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The Important of Beta Carotene on Poultry Nutrition


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Beta carotene, the primary source of vitamin A in poultry rations, is one of the most important carotenoids. Under the influence of enzymes, Beta carotene (BC) is converted to vitamin A. The BC molecule is a double retinal structure and theoretically gives 2 molecules retinal. Its biological activity is only half of retinal. Conversion of carotenoids to retinol is rarely 100%. Thus the vitamins of various foods are expressed in terms of the potential retinol equivalence (RE). BC is absorbed from the duodenum and if there is oil in the intestinal tract, it is absorbed faster. Oxidatively converting BC into vitamin A is mainly carried out in the intestinal brush border membrane, organs such as the liver, kidney and lungs. BC egg yolk is transported to and stored in immune organs and similar tissues. The BC content of the egg of the poultry varies. BC contents of hen eggs are low, while BC contents of eggs of wild birds are between 25-30%. Despite depletion of BC in the liver it's transfer to the egg continues. Since poultry can not synthesize BC, it must be taken from outside. Products such as yellow corn, marigold and alfalfa are very rich sources of beta-carotene. BC is abundant in egg yolks. BC is effective in the pigmentation of skin and egg yolks of hens. Due to BC's antioxidant properties prevents deterioration of egg and meat. It has also been shown that BC has important effects on the immunity and endocrine system. BC, strengthens see function, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, pre-vents inflammation and some types of cancer. Studies have shown that BC enhances the immune system by raising antibody response in poultries and prevents acute respiratory tract infections. In this review article, the introduction of BC, its functions, effects on poultry nutrition were investigated.
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Selcuk Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences
….Review Article….
(2019) 33 (3), 256-263
e-ISSN: 2458-8377
The Important of Beta Carotene on Poultry Nutrition
Süleyman ÇALIŞLAR1*
1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam, Kahramanmaraş,
1. Intrоduсtiоn
It has been observed that the nutrient profile (fatty
acids, minerals, vitamins, etc.) of the egg, which is
considered to be a highly nutritious food among nutri-
tional sources, can be significantly improved by diet
manipulation. For this reason, intensive research is
carried out on the passage of some nutrients that can
affect human health positively to eggs (Bean and
Leeson, 2003; Khan et al., 2012).
It is stated that the enrichment of egg in terms of
carotenoids will be beneficial for human health
(Skřivan et al., 2015). One of the carotenoids suitable
for this purpose is BC (Stahl and Sies, 2005), a provit-
amin A (Olson, 1996). In recent years, due to the in-
crease in demand for safe animal products, it has be-
come more important to prefer natural resources for
*Corresponding author email:
coloring the egg yolk (Calislar and Uygur, 2010). The
nutrient profile of the eggs can be improved by diet
manipulation. In the researches, it has been seen that
some nutrient components that have important benefits
for health can be transferred to the egg yolks via feed
(Bean and Leeson, 2003; Khan et al., 2012).
Since poultry are exposed to stress conditions in a
significant proportion of their lives, it is extremely
important that their immune system is strong. One of
the most suitable sources for this is the BC, which has
a high antioxidant content. In the researches, it has
been emphasized that BC enhances the survival of
poultry by strengthening the immune system and posi-
tively affects the efficiency parameters.
BC is the primary source of vitamin A. Vitamin A
is necessary for healthy development of bone, skin and
mucosa, especially in eyesight (Thomas, 2006). There-
fore, it is seen that BC has a combined effect in poul-
try. Particularly due to its antioxidant properties, it is
Article history:
Received date: 27.05.2019
Accepted date: 08.08.2019
Beta carotene, the primary source of vitamin A in poultry rations, is one of the
most important carotenoids. Under the influence of enzymes, Beta carotene
(BC) is converted to vitamin A. The BC molecule is a double retinal structure
and theoretically gives 2 molecules retinal. Its biological activity is only half of
retinal. Conversion of carotenoids to retinol is rarely 100%. Thus the vitamins
of various foods are expressed in terms of the potential retinol equivalence
BC is absorbed from the duodenum and if there is oil in the intestinal tract, it is
absorbed faster. Oxidatively converting BC into vitamin A is mainly carried
out in the intestinal brush border membrane, organs such as the liver, kidney
and lungs. BC egg yolk is transported to and stored in immune organs and
similar tissues. The BC content of the egg of the poultry varies. BC contents of
hen eggs are low, while BC contents of eggs of wild birds are between 25-
30%. Despite depletion of BC in the liver it's transfer to the egg continues.
Since poultry can not synthesize BC, it must be taken from outside. Products
such as yellow corn, marigold and alfalfa are very rich sources of beta-
carotene. BC is abundant in egg yolks.
BC is effective in the pigmentation of skin and egg yolks of hens. Due to BC's
antioxidant properties prevents deterioration of egg and meat. It has also been
shown that BC has important effects on the immunity and endocrine system.
BC, strengthens see function, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, pre-
vents inflammation and some types of cancer. Studies have shown that BC
enhances the immune system by raising antibody response in poultries and
prevents acute respiratory tract infections.
In this review article, the introduction of BC, its functions, effects on poultry
nutrition were investigated.
Edited by:
İbrahim AYTEKİN; Selçuk University,
Reviewed by:
Yusuf CUFADAR; Selçuk University,
Ahmet Engin TÜZÜN; Adnan Menderes
University, Turkey
Beta carotene
Çalışlar / Selcuk J Agr Food Sci, (2019) 33 (3), 256-263
thought that BC will contribute positively to the gen-
eral immune system and performance of poultry which
are exposed to diseases and effects of mycotoxins. It is
also clear that as an egg component, it will have a posi-
tive impact on human health.
BC is used as a colorant and antioxidant agent in
the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, animal feed indus-
try (Martelli, et al., 1990; Astorg, 1997). BC gives
color to products such as eggs and meat. However, it is
known that most of the BC, which is used as colorant
in various production industries, is synthetic. Recently,
the use of natural BC has started to become widespread
in line with consumer demands. By-products obtained
from fruit juice production (carrot, grapefruit, apricot
pulp, etc.) have low prices. Therefore, these products
are used as natural BC source in chicken feeds (Sikder
et. al., 1998; Mascarell et al., 2012). It has been report-
ed that the recommended amount of BC in the feed of
laying hens should be at the maximum feed rate of 30
mg / kg feed (EFSA, 2012).
It is considered that there is a small number of stud-
ies on poultry feed in relation to BC, which has im-
portant contributions to both poultry and human health,
and it will be useful to focus on new research in this
2. Beta Carotene Resources
BC is a yellow-orange pigment. BC is found in the
structure of fruits, grains, vegetables (carrots, green
plants, pumpkin, spinach) and oils (Liu, 2013) with
maize, green fodder, moss, marigold, stinging nettle
and similar products (Table 1) (Kljak et al., 2012).
Plants such as sweet potatoes, carrots, cabbage,
spinach, lettuce, fresh thyme, gourd, turnip, melon,
green cabbage and broccoli are rich in BC (Groff et al.,
1995). BC is more common in the leaves of plants and
the amount decreases as the plant ages (Ballet et al.,
2000). Egg yolks, milk, butter and liver are also animal
sources containing BC. Because of its low amount and
unstable structure, BC deficiency is sometimes ob-
served in animals.
BC is also produced by algae (Dunaliella bardawil
and Murielopsis sp) (Goodwin, 1992), fungi (Blakeslea
trispora) (Mantzouridou and Tsimidou, 2008) and
yeasts (Rhodotorula glutinis; Park et al., 2005). Among
microbial sources, Rhodotorula glutinis, which is rich
in protein, lipid and vitamins, has been reported to be
suitable for producing BC (Bhosale and Gadre, 2001).
In order to meet the BC needs of poultry, non-toxic
Rhodotorula cells are used in rations (Kushwaha et al.,
2014). The major carotenoid in the Western diet is BC
(Stahl and Sies, 2005).
Table 1
Some sources of beta carotene and beta carotene con-
Yılmaz, 2010
Lee et al., 1981
Yılmaz, 2010
Bushway, 1986
Yılmaz, 2010
Philip and Chen,
Descalzo et al., 2012
Descalzo et al., 2012
Descalzo et al., 2012
Descalzo et al., 2012
Kalac, 2012
Wang, et al., 2014
Kushwaha et al.,
Since vitamin A cannot be synthesized by poultry,
it should be taken as BC or vitamin A with feeds (The-
odosiou et al., 2010). Besides carotenoids from plants,
some carotenoid derivatives in the European Union
have also been approved for use as an additive. These;
capsantin (C40 carotenoid), P-cryptoxanthine (C40),
lutein (C40), zeaxanthin (C40), P-apo-8-carotenal
(C30), P-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester (C30), xan-
thaxanthin (C40) and sitranaxanthin (C33) (Nimalarat-
ne et al., 2013). The bioavailability of BC (crystal
form) found in carrot juice in the feeding of wild pop-
pies was about 30% (White et al., 1993).
Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid (C40) pigments syn-
thesized from eight isoprene units found only in plants
(Wagner and Elmadfa, 2003). They are divided into
two groups according to their chemical structure: caro-
tenes (hydrocarbon class) and xanthophylls (oxygen
class) (Shete and Quadro, 2013; Von Lintig, 2012).
Carotenes consist of alpha, beta and gamma carotene.
The most important of carotene is the BC, which is the
source of vitamin A (Taylor, 1996). BC is a fat-soluble
provitamin A (Valko et al., 2007).
The BC was first isolated by Wachenroder in 1831
(Davies, 1976). The name BC was taken from carrot
(Daucus carota) (Deming and Erdman, 1999). BC is
almost always associated with chlorophyll in plants
(Merck Index, 2006). The 1-carotene absorption spec-
trum is between 400-500 nm and is green-blue (Isler
and Solms, 1971). Therefore, the BC molecule absorbs
green-blue light and gives red-yellow colors.
BC is insoluble in water, acids, alkalis, but soluble
in carbon disulfide and chloroform. Insoluble in meth-
Çalışlar / Selcuk J Agr Food Sci, (2019) 33 (3), 256-263
anol and ethanol BC, ether, hexane and oils (FCC,
2011) slightly soluble. The diluted solution was yellow.
Absorbs oxygen, which leads to inactive, colorless
oxidation products (Merck Index, 2006). Pure BC is a
rather dark reddish-orange color, while oxidized or
melted BC is slightly yellowish orange and gray. BC,
like vitamin A does not dissolve in water, it is only
soluble in fat (Tek et al., 2002).
BC melts between 176-182 °C. BC, which is in the
cis- and trans-isomeric forms, has a melting point of
184.50 C (Olson, 1996). The molecular weight is
536.87 g/mol (Merck Index, 2006; FCC, 2011).
Although many carotenoids commonly have
asymmetric carbon atoms, BC does not contain asym-
metric carbon atoms (Woollard, 2012). The BC in the
non-polar hydro-carbon group has two ion rings and
theoretically this retinal structure is converted into two
molecules of retinol. The conversion of carotenoids to
retinole is rarely 100%. Therefore, vitamin A power of
various foods is expressed as retinol equivalence (RE).
Accordingly, 1 RE; 1 mg of retinol is equal to 6 mg of
BC and 12 mg with other provitamin A carotenoids
(Maynard et al., 1979). Vitamin A requirement of poul-
try is expressed as international unit (IU). It has been
reported that 1 IU vitamin A activity is equivalent to
0.6 microgram BC activity or 1 mg BC is equivalent to
1.667 IU vitamin A (Blair, 2018). 1 mg of BC is equiv-
alent to 400 IU of retinole in broiler chicks (Johannsen
et al., 1998), 1200 IU in old geese and only 60 IU in
young geese (Jamroz et al., 2002).
There is no proven information that the carotenoids
have been transformed into another carotenoid. How-
ever, β-apo-8'-carotenal and β-apo-8' carotenoic acid
ethyl esters of the BC degradation products have been
shown to have coloring potential in poultry (El-Boushy
and Raterink, 1992; Erdman et al., 1993). BC gives
yellow-orange color to egg yolk (Dufossé, 2009).
Feed carotenoids are present in the natural com-
pounds in about 60 to 90% trans and 10 to 30% cis
form. Trans form is a more effective pigment due to its
red color tone and greater stability. Chickens have the
ability to convert some of the trans form of BC into the
cis form and this transformation takes place in egg yolk
(Hencken, 1992).
Most commercialized beta carotenes are the chemi-
cal synthesis of β-ionone (Raja et al., 2007; Ribeiro et
al., 2011). The β-ionone is originally synthesized from
natural sources, such as lemon grass oil or pine turpen-
tine. However, in recent years it has been produced
from β-ionone, acetone or butadiene. BC is synthesized
by saponification of vitamin A acetate. Fungal and
microalgae are very promising sources for the industri-
al production of carotenoids (Echavarri-Erasun and
Johnson, 2002). Some strains of Blakeslea trispora
fungus, a host of tropical plants, are high BC producing
sources (Dufossé, 2006).
3. Functions of Beta Carotene
Provitamin A and thus BC are required to perform
visual functions (Von Lintig, 2012). BC has been
shown to inhibit certain types of cancer with arthro-
sclerosis, cataract, and multiple sclerosis due to the
antioxidant properties and provitaminase activity
(Terao, 1989).
BC prevents oxidative damage to cellular lipids,
proteins and DNA. BC, which shows anti-
inflammatory properties, protects the skin against
premature aging, photodermatitis and cancers against
the harmful effects of UV light (Stahl and Sies, 2007;
Cazzonelli, 2011). It has been reported that carotenoids
have a significant effect on skin, egg and meat quality
(Liufa et al., 1997). Carotenoids have a great effect on
the color of the hens' skin and egg yolk, egg and meat
quality (Sirri et al., 2007; Hien et al., 2013).
The annual total carotenoid production in nature is
estimated to be around 100 thousand tons. Carotenoids
play an important antioxidant function by activating
singlet oxygen, an oxidant formed during photosynthe-
sis in plants (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1999). BC is an
active molecule that has properties that inactivate some
reactive oxygen species in relation to its antioxidant
potency. Epidemiological findings have shown that BC
can prevent cancers of various organs such as lung,
stomach, cervix, pancreas, colon, rectum, breast, pros-
tate and ovary due to its antioxidant activity (Jayappri-
yan et al., 2013).
Carotenoids with provitamin A and antioxidant ef-
fect have cellular differentiation, growth, reproduction,
gene expression, immune function, and adipocyte func-
tions (Tourniaire et al., 2009).
According to the BC free group, cock fed with BC
containing rations, has been reported to produce higher
antibody titer against newcastle disease (McWhinney
et al., 1989). They reported that BC used in combina-
tion with vitamin E provided more protection against
the infection of Escherichia coli in chickens (Tengerdy
et al., 1990).
According to other organs, the concentration of BC
in the corpus luteum was highest but no effect on re-
production was determined (Thomas, 2006).
4. Metabolism of Beta Carotene
Vitamin A is required for the survival of all verte-
brate animals. BC is one of the important sources of
vitamin A requirement. Absorption of BC from intes-
tines, transformation into vitamin A, transport, accu-
mulation and metabolism of tissues vary according to
animal species.
The conversion of BC to vitamin A generally oc-
curs in intestinal mucosa cells and liver (Coultate,
1996). Since the BC molecule consists of a pair of
retinas, two molecules of retinal formation occur when
this structure is separated from the middle. However,
the biological activity of BC is only about half of the
retinal. The enzyme responsible for the conversion of
BC to retinale is known as BC-15, 15 monooxygenase
Çalışlar / Selcuk J Agr Food Sci, (2019) 33 (3), 256-263
or 15.15 si dioxigenase (Wyss et al., 2000; Dela Seña
et al., 2014). Retinol and retinoic acid are also pro-
duced from the retinal (Taylor, 1996; Arikan and
Muğlalı, 1999).
Absorption of BC occurs in the duodenum of the
small intestine. The absorption of BC can last for sev-
eral days. Absorption is faster and more effective if
there is an oil in the environment. Sometimes the BC is
absorbed into the intestinal wall and is quickly con-
verted to vitamin A in there. The rest of BC is trans-
ported in the blood as very low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (Nnaji et al., 2013).
Approximately 40%-45% of total carotene content
is found in egg yolk (Surai and Speake 1998; Surai et
al., 1999). However, compared to other carotenoids,
the amount of BC stored in the egg yolk is very low.
Because BC is used as a provitamin A by poultry, it is
very poor to accumulate in egg yolks or other tissues
(Hammershoj et al., 2010).
Poultry predominantly accumulate oxycarotenoids
in their body tissues or eggs (Goodwin 1986; Hencken
1992). The deposition rate of lutein and zeaxanthin in
the egg yolk was 25%, while the accumulated amount
of BC was only 0.5% (Jiang et al., 1994; Hammershoj
et al., 2010).
The main storage site of BC in poultry is liver. On-
ly 0.16% to 0.66% of the total carotenoids stored in the
egg yolk of poultry cultivated under intense and semi-
intensive conditions were reported as BC. It was found
that the amount of BC accumulated in the duck egg
yolk was 1.62% (Khan et al., 2017).
The total amount of carotenoid in the egg yolk of
poultry has been reported to vary between 17.33% and
37.90%, while the amount of BC varies between 1.07%
and 2.12% (Kotrbáček et al., 2013). Astaxanthin in egg
yolk is stored at 14%, zeaxanthin 25% and canthaxan-
thin at 30-40% (Hencken, 1992).
The transfer of BC to egg yolk is 0.6% while the
rate of conversion to vitamin A (5-6%) is relatively
high. In a study in which chickens were given sweet
potato and silage, the absorption rate of xanthophylline
was 93-94% and the carotene was absorbed between
55-63% (Yamada et al., 1958). Poultry animals absorb
carotenes less than xanthophylls (Surai et al., 2001).
BC increase in egg yolk is only 2.1% of total carote-
noids (Török et al., 2007).
The number of studies on the effects of egg yolk
changes in BC content is insufficient. In previous some
studies, it has been reported that the amount of BC in
the egg yolk decreases due to increased storage time
regardless of source (Rock et al., 1996; Thomas, 2006).
The amount of BC in the eggs of different poultry
breeds varies. The amount of BC on the first day of
storage white leghorn hens egg yolk has found to be
0.060 mg / g, in the first week 0.047 mg / g, in the
second week 0.027 mg / g and in the third week 0.004
mg / g (Okonkwo, 2009).
5. Accumulation of Beta Carotene
Feed carotenoids can undergo numerous transfor-
mations in the metabolism of animals. Some of these
compounds have vitamin A activity. Usually only
monohydroxy and mono-cetocarotenoids are converted
into vitamin A. Carotenoids, which have high vitamin
A activity, generally have very low coloring properties
(Hencken, 1992).
In a feeding study with a weight of 8000 IU vitamin
A in laying hens, 80% of vitamin A was transferred to
egg yolk (Squires et al., 1993). In another study, it was
reported that only 85.11 micrograms of vitamin A in
dietary 120 micrograms could be transferred to egg
yolk (Surai et al., 1998).
The amount of BC stored in egg yolk was reported
to be very low (1%) (Hammershoj et al., 2010; Xue et
al., 2013). In a recent study, it was determined that
8.85% of the BC in different hybrid maize was depos-
ited in the egg yolk of laying hens (Kristina et al.,
Laying hens store vitamin A in egg yolks for incu-
bation and embryo development during the first stages
of life (Bardos, 1989). Most of the vitamin A stored in
the egg yolk is retinol and a small portion is retinyl
esters (Joshi et al., 1973).
Adding up to 70 g of carrots per day to the rations
during the feeding of laying hens has been shown to
increase the egg yolk color value, especially lutein,
alpha carotene and BC content effectively (Hammer-
shoj et al., 2010). Xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin)
have been found to be better absorbed than hydrocar-
bons carotenoids (alpha-carotene, BC) (Dumbrava et
al., 2006).
The addition of lutein to the ration (100 mg / kg)
increased the yolk color and redness value. Compared
with the control group, lutein containing diets in-
creased the amount of BC in egg yolks by 66%, lutein
97% and zeaxanthin by 94%. However, because it is
expensive, lutein is not routinely added to rations
(Englmaierová and Skininivan, 2013).
BC has an accumulation rate of less than 1% in egg
yolk. It has been reported that there is a linear increase
in the amount of egg yolk retinol due to the increase in
the amount of BC in the diet (Jiang et al., 1994). In
some previous studies, it has been reported that the
amount of BC in egg yolk is 1.07-2.12 (μg / kg; Ko-
trbáček et al., 2013) and 0.16-1.62 (mg / kg-1; Khan et
al., 2017).
Very few of the BC given with the ration passes to
the yolk and the rest is converted to retinol and stored
in the egg. Egg yolk color is mainly affected by fat-
soluble carotenes, xanthophylls and BC. A decrease in
the color of the egg yolk in line with the increase in
vitamin A of the rations occurred. It has been stated
that high vitamin A can cause absorption of fat-soluble
pigments (Mendonça et al., 2002).
Çalışlar / Selcuk J Agr Food Sci, (2019) 33 (3), 256-263
In bird species, carotenoids tend to accumulate in
their immune organs. When carotenoids were included
in the breeding diet, it was shown that there was a
significant accumulation in the thymus and bursa fabri-
cus of chickens. Furthermore, carotenoids from the
chicken diet were still detected 4 weeks after hatching
in carotenoid consuming diets fed from chickens
(Koutsos et al., 2003).
Carotenoids can be exposed to oxidative effects due
to storage time, room temperature and illumination
(photochemical) due to the large number of double
bonds in their structure. The enzymatic degradation of
BC requires oxygen and the destruction at high tem-
peratures is highest. Destruction stops after complete
dehydration. Therefore, both enzymatic and photo-
chemical effects which cause the destruction of BC
during storage must be controlled (Geoffrey, 1998).
Losses occur during storage of BC. It was reported that
the loss in the waiting period of 25 C for one month
was 10% and the loss after three months was 29% of
the initial value (EFSA, 2012).
6. Conclusion and Suggestion
Some nutrients in feeds can be transferred to eggs
and functional eggs can be produced. It is thought that
one of the nutrients that may contribute to functional
production due to increasing the amount of egg that is
passed to the egg and which is stored here may be BC.
However, more information is needed about the transi-
tion of BC into eggs. It is thought that it is necessary to
focus more intensely on BC, which is thought to have
an important contribution to the realization of an or-
ganic and sustainable animal production suitable for
human health in a century when organic egg and meat
production is gaining momentum.
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... However, 1% supplementation for 15 days was not enough to induce significant changes in vitamin content. Spirulina provides a very high amount of β-carotene [1], which is converted into retinol (sometimes in the place of absorption) [35], being considered a good source of vitamin A [1]. Spirulina also provides vitamin E [8]. ...
... Moreover, an interaction effect was observed, and RIR hens accumulated greater yolk retinol with supplementation doses of 3%, while the WL hens hardly underwent any changes in accumulation. The transformation of carotenes into vitamin A relies on the presence of the converting enzyme, although differences in the accumulation range have also been described depending on the rusticity of the birds [35]. ...
... Other authors in the literature [38] reported a linear relationship between yolk retinol and β-carotene given in diets. This is because most of the β-carotene is converted to retinol and transferred to the yolk (only 1% or less of carotene accumulates in the yolks of hen breeds used in intensive breeding) [35]. ...
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term dietary spirulina supplementation (1% and 3%) and the strain of laying hens (White Leghorn: WL and Rhode Island Red: RIR) on color, nutritional value, and stability of yolk. Egg weight was not affected by any of the studied effects. Yolks from 3%-spirulina supplemented hens had higher retinol and lower α-tocopherol content (p = 0.0001) when compared to control. The supplementation with 1%-spirulina markedly decreased luminosity and increased redness (p = 0.0001) and yellowness (p = 0.0103). Short-term spirulina supplementation slightly modified the fatty acid composition of yolk. The C16-desaturase index increased with the algae, whereas other egg quality indices (hypocholesterolemic, thrombombogenic, n-6/n-3) were not modified. Hen strain mainly affected to the lipid profile. The RIR hens accumulated greater yolk retinol with supplementation doses of 3% (p < 0.05), while the WL hardly suffered changes in the accumulation. Also, yolks from RIR hens had lower C16:0 (p = 0.0001), C18:0 (p = 0.0001), saturated (SAT) (p = 0.0001), and thrombogenic index (p = 0.0001), C20:3n-6 (p = 0.0001), n-6/n-3 ratio (p = 0.003), Δ-6+5-desaturase (p = 0.0005), total elongase indices (p = 0.0001) when compared to WL. Moreover, RIR had higher monounsaturated (MUFA), Δ-9-desaturase and hypocholesterolemic indices (p < 0.05) than WL. A different response to spirulina supplementation was observed for C18:1n-9, MUFA, Δ-9-desaturase and thiesterase indices (p < 0.05) according to hen strain. Yolks from RIR had higher MUFA and Δ-9-desaturase indices than WL at 1%-spirulina supplementation, whereas these parameters were less affected in RIR supplemented with 3%. SAT and Δ-9-desaturase were significantly correlated (r = −0.38 and 0.47, respectively) with retinol content according to a linear adjustment (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of yolk was slightly modified by the dietary treatment or hen strain. It was detected a relationship between TBARS and α-tocopherol, C22:5n-3 or C22:6n-3 (p < 0.05). L* and a* were also inversely or positively related with yolk retinol content according to a linear response (p < 0.05). The administration of 1% of spirulina in diets of red hens would be an interesting alternative to get healthier eggs from the nutritional point of view, obtaining an adequate color and without modifications in other yolk quality traits.
... Carotenoid concentration in Sargassum ranged from 0.08 to 0.13 mg g −1 ( Table 1) and consisted of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, violaxanthin, diatoxanthin, and chlorophyll c (Milledge and Harvey 2016;Corino et al. 2019). β-carotene is a vitamin A precursor with antioxidant properties for several mammals and aquatic species (NRC 2011;Çalişlar 2019;Mary et al. 2021). Fucoxanthin was reported in concentrations ranging from 58 to 504 µg g −1 (Machado et al. 2022) and is of particular interest due to its antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antiobesogenic properties; it also reduces the plasmatic concentration of glucose and insulin, steatosis, and insulin resistance (Cherry et al. 2019;Ojulari et al. 2020;Peñalver et al. 2020). ...
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The abundance of pelagic Sargassum has increased in the Atlantic Ocean since 2011. Massive beaching of these algae causes environmental, socioeconomic, and human health problems in several countries in the Greater Caribbean and western Africa. Sargassum cleanup is expensive. Its valorization could reduce costs and impacts. The periodicity in landings, its high biomass, and the many bioactive compounds and minerals contained in these algae represent an opportunity for its use in animal feeding. A review of the existing literature regarding the chemical characteristics of Sargassum and the concentration of compounds to determine its potential use for animals used for human consumption is presented. The main findings are that these pelagic species have high amounts of fiber, salts, complex carbohydrates, and potentially toxic elements that limit their use in high quantities in animal nutrition. However, Sargassum also has minerals, trace elements, amino acids, fatty acids, and bioactive compounds that could benefit animal health if added as an ingredient at a concentration below 5%. Information gaps and recommendations for future research are presented.
... In accordance with the presented results, more than 90% of linear correlation between the YC and dietary SP treatment was found in other studies [13,32,33,40]. This correlation is often attributed to the rich SP contents of β-carotene, which is converted into retinol and deposited in egg yolks [41]. ...
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Spirulina platensisis (SP) is a blue-green microalgae with a high value for animal and poultry nutrition. The study employed 250 40-week-old, HY-Line W-36 commercial laying hens. The layers received one of five experimental diet substitutes in five groups for 10 consecutive weeks (five replicates of 10 hens each group); a soybean-corn basal diet formulation without SP (Control group) or the soybean partially substituted with 3% SP, 6% SP, 9% SP, and 12% SP (for the remaining four groups). The results showed that dietary SP treatment significantly (p < 0.05) improved the productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, and hematological parameters of laying hens. In addition, there were linear and quadratic effects for increasing the levels of SP inclusion into the layer diets; however, the highest values of most parameters were observed when using 9% SP (90 g/kg of the layer diets). Furthermore, the results showed that 4.7% of the soybean meal ingredient in the layer diet could be replaced by 1% of SP. In conclusion, the partial replacement of soybean meal by SP into layer diets could be used as a promising nutritional approach to optimize the performance of laying hens.
... The secretion of the hormone Corticosterone responsible for damage to the intestinal mucosa increases, causing the production of inflammatory factors that activate in the intestinal epithelium that cause an increase in the permeability of the mucous membrane to enter the antigens Pathogenic and thus negatively affected health [4][5][6], and the disruption of the microbial balance of the bird's gastrointestinal tract is reflected in the increase of harmful microorganisms at the expense of the beneficial ones, which negatively affects the vitality, performance and immunity of broilers [7,8]. As a result, recent scientific research and studies have tended towards finding alternatives and practical solutions that reduce these obstacles by using safe natural additives in poultry diets such as carotenoids that are deposited within the body tissues and enhance the productive and immune performance [9,10] considered From the alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a safe natural substance and effective antioxidant according to the authorization issued by the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Allergy Committee (NDA) to use it as a food supplement for humans and animals [11], as its importance is due to its extension across the cell membrane (dual Layer) compared to other antioxidants whose effect is either in specific locations inside or outside the cell membrane [12,13]. It deals with an unspecified number of free radicals generated as a result of oxidative stress, inhibiting their action and protecting protein, fat and cell membranes from processes Oxidation [14,15] and disposal of hydrogen peroxide, which causes damage to all cell components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids [16,17]Which improves the functions of the immune system [18,19], and in view of the immunological and therapeutic roles of Astaxanthin as a natural antioxidant and the presence of limited studies on the use of this substance in poultry diets, this study aimed to use Astaxanthin in poultry meat and to determine the optimal level of reduction From oxidative damage and maintaining the immune performance of broilers. ...
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This experiment was conducted at the poultry farm/Department of Animal Production/College of Agriculture/Al-Qasim Green University And for two experiments, The first for the period from 27/4/2019 to 7/6/2019 and the second from 1/7/2019 to 4/8/2019 for the second experiment to see the effect of adding different levels of astaxanthin to the broiler diet on some immune characteristics of broilers raised under environmental conditions Natural and elevated. Use 240 unsexed birds of one day age ROSS 308 strain, distributed randomly into five treatments by 48 birds/treatment and the birds of each treatment were divided into three replicates (16 birds/replicate). The chicks were fed on three diets that included the initiator, growth and final 23, 21.5 and 19.44% crude protein respectively, and the representative energy was 3000.5, 3100.7 and 3199.25 kcal/kg feed, respectively, in addition to the astaxanthin powder at levels 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg/kg of feed for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments, respectively. The results of the first trial showed a significant superiority (P<0.05) for treatment T2 in the relative weight of the fabrichia gland and for the fabrichia index, and significant superiority for treatment T5 and T3 in the size standard of antibodies directed against Newcastle disease, while treatment T2 and T3 outperformed the size criterion of antibodies directed against camboro disease compared With the control treatment T1, and the second trial, the additional factors T2, T3, T4 and T5 achieved significant superiority (P<0.01) in all the immunological characteristics studied by treatment T1. It is concluded from this study that the addition of astaxanthin to the broiler meat diet led to an improvement in the immune characteristics of broilers raised under normal and elevated environmental temperatures.
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Humanity has faced different pandemics in history. The Covid-19 pandemic has made a new course in the world caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can be transmitted to humans. Finding alternative methods to prevent and control the disease through food and some micronutrients is important. This review summarizes effect of food and key micronutrients on Covid-19. There are currently no reports of the feasibility of transmission through the food sector. However, malnutrition and deficiency of some nutrients can lead to disorders of immune system. Coronavirus may be transferred through raw and uncooked foods; more safety and preventive measures are needed. Furthermore, sufficient intake of omega-3 fatty acids, minerals and vitamins are required for proper immune system function. Therefore, a healthy diet is required for prevent Covid-19. Personal hygiene and employee awareness is the two most important features in the prevention of Covid-19. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of carrot leaf supplementation on feed digestibility and the cholesterol and β-carotene contents of the yolks of eggs produced by Lohmann Brown laying hens. A feeding trial was conducted using 240 healthy 30-week-old laying hens kept in colony cages to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with carrot leaves. Carrot leaf extract (CLE) was prepared by macerating carrot leaves in distilled water (1:1, w/w). The hens were fed diets i) without carrot leaves (C0), ii) supplemented with 2% carrot leaf flour (CLF)(C1); iii) supplemented with 2% CLE(C2); and iv) supplemented with 1% CLF and 1% CLE (C3). Supplementation of CLE, CLF and in combination increased dry matter, organic matter and protein digestibility significantly. Feed efficiency was improved, and eggshell thickness, yolk colour and β-carotene content in yolk increased. Supplementation with CFL or CLE produced significantly lower serum and yolk cholesterol contents. Dietary supplementation of laying hens with CLF and CLE also increased egg production and β-carotene contents in yolk.
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Background and Objective: In developing countries consumers and producers do not considere an egg for internal quality, but it would be a good source of micronutrients including carotenoids. This study was conducted to obtain information on the carotenoid content and its different components of egg yolk of some poultry species. Methodology: To evaluate the situation 120 eggs were collected from (1) Native chicken (scavenging), (2) Native chicken (semi intensive), (3) Zending duck (semi intensive), (4) Fayoumi chicken (intensive), (5) White-cross chicken (intensive) and (6) White Leghorn chicken (intensive). After breaking the eggs and removing the albumen, the yolk content taken and mixed properly. The visual colour was assessed using a Hoffmann La Roche yolk fan (0 to 15, where higher values as higher colour) and three co-ordinate colour parameters (L-lightness, a*-redness and b*-yellowness) measured by Minolta Chroma Meter. Egg yolk was analysed for total carotenoids following iCheck™ and AOAC methods. Quantification of lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, apo-ester, β-carotene and their isomers done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: It was found that the commercial diets contained very low amounts of carotenoid components (0.18, 0.27, 0.07 and 0.03 mg kgG¹ lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, respectively), which also reflected in the colour parameters (RYCFS: 7; L*: 56; a*: -0.15 and b*: 34) of egg yolk. In general, the carotenoid status of yolk from different feeding system varies significantly (21.4 to 34.3 mg kgG¹ yolk), but eggs from scavenging and semi intensive birds found to be rich in lutein (8.0-11.8 mg kgG¹ yolk). Alternatively, eggs from intensive birds contained higher amount of zeaxanthin (4.9-6.3 mg kgG¹ yolk). Values obtained iCheck was slightly lower than AOAC method but found higher than obtained by HPLC although their relationship found to be 0.95 and 0.91 with iCheck data. Conclusion: Therefore, it may concluded that the egg yolk of scavenging and semi intensive birds would be good source of lutein; however, carotenoid content especially lutein concentration in the diets for commercial birds should increase to enrich the carotenoid status of eggs which would be assessed by simple, cost effective and laboratory independent iCheck™ method.
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Dried carrot meal (DCM) prepared from fresh carrot was found to be a good source of xanthophyll (54 mg/kg) and morderate source of protein (188.3 g/kg) and energy (2,510 kcal/kg) with low level of fibre (80 g/ kg). DM, EE and NFE content of DCM were 895, 35 and 661.7 g/kg respectively. The ingredient was used in laying hen diet to evaluate its pigmenting value for egg yolk. Thirty-two laying hens from Starcross strain were divided into four groups and fed four different diets: a control diet containing 62% ground wheat, a corn-based diet (50% ground yellow corn), control + 4% DCM and control + 8% DCM. Use of DCM at 8% level in layer mash significantly improved yolk colour at 3rd, 6th and 9th week of supplementation in comparison with wheat-based control diet. This improvement was statististically similar to that obtained from yellow corn-based diet. DCM at 4% level also improved yolk colour score. Wheat-based diet significantly increased feed consumption compared to yellow corn and diet supplied with 8% DCM. Body weight gain, egg production, feed conversion were not significantly affected due to dietary addition of DCM and no mortality was observed during 63-day experimental period. Further works on DCM are suggested.
Leaf meal (ALM) from Alocasia macrorrhiza contained up to 1148 mg/kg of xanthophylls on dry matter basis. Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for broiler chicks were made up including various commercial xanthophylls and also ALM and the saponified carotenoids and microencapsulated carotenoids from ALM. All the diets, including ALM at 15 g/kg but excluding ALM at 25 g/kg, had no adverse effect on the performance of the chicks. It appears that carotene in ALM does not contribute to the pigmentation of broiler chicks but the xanthophylls in ALM and its saponified extract effectively pigment broiler products. ALM could be used in place of the carophylls now being imported.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene added in the diets of New Zealand rabbits on the ovulation, fertilization ratio, LH and progesterone levels. Forty female and 4 male adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Female rabbits were divided into 2 groups consisting of 20 each. Group I consisted of experimental rabbits while Group II was kept as the control. Animals in the experimental and control groups were kept in separate cages but in the same husbandry conditions. For the animals in the experimental group, 2.8 mg/kg of synthetic beta-carotene was added into the diet for a month. The female adults in the control group were fed a normal diet. At the end of month, male rabbits were deliberately placed in cages with females for mating. Blood samples were taken from all female rabbits every 6 hours for 2 days after mating and the level of LH was measured in all samples. Blood was also taken at 4 day intervals for 30 days and the progesterone levels were measured. All females (in Groups I and II) were laparotomized 2 weeks after mating and the ovarial corpora lutea and fetuses were counted. The LH levels in Groups I and II were statistically analysed and no difference was found between 0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 hours, but the difference between Groups I and II at 6 hours was statistically significant (p<0.05). The difference in progesterone values on days 0, 4, 8 and 20 between the groups was not statistically significant, but the difference at 12, 16 and 30 days was significant (p<0.05). This difference on days 24 and 28 was also significant (p<0.01). The numbers of corpora lutea taken from the two groups were similar. The number of fetuses in Groups I and II was different and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The number of fetuses born alive was also different and was statistically significant (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that the addition of beta-carotene in the rabbits' feed stimulated fertilization and increased reproductive performance. Therefore, beta-carotene can be used as a supplement in rabbit feed in order to increase reproduction.
Organic animal production has increased rapidly in recent years to keep up with the increasing consumer demand for organic meats. There are many guidelines and restrictions on what go into the feedstuffs of organically farmed animals, from which difficulties arise when trying to ensure a well balanced nutritious diet without the use of any supplements. The first comprehensive text on feeding organic pigs, this book presents advice on formulating appropriate diets and integrating them into organic pig production systems. It outlines the international standards of organic feeding, the breeds of pig that are most suitable for organic farming, up to date information on the nutritional requirements of pigs, and examples of diets formulated to organic standards.