Article

BUAV: A Blockchain Based Secure UAV-Assisted Data Acquisition Scheme in Internet of Things

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Abstract

Internet of things (IoT), mobile edge computing (MEC), and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) have attracted significant attention in both industry and academic research. By consolidating these technologies, IoT can be facilitated with improved connectivity, better data transmission, energy saving, and other advantages. However, the communication between these entities is subject to potential cyber threats. In addition, the integrity of the data must be maintained after storing into local storage. Blockchain is a data structure that supports features like pseudonymity, data integrity etc. This paper represents a blockchain based data acquisition process in which information is gathered from IoTs using UAV as a relay and is securely kept in blockchain at MEC server. In the proposed scheme, data are encrypted prior to transfer to MEC server with the assistance of a UAV. Upon receiving the data, MEC server validates the data and the identity of the sender. Successful validation is followed by stocking of the data into blockchain, subsequent to obtaining consent from the validators. Security analysis is conducted in order to show the feasibility of the proposed secure scheme. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed via simulation and implementation.

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... Blockchain-based frameworks to preserve user privacy in IoT have been proposed in a majority of works. The authors of [30] proposed a blockchain-based data acquisition scheme for a secure collection of data from IoT devices using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This solution was researched by collecting data from IoT devices using UAV and storing safely in blockchain through mobile edge computing. ...
... where ψ is the unique hash generation function [30,36], and we have used SHA-256. In some works, for example, [14], the private and public key is calculated from publicly exposed points on the elliptic curve that can be easily detected by the attacker, and user privacy can be compromised. ...
... where κ is the designated key size [30,36]. After the generation of private key δ R from the hash h(m), corresponding to message m, the public key δ P is calculated based on: ...
Article
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Blockchain technology has been widely advocated for security and privacy in IoT systems. However, a major impediment to its successful implementation is the lack of privacy protection regarding user access policy while accessing personal data in the IoT system. This work aims to preserve the privacy of user access policy by protecting the confidentiality and authenticity of the transmitted message while obtaining the necessary consents for data access. We consider a Modified Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) to improve the security strength of the transmitted message. A secure hash function is used in conjunction with a key derivation function to modify the encryption procedure, which enhances the efficiency of the encryption and decryption by generating multiple secure keys through one master key. The proposed solution eliminates user-dependent variables by including transaction generation and verification in the calculation of computation time, resulting in increased system reliability. In comparison to previously established work, the security of the transmitted message is improved through a reduction of more than 12% in the correlation coefficient between the constructed request transaction and encrypted transaction, coupled with a decrease of up to 7% in computation time.
... The proposed DezCom implemented on Robot Operation System (ROS) with the Tendermint consensus algorithms help. For securing data acquisition, the authors of [38][39][40] used blockchain technology for securing data gathered from IoT devices environment by drone technology. In [38], the findings showed that the proposed technologies' performance improves security, connectivity, and energy consumption. ...
... Blockchain technology, AI are applied for securing the drones collaboration [41], while the optimal techniques are used to ensure multi-drone collaboration task allocation with low energy consumption in a high level of security [42] and enable trustworthy communication among drones [43]. Furthermore, in [40] the authors introduced blockchain technology for processing data gathered by drones from IoT environments. Simultaneously, [30] authors predicted the signal strength from drones over IoT framework to gather data and improve energy efficiency. ...
Article
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Currently, drones represent a promising technology for combating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the transport of goods, medical supplies to a given target location in the quarantine areas experiencing an epidemic outbreak. Drone missions will increasingly rely on drone collaboration, which requires the drones to reduce communication complexity and be controlled in a decentralized fashion. Blockchain technology becomes a must in industrial applications because it provides decentralized data, accessibility, immutability, and irreversibility. Therefore, Blockchain makes data public for all drones and enables drones to log information concerning world states, time, location, resources, delivery data, and drone relation to all neighbors drones. This paper introduces decentralized independent multi-drones to accomplish the task collaboratively. Improving blockchain with a consensus algorithm can improve network partitioning and scalability in order to combat COVID-19. The multi-drones task is to combat COVID-19 via monitoring and detecting, social distancing, sanitization, data analysis, delivering goods and medical supplies, and announcement while avoiding collisions with one another. We discuss End to End (E2E) delivery application of combination blockchain and multi-drone in combating COVID-19 and beyond future pandemics. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of our proposed framework are highlighted.
... The proposed DezCom implemented on Robot Operation System (ROS) with the Tendermint consensus algorithms help. For securing data acquisition, the authors of [38][39][40] used blockchain technology for securing data gathered from IoT devices environment by drone technology. In [38], the findings showed that the proposed technologies' performance improves security, connectivity, and energy consumption. ...
... Blockchain technology, AI are applied for securing the drones collaboration [41], while the optimal techniques are used to ensure multi-drone collaboration task allocation with low energy consumption in a high level of security [42] and enable trustworthy communication among drones [43]. Furthermore, in [40] the authors introduced blockchain technology for processing data gathered by drones from IoT environments. Simultaneously, [30] authors predicted the signal strength from drones over IoT framework to gather data and improve energy efficiency. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Currently, drones represent a promising technology for combating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the transport of goods, medical supplies to a given target location in the quarantine areas experiencing an epidemic outbreak. Drone missions will increasingly rely on drone collaboration, which requires the drones to reduce communication complexity and be controlled in a decentralized fashion. Blockchain technology becomes a must in industrial applications because it provides decentralized data, accessibility, immutability, and irreversibility. Therefore, Blockchain makes data public for all drones and enables drones to log information concerning world states, time, location, resources, delivery data, and drone relation to all neighbors drones. This paper introduces decentralized independent multi-drones to accomplish the task collaboratively. Improving blockchain with a consensus algorithm can improve network partitioning and scalability in order to combat COVID-19. The multi-drones task is to combat COVID-19 via monitoring and detecting, social distancing, sanitization, data analysis, delivering goods and medical supplies, and announcement while avoiding collisions with one another. We discuss End to End (E2E) delivery application of combination blockchain and multi-drone in combating COVID-19 and beyond future pandemics. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of our proposed framework are highlighted.
... • Data Integrity: Reliable data acquisition requires data integrity. Islam and Shin [83] proposed a UAV-assisted data acquisition scheme based on blockchain technology. The data were encrypted with the help of a UAV. ...
... Data Integrity [83] Propose a UAV-based scheme to achieve integrity in IoT data acquisition. ...
Article
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Blockchain, a distributed ledger technology (DLT), refers to a list of records with consecutive time stamps. This decentralization technology has become a powerful model to establish trust among trustless entities, in a verifiable manner. Motivated by the recent advancement of multi-access edge computing (MEC) and artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain-enabled edge intelligence has become an emerging technology for the Internet of Things (IoT). We review how blockchain-enabled edge intelligence works in the IoT domain, identify the emerging trends, and suggest open issues for further research. To be specific: (1) we first offer some basic knowledge of DLT, MEC, and AI; (2) a comprehensive review of current peer-reviewed literature is given to identify emerging trends in this research area; and (3) we discuss some open issues and research gaps for future investigations. We expect that blockchain-enabled edge intelligence will become an important enabler of future IoT, providing trust and intelligence to satisfy the sophisticated needs of industries and society.
... The proposed DezCom implemented on Robot Operation System (ROS) with the Tendermint consensus algorithms help. For securing data acquisition, the authors of [38][39][40] used blockchain technology for securing data gathered from IoT devices environment by drone technology. In [38], the findings showed that the proposed technologies' performance improves security, connectivity, and energy consumption. ...
... Blockchain technology, AI are applied for securing the drones collaboration [41], while the optimal techniques are used to ensure multi-drone collaboration task allocation with low energy consumption in a high level of security [42] and enable trustworthy communication among drones [43]. Furthermore, in [40] the authors introduced blockchain technology for processing data gathered by drones from IoT environments. Simultaneously, [30] authors predicted the signal strength from drones over IoT framework to gather data and improve energy efficiency. ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, drones represent a promising technology for combating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the transport of goods, medical supplies to a given target location in the quarantine areas experiencing an epidemic outbreak. Drone missions will increasingly rely on drone collaboration, which requires the drones to reduce communication complexity and be controlled in a decentralized fashion. Blockchain technology becomes a must in industrial applications because it provides decentralized data, accessibility, immutability, and irreversibility. Therefore, Blockchain makes data public for all drones and enables drones to log information concerning world states, time, location, resources, delivery data, and drone relation to all neighbors drones. This paper introduces decentralized independent multi-drones to accomplish the task collaboratively. Improving blockchain with a consensus algorithm can improve network partitioning and scalability in order to combat COVID-19. The multi-drones task is to combat COVID-19 via monitoring and detecting, social distancing, sanitization, data analysis, delivering goods and medical supplies, and announcement while avoiding collisions with one another. We discuss End to End (E2E) delivery application of combination blockchain and multi-drone in combating COVID-19 and beyond future pandemics. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of our proposed framework are highlighted.
... To enable secure communication between the drones, but also between the drones and the ground station server, the authors introduced a secure blockchain-based access control scheme, in which the blocks are added using the ripple protocol consensus algorithm. Islam and Shin [35] integrated the mobile edge computing and proposed a blockchain-based data acquisition process for the unmanned aerial vehiclesassisted internet of things. Specifically, mobile edge computing is used for validates the data and the identity of the sender. ...
... Lai et al. [69] analyzed the impact of reputation values on data credibility for internet of vehicles using MATLAB simulation, which the value of services of the vehicle users and the unit cost of vehicle users are chosen uniformly at random. Islam and Shin [35] performed a simulation using MATLAB for estimating the effects of a Blockchain-based secure data acquisition scheme with the use of a mobile edge computing server. Sharma et al. [133] analyzed the neural-blockchain-based scheme using the numerically-defined system model in Matlab in order to evaluate the reliability through the area spectral efficiency, probability of connectivity, epoch, flyby time, and packet-survivability. Dang et al. [89] uses the platform of MATLAB with the help of YALMIP toolbox in order to study the impact of proof-of-work charge rate on the total cost. ...
Article
This paper presents research challenges and a tutorial on performance evaluation of blockchain-based security and privacy systems for the internet of things (IoT). We start by summarizing the existing surveys that deal with blockchain security for IoT networks. Then, we review the blockchain-based security and privacy systems for seventeen types of IoT applications, e.g., Industry 4.0, Software Defined Networking, Edge computing, Internet of Drones, Internet of Cloud, Internet of Energy, Internet of Vehicles, etc. We also review various consensus algorithms and provide a comparison with respect to the nine properties such as latency, throughput, computation, storage, and communication costs, scalability, attack model, advantage, and disadvantage...etc. Moreover, we present the security analysis techniques and provide a classification into four categories, including, BAN logic, game theory, theory analysis, and AVISPA tool. In addition, we analyze the performance metrics, blockchain testbeds, and cryptography libraries used in the performance evaluation of blockchain-based security and privacy systems for the IoT networks. Based on the current survey, we discuss the major steps to follow for building and evaluating blockchain-based security and privacy systems. Finally, we discuss and highlight open challenges and future research opportunities.
... The authors of [72] discussed blockchain-enabled drone edge intelligence for supporting edge computing in 5G to meet dynamic applications. The authors of [73] introduced blockchain for securing data gathered from IoT networks, where drones operate as relay stations for authentication before data is sent to mobile edge computing. [74] proposed a blockchain approach for decentralized data sharing among air-to-ground IoT networks. ...
... Qiu et al. [70] introduced blockchain for securing spectrum sharing for drone-assisted wireless networks. Islam et al. [73] introduced a secure framework for data gathering by mobile edge computing enabled smart environment, in which drones operate as a relay station for authentication before information is sent to mobile edge computing. The authors of [71] utilized blockchain as a service integrated with mobile edge computing for smart environments, where drones as Arial stations to facilitate blockchain task offloading. ...
Article
Edge Intelligence is an emerging technology which has attracted significant attention. It applies Artificial Intelligence (AI) closer to the network edge for supporting Beyond fifth Generation (B5G) needs. On the other hand, drones can be used as relay station (mobile drone edge intelligence) to gather data from smart environments. Federated Learning (FL) enables the drones to perform decentralized collaborative learning by developing local models, sharing the model parameters with neighbors and the centralized unit to improve global model accuracy in smart environments. However, drone edge intelligence faces challenges such as security and decentralization management, limiting its functions to support green smart environments. Blockchain is a promising technology that enables privacy-preserving data sharing in a distributed manner. There are several challenges that still need to be addressed in blockchain-based applications, such as scalability, energy efficiency, and transaction capacity. Motivated by the significance of FL and blockchain, this survey focuses on the synergy of FL and blockchain to enable drone edge intelligence for green sustainable environments. Moreover, we discuss the combination of FL and blockchain technological aspects, motivation, and framework for green smart environments. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities, and future trends in this domain.
... In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have received extensive attention from academia and industry due to their strong mobility and flexible deployment. In [14], the author designed a data collection scheme based on blockchain, that uses UAVs to obtain data from IoT devices. It helps to improve the security of the IoT and the energy consumption is reduced. ...
... where in (14), E is the battery storage of the UAV. It is necessary to ensure that the total service energy consumption and flight energy consumption are less than the energy stored by the battery E. And we have ...
Article
Full-text available
As the general mobile edge computing (MEC) scheme cannot adequately handle the emergency communication requirements in vehicular networks, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted vehicular edge computing networks (VECNs) are envisioned as the reliable and cost-efficient paradigm for the mobility and flexibility of UAVs. UAVs can perform as the temporary base stations to provide edge services for road vehicles with heavy traffic. However, it takes a long time and huge energy consumption for the UAV to fly from the stay charging station to the mission areas disorderly. In this paper, we design a pre-dispatch UAV-assisted VECNs system to cope with the demand of vehicles in multiple traffic jams. We propose an optimal UAV flight trajectory algorithm based on the traffic situation awareness. The cloud computing center (CCC) server predicts the real-time traffic conditions, and assigns UAVs to different mission areas periodically. Then, a flight trajectory optimization problem is formulated to minimize the cost of UAVs, while both the UAV flying and turning energy costs are mainly considered. In addition, we propose a deep reinforcement learning(DRL)-based energy efficiency autonomous deployment strategy, to obtain the optimal hovering position of UAV at each assigned mission area. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed method can obtain an optimal flight path and deployment of UAV with lower energy consumption.
... The proposed DezCom implemented on Robot Operation System (ROS) with the Tendermint consensus algorithms help. For securing data acquisition, the authors of [38][39][40] used blockchain technology for securing data gathered from IoT devices environment by drone technology. In [38], the findings showed that the proposed technologies' performance improves security, connectivity, and energy consumption. ...
... Blockchain technology, AI are applied for securing the drones collaboration [41], while the optimal techniques are used to ensure multi-drone collaboration task allocation with low energy consumption in a high level of security [42] and enable trustworthy communication among drones [43]. Furthermore, in [40] the authors introduced blockchain technology for processing data gathered by drones from IoT environments. Simultaneously, [30] authors predicted the signal strength from drones over IoT framework to gather data and improve energy efficiency. ...
Article
Currently, drones represent a promising technology for combating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the transport of goods, medical supplies to a given target location in the quarantine areas experiencing an epidemic outbreak. Drone missions will increasingly rely on drone collaboration, which requires the drones to reduce communication complexity and be controlled in a decentralized fashion. Blockchain technology becomes a must in industrial applications because it provides decentralized data, accessibility, immutability, and irreversibility. Therefore, Blockchain makes data public for all drones and enables drones to log information concerning world states, time, location, resources, delivery data, and drone relation to all neighbors drones. This paper introduces decentralized independent multi-drones to accomplish the task collaboratively. Improving blockchain with a consensus algorithm can improve network partitioning and scalability in order to combat COVID-19. The multi-drones task is to combat COVID-19 via monitoring and detecting, social distancing, sanitization, data analysis, delivering goods and medical supplies, and announcement while avoiding collisions with one another. We discuss End to End (E2E) delivery application of combination blockchain and multi-drone in combating COVID-19 and beyond future pandemics. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of our proposed framework are highlighted.
... Running blockchain algorithms on UAVs (acting as relays for ground IoT devices) may be computationally demanding considering the power limitations of UAVs. Blockchain algorithms can be run on mobile edge computing (MEC) servers that receive measured acquired data from IoT devices via a UAV relay [95]. The work in [96] proposed storing the interactions between D2D devices and potential relays in blocks within the devices and showed through simulations that the proposed block-chain-based relay selection technique can result in higher utility. ...
Article
Full-text available
The deployment of relays between Internet of Things (IoT) end devices and gateways can improve link quality. In cellular-based IoT, relays have the potential to reduce base station overload. The energy expended in single-hop long-range communication can be reduced if relays listen to transmissions of end devices and forward these observations to gateways. However, incorporating relays into IoT networks faces some challenges. IoT end devices are designed primarily for uplink communication of small-sized observations toward the network; hence, opportunistically using end devices as relays needs a redesign of both the medium access control (MAC) layer protocol of such end devices and possible addition of new communication interfaces. Additionally, the wake-up time of IoT end devices needs to be synchronized with that of the relays. For cellular-based IoT, the possibility of using infrastructure relays exists, and noncellular IoT networks can leverage the presence of mobile devices for relaying, for example, in remote healthcare. However, the latter presents problems of incentivizing relay participation and managing the mobility of relays. Furthermore, although relays can increase the lifetime of IoT networks, deploying relays implies the need for additional batteries to power them. This can erode the energy efficiency gain that relays offer. Therefore, designing relay-assisted IoT networks that provide acceptable trade-offs is key, and this goes beyond adding an extra transmit RF chain to a relay-enabled IoT end device. There has been increasing research interest in IoT relaying, as demonstrated in the available literature. Works that consider these issues are surveyed in this paper to provide insight into the state of the art, provide design insights for network designers and motivate future research directions.
... Forwarding or Data plane softwarized UAV network [28]. ...
Article
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in various applications such as surveillance, healthcare, rescue, and crowdsensing. However, the network management of these applications is quite challenging given the mobility of UAVs. In this scenario, network softwarization, which decouples the hardware from the network control functions, becomes essential. Moreover, the fifth generation (5G) communication network is used to disseminate the data from controller-to-UAV and UAV-to-Internet of things (IoT) enabled devices. However, handling the security and privacy of data against the eavesdropper is one of the challenging aspects that need to be resolved efficiently. Most of the solutions presented in the literature are based on a centralized architecture having a single point of failure and are also vulnerable to various security attacks such as controller hijacking and man-in-the-middle attack. Motivated by these facts, we present a blockchain-based secure data dissemination scheme for softwarized UAV networks. The proposed scheme can detect an eavesdropper, analyze malicious data, and mitigate various security attacks on the SDN controller. The performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves superior results in detecting the eavesdropper and anomalous data before adding them into the blockchain compared to other state-of-the-art schemes.
... Also, a scheme is described in [37] that describes how blockchain can be used in close cooperation with IoT technologies and UAVs, among other features. In this scheme, there is an Enterprise Server running in a private cloud that receives the data collected from Mobile Edge Computer (MEC) servers through a mobile core network. ...
Article
Full-text available
Security attacks on Cyber-Physical Systems with operations that involve Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a matter of great concern due to their major impact in the deployed systems, and a deal-breaker for their utilization; if a system is not perceived as secure, either it will not be used or its capabilities will be underutilized, regardless of how good they could be. This happens with particular intensity in missions with UAVs, as they can be hacked to tamper with their collected data or taken away by unauthorized parties. Development of security countermeasures is extensive both in theoretical and practical implementations, but the integration of these measures can be difficult, and performance might be affected because of it. This manuscript puts forward a SEDIBLOFRA (Secure, Distributed, Blockchain-based Framework) for remote maneuvering of UAVs, based on several distributed systems technologies that pile up to provide complementary functionalities. Asymmetric cryptography encrypts the data. Publish/Subscribe communications offer a way to enhance data delivery. Finally, blockchain provides a way to keep all the transferred data in a redundant and immutable manner. The proposed framework is also extensible to other kinds of unmanned vehicles, like Unmanned Ground Vehicles or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.
... As the edges are susceptible to cyber threats, there is a growing interest in their security. e main related studies include areas such as personal information protection and secure data collection, and transmission for MEC-supported IoT applications [223][224][225][226][227][228][229][230][231][232][233][234][235][236][237][238][239][240][241]. Topic 8 is related to the development of energy-efficient routing protocols that minimize the transmission power for routing between nodes in IoT networks. ...
Article
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The smart mobile Internet-of-things (IoT) network lays the foundation of the fourth industrial revolution, the era of hyperconnectivity, hyperintelligence, and hyperconvergence. As this revolution gains momentum, the security of smart mobile IoT networks becomes an essential research topic. This study aimed to provide comprehensive insights on IoT security. To this end, we conducted a systematic mapping study of the literature to identify evolving trends in IoT security and determine research subjects. We reviewed the literature from January 2009 to August 2020 to identify influential researchers and trends of keywords. We additionally performed structural topic modeling to identify current research topics and the most promising ones via topic trend estimation. We synthesized and interpreted the results of the systematic mapping study to devise future research directions. The results obtained from this study are useful to understand current trends in IoT security and provide insights into research and development of IoT security.
... Lack of user independency, and verification of users in IoD [29] Proposed a blockchain based UAV assisted data acquisition for IoTs MEC server stores the collected data into blockchain ...
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Flying Ad hoc Network (FANET) has drawn significant consideration due to its rapid advancements and extensive use in civil applications. However, the characteristics of FANET including high mobility, limited resources, and distributed nature, have posed a new challenge to develop a secure and efficient routing scheme for FANET. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a novel cluster based secure routing scheme, which aims to solve the routing and data security problem of FANET. In this scheme, the optimal cluster head selection is based on residual energy, online time, reputation, blockchain transactions, mobility, and connectivity by using Improved Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (IABC). The proposed IABC utilizes two different search equations for employee bee and onlooker bee to enhance convergence rate and exploitation abilities. Further, a lightweight blockchain consensus algorithm, AI-Proof of Witness Consensus Algorithm (AI-PoWCA) is proposed, which utilizes the optimal cluster head for mining. In AI-PoWCA, the concept of the witness for block verification is also involved to make the proposed scheme resource efficient and highly resilient against 51% attack. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms its counterparts and achieves up to 90% packet delivery ratio, lowest end-to-end delay, highest throughput, resilience against security attacks, and superior in block processing time.
... However, these entities lack computation capabilities. Multiaccess edge computing (MEC) is a new paradigm that comes forward to provide services in real-time [3]. However, in disaster-affected areas, infrastructure might be compromised, and entities might not in contact with the MEC server. ...
Conference Paper
Natural disasters visited countries every year more or less and left devastating situations behind, which affect both the economy and health. However, instantaneous actions can lessen casualties in the affected areas. Unmanned any vehicle (UxV) is a concept where unmanned vehicles come together and perform missions cooperatively. UxV can assist in rehabilitating the affected area. Multi-access edge computing (MEC) can assist UxVs in real-time. However, disaster might jeopardize MEC structure. Home edge computing (HEC) is a paradigm that stays closer to the end devices and enables an offline computation environment. HEC can fill up the gap and assist in maintaining the mission. Besides, networks and data are surrounded by security and privacy issues. This paper introduces a blockchain-based HEC assisted disaster rehabilitation and recovery scheme to restore everyday life using UxV. A proof of concept is considered for proving the feasibility.
... The design of blockchains naturally protects data integrity because any tampering of previous data recorded are not permissioned. MEC servers were used to validate and store blockchain data in [42] for data integrity. The data acquisition process for IoT system was discussed in this article. ...
Chapter
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Driven by recent advancements in machine learning, mobile edge computing (MEC) and the Internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) has become an emerging technology. Traditional machine learning approaches require the training data to be collected and processed in centralized servers. With the advent of new decentralized machine learning approaches and mobile edge computing, the IoT on-device data training has now become possible. To realize AI at the edge of the network, IoT devices can offload training tasks to MEC servers. However, those distributed frameworks of edge intelligence also introduce some new challenges, such as user privacy and data security. To handle these problems, blockchain has been considered as a promising solution. As a distributed smart ledger, blockchain is renowned for high scalability, privacy-preserving, and decentralization. This technology is also featured with automated script execution and immutable data records in a trusted manner. In recent years, as quantum computers become more and more promising, blockchain is also facing potential threats from quantum algorithms. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art in these cutting-edge technologies by summarizing the available literature in the research field of blockchain-based MEC, machine learning, secure data sharing, and basic introduction of post-quantum blockchain. We also discuss the real-world use cases and outline the challenges of blockchain-empowered intelligence.
... Drones are an emerging technology which brings a revolution in the realm of technology with its numerous advantages like access to any places, remote control, easy maintenance, etc. [2]. As drones can cover any areas, it can be beneficial to mitigate the aforementioned challenges (i.e., shortage of resources and network scarcity). ...
Conference Paper
Pandemics are very burdensome for every country in terms of health and economy. Technology is needed to come forward to lessen the burden. As finding cure instantly is not always possible, prevention method can be adopted to reduce the damages. Among the methods, home quarantine (HQ) can be beneficial. However, maintaining HQ is very difficult, especially in remote areas where network connectivity is very limited. Drones, dew computing, and blockchain are emerging technologies which can assist in reducing damages. This paper presents a blockchain enabled home quarantine supervision scheme in which patients are monitored using drones. A lightweight computation environment is established to assist the drone. A proof of concept is established to demonstrate the feasibility.
... Islam and Shin [66] present a secure communication scheme in a UAV-assisted IoT system. Their aim is to preserve communications against cyber-threats and ensure data integrity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are well-developed technologies that were first utilized for military applications such as border monitoring and reconnaissance in hostile territories. With the advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) systems and smart mobile devices, several applications in various industrial, agricultural, smart homes, smart cities, smart transportation, etc. domains have emerged. These applications usually require broad coverage, high energy consumption, computation-intensive processing, and access to rich data gathered by sensor devices. UAVs’ inherent features such as high dynamicity, low deployment and operational costs, quick deployment, and line of sight communication have motivated researchers in the IoT domain to consider UAVs integration into IoT systems toward the notion of UAV-assisted IoT systems. In this paper, recent literature on UAV-assisted services in IoT environments is studied. A service-oriented classification is applied in order to categorize the presented schemes into four broad domains of UAV-assisted data-related services, UAV-assisted battery charging, UAV-assisted communications, and UAV-assisted Mobile Edge Computing (MEC). The literature belonging to each category is summarized with respect to their main points. Finally, some possible future directions are discussed to highlight the challenges associated with designing UAV-assisted IoT systems.
... Initially, IoD was introduced for military purposes, later, civilians accept it abruptly in various applications, such as package delivery, search and rescue, agriculture, and surveillance [9]. IoD can also act as a relay or temporary base station to mitigate network scarcity issues in remote Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) places [10]. IoD can be a tentative candidate to alleviate the aforementioned problem ( i.e., network scarcity). ...
Conference Paper
The modern era is filled with smart entities (e.g., smart vehicles) that have both sense and actuate capabilities. These entities can collect lots of data during their functional period and these data can be utilized for the wellbeing of citizens. However, these data are very sensitive raising issues like privacy. Moreover, network scarcity, bandwidth consumption, etc. can worsen the circumstance. Federated learning (FL), internet of drones (IoD), and dew computing (DC) are revolutionary technologies that can be engaged to mitigate the aforementioned challenges. An FL-based computing paradigm is initiated over the dew computing to process road-related data to bring efficiency in the applications (e.g., finding parking locations) utilizing IoD. An experimental environment is established containing a traffic dataset as a proof of concept. The experimental results exhibit the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
... The synergy between blockchain and smart contracts offers various advantages including transparency, security, accuracy, efficiency, and trust, which are all vital for a sustainable management system. The advantages of decentralized systems for UAV operations were recognized and multiple related applications were proposed for supply chain [23], surveillance [24], situation supervision [25], data acquisition [26], [27], coordinated UAV services [28], and edge computing [29]. Nonetheless, only a few papers attempted to design an end-toend air traffic management system. ...
Preprint
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are gaining immense attention due to their potential to revolutionize various businesses and industries. However, the adoption of UAV-assisted applications will strongly rely on the provision of reliable systems that allow managing UAV operations at high levels of safety and security. Recently, the concept of UAV traffic management (UTM) has been introduced to support safe, efficient, and fair access to low-altitude airspace for commercial UAVs. A UTM system identifies multiple cooperating parties with different roles and levels of authority to provide real-time services to airspace users. However, current UTM systems are centralized and lack a clear definition of protocols that govern a secure interaction between authorities, service providers, and end-users. The lack of such protocols renders the UTM system unscalable and prone to various cyber attacks. Another limitation of the currently proposed UTM architecture is the absence of an efficient mechanism to enforce airspace rules and regulations. To address this issue, we propose a decentralized UTM protocol that controls access to airspace while ensuring high levels of integrity, availability, and confidentiality of airspace operations. To achieve this, we exploit key features of the blockchain and smart contract technologies. In addition, we employ a mobile crowdsensing (MCS) mechanism to seamlessly enforce airspace rules and regulations that govern the UAV operations. The solution is implemented on top of the Etheruem platform and verified using four different smart contract verification tools. We also provided a security and cost analysis of our solution. For reproducibility, we made our implementation publicly available on Github.
... Through the blockchain platform control, the MEC can open blockchain query permissions for authorized users. Table 1 shows the technical characteristics, deployment features, and application areas for the integration of blockchain technology and MEC or edge computing [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]. ...
Article
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The fifth-generation (5G) network has special communication and security requirements including high reliability, low latency, precise automatic control, secure covert transmission, and evidence traceability. The 5G network combined with blockchain technology just meets this demand, so it is driving a rapidly growing volume of patent applications. This study proposes application scenarios, architecture diagrams, and patent analysis methods for blockchain-based 5G network technologies, beginning with a network architecture using mobile edge computing (MEC) and blockchain as independent platform components to solve MEC load pressure. In the patent analysis, a patent cluster map of blockchain-based 5G networks is proposed to analyze the intersection of technical application fields. The bottleneck period of technological development is presented for leading countries and enterprises in the technological development of blockchain-based 5G network, highlighting relative advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, to extract the core international patent classification (IPC) key technologies and their mutual interrelatedness, we use network topology analysis to establish an IPC network topology diagram through node global and local topology characteristics, thus revealing hotspots of IPC technology research and the characteristics of the technology relationship system. The findings provide a very useful reference for the formulation of government strategy to assist in the implementation and development of blockchain-based 5G network technologies for future smart cities.
... A blockchain-based information securing process, in which data is collected from the sensors utilizing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a relay, is presented in [20]. The collected information is safely stored within the blockchain on the mobile edge computing (MEC) server. ...
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Security is a challenging issue for M2M/IoT applications due to the deployment, decentralization and heterogeneity of M2M and IoT devices. Typical security solutions may not be suitable for M2M/IoT systems regarding the difficulties encountered for their implementation on resource-constrained devices. In this paper, we discuss the architectures deployed for M2M communications and the security challenges, as well as the vulnerabilities and solutions to counter possible attacks. We present a lightweight design based on a private blockchain to secure wireless M2M communications at the device domain level. Blockchain integration provides secure storage of data while preserving integrity traceability and availability. Besides, the evaluation and experimentations under NS3 simulator of the proposed scheme show that the authentication mechanism is lightweight, and presents better performances comparatively to other protocols in terms of key parameters as communication and computational overheads, average delay and energy consumption.
... VANET is used as a base station in the proposed framework, and BC is used for computation-intensive task offloading. For IoT networks based on MEC, [133] proposed a framework for secure data collection. In the proposed framework for authentication, end devices transfer private data to MEC servers. ...
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The Internet of Things (IoT) revitalizes the world with tremendous capabilities and potential to be utilized in vehicular networks. The Smart Transport Infrastructure (STI) era depends mainly on the IoT. Advanced machine learning (ML) techniques are being used to strengthen the STI smartness further. However, some decisions are very challenging due to the vast number of STI components and big data generated from STIs. Computation cost, communication overheads, and privacy issues are significant concerns for wide-scale ML adoption within STI. These issues can be addressed using Federated Learning (FL) and blockchain. FL can be used to address the issues of privacy preservation and handling big data generated in STI management and control. Blockchain is a distributed ledger that can store data while providing trust and integrity assurance. Blockchain can be a solution to data integrity and can add more security to the STI. This survey initially explores the vehicular network and STI in detail and sheds light on the blockchain and FL with real-world implementations. Then, FL and blockchain applications in the Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) environment from security and privacy perspectives are discussed in detail. In the end, the paper focuses on the current research challenges and future research directions related to integrating FL and blockchain for vehicular networks.
... To combat malicious UAVs, the authors in [15] suggest a reinforcement learning (RL) based protection strategy. The authors in [16] offer a blockchain-based data acquisition mechanism in which data is collected from loTs using UAVs as a relay and securely stored in blockchain at the MEC server. ...
Conference Paper
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The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for diverse activities has increased rapidly in recent years. Nonetheless , if operational cyber security is not handled effectively, these technologies offer a significant hazard which can cause catastrophic harm. Therefore it is important to identify the potential attacks that can be implemented by an adversary. Traditional methods for data integrity designed for the Internet are not suitable for UAV assisted vehicular or wireless sensor networks due to the high communication overhead and latency required. This paper proposes a lightweight data integrity technique called PIC to address this problem. Every device, at regular intervals, generates an authentication parameter that depends on the packets transmitted. The authentication parameters are only delivered to a central server or the destination device where the integrity of the packets is verified. The proposed algorithm, i.e., PIC, does not include computationally expensive cryptographic algorithms. Therefore, the overhead introduced by embedding message authentication code (MAC) to every transmitted packet is significantly reduced. A formal security proof is presented in this paper to demonstrate the robustness of PIC, i.e., the PIC can identify malicious UAVs effectively. A performance analysis using NS-3 is also presented to show that PIC detects malicious UAVs with minimum communication overhead and latency.
... To combat malicious UAVs, the authors in [15] suggest a reinforcement learning (RL) based protection strategy. The authors in [16] offer a blockchain-based data acquisition mechanism in which data is collected from loTs using UAVs as a relay and securely stored in blockchain at the MEC server. ...
Conference Paper
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The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for diverse activities has increased rapidly in recent years. Nonetheless, if operational cyber security is not handled effectively , these technologies offer a significant hazard which can cause catastrophic harm. Therefore, it is important to identify the potential attacks that can be implemented by an adversary. Traditional methods for data integrity designed for the Internet are not suitable for UAV assisted vehicular or wireless sensor networks due to the high communication overhead and latency required. This paper proposes a lightweight data integrity technique called MaDe to address this problem. Every device, at regular intervals, generates an authentication parameter that depends on the packets transmitted. The authentication parameters are only delivered to a central server or the device where the integrity of the packets is verified. At the server, MaDe takes the final decision about an UAV using a generalized likelihood ratio test. MaDe can identify malicious UAVs effectively as demonstrated through our performance analysis. The results show that MaDe detects malicious UAVs with minimum communication overhead and latency.
... B. Related Work 1) UAV-Assisted Mobile Edge Computing: The first time UAVs were used as relays was in [8], where the authors proposed to maximize uplink data rates while maintaining certain individual link data rates by optimizing UAVs' heading angles. Data acquisition from IoT devices to ground MEC servers using UAVs as relays was proposed in [9]. In [10], the locations of UAVs were optimized for relaying over millimeter waves. ...
Preprint
The cooperation between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and ground Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) servers in processing tasks is becoming one of the main research trends of MEC networks. Despite the advantages of UAV-assisted MEC, it is restricted by the limited battery capacity and sensitive energy consumption of UAVs. Unlike the previous works where UAVs are allowed to either process tasks locally or offload them to ground MEC servers, in this paper, we propose a multi-hop task routing solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks in which a UAV can also relay to another UAV with better connection to a ground MEC server. Furthermore, the UAV can make benefit of existing Intelligent Reflective Surfaces (IRSs) to further improve tasks offloading and reduce energy consumption. We show that the problem of minimizing the total energy of UAVs is NP-hard, and we propose a graph-based heuristic solution to solve it. Simulation results show that the proposed graph-based solution outperforms the traditional no-relaying scheme, especially when IRSs are deployed. Furthermore, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is devised to reduce the delay of finding the decisions for the UAVs at the centralized coordinator. Simulations show that the CNN achieves very close energy consumption performance and a remarkable reduction in execution time compared to the graph-based heuristic solution.
... B. Related Work 1) UAV-Assisted Mobile Edge Computing: The first time UAVs were used as relays was in [8], where the authors proposed to maximize uplink data rates while maintaining certain individual link data rates by optimizing UAVs' heading angles. Data acquisition from IoT devices to ground MEC servers using UAVs as relays was proposed in [9]. In [10], the locations of UAVs were optimized for relaying over millimeter waves. ...
Preprint
The cooperation between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and ground Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) servers in processing tasks is becoming one of the main research trends of MEC networks. Despite the advantages of UAV-assisted MEC, it is restricted by the limited battery capacity and sensitive energy consumption of UAVs. Unlike the previous works where UAVs are allowed to either process tasks locally or offload them to ground MEC servers, in this paper, we propose a multi-hop task routing solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks in which a UAV can also relay to another UAV with better connection to a ground MEC server. Furthermore, the UAV can make benefit of existing Intelligent Reflective Surfaces (IRSs) to further improve tasks offloading and reduce energy consumption. We show that the problem of minimizing the total energy of UAVs is NP-hard, and we propose a graph-based heuristic solution to solve it. Simulation results show that the proposed graph-based solution outperforms the traditional no-relaying scheme, especially when IRSs are deployed. Furthermore, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is devised to reduce the delay of finding the decisions for the UAVs at the centralized coordinator. Simulations show that the CNN achieves very close energy consumption performance and a remarkable reduction in execution time compared to the graph-based heuristic solution.
... 3) How Blockchain Can Help: Acquisition of authentic data in the metaverse will be made easier for applications like social networking with the adaption of blockchain technol-ogy. Distributed ledger in blockchain will allow validation of transaction records and tracing the data in the metaverse [40], [41]. As a result, data acquisition is resistant to attacks as the majority of nodes in the ledger must approve any changes to the data in the metaverse [42]. ...
Preprint
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Since Facebook officially changed its name to Metaverse in Oct. 2021, the metaverse has become a new norm of social networks and three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds. The metaverse aims to bring 3D immersive and personalized experiences to users by leveraging many pertinent technologies. Despite great attention and benefits, a natural question in the metaverse is how to secure its users' digital content and data. In this regard, blockchain is a promising solution owing to its distinct features of decentralization, immutability, and transparency. To better understand the role of blockchain in the metaverse, we aim to provide an extensive survey on the applications of blockchain for the metaverse. We first present a preliminary to blockchain and the metaverse and highlight the motivations behind the use of blockchain for the metaverse. Next, we extensively discuss blockchain-based methods for the metaverse from technical perspectives, such as data acquisition, data storage, data sharing, data interoperability, and data privacy preservation. For each perspective, we first discuss the technical challenges of the metaverse and then highlight how blockchain can help. Moreover, we investigate the impact of blockchain on key-enabling technologies in the metaverse, including Internet-of-Things, digital twins, multi-sensory and immersive applications, artificial intelligence, and big data. We also present some major projects to showcase the role of blockchain in metaverse applications and services. Finally, we present some promising directions to drive further research innovations and developments towards the use of blockchain in the metaverse in the future.
... Data integrity is also important to ensure that transmitted data is not altered or modified by an intruder. Islam et al. [47] proposed an architecture to preserve the integrity of the data transmitted between IoT devices and Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) devices and servers. They used UAVs as trusted relays to ensure the integrity of the data before being transmitted to MEC servers. ...
Preprint
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The breakthrough of blockchain technology has facilitated the emergence and deployment of a wide range of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) network-based applications. Yet, the full utilization of these applications is still limited due to the fact that each application is operating on an isolated blockchain. Thus, it is inevitable to orchestrate these blockchain fragments by introducing a cross-blockchain platform that governs the inter-communication and transfer of assets in the UAV networks context. In this paper, we provide an up-to-date survey of blockchain-based UAV networks applications. We also survey the literature on the state-of-the-art cross blockchain frameworks to highlight the latest advances in the field. Based on the outcomes of our survey, we introduce a spectrum of scenarios related to UAV networks that may leverage the potentials of the currently available cross-blockchain solutions. Finally, we identify open issues and potential challenges associated with the application of a cross-blockchain scheme for UAV networks that will hopefully guide future research directions.
... Such as password based remote user authentication using one-way hash functions and ticket based authentication [11]. Existing methods of authentication of devices include registering devices in a cloud platform running with the home network and initiating a handshake and key exchange [11,12]. Such systems also include a current method of key exchange which is the RSA key exchange mechanism [7]. ...
Chapter
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With the advancement of technology (i.e., devices), which are considered non-traditional in terms of internet capabilities, are now being embedded in microprocessors to communicate and these devices are known as IoT devices. This technology has enabled household devices to have the ability to communicate with the internet and a network comprising of such device can create a home IoT network. Such IoT devices are resource constrained and lack high-level security protocols. Thus, security becomes a major issue for such network systems. One way to secure the networks is through reliable authentication protocols and data transfer mechanism. As the household devices are controllable by the users remotely, they are accessed over the internet. Therefore, there should also be a method to make the communication over the internet between IoT devices and the users more secured. This paper proposes a two phase authentication protocol for authentication purposes and a VPN based secure channel creation for the communication of the devices in the network. Furthermore, the paper discusses the elliptic curve cryptography as a viable alternative to RSA for a more efficient Key exchange mechanism for low-powered IoT devices in the network.
... Mobile edge computing (MEC) is an emerging computing paradigm that has brought cloud computing closer proximity to the user [9]. MEC resides at the base station (BS) and communicates over the radio access networks [10]. Thus, it can create a realtime communication environment, especially for the highly mobile entities (i.e., IoV). ...
Conference Paper
In the modern era, the internet of vehicles (IoV) is being utilized in commercial applications and extensively explored in research. However, internal fault in IoV can cause accidents on the road. Moreover, privacy concerns can hamper the internal data sharing to build a model to detect the anomaly. Federated learning (FL) and blockchain are emerging technologies that can assist in mitigating these challenges. FL-based anomaly detection is introduced to prevent road accidents with the help of blockchain. An environment is built to conduct experiments to prove the feasibility of the proposed scheme. The performance analysis demonstrates that our presented scheme outperforms the traditional scheme while having privacy concerns.
... Lack of user independency, and verification of users in IoD [29] Proposed a blockchain based UAV assisted data acquisition for IoTs MEC server stores the collected data into blockchain ...
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Flying Ad hoc Network (FANET) has drawn significant interests from industry and academy owing to its rapid advancement and extensive use in civil and military applications. However, due to high mobility, its limited resources and distributed nature have posed a new challenge on the development of a secure and efficient routing scheme for FANET. This paper proposes a novel cluster based secure routing scheme that aims to solve routing data securely in FANET. To ensure the security, the optimal cluster head selection is studied based on an objective function to, i) maximize residual energy, ii) maximize online time, iii) maximize reputation, iv) maximize transactions, v) minimize mobility, and vi) maximize connectivity, which exploits the fast and efficient improved Artificial Bee Colony (IABC). The proposed IABC with two different search equations for employee bee and onlooker bee, retains fast convergence rate and maintains a balance between exploration and exploitation abilities. Further, we develop a lightweight blockchain consensus algorithm, namely, AI-Proof of Witness Consensus Algorithm (AI-PoW), where IABC is adopted to elect the super mining node. The concept of witness for block verification is also involved to make the proposed scheme resource efficient and highly resilient against 51% attack. Extensive experiments are conducted with various network scenarios by comparing the proposed solution with other meta-heuristic based routing schemes. The results show that the proposed scheme is superior in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, throughput, and block processing time.
... IoT networks and the communication between the IoT entities are susceptible to various security threats. To overcome this, Islam et al. [94] proposed a scheme named BUAV which is enabled with BC and MEC and uses UAV for relaying information collected from various IoT entities. Also, data is also encrypted prior to the transmission. ...
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In this era of modern digital technologies, the Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) is omnipresent and can be used for varied purposes. However , these devices have scalability, security, and connection issues. To address the IoV security issues, BC technology is a viable solution. BC offers decentralization, transparency, immutability, and privacy, which can be useful to IoVs. The 5G technologies have not been fully commercialized and the researchers have started exploring the 6G technologies. The 6G technologies can help provide ultra-low latency communication between the devices. It also supports communication in heterogeneous networks like IoVs in various application scenarios such as healthcare, smart city, and traffic management. Motivated from the above discussion, we present a survey on the adoption of BC in IoVs underlying 6G communication. We have also explored various privacy and security concerns in IoVs, which can be perfectly addressed via BC technology. The 6G communication takes care of latency, reliability, and connectivity issues. We have categorized the existing literature based on the taxonomy and presented a comparative study of all the existing state-of-the-art approaches based on their merits and demerits. Finally, we have highlighted some of the open issues and research challenges that opens the doors for beginners who are willing to start work in this amazing area.
Chapter
With the popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the development of the network technology, the UAV network has become a new research hotspot. However, due to various factors such as terrain, transmission distance, and hacker attacks, UAV network needs to reconstruct the network architecture and restore data according to the actual situation. The blockchain technology can be applied to the UAV network for its high reliability and distributed characteristics. Therefore, this paper proposes a blockchain-based adaptive reconstruction technology framework for UAV networks. Also, to solve possible data damage or missing problems in UAV networks, a data recovery and update approach as well as the corresponding algorithms are given. Furthermore, this paper uses the blockchain to record the behavior of the UAV nodes in the UAV network, and proposes an algorithm to check whether the UAV is malicious or malfunctioning. So that the ground control station (GCS) can reconstruct the UAV network communication link.
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Mobile edge computing is becoming a major trend in providing computation capacities at the edge of mobile networks. Meanwhile, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been considered as distinctly important integrated components to extend services coverage. In order to provide users with higher and satisfied quality of services, edge computing resources need to be allocated between edge computing stations (ECSs) and UAVs in mobile networks. However, there are significant security and privacy problems due to the open environments of ECSs and UAVs. In this paper, we propose a resource pricing and trading scheme based on Stackelberg dynamic game to optimally allocate edge computing resources between ECSs and UAVs, and blockchain technology is applied to record the entire resources trading process to protect the security and privacy. The ECSs control the resources price of the allocated edge computing resources, where the UAVs follow the price announced by the ECSs and make optimal decisions on the edge computing resources demands. Blockchain is integrated in the resource trading process to ensure the security and privacy. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
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Today, with the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can play a significant role in terms of stability, reliability, connectivity, and coverage. The integration of UAVs and IoT led to the Internet of Flying Things (IoFT). Internet of drones (IoD) is an infrastructure that provides access and control over the Internet between users and drones. One of the most critical challenges in IoFT and IoD is security. In this article, a systematic review is proposed to analyze the existing literature in the field of IoFT and IoD security. We explain the research methodology including the article selection process and the search queries. Thirteen articles were selected out of 166 articles that were published between 2019 and September 2021. Furthermore, the security approaches in the selected articles are classified into five main categories: security vulnerability and eavesdropping, security realization by Blockchain, secure trajectory and secure communication link, authentication and privacy approaches, and security‐enhanced resource allocation. The main ideas, advantages, disadvantages, the employed tools, and evaluation parameters of each selected article are also discussed in detail. Finally, we point out the open issues and orientations of future researches.
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Currently, drones represent a promising technology for combating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the transport of goods, medical supplies to a given target location in the quarantine areas experiencing an epidemic outbreak. Drone missions will increasingly rely on drone collaboration, which requires the drones to reduce communication complexity and be controlled in a decentralized fashion. Blockchain technology becomes a must in industrial applications because it provides decentralized data, accessibility, immutability, and irre-versibility. Therefore, Blockchain makes data public for all drones and enables drones to log information concerning world states, time, location, resources, delivery data, and drone relation to all neighbors drones. This paper introduces decentralized independent multi-drones to accomplish the task collaboratively. Improving blockchain with a consensus algorithm can improve network partitioning and scalability in order to combat COVID-19. The multi-drones task is to combat COVID-19 via monitoring and detecting, social distancing, sanitiza-tion, data analysis, delivering goods and medical supplies, and announcement while avoiding collisions with one another. We discuss End to End (E2E) delivery application of combination blockchain and multi-drone in combat-ing COVID-19 and beyond future pandemics. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of our proposed framework are highlighted.
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Currently, drones represent a promising technology for combating Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the transport of goods, medical supplies to a given target location in the quarantine areas experiencing an epidemic outbreak. Drone missions will increasingly rely on drone collaboration, which requires the drones to reduce communication complexity and be controlled in a decentralized fashion. Blockchain technology becomes a must in industrial applications because it provides decentralized data, accessibility, immutability, and irre-versibility. Therefore, Blockchain makes data public for all drones and enables drones to log information concerning world states, time, location, resources, delivery data, and drone relation to all neighbors drones. This paper introduces decentralized independent multi-drones to accomplish the task collaboratively. Improving blockchain with a consensus algorithm can improve network partitioning and scalability in order to combat COVID-19. The multi-drones task is to combat COVID-19 via monitoring and detecting, social distancing, sanitiza-tion, data analysis, delivering goods and medical supplies, and announcement while avoiding collisions with one another. We discuss End to End (E2E) delivery application of combination blockchain and multi-drone in combat-ing COVID-19 and beyond future pandemics. Furthermore, the challenges and opportunities of our proposed framework are highlighted.
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Drone security is currently a major topic of discussion among researchers and industrialists. Although there are multiple applications of drones, if the security challenges are not anticipated and required architectural changes are not made, the upcoming drone applications will not be able to serve their actual purpose. Therefore, in this paper, we present a detailed review of the security-critical drone applications, and security-related challenges in drone communication such as DoS attacks, Man-in-the-middle attacks, De-Authentication attacks, and so on. Furthermore, as part of solution architectures, the use of Blockchain, Software Defined Networks (SDN), Machine Learning, and Fog/Edge computing are discussed as these are the most emerging technologies. Drones are highly resource-constrained devices and therefore it is not possible to deploy heavy security algorithms on board. Blockchain can be used to cryptographically store all the data that is sent to/from the drones, thereby saving it from tampering and eavesdropping. Various ML algorithms can be used to detect malicious drones in the network and to detect safe routes. Additionally, the SDN technology can be used to make the drone network reliable by allowing the controller to keep a close check on data traffic, and fog computing can be used to keep the computation capabilities closer to the drones without overloading them.
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Drone security is currently a major topic of discussion among researchers and industrialists. Although there are multiple applications of drones, if the security challenges are not anticipated and required architectural changes are not made, the upcoming drone applications will not be able to serve their actual purpose. Therefore, in this paper, we present a detailed review of the security-critical drone applications, and security-related challenges in drone communication such as DoS attacks, Man-in-the-middle attacks, De-Authentication attacks, and so on. Furthermore, as part of solution architectures, the use of Blockchain, Software Defined Networks (SDN), Machine Learning, and Fog/Edge computing are discussed as these are the most emerging technologies. Drones are highly resource-constrained devices and therefore it is not possible to deploy heavy security algorithms on board. Blockchain can be used to cryptographically store all the data that is sent to/from the drones, thereby saving it from tampering and eavesdropping. Various ML algorithms can be used to detect malicious drones in the network and to detect safe routes. Additionally, the SDN technology can be used to make the drone network reliable by allowing the controller to keep a close check on data traffic, and fog computing can be used to keep the computation capabilities closer to the drones without overloading them.
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) enabled Internet of Things (IoT) systems are evolving as effective solutions to critical application including surveillance, agriculture, healthcare, supply chain managements, smart cities, rescue operations and more. Remotely controllable sensors mounted on UAVs are solving issues related to reaching out physically inaccessible areas or remote locations being monitored or controlled by IoT applications. Though fusion of UAVs and IoT proves disruptive, it needs to address increased security issues. Identity management, authentication, UAV hijacking, secured and trustworthy data sharing in intra‐UAV communications, UAV signal jamming are few in the series. Blockchain being a decentralized technology and a distributed ledger offers solutions to some of these issues. Blockchain assures secure intra‐UAV communications through encryption and hashing. In case of UAV signal jamming, UAV can use blockchain to prepare the flying schedule. Consensus mechanism of blockchain can detect the internal attacks or malicious insider UAV. Blockchain technology provides transparency and trust in trust‐less environments involving third parties or multiple parties collaborating to provide UAV based IoT applications and services. Blockchain promises immutability of transactions thereby providing opportunity to thwart out many cyber‐physical systems attacks on UAV based IoT systems. In this work we explore the blockchain‐based solutions for various security issues in UAV‐enabled IoT.
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Blockchain, as a decentralized and distributed public ledger technology in peer-to-peer network, has received considerable attention recently. It applies a linked block structure to verify and store data, and applies the trusted consensus mechanism to synchronize changes in data, which makes it possible to create a tamper-proof digital platform for storing and sharing data. It is believed that blockchain can be utilized in diverse Internet interactive systems (e.g., Internet of Things, supply chain systems, identity management, and so on). However, there are some privacy challenges that may hinder the applications of blockchain. The goal of this survey is to provide some insights into the privacy issues associated with blockchain. We analyze the privacy threats in blockchain and discuss existing cryptographic defense mechanisms, i.e., anonymity and transaction privacy preservation. Furthermore, we summarize some typical implementations of privacy preservation mechanisms in blockchain and explore future research challenges that still need to be addressed in order to preserve privacy when blockchain is used.
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