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We live in a digital society that needs new better prepared professionals for the new challenges and opportunities provided by the ICT. Students must learn how to deal with all the issues that emerge in this new context. They should acquire computational thinking skills by integrating STEAM, however this needs for changes in current learning curricula and also new learning approaches. RoboSTEAM project deals with this issue by the application of a Challenge Based Learning approach that uses Robotics and Physical Devices. One of the problems found during the project is the complexity of the application of a Challenge Based Learning approach due to the special needs of each educational institution. Given this situation the present work presents provides a flexible definition of challenge and describes also samples regarding how to use them.
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... Problem-solving skills among students are challenging to be developed when learning science in STEAM studies. Most STEAM education studies utilise the model as the context-based learning approach (Metz, 2007;Papanikolaou, 2010;Yakman, 2008) and the importance of the STEAM education system (Conde et al., 2019). Only a smaller number of STEAM researchers developed skills in solving science learning lessons (Metz, 2007). ...
... Only a smaller number of STEAM researchers developed skills in solving science learning lessons (Metz, 2007). Integrating the STEAM approach in the present educational background is complicated (Conde et al., 2019). Concentrating on a single subject and combining all the five disciplines into one item without losing the initial quality and learning objectives is challenging (Conde et al., 2019). ...
... Integrating the STEAM approach in the present educational background is complicated (Conde et al., 2019). Concentrating on a single subject and combining all the five disciplines into one item without losing the initial quality and learning objectives is challenging (Conde et al., 2019). The unsuitable teaching method caused confusion and misconception for the scientific concepts and consequently deteriorated the enthusiasm in learning (Dolgopolovas & Dagienė, 2021). ...
... In relation to this last aspect, research is currently underway to facilitate the study of the implementation of STEM experiences. These studies include the RoboSTEM project (García-Holgado, Camacho-Díaz et al., 2019) and the W-STEM project (Conde-González et al., 2019;García-Peñalvo et al., 2019). Both projects stress the need to apply the teaching of STEM subjects in natural contexts at all levels of the education system. ...
... In this regard, it is important to note that STEM subjects, specifi cally those related to learning computer programming in the stages prior to Secondary Education, are not explicitly part of the curricula. It is a fact highlighted in many research projects (Conde-González et al., 2019;García-Holgado, Camacho-Díaz et al., 2019;, upon the premise of enhancing STEM teaching in regular teaching-learning environments, since the society of the 21st century requires digital literacy for the entire population (Azevedo & Gašević, 2019;Cloude et al., 2019;Taub et al., 2018) that must begin in the initial years of schooling (Stehle & Peters-Burton, 2019). ...
fundamental in the society of the 21st century. However, a gender gap is
detected in the choice of degrees in these subjects. Recent studies indicate
the need to take action from the primary education stage to increase
student motivation towards these disciplines. Methods: We worked with
a sample of 147 students in the fi nal years of Primary Education. SRL and
serious games were applied in initial tasks to computer programming. The
objectives were to study the infl uence of gender, environment and academic
level variables on the results in the resolution of initial programming tasks
and on student satisfaction with their completion. Results: The mean
level of results in these tasks was high (8 out of 10). However, signifi cant
differences were found for gender, academic level, and the covariate age.
With respect to satisfaction, no signifi cant differences were found except
in the continuity of work. Conclusions: The use of SRL and serious play
tasks promotes good levels of performance and satisfaction in all students,
although differences in favour of the male gender are detected
... Educational robotics and other physical computing devices as a platform have a well-established status as a tool to teach CT and programming principles . Several initiatives and projects, such as TACCLE3 -Coding  and RoboSTEAM  (both funded by European Union from the Erasmus+ framework) are seeking internationally applicable methodological and technological solutions for the CT teaching and learning challenges. ...
Educational robotics and physical computing have proved to be good sources of motivation for students of all ages and school levels. We conducted a series of workshops in the primary schools of city of Joensuu in eastern Finland, focusing on training the fundamental computational thinking (CT) skills by using a programmable and interactive Teddy Bear toy. Educational robotics and physical computing devices have proved to be an efficient way to teach these skills regardless the students' age group or previous background. To assess the students' intrinsic motivation towards Teddy Bear programming, we devised a survey for workshop participants and conducted a statistical analysis to compare differences between the genders and age groups. The results of the large-scale empirical study (n=1440) show that the students at the age of 9-10 years (Grades 3-4) are significantly more motivated towards such a learning tool than the students of age 11-12 years (Grades 5-6). Furthermore, we show that especially young girls find the Teddy Bear programming motivating and they are eager to learn more. This indicates that appealing tools play a key role when teaching programming and CT concepts to young school children.
... It should be noted that this study has been carried out in the context of the RoboSTEAM project. It is an Eras-mus+ Strategic Partnership project that involves eight partners from four different countries (four schools and four universities) [27,29]. It aims to define a methodology and a set of tools that help learners to develop computational thinking by using/programming PD&R in preuniversity education stages. ...
Nowadays, companies are demanding better‐prepared professionals to succeed in a digital society, and the acquisition of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM)‐related competencies is a key issue. One of the main problems in this sense is how to integrate STEAM into the current educational curricula. This is not something related to a subject or educational trend but rather to new methodological approaches that can engage students. In this sense, such active methodologies that apply mechatronics and robotics could be an interesting path to pursue. Given this context, the first necessary task in evaluating the potential of this approach is to understand the landscape of the application of robotics and mechatronics in STEAM Education and how active methodologies are applied in this sense. To carry out this analysis in a systematic and replicable manner, it is necessary to follow a methodology. In this case, the researchers employ a systematic mapping review. This paper presents this process and its main findings. Fifty‐four studies have been selected out of 242 total studies analyzed. From these, beyond obtaining a clear vision of the STEAM landscape regarding project topics, we can also conclude that robotics and physical devices have been applied successfully with collaborative methodologies in STEAM Education. Regarding conclusions, this paper shows that robotics and mechatronics applied with active methodologies is to be a good means to engage students in STEAM disciplines and thus aid the acquisition of what is commonly known as “21st‐century skills.”
... Given this context it was necessary to look for a challenge description that fits with all the involved partners requirements, so the challenge granularity was explored. In  we described how this issue is addressed during the project, that basically consist of the definition of challenges, mini-challenges and nanochallenges. This was based in Nichols, Caters and Torres work , that understands the challenge as the higher granularity level element, composed by mini-challenges with a lower level of granularity, up to the nano-challenge that is the lowest one. ...
In the context of the digital society, educational systems should prepare the students to succeed in a really volatile environment. In order to do so they require to acquire some specific competences that use to be related to STEAM Education. However, integrating STEAM is hard and requires of new methodologies and tools. RoboSTEAM is an Erasmus+ project that aims to facilitate this by using Challenge Based Learning and applying Physical Devices and Robotics. In order to know if what RoboSTEAM proposes work properly it must be tested in different contexts with different educational systems. The results of these tests should be compared, which requires of a common knowledge background. In order to achieve it RoboSTEAM proposes students and teachers exchanges between similar and different sociocultural environments, so they can learn how other people work in the project challenges and if what they do can be addressed by them in a similar way. The present work describes these exchanges, how they were planned and carried out and the main results obtained. From the exchanges carried out until now it is possible to say that they facilitate sharing knowledge that later can lead to better results in the project challenges and that they are enriching experiences both for students and for teachers.
... Relevant examples of educational tools are LearnBlock  and OpenRoberta . These two interfaces are compatible with different types of teaching approaches and toy robots, and have been designed with two objectives in mind: the first is the development of critical thinking skills in kids through solving "toy problems", i.e., illustrative exercises or puzzles , , whereas the second is enabling an effective yet gentle transition to a general-purpose programming language such as Python or C++. Students can meet these goals after several software development courses, typically provided by educational institutions. ...
In an effort towards the democratization of Robotics, this article presents a novel End-User Development framework called Robot Interfaces From Zero Experience (RIZE). The framework provides a set of useful software tools for the creation of robot-oriented software architectures and programming interfaces, as well as the modeling and execution of robot behaviors, with a specific emphasis on social behaviors. Programming interfaces built on top of RIZE enable professionals with different backgrounds and interests to design, adapt, and scale-up robotics applications. As an example of a programming interface, we present Open RIZE, which exploits an End-User Programming paradigm combining blocks, tables, and forms-filling interfaces. Unlike previous approaches, robot behavioral code generated by Open RIZE is intrinsically modular, re-usable, scalable, neutral to the employed programming language, and platform-agnostic. In the paper, we present the main design guidelines and features of Open RIZE. Additionally, we perform an initial usability evaluation of the Open RIZE interface in an online workshop. Preliminary results using the System Usability Scale with 10 novice end-users indicate that Open RIZE is easy-to-use and learn.
... These changes have an impact on all kind of online processes and projects and one of them is RoboSTEAM [4,5] project. An Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership project that involves 8 partners from 4 different countries (4 schools and 4 universities) and aims to define a methodology and a set of tools that help learners to develop computational thinking by using/programming Physical Devices and Robotics in pre-university education stages, something that has an important impact in pre-university education . ...
This study adopted a meta-analysis to explore the effectiveness of unplugged activities (UA) and programming exercises (PE) teaching approaches on computational thinking (CT) education. Through a two-stage literature collection and selection process, 29 articles were included in the meta-analysis, 31 independent effect sizes (16 of UA and 15 of PE) from these articles were used, and a total of 2,764 participants were involved in these studies. CMA software version 3.3 was used to analyze the collected data. The result of the meta-analysis showed that both the UA and PE teaching approaches are useful in cultivating students’ CT. Besides, the effect of the PE teaching approach is better than the UA teaching approach in CT education. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of moderator variables (grade level, interdisciplinary course, and experiments duration) on the relationship between UA or PE and CT education. The results showed that the effects of UA teaching approach in CT education was stronger (a) for primary school students than for secondary school students, (b) in interdisciplinary courses than in computer science courses, (c) with long duration teaching experiments than with medium and short duration teaching experiments. However, these effects are not significant. The effects of the PE teaching approach in CT education were stronger (a) for secondary school students than for primary school students, (b) in interdisciplinary courses than in computer science courses, (c) with short duration teaching experiments than with long and medium duration teaching experiments. These effects are not significant either. Therefore, we suggest that (1) the UA teaching approach should be used more for primary school students, while the PE teaching approach should be used more for secondary students; (2) CT education should be integrated into other subjects through UA and PE teaching approaches, and (3) the UA teaching approach requires more teaching time than the PE teaching approach does in CT education.
... Computational thinking is presented at TEEM Conference till the 2016 edition. In the three firsts editions, the computational thinking skills and programming issues were the most tackled topics , however in the 2019 edition, the fourth one, robotics education was included as one of the main topics too in the track , and in this fifth edition, robotics has been the most select item (87.5% of the accepted papers) as it is shown in Figure 1 The development of computational thinking skills in STEM and STEAM contexts is explored in several European projects such as for example TACCLE3 coding , VALS [38,39], W-STEM  or RoboSTEAM . ...
... For instance, these activities allow them to discuss various strategies and proposals of a simplified engineering design . In addition, the use of STEAM education requires teachers training to improve their potentials, and then have an adequate knowledge and skill framework in order to facilitate the integration of STEAM in different educational contexts through the provision of guidelines ensuring the appropriate practices in different contexts . Furthermore, V was introduced to improve individuals 21 st -century skills such as entrepreneurship, innovation, creative thinking, decision-making and problem solving , , and to increase individuals' interest and awareness . ...
... The use of industrial equipment is very important, but since their price tag is usually very high, the use of low-cost robots is very common in robotics labs all over the world, to experiment, learn and teach the most varied robotics concepts. The described prototype was developed to be a teaching aid in an advanced course, of a Robotics Doctoral Program, although it is also suitable to be applied in some other educational contexts, to support some experiments, for graduate and undergraduate students . ...
In this paper it is described a low-cost robotic manipulator that wasdeveloped to be applied in the study of over-sensored systems andstate estimation. The prototype was developed to be a teaching aidin advanced courses, such as a Robotics Doctoral Program, althoughit is also suitable to be applied in some other educational contexts,to support experiments, for graduate and undergraduate students. Its features and software implementation are described, as wellas two possible approaches to the problem of estimating its pose, based on a wide variety of sensors use.
... Researchers argue, that despite the obvious relevance of CT to informatics, CT needs to be taught in disciplines outside of this discipline (Psycharis, 2018). Computational thinking skills could be acquired by integrating STEAM disciplines and real life into education programs because an interdisciplinary approach supports meaningful learning (Conde et al. 2019, Bati et al., 2018. STEAM can be considered as an educational approach that consist of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines with Art and enhances students' inquiry skills, problem solving skills and creative thinking (Psycharis, 2018) that encourages hands-on experience and gives students the chance to gain and apply relevant, "real world" knowledge in the classroom. ...
... Conde et al.  presents the results of the pilots of the RoboSTEAM European Project , which have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic . The application of Challenge Based Learning and Physical Devices and Robotics facilitate the so named twenty first century skills. ...
... CBL has also been drawing attention through published studies involving education in the areas of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics). These studies include applications and adaptations for robotics , , physics, mathematics, computational tools , and mainly for learning mobile application development , , . According to , the CBL approach allows flexibility for adaptation and customization for different learning environments, providing several entry points according to personal or institutional learning goals. ...
... So far, the objective of the academic research on Challenge-Based Learning approaches has been twofold. First, previous studies on Challenge-Based Learning have focused on how to design these kinds of programs and have identified best practices in different domains (Conde et al. 2019;Membrillo-Hernández and García-García 2020). Second, a still limited strand of literature has recently been devoted to understanding the effects of Challenge-Based programs on the participants (Johnson et al. 2009;Palma-Mendoza et al. 2019;Putri et al. 2020) As far as the design of Challenge-Based programs is concerned, scholars and practitioners agree that Challenge-Based Learning programs should follow a framework composed of three stages: Engage; Investigate; Act (Apple Inc. 2012;Nascimento et al. 2019). ...
The aim of this paper is to investigate the implications of Challenge-Based Learning programs on entrepreneurial skills, and on the mindset and intentions of university students, through a quantitative approach. Resorting to an original database, we analyzed the pre- and post-levels of entrepreneurial skills, mindset and intention of 127 students who attended a Challenge-Based Learning program. Results show a positive and significant effect of Challenge-Based Learning programs on the entrepreneurial mindset and skills—that is, financial literacy, creativity, and planning—of the students.
... Académica• Debe dar respuesta a las presiones internas y externas de responsabilidad (transparencia) de las universidades • La analítica académica se refiere a las prácticas de toma de decisiones basadas en los datos con fines operativos en el nivel institucional, pero que puede aplicarse también a los aspectos del proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje • Debería ser un elemento imprescindible para la gobernanza de las universidades Paso de la innovación a la investigación educativa en las ingenierías 42 https://unsplash.com/photos/wcWN29NufMQAnalítica del Aprendizaje vs. Analítica Académica Paso de la innovación a la investigación educativa en las ingenierías43 ...
Conferencia invitada en las Jornadas Docentes 2022 “La investigación en la educación de ingeniería”, organizadas por la Universidad Andrés Bello (Santiago de Chile) el 24 de enero de 2022.
En esta conferencia se propone establecer sinergias entre la innovación y la investigación educativas, con especial atención al campo de las ingenierías.
Technology has transformed the social scenario by incorporating strategies, techniques and methods to obtain more significant educational processes. The main initiative promoted is the strengthening of skills and competencies in programming and computational thinking. This article evidences the effect of a training program on educational robotics on the acquisition of computational thinking and programming skills in young children. The research design is quasi-experimental , with pretest and post-test measures, with an experimental and control group. The sample of participants consists of 46 students of the first year of Primary Education, with age between 6 and 7 years, belonging to a Spanish educational centre. Computational thinking is measured through the dimensions: algorithmic thinking sequences, abstraction-patterns and debugging. The learning activities used in the intervention sessions were an adaptation of the training actions proposed in the robotics study program "TangibleK". The results obtained in this study reveal positive effects concerning the performance achieved by the participants in the activities carried out. This indicates a significant effect on the strengthening of skills linked to computational thinking. The differences found between the pretest and post-test measures of the experimental group are statistically significant and superior to those presented by the control group. In this way, it was concluded that the participants of the training program in robotics and programming obtain a more significant advance in the three dimensions of the computational competence explored. R E S U M E N La tecnología ha transformado el escenario social incorporando estrategias, técnicas y métodos para obtener procesos educativos más significativos. Una de las principales iniciativas que se promueve es el fortalecimiento de habilidades y competencias sobre programación y pensamiento computa-cional. Este artículo evidencia el efecto de un programa formativo utilizando robótica educativa en la adquisición de habilidades de pensamiento computacional y programación en niños de corta edad. El diseño de la investigación es de tipo cuasi-experimental, con medidas pretest y postest, con grupo experimental y control. La muestra la integran 46 estudiantes del primer curso de Educación Primaria, con edades entre 6 y 7 años, pertenecientes a un centro educativo español. El pensamiento computacional se mide a través de las dimensiones: pensamiento algorítmico-secuencias, abstrac-ción-patrones y depuración. Las actividades de aprendizaje utilizadas en las sesiones de inter-vención fueron una adaptación de las acciones formativas propuestas en el programa de estudio en robótica "TangibleK". Los resultados obtenidos muestran efectos positivos en relación con el desem-peño alcanzado por los participantes en las actividades desarrolladas. Lo que manifiesta un efecto significativo en el fortalecimiento de habilidades vinculadas al pensamiento computacional. Las diferencias encontradas entre las medidas pretest y postest del grupo experimental son estadística-mente significativas y superiores a las que presenta el grupo control. De esta forma se concluye que los participantes del programa formativo en robótica y programación obtienen un mayor avance en las tres dimensiones de la competencia computacional explorada.
This teaching material was used in two sessions (7 and 9 of July 2020) within the Enhancing Technology in Teaching & Learning (Course ID: 471707) that belongs to the Learning & Teaching PhD Programme of the An-Najah National University (Palestine)
Conferencia invitada en el Seminario eMadrid sobre «Enseñanza de programación en niveles preuniversitarios» (21 de febrero de 2020, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Móstoles, España).
El debate sobre el estudio de la Informática en niveles preuniversitarios y el desarrollo de las habilidades de pensamiento computacional está abierto a nivel internacional. En esta conferencia se profundiza en ello y se presenta la propuesta definida en el Proyecto Europeo RoboSTEAM para desarrollar estas competencias y habilidades mediante una aproximación de aprendizaje basado en retos usando kits robóticos.
This chapter documents findings from the Making CT (Computational Thinking) project, a collaborative effort between project team members and elementary teachers that aims to reimagine interdisciplinary, computational thinking-infused making lessons for a virtual format. Virtual making CT lessons were grounded in four design principles: standards-based practices, clear and explicit expectations, multiple means of engagement, and opportunities for collaboration. Drawing on data from virtual teacher professional development sessions, lesson implementation, and teacher interviews, this chapter illustrates how teachers were able to engage in the difficult work of reconceptualizing CT-infused making lessons for the virtual classroom. These principles can be used to support the design of other interdisciplinary activities to support P-5 students' development of creative and authentic problem-solving in virtual learning environments.
Frente a la necesidad de una formación científica a temprana edad, el uso de la robótica en el contexto educativo constituye un importante recurso didáctico para el desarrollo de una educación centrada en las áreas STEM. Se ha realizado una revisión sistemática, siguiendo las directrices de la Declaración Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (Prisma), con el objetivo de caracterizar la producción científica relacionada con Educación STEM, desde el trabajo con robótica educativa en Educación Primaria, así se plantean preguntas de investigación sobre indicadores bibliométricos, metodologías de investigación utilizadas, la relación entre aéreas STEM y robótica educativa, o aspectos sociales y de género.La búsqueda se realizó en tres bases de datos internacionales (Scopus, ERIC y WoS), logrando identificar 463 artículos, seleccionándose 26 documentos que cumplían con todos los criterios de inclusión. Los hallazgos dan cuenta que las investigaciones con metodologías mixtas son las más utilizados, y a su vez presentan un mayor número de citaciones en Google Scholar. Respecto al enfoque de género de los primeros autores y los grupos de investigación, estos se presentan de forma equitativa. De igual forma no se evidencian diferencias en el acceso, desarrollo y adquisición de habilidades entre los participantes como resultados de las investigaciones. También, se observa una mayor implementación de propuestas en el horario extraescolar, mejorando la actitud y adquisición de habilidades en áreas STEM.
Digital society demands professionals prepared for the current landscape. It is necessary to teach current students how to employ and solve problems related to this constantly changing context. This requires new learning approaches that facilitate developing computational thinking skills by learning programming and applying STEAM disciplines. However, integrating STEAM and developing such skills is not easy in current educational programs. RoboSTEAM project is an Erasmus KA2 project that propose the application of challenge-based learning methodologies combined with the use of robots and physical devices in order help learners to develop computational thinking in pre-university education environments. This chapter describes the project proposal, partners involved, activities, and outcomes and initial results obtained.
The aim of this chapter is to reflect on the experience of designing teaching and learning training for international graduate student teaching assistants (ITAs) during the pandemic, which caused a move to remote teaching. This chapter is particularly important for educational researchers who have an interest in supporting international teaching assistants as well as domestic teaching assistants. The chapter is divided into five sections. In the first section the authors describe their background and previous experience and their aim for designing the training itself. The authors will include the training design in the second section. The third section will lay out the challenges that the authors identified. The fourth section will contain the lessons learned from this experience and the resulting best practices. Finally, the fifth section will include the future directions.
In this paper, we present the results from a case study on an annual extra-curricular summer camp, in which participants (n = 126) engaged in STEM and Computational Thinking activities, facilitated through the usage of the micro:bit microcontroller platform. The camp was a reengineered version of an annual summer camp held by Teknologiskolen; a Danish non-profit organisation offering weekly classes in technology. The focus of the reengineering was to increase the number of girls participating in the camp. This was attempted by creating a girls-only team, which employed highly contextualised projects and had an emphasis on using everyday materials, like cardboard, paint and glue. The result was a significant increase in the number of participating girls and on their attitude towards technology, which at the end of the camp, matched that of the boys. Based on the results, we argue that the girls-only team was the main reason for the higher number of participating girls, while the change in attitude was due to the highly contextualised projects and selection of materials.
Conferencia invitada en el Congreso de Educación, Innovación y Nueva Normalidad 2021 - CEINN 2021 (México), celebrada el 10 de diciembre de 2021.
En esta conferencia se revisan tres proyectos europeos que buscan potenciar las vocaciones STEM/STEAM en estudiantes preuniversitarios, con especial atención a los aspectos de inclusión y la brecha de género. Los proyectos seleccionados son RoboSTEAM (2018-1-ES01-KA201-050939), CreaSTEAM (2020-1-ES01-KA201-082601) y W-STEM (598923-EPP-1-2018-1-ES-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP).
Significant progress has been made during the last decades to achieve gender equality, but there is still much work to do. In particular, the gender gap is pronounced in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields at all levels of education and labour market. In those areas, the women participation remains low, although there are differences from country to country. In the Latin American context, there is a need for carrying out studies to collect quality data about the actual situation of women in STEM. Although some available data show a high proportion of women in Latin American university education, they are a minority in STEM programs. Moreover, this problem is particularly severe in Latin America because of the biases or cultural norms that influence female behaviour. In this context, the W-STEM project seeks to improve strategies and mechanisms for attracting, accessing, and guiding women in Latin America in STEM higher education programs. This work aims to describe the main results to prepare a set of attraction campaigns in secondary schools in the Latin American countries involved in the project (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico). In particular, a self-assessment tool about gender equality in higher education institutions in Latin America, an interview protocol for female role models, and a mobile application to show those role models. This work was presented in the Coimbra Group
Robotics in education has special relevance in current digital society where students should know how to deal with technology. In this paper, it is presented an educational experiment in the mobile robotics domain. The referred experiment was part of a summer camp, which took place at the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança Portugal, being its technological aspects related with mobile robotics. Other than the technological aspects, the students participated in many different cultural and social activities, having the opportunity to know the city of Bragança and also to know different persons, mainly students, professors, researchers and laboratory technicians. The applied approach in the summer camp was a challenge based learning methodology, being involved in the experiment 3 professors, 4 monitors, working with a group of 16 secondary school students. The described experiment was planned as an activity of the RoboSTEAM - Integrating STEAM and Computational Thinking development by using robotics and physical devices ERASMUS+ Project.
Various aspects of computational thinking, which builds on the power and limits of computing processes, whether they are executed by a human or by a machine, are discussed. Computational methods and models are helping to solve problems, design systems, and understand human behavior, by drawing on concepts fundamental to computer science (CS). Computational thinking (CT) is using abstraction and decomposition when attacking a large complex task or designing a large complex systems. CT is the way of thinking in terms of prevention, protection, and recovery from worst-case scenarios through redundancy, damage containment, and error correction. CT is using heuristic reasoning to discover a solution and using massive amount of data to speed up computation. CT is a futuristic vision to guide computer science educators, researchers, and practitioners to change society's image of the computer science field.
Over the past 20 years there have been many changes to the primary and secondary educational system that have impacted students, teachers, and post-secondary institutions across the United States of America. One of the most important is the large number of standardized tests students are required to take to show adequate performance in school. Students think differently because they are taught differently due to this focus on standardized testing, thus changing the skill sets students acquire in secondary school. This presents a critical problem for colleges and universities, as they now are using practices for and have expectations of these students that are unrealistic for the changing times. High dropout rates in the colleges of engineering have been attributed to the cultural atmosphere of the institution. Students have reported a low sense of belonging and low relatability to course material. To reduce negative experiences and increase motivation, Challenge Based Learning (CBL) was introduced in an undergraduate Basic Electric Circuits (BEC) course. CBL is a structured model for course content with a foundation in problem-based learning. CBL offers general concepts from which students derive the challenges they will address. Results show an improved classroom experience for students who were taught with CBL.
The benefits of a challenge-based environment are recognized by experts in learning science but are infrequently translated to practice in engineering courses. Although individual instructor styles occasionally offer challenge-based instruction, rare is the engineering course in which challenge-based learning is a consistent focus. Few systematic methods for the creation of challenge-based learning materials exist, presenting an obstacle to adoption of this powerful educational technique. We describe the development and implementation of a challenge-based learning mosaic for biotechnology based on three coupled Legacy Cycle (LC) modules. LCs are templates for challenge-based instruction that use a convenient PowerPoint platform for development and distribution. Learning scientists and biotechnology domain experts worked together to: • identify the broad (mosaic-level) challenge • distill three specific (module-level) challenges from the broad challenge • create materials supporting the creation of three challenge-based LCs • refine the LCs using analysis from domain experts • conduct a preliminary assessment of the LCs on biotechnology novices • apply the LCs in BME 281: Biotechnology at Vanderbilt University • assess the impact of challenge-based LCs on learner capabilities The initial LC within the mosaic was based on qualitative observations of mammalian cell culture bioreactor design and operation. Subsequent LCs examined the quantitative aspects of mass and momentum transfer in bioreactors. The biological properties of mammalian cells were integrated with the engineering principles into the overall challenge to produce sufficient recombinant protein for formulation as a pharmaceutical agent suitable for commercial
The number of undergraduates entering computer science has declined in recent years. This is paralleled by a drop in the number of high school students taking the CS AP exam and the number of high schools offering computer science courses. The declines come at a time when career opportunities in CS continue to grow and computer science graduates are seen as crucial in building a globally competitive workforce for the 21st century. Efforts aimed at reversing the declining interest in computer science include curriculum revisions at the undergraduate level at many institutions, a re-design of computer science AP courses , and the inclusion of computational thinking into disciplines outside computer science . This panel discusses four projects of computer science researchers collaborating with high school teachers on integrating computing and computational thinking into their courses. The majority of the high school teachers involved is teaching science and math courses. They are teaching a diverse group of talented and college-bound students. The goal of all projects is to integrate computing into disciplines represented in the high school curriculum and to raise the awareness of computer science as an exciting and intellectually rewarding field. This panel will outline recent and on-going activities and interaction with high school teachers. Each panelist will describe how he/she got involved and the nature of the interaction. The panelists will talk about their individual projects, outline their visions for future interactions, and how their effort can be replicated by others. The session will briefly describe NSF's RET program which provided teacher support for three of the four projects. The session will then be opened for discussion; the audience will be encouraged to ask questions and contribute additional ideas for the inclusion of computational thinking in high school courses.
Our Challenge-Based Learning (CBL) method can be described as a special form of problem-based learning, in which the problems
are of realistic, open-ended nature. Additionally, CBL contains features of experiential and project-based learning approaches.
CBL is supported by the provision of Digital Experimentation Toolkits (DExTs) which comprise materials, initial instructions,
references to web resources and specific software tools. Technological challenges lie in the ease of use in accessing these
data and in communicating the learners’ requests and specifications to the remote sites. Within this article we describe several
classroom scenarios for the usage of DexTs in schools. Examples are the calculation of the epicenter of an earthquake, the
calculation of lunar heights and the definition of strategies for navigation in a maze. The activities described in this paper
were conducted within the framework of our COLDEX project (Collaborative Learning and Distributed Experimentation, http://www.coldex.info).
Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.
Several countries have usually adopted several priorities for developing ICT competences from kindergarten to secondary education. Most of them are focused on the development of key competences and/or coding skills. Although coding may be very attractive for young students and a very good practice or experience, it could be more interesting to develop students’ logical thinking skills and problem-solving skills throughout programming approaches or computational thinking. This is a very exciting challenge with lots of possibilities regarding coding, robots, mobile devices, Arduino-based application, game-based learning, and so on. TACCLE 3 – Coding is a European Union Erasmus+ KA2 Programme project that supports primary school staff and others who are teaching computing to 4–14-year-olds. Specifically, TACCLE 3 project has three main objectives: (1) to equip fellow classroom teachers, whatever their level of confidence, with the knowledge and the materials they need to teach coding effectively; (2) to develop a website of easy-to-follow and innovative ideas and resources to aid teachers in teaching coding (they will also find a review of the current academic research and an overview of the resources currently available for teaching coding); and (3) to provide national and international in-service training courses and other staff development events to help support and develop confidence and competences in teaching coding. This chapter explains the work done in TACCLE 3 and the first experiences we have to introduce the computational thinking to the primary school teachers, with a special attention to the use of smart textile objects.
Several countries have usually adopted several priorities for developing ICT competences from kindergarten to secondary education. Most of them are focused on the development of key competences and/or coding skills. Although coding may be very attractive for young students and a very good practice or experience, it could be more interesting to develop students' logical thinking skills and problem-solving skills throughout programming approaches or computational thinking. This is a very exciting challenge with lots of possibilities regarding coding, robots, mobiles devices, Arduino-based application, game-based learning and so on. Thus, it is very important to explore the effect that these experiences have been taking into the pre-university students, both at primary and secondary education, with a special focus on the computational thinking as one of the components inside the toolbox to develop a reflexive and critical education in order to help children to solve problems using the technology with which they will live daily.
Learning based on challenges arises to place the trainees to take decisions, have closeness to reality and develop useful solutions to community. This method is carried out both industry and education. The main difficulty lies in the fact that planning challenges involve multidisciplinary knowledge, they are usually implemented outside of the curriculum's subject and the effectiveness of the results does not appear immediately. This work adapts the learning methodology based on challenges to a regulated academic subject and integrates the two successful methods Challenge Based Learning and Challenge Based Instruction. Two types of challenges are proposed: a specific challenge in the academic environment and a common challenge based on the management of a knowledge management system of proven effectiveness. It generates a sustainable system that allows you to find more effective solutions to planned challenges as well as to improve the learning process itself.
In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology.
This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and provides an overview of the pilot implementation of the course. The course achieved its goals to a great extent in that learners felt that they were beginning to help build a better college community by sharing stories of their learning experience and their insights about the essential question they chose with other students and with other teachers. The course also helped the students discover the use of English as they found ways to reach out to the broader college community and held meaningful conversations with teachers, librarians, managers, and staff from different departments and other students. The course transformed the teacher/researcher into an observer of learning and a guide, thus flipping the classroom and allowing the learners to take responsibility and steer their own learning experiences. Further development is needed in the areas of CBL assessment rubric development in English Language Teaching (ELT) and the analysis of student generated content through iPad applications.
Project-based learning is a comprehensive approach to classroom teaching and learning that is designed to engage students in investigation of authentic problems. In this article, we present an argument for why projects have the potential to help people learn; indicate factors in project design that affect motivation and thought; examine difficulties that students and teachers may encounter with projects; and describe how technology can support students and teachers as they work on projects, so that motivation and thought are sustained.
This work investigates the development of students’ computational thinking (CT) skills in the context of educational robotics (ER) learning activity. The study employs an appropriate CT model for operationalising and exploring students’ CT skills development in two different age groups (15 and 18 years old) and across gender. 164 students of different education levels (Junior high: 89; High vocational: 75) engaged in ER learning activities (2 hours per week, 11 weeks totally) and their CT skills were evaluated at different phases during the activity, using different modality (written and oral) assessment tools. The results suggest that: (a) students reach eventually the same level of CT skills development independent of their age and gender, (b) CT skills in most cases need time to fully develop (students’ scores improve significantly toward the end of the activity), (c) age and gender relevant differences appear when analyzing students’ score in the various specific dimensions of the CT skills model, (d) the modality of the skill assessment instrument may have an impact on students’ performance, (e) girls appear in many situations to need more training time to reach the same skill level compared to boys.
By engaging in construction-based robotics activities, children as young as four can play to learn a range of concepts. The TangibleK Robotics Program paired developmentally appropriate computer programming and robotics tools with a constructionist curriculum designed to engage kindergarten children in learning computational thinking, robotics, programming, and problem-solving. This paper documents three kindergarten classrooms' exposure to computer programming concepts and explores learning outcomes. Results point to strengths of the curriculum and areas where further redesign of the curriculum and technologies would be appropriate. Overall, the study demonstrates that kindergartners were both interested in and able to learn many aspects of robotics, programming, and computational thinking with the TangibleK curriculum design.
Robotics naturally lends itself to teaching math, science, technology and engineering in the K-12 classroom. LEGO Mindstorms makes it easy for students even in kindergarten to design and build their own robotic creations. However, the key to bringing engineering into K-12 through robotics is educating teachers on the content, how to use the materials, and how open-ended design problems can be effective in the classroom. This paper details the Tufts University Center for Engineering Educational Outreach's theoretical framework, motivations, and efforts involved in bringing engineering via LEGO robotics into every kindergarten through fifth-grade classroom in one school through the Systemic School Change in Engineering Project. Preliminary results and recommendations are presented.
Describes project-based learning as a comprehensive approach to classroom teaching and learning that is designed to engage students in investigation of authentic problems. Students are responsible for both the questions and the answers to such problems. Some of the advantages of project-based learning are that it promotes links among different disciplines and is adaptable to different types of learners and situations. Factors in project design that affect motivation and thought include interest in and value of the project, perceived and achieved competence, and task focus. The role of teachers in enhancing motivation and fostering cognitive engagement is emphasized. Ways in which technology can support students and teachers as they work on projects, so that motivation and thought are sustained, are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
As the previous chapter indicates, there has been a significant shift in advanced economies from manufacturing to information
and knowledge services. Knowledge itself is growing ever more specialized and expanding exponentially. Information and communication
technology is transforming the nature of how work is conducted and the meaning of social relationships. Decentralized decision
making, information sharing, teamwork, and innovation are key in today’s enterprises. No longer can students look forward
to middle class success in the conduct of manual labor or use of routine skills – work that can be accomplished by machines.
Rather, whether a technician or a professional person, success lies in being able to communicate, share, and use information
to solve complex problems, in being able to adapt and innovate in response to new demands and changing circumstances, in being
able to marshal and expand the power of technology to create new knowledge, and in expanding human capacity and productivity.
this paper is to provide a clear link between the theoretical principles of constructivism and the practice of instructional design and the practice of teaching. We will begin with a basic characterization of constructivism identifying what we believe to be the central principles in learning and understanding. We will then identify and elaborate on eight instructional principles for the design of a constructivist learning environment. Finally, we will exam what we consider to be one of the best exemplars of a constructivist learning environment -- Problem Based Learning as described by Barrows (1985, 1986, 1992) at the Southern Illinois University Medical School and at the Problem Based Learning Institute for high school teachers .
Challenge Based Learning - Take action and make a difference US
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21st century skills and competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries
Katerina Ananiadou and Magdalean Claro. 2009. 21st century skills and
competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries.
Educational Robotics Summer Camp at IPB: A Challenge based learning case study
Challenge Based Learning: The Report from the Implementation Project
L. Johnson and S. Adams. 2011. Challenge Based Learning: The Report from the
Implementation Project. The New Media Consortium.
Comparative Analysis of Challenge-Based Learning Experiences
K K Rådberg
J. Malmqvist, K.K. Rådberg, and U. Lundqvist. 2015. Comparative Analysis of
Challenge-Based Learning Experiences. In Proceedings of the 11th International
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Aprendizaje basado en retos
Oie-Tec-Monterrey. 2016. Aprendizaje basado en retos. Tecnológico de
Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
Big Idea: Gender Equality
Digital-Promise. 2018. Big Idea: Gender Equality.
Computational thinking and tinkering: Exploration of an early childhood robotics curriculum