse and competing approaches within qualitative inquiry; the increased importance of mixed methods; the elaboration of purposeful sampling approaches; increasing recognition of the creativity at the center of qualitative analysis; the emergence of ever more sophisticated software to facilitate qualitative analysis; and new ethical challenges in the face of the potential impacts of qualitative inquiry on both those studied and those engaged in the inquiry.
Article
This study examined, using social exchange theory, a range of variables involved in determining resident attitudes toward tourism development and the adoption of sustainable tourism. After a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of residents in tourism development, and of the use of social exchange theory, 430 completed questionnaires obtained in a Texas town involved in tourism were analyzed. A structural equation model was utilized to understand the effects of selected components of sustainability on the attitudes of the respondents about future tourism development and to test hypothesized causal relationships among the variables. The findings revealed that three major components of sustainable tourism, namely long-term planning, full community participation and environmental sustainability within tourism, are critically related to support for tourism and to the positive and negative impacts of tourism. The paper uses the findings to suggest critical implications that local governments need to consider when developing tourism.