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Bioactive compounds like carotenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids and phenolic acids have been identified in number of fruits and vegetables. But due to their less bioavailability owing to insolubility, their application in food industry is still unsuccessful. In this review, bioactive compounds present in bananas and peanuts and their potential health benefits are discussed. Peanuts possess many important compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols which inhibit the absorption of cholesterol from diet. Moreover, it is also good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest content of arginine. Banana also contains various essential bioactive compounds such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols. Most of the compounds have been reported as potent antioxidants and are compelling in securing the body against different oxidative stress related conditions. (PDF) Bioactive Compounds in Peanuts and Banana. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336920990_Bioactive_Compounds_in_Peanuts_and_Banana [accessed Nov 04 2019].
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ISSN: 2161-1009
OPEN ACCESS Freely available online
Review Article
1
Biochem Anal Biochem, Vol. 8 Iss. 2 No: 382
Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry
Bioactive Compounds in Peanuts and Banana
Bhat EA1*, Sajjad N2, Manzoor I2, Rasool A3
1Life Science Institute and School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, PR China; 2Department of Biochemistry,
University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 3Department of Environmental Sciences, Osmania University, Hyderabad,
India
ABSTRACT
Bioactive compounds like carotenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids and phenolic acids have been identified in number
of fruits and vegetables. But due to their less bioavailability owing to insolubility, their application in food industry
is still unsuccessful. In this review, bioactive compounds present in bananas and peanuts and their potential health
benefits are discussed. Peanuts possess many important compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and
phytosterols which inhibit the absorption of cholesterol from diet. Moreover, it is also good source of Co-enzyme
Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest content of arginine. Banana also contains various essential
bioactive compounds such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols. Most of the compounds
have been reported as potent antioxidants and are compelling in securing the body against different oxidative stress
related conditions.
Keywords: Bioactive compounds; Peanuts; Bananas; Carotenoids; Phytosterols; Flavonoids; Phenolic acids
INTRODUCTION
Various bioactive components are present in different fruits,
vegetables and nuts. They have been reported beneficial for
human health. Furthermore, these compounds show different
pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
antibacterial, and immunomodulatory activities [1]. In view of
customer contemplation and inclinations towards health friendly
foods, the advancement of new functional foods is a leading
trend in food industry. Numerous bioactive compounds have
been derived from natural sources and categorized in different
classes depending upon their structure like, phenolic compounds,
vitamins, carotenoids, alkaloids, and organosulfur compounds
[2,3]. They show various therapeutic effects. For example, allicin
isolated from garlic, curcumin isolated from turmeric, catechins
from polyphenols prevent our body from various diseases including
cancer, cardiovascular ailment, neuronal degenerative illnesses,
diabetes, and so forth [4,5]. In this review we examine the bioactive
compounds present in peanuts and bananas and their potential
health benefits.
PEANUT AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD
Peanut is known as functional food. It consists of different
functional components such as coenzyme Q10 which secures the
heart amid absence of oxygen, for example at high altitudes and in
case of clogged veins. Research has shown different compounds in
peanuts and in their skin. They can possess various health benefits
beyond basic nutrition. Moreover, peanuts act as efficient source
of dietary fiber, and other essential nutrients that include few B
complex group of vitamins, vitamin E, minerals, for example,
iron, zinc, potassium and magnesium, and antioxidant minerals
(selenium, manganese and copper). It also contains antioxidant
compounds like flavonoids and resveratrol [6]. The antioxidant
activity of peanut is because of vitamin E, caffeic, coumaric acid,
flavonoids and stilbenes. These bioactive compounds possess
preventative properties [7].
HEALTH BENEFITS OF PEANUTS
Apart from the everyday nutrition peanut utilization prompts long
term health advantages. Peanuts have higher antioxidant property
as compared to other foods like red wine, green tea etc. [8].
It has been reported that boiling increases the concentration of
antioxidants in peanuts. Therefore, boiled peanuts contain higher
content of isoflavones [9]. The skin of peanuts contains potent
antioxidants. It has been demonstrated that peanuts taken with
skin intact increases their antioxidant potential. Furthermore,
roasting increase this limit too [7,9].
Correspondence to: Bhat EA, Life Science Institute and School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, PR China, Tel: +86-
13588249814; E-mail: eijazbhat05 gmail.com
Received: March 06, 2019; Accepted: April 15, 2019; Published: April 22, 2019
Citation: Bhat EA, Sajjad N, Manzoor I, Rasool A (2019) Bioactive Compounds in Peanuts and Banana. Biochem Anal Biochem 8:382. doi:
10.35248/2161-1009.19.8.382.
Copyright: © 2019 Bhat EA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Bhat EA, et al.
OPEN ACCESS Freely available online
Biochem Anal Biochem, Vol. 8 Iss. 2 No: 382
The utilization of simple and processed peanuts has appeared to be
helpful for human wellbeing, because of their attractive lipid profile,
that is rich in unsaturated fats. Peanut oil is naturally transfat-free,
cholesterol free, and low in saturated fats. It demonstrates many
effects owing to its high content of oleic acid.
Various examinations have uncovered that utilization of peanuts
or shelled nut oil is related with lessened cardiovascular sickness
(CVD) hazard and may enhance serum lipid profiles, diminish LDL
oxidation, and apply a cardio-defensive impact. Frequent intake
of peanuts and its products may lessen the danger of colorectal
tumor. A few people have hypersensitive responses to peanuts [10].
It has been investigated that peanut consumption lower the risk
factors of various heart diseases, diabetes etc. [11]. Mortality due
to cardiovascular diseases was decreased in people who consumed
peanut or peanut butter daily [11]. Hypertension is related
with higher risks of heart disease and stroke. Researchers have
discovered that the dietary options we have, can affect the blood
pressure. Peanuts and peanut butter contain monounsaturated
fatty acids, plant proteins, magnesium, potassium, fiber, arginine
and various bioactive components which help to lower the blood
pressure. Peanut flour is used in composite flours with non-wheat
cereals. It can improve the nutritional value of bread. Moreover,
peanut products like peanut bars are consumed worldwide in many
forms. Peanuts are good source of protein, fats, and fiber.
BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS IN PEANUTS
Flavonoids and phenolic acids
Flavonoids are present in peanut. They have been reported to
prevent heart diseases by different mechanisms. Peanut and
related products like peanut butter contain various kinds of
flavonoids [12]. Research showed that peanuts and their skin
contain functional compounds like phenolic acids. Various
studies reported that peanuts possess high content of polyphenolic
antioxidants, particularly in p-coumaric acid levels, which adds to
its antioxidant content by as much as 22% [13]. It is also shown
that roasted peanut skin possess higher antioxidant potential than
roasted whole peanut.
Arginine
Arginine or L-arginine is an amino acid which is responsible for
healthy liver, skin, joints, and muscles. Arginine reinforces the
body's resistance framework, controls hormones and blood sugar
level and advances male fertility. Research has reported that
arginine may enhance circulation and treat impotency and heart
related disease. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid. Despite the
fact that the body fabricates its own particular supply, sometimes
dietary supplementation might be required, for example, on
account of serious injuries or ailment. Arginine fortifies the
resistance framework of the body by expanding the T lymphocytes
(T cells) from the thymus gland. Various studies showed the role
of arginine in treatment of various diseases like AIDS, cancer,
and different infections. Furthermore, arginine is also involved in
detoxification of liver by inhibiting the effects of ammonia and
various other harmful substances in the body. Peanuts have the
highest content of arginine among nourishment [14].
Phytosterols
Developing proof is demonstrating that phytosterols lower down
inflammation process and decrease the growth of different cancers
i.e. lung, stomach, ovarian, prostrate, colon and breast cancer [15].
Phytosterols also indicate the lowering of heart disease [16]. They
are group of natural compounds found in plant cell membranes. It
has been reported that it lower down the aggregate cholesterol up to
10% and LDL or "bad" cholesterol up to 14%. Various studies also
show that the reintroduction of plant foods giving phytosterols into
the modern eating routine can enhance serum lipid (cholesterol)
profiles and decrease the danger of cardiovascular infection [17].
Banana
The intake of fruits is important for well-being of humans. It cut
down the risk of various chronic diseases, such as heart ailments,
stroke, gastrointestinal disorders, certain types of cancers,
hypertension, age-related macular degeneration, skin conditions,
lowering of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and
improved immune function. Fruits contain excellent source of
dietary fibres, vitamins, minerals and various phytochemicals. They
possess potent antioxidant activity. Fruits form crucial part of daily
diet. Fruits are categorized into temperate fruits, sub-tropical fruits,
and tropical fruits. Banana comes under tropical fruits. Banana
is reported to be rich in carbohydrates, dietary fibres, certain
vitamins, and minerals.
Bioactive compounds in banana
Plant secondary metabolism constitutes bioactive compounds which
possess various therapeutic potential [18]. Banana has number of
bioactive compounds. It has higher antioxidant property owing to
the bioactive constituents like phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids
and biogenic amines (Figures 1 and 2).
Figure 1: Bioactive compounds in Banana.
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Bhat EA, et al.
OPEN ACCESS Freely available online
Biochem Anal Biochem, Vol. 8 Iss. 2 No: 382
arteriosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration, certain types
of cancer, inflammation, genotoxicity, and alzheimer disease.
Pazmino-Duran et al. [27] have reported the use of anthocyanins
present in banana bracts (florets) as natural colorants. They
reported various anthocyanins such as cyanidin-3-rutinoside and
3-rutinoside derivatives of delphinidin, pelargonidin, peonidin,
and malvidin. Apart from banana pulp, pseudo stem and fruit peel
of banana have been found to be the good sources of antioxidants.
Many studies reported greater content of polyphenols, flavonoids,
total dietary fibre, insoluble dietary fibre, lignin, hemicellulose,
cellulose in banana. Pereira and Maraschin [28] and Singh et al.
[29] have showed that banana contains many bioactive compounds,
for example, carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, amines, vitamin
C, and vitamin E possessing high antioxidant activity [30,31].
CONCLUSION
There is an awesome assorted variety of valuable bioactive
compounds in bananas and peanuts. They contain various number
of essential bioactive compounds beneficial for human health.
Various studies have reported antioxidant activities of these
compounds. They can therefore, used in prevention of diseases.
Peanuts and banana cultivars contain huge number of these
bioactive compounds should further be investigated. There is
scope to commercialize peanut products owing to their beneficial
uses. Moreover, there is need to spread awareness that peanut
can prevent undesired supplementations. Bananas are grown
and consumed worldwide. It is consumed in both raw as well as
cooked form, because of their high nutritive and medicinal value.
There is need for further research to explore and utilize natural
antioxidants and dietary fiber present in banana peel for health
benefits. Various studies have reported high content of essential
bioactive compounds in banana peel than pulp which could be
utilized as functional food source against many chronic diseases.
DECLARATION
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This article does not contain any studies with human participants
or animals performed by any of the authors.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Phytosterols
Phytosterols are prescribed by doctor to lower the cholesterol [19].
They tend to bind with cholesterol and decrease its assimilation.
Many studies have reported that banana possess various
phytosterols [20,21]. β-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol,
cycloeucalenol, cycloartenol, and 24-methylene cycloartenol were
reported in banana peels [22]. Akihisa et al. [23] did a detailed
investigation of sterol constituents of banana peels and reported
new sterol (24S)-14α, 24-dimethyl-9α, 19-cyclo-5α-cholest-25-en-3β-
ol by chemical and spectroscopic methods. The dichloromethane
extract of some fractions of Musa acuminate contains steryl
glucosides namely stigmasteryl 3-β-d-glucopyranoside, campesteryl
3-β-d-glucopyranoside and sitosteryl 3-β-d-glucopyranoside [20].
Villaverde et al. [21] identified phytosterols in banana cultivars.
They were cycloeucalenone, cycloeucalenone, cycloeucalenol,
cycloartenol, stigmasterol, campesterol and β-sitosterol. These
constituents were present in unripe bananas. M. balbisiana
cultivars, such as ‘Dwarf Red’ and ‘Silver’, have higher amounts
of phytosterols than the M. acuminata. The main sterol present
in lipophilic extracts of peels is Cycloeucalenone. Vilela et al.
[24] studied chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of
ripe pulp of banana fruits of several Musa species using GC–MS
and identified phytosterol in the range of 11.1-28.0% of the total
amount of lipophilic components.
Carotenoids
Carotenoids are beneficial to human health owing to their
physiological properties. They are involved in scavenging of free
radicals. They diminish the progression of diseases, especially
certain tumors and eye illnesses. They are synthesized via isoprenoid
biosynthetic pathway, with basic roles as antioxidants and accessory
pigments for light harvesting in plants [25]. Englberger, Aalbersberg,
et al. investigated raw and cooked samples of bananas, giant swamp
taro, breadfruit cultivars and reported that banana cultivars has
higher levels of carotenoids having β-carotene levels. Survey
reported that the varieties of banana have been reported to possess
higher levels of provitamin and total carotenoids. Consumption of
foods which is rich in carotenoids improves immunity and lower
the risk of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and heart problems
[26].
Antioxidants
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role
in progression of various diseases like arthritis, diabetes,
Figure 2: Bioactive compounds in Peanuts.
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Bhat EA, et al.
OPEN ACCESS Freely available online
Biochem Anal Biochem, Vol. 8 Iss. 2 No: 382
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used in the current study are available from the
corresponding author by request.
Competing interest
The authors have no personal or financial conflicts of interest
associated with this work.
Funding
Not applicable.
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... The defatted peanut meal is a low value agro-industrial residue derived from oil production and has some potential for valorization (Uddin et al., 2018). The meal contains ∼50% protein, minerals, vitamins, fiber and phenolic acids, resveratrol, flavonoids and phytosterols (Bhat et al., 2019). High phenolic content remains in the defatted residues and these by-products could be useful in food fortification (De Camargo et al., 2014) and could be novel ingredients for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals (Arya et al., 2016). ...
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... It is known that peanuts have compounds such as resveratrol, phenolic acid, flavonoids and phytosterols, which inhibit the absorption of dietary cholesterol. In addition, peanuts are a source of Co-enzyme Q10, contain all 20 amino acids, and are a source of antioxidants that act to protect against oxidative stress 17 . ...
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Background: A great deal of effort has been made to reduce the use of shortening due to a high level of saturated fats as well as the presence of trans fats. Grape seed oil high in unsaturated fats was structured with candelilla wax to form solid-like oleogels that were utilized as a shortening replacer in aerated baked goods, specifically muffins. Results: Muffin batters with greater amounts of oleogels exhibited lower viscosity, greater shear-thinning behavior, and less elastic nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels significantly increased the specific gravity of the batters, consequently affecting the muffin volume after baking. X-ray tomography demonstrated that lower fragmentation index (that is, a more connected solid structure) was observed in the oleogel-incorporated muffins that were correlated to more enclosed and isolated air cells. The stress relaxation test showed that the shortening replacement with oleogels produced the muffins with firmer and springier texture. Based on the fatty acid compositions, the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced from 2.81 to 0.41. Conclusion: Use of the oleogels as a shortening replacer at a ratio of 1:3 by weight was effective in producing muffins with comparable quality attributes to the control with shortening.
Article
Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.
Article
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of catechin in green tea, has known effects on cancer, diabetes and obesity. We recently reported that the expression levels of various genes and proteins involved in adipogenesis decreases following EGCG treatment. We also assessed apoptosis in EGCG-exposed cells. Here, we explore the variability in free-radical production in bovine bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with EGCG. Upon adipogenic differentiation, BMSCs were exposed to various EGCG concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 5, or 10 μM) for 2, 4, or 6 days. We found that EGCG reduced cell viability and arrested the cell cycle at the gap 2/mitosis phase and that EGCG potentially enhanced the production of free radicals, including reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Immunostaining revealed that the expression of genes encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and stearoyl-CoA desaturase were diminished by EGCG treatment. These findings suggest that EGCG alters free-radical production activity during adipogenic differentiation in BMSCs.
Article
This study was undertaken to prepare antioxidant-rich gluten-free eggless muffins from rice flour blended with varying amounts of jambolan fruit pulp (JFP) and xanthan gum (XG). The batters were evaluated for fundamental rheology, while muffins were analysed for physicochemical (colour, volume, water activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content), texture and sensory properties. The incorporation of JFP and XG increased batter viscoelasticity (increased G′ and G″ while decreased tan δ). JFP incorporation increased greenness (lower a* value), cohesiveness, resilience, water activity (aw), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH and ABTS inhibition of the muffins. Further, XG improved muffin quality characteristics (appearance, specific volume and resilience). Sensory analyses revealed that JFP incorporation improved the consumer acceptability of the muffins.
Article
Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties, both also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Article
The following sterols and triterpenes have been identified in banana peel: β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, cycloeucalenol, cycloartenol, and 24-methylene cycloartanol. 24-Methylene cycloartanol palmitate and an unidentified triterpene ketone were the major constituents. The ester represented approximately 30 per cent of the total extractable lipid.
Article
The structure of a new sterol isolated fromMusa sapientum has been shown by chemical and spectroscopic methods to be (24S)-14α,24-dimethyl-9α,19-cyclo-5α-cholest-25-en-3β-ol. In addition, several known (24S)-24-methyl-Δ25-sterols, their 24-methylene isomers and other sterols (4,4-dimethyl-, 4α-methyl- and 4-demethyl-sterols) together with 3-oxo-4α-methylsteroids were isolated from the plant and identified. The biogenetic implication of these sterols and 3-oxosteroids is discussed.