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Abstract

To support the expected increase in aquaculture production during the next years, a wider range of alternative ingredients to fishmeal is needed, towards contributing to an increase in production sustainability. This study aimed to test diets formulated with non‐conventional feed ingredients on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) growth performance, feed utilization, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nutrient outputs to the environment. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated: a control diet (CTRL) similar to a commercial feed and three experimental diets containing, as main protein sources, plant by‐products, glutens and concentrates (PLANT); processed animal proteins (PAP); or micro/macroalgae, insect meals and yeast (EMERG). Diets were tested in triplicate during 80 days. The EMERG treatment resulted in lower fish growth performance, higher FCR and lower nutrient and energy retentions than the other treatments. The lowest protein digestibility was found for the EMERG diet, which caused increased nitrogen losses. The PLANT and PAP treatments resulted in better fish growth performance, higher nutrient and energy retentions, and lower FCR than the CTRL treatment. The significant improvement in FCR found for fish fed PLANT and PAP diets and the high protein digestibility of these diets contribute towards minimizing the environmental impacts of seabream production.

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... Lower growth performance was observed in gilthead seabream fed with higher levels of dietary supplementation with iodine-rich seaweed and selenized-yeast (0.8% and 0.035%, respectively), associated to lower FBW and higher FCR (fish consumed more feed but grew less). Similarly, lower gilthead seabream growth performance was reported with an experimental diet including a mixture of ingredients, such as micro-and macroalgae, insect meals and yeast (Aragão et al., 2019). In contrast, a diet supplemented with 10% of Laminaria digitata showed no negative effects in gilthead seabream FBW and FCR (Ramalho Ribeiro et al., 2015). ...
... In contrast, a diet supplemented with 10% of Laminaria digitata showed no negative effects in gilthead seabream FBW and FCR (Ramalho Ribeiro et al., 2015). Such results may be associated with higher levels of selenized-yeast fortification, since impaired intestinal barrier function was reported in fish fed yeast-based diets (Aragão et al., 2019). On the other hand, the different dietary strategies showed no adverse effects on common carp growth performance. ...
Article
Developing tailor-made fortified farmed fish is a promising solution to overcome nutritional deficiencies and increase consumer confidence in these products. This study evaluated the supplementation of three fortified diets with I-rich seaweed and selenised-yeast on essential and toxic elements levels in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fortified diets resulted in increased I, Se and Fe in fish muscle. Biofortified seabream and carp revealed lower Cu and Br. The reduction of fishmeal and fish oil in fortified diets resulted in lower Hg and Cd in seabream muscle. Contrarily, fortified diets increased As and Hg in carp fillets. The consumption of 150 g of fortified seabream enabled a significantly higher contribution to the daily recommended intake (DRI) of I (10%) and Se (76%) than non-fortified fish, whereas fortified carp fulfilled 23% of I DRI and 91% of Se DRI. Moreover, the exposure to Pb decreased with the consumption of biofortified seabream (23–82% BMDL01) and carp (26–92% BMDL01). These results support the strategy of developing eco-innovative biofortified farmed fish using sustainable, natural, safe and high-quality ingredients in feeds, to enable consumers to overcome nutritional deficiencies without significantly increased feed costs.
... Amino acids must be available in tissues at an optimum ratio since imbalances will increase amino acid catabolism, augmenting nitrogen outputs to the environment [20][21][22]. Feeding fish with plant-based diets has proven its feasibility, even in carnivorous fish species such as the gilthead seabream, as long as selected crystalline amino acids are added to overcome any deficiency or imbalance in the amino acid profile [23][24][25][26]. Lysine and methionine are considered the two most limiting amino acids in plant-based diets, and their dietary supplementation has been shown to improve growth performance in several fish species [20,[27][28][29]. ...
Article
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The dietary protein to energy ratio (P/E) has proven to influence protein utilization and/or growth in several fish species. This study intended to unravel the bioavailability and metabolic fate of lysine and methionine in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles fed plant diets with different P/E ratios. Seabream juveniles were fed two isonitrogenous diets (45% crude protein) differing in crude lipids (20 and 14%): LowP/E (P/E ratio = 20:0 mg protein kJ −1) and HighP/E (P/E ratio = 21:4 mg protein kJ −1). After three weeks, fish (11:6 ± 4:3 g) were tube-fed the respective diet labelled with 14 C-protein (L-amino acid mixture), 14 C-lysine, or 14 C-methionine. Protein, lysine, and methionine utilization were determined based on the proportion of 14 C-amino acid evacuated, retained in the free or protein-bound fraction of liver and muscle, or catabolized. This study revealed that a decrease in P/E ratio resulted in lower amino acid evacuation (p <0.05), contributing to a more efficient amino acid uptake. Results indicate that amino acids are retained as protein in the liver and not only temporarily available in the free pool. The amount of free amino acids retained in the muscle of LowP/E fed fish was significantly higher than in HighP/E fish (p < 0:05) due to a simultaneous higher retention of lysine and methionine, without affecting the overall protein retention. Methionine catabolism was significantly lower than lysine or protein independently of the P/E ratio (p < 0:05), reinforcing that this amino acid is preferentially spared for metabolic functions and not used as energy source. In contrast, increasing the dietary P/E ratio decreased lysine catabolism and increased its availability for growth. The bioavailability and metabolism of individual amino acids should be considered when optimizing P/E ratios in diets for gilthead seabream juveniles. Formulating diets with optimum P/E ratios will improve diet utilization and fish performance.
... In any case, the results of present study indicate that successful substitution of traditional fishmeal and fish oil can be achieved in turbot. It can further be speculated that an equal fraction of digestible energy contents between the different diets would have led to an even better similarity in fish performance between the diets of the GAIN project alternative formulations as it was shown with similar formulation in Gilthead seabream (Aragao et al. 2020). Even though the crude lipid content in the PLANT diet was 2% higher than in the control and PAP diet, a possible effect of this on the turbot can be negligible. ...
Article
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In Europe, turbot aquaculture has a high potential for sustainable production, but the low tolerance to fishmeal replacement in the diet represents a big issue. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of more sustainable feed formulations on growth and feed performance, as well as nutritional status of juvenile turbot in recirculating aquaculture systems. In a 16-week feeding trial with 20 g juvenile turbot, one control diet containing traditional fishmeal, fish oil and soy products and two experimental diets where 20% of the fishmeal was replaced either with processed animal proteins (PAP) or with terrestrial plant proteins (PLANT) were tested. Irrespective of diets, growth performance was similar between groups, whereas the feed performance was significantly reduced in fish of the PAP group compared to the control. Comparing growth, feed utilisation and biochemical parameters, the results indicate that the fish fed on PAP diet had the lowest performance. Fish fed the PLANT diet had similar feed utilisation compared to the control, whereas parameters of the nutritional status, such as condition factor, hepato-somatic index and glycogen content showed reduced levels after 16 weeks. These effects in biochemical parameters are within the physiological range and therefore not the cause of negative performance. Since growth was unaffected, the lower feed performance of fish that were fed the PAP formulation might be balanced by the cost efficient formulation in comparison to the commercial and the PLANT formulations. Present study highlights the suitability of alternative food formulation for farmed fish.
... Unlike those commercially available materials, the combination of macro-, microalgae and single-cell protein with insect meals in aquaculture diets showed an unfavourable growth rate compared with fishmeal-based diets. 119 In addition, factors associated with low production volume, high cost and unrealistic scalability may hamper their wide adoption in aquafeeds. 6,9 It is also crucial to acquire comprehensive information on the quality of seafood fed insect-containing diet, including sensory evaluation, nutritional values, and on gut microbiota modification through meta-analysis to explore the effect of potential insect meals on end-products and their benefits to the hosts. ...
Article
The present work employed a systematic review and meta‐analysis to quantify the overall effects of various types of insect meal on special growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of aquatic animals. A total of 107 studies published from 1990 to 2021, targeting 23 freshwater and 17 marine fish species, employing 17 insect species as a replacement for fishmeal, was compiled. Overall, a significantly higher Hedges’ g value for SGR and lower FCR was found in aquatic animals fed dietary larval defatted mealworm Tenebrio molitor and pupal full‐fat silkworm Bombyx mori compared with fishmeal diet. The majority of dietary insect meals had a negative linear correlation with Hedges’ g of growth performance, except larval fly Chrysomya megacephala, which had a positive linear relationship, and of prepupal defatted black soldier fly Hermetia illucens, which had a negative quadratic relationship. Some insect meals, including G. bimaculatus, adult grasshoppers of Oxya fuscovittata and Zonocerus variegatus and larval full‐fat Cirina butyrospermi, supported adequate growth of aquatic animals at plausible inclusion levels. At as low as 2.2%, insect‐derived chitin supported growth performance and improved feed utilization of marine fish species. In the quest to minimize fishmeal in aquafeeds, insect meal holds enormous potential but is not the sole option; rather, integrating insect meal and novel/conventional materials is more strategic. The present study lays the groundwork for further multidisciplinary considerations for the effective use of insect meal as an alternative aquafeed protein with the goal of long‐term sustainability.
... In general, seabream fed the experimental diets revealed a high capability to digest nutrients and energy. Digestibility data obtained in the current study is within the range of values reported for seabream fed diets with similar fishmeal and plant protein inclusion levels (Aragão et al., 2020;Dias et al., 2009). The ...
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Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is vulnerable to low water temperature, which may occur in the Southern Europe and Mediterranean region during Winter. Fish are poikilothermic animals, so feed intake, digestion, metabolism and ultimately growth are affected by water temperature. This study aimed to evaluate growth performance, feed utilisation, nutrient apparent digestibility, and N losses to the environment in seabream juveniles reared under low temperature (13 degrees Celsius). Three isolipid and isoenergetic diets were formulated: a commercial-like diet (COM) with 44% crude protein and 27.5% fishmeal; and 2 diets with 42% CP (ECO and ECOSup), reduced FM inclusion, and 15% poultry meal. ECOSup diet was supplemented with a mix of feed additives intended to promote fish growth and feed intake. The ECO diets presented lower production costs than the COM diet and included more sustainable ingredients. Seabream juveniles (154.5 g) were randomly assigned to triplicate tanks and fed the diets for 84 days. Fish fed the ECOSup and COM diets attained a similar final body weight. ECOSup fed fish presented significantly higher HSI than COM fed fish, probably due to higher hepatic glycogen reserves. The VSI of ECOSup fed fish were significantly lower compared to COM fed fish, which is a positive achievement from a consumer point of view. Nutrient digestibility was similar in ECOSup and COM diets. Feeding fish with the ECO diets resulted in lower faecal N losses when compared to COM fed fish. Feeding seabream with an eco-friendly diet with a mix of feed additives promoted growth, improved fish nutritional status and minimised N losses to the environment whilst lowering production costs. Nutritional strategies that ultimately promote feed intake and diet utilisation are valuable tools that may help conditioning fish to sustain growth even under adverse conditions.
... Fish meal (FM) is the gold dietary protein in aquafeeds (Tacon and Metian, 2015;Ytrestøyl et al., 2015), but the global increase in aquaculture production needs to be supported by alternative feed ingredients, which very often, have a negative impact on growth, intestinal health, and immuno-competence of farmed marine fish (Conceição et al., 2012;Krogdahl et al., 2015;Estensoro et al., 2016;Aragão et al., 2020). Traditionally, plant proteins have been considered as the most obvious FM alternative, but high levels of replacement can induce different signs of enteritis, including the shortening of mucosal folds, thickening of the lamina propia and submucosa, and infiltration of the distal intestine by inflammatory cells (Urán et al., 2009;Romarheim et al., 2013, Booman et al., 2018. ...
Article
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New types of fish feed based on processed animal proteins (PAPs), insect meal, yeast, and microbial biomasses have been used with success in gilthead sea bream. However, some drawback effects on feed conversion and inflammatory systemic markers were reported in different degrees with PAP- and non-PAP-based feed formulations. Here, we focused on the effects of control and two experimental diets on gut mucosal-adherent microbiota, and how it correlated with host transcriptomics at the local (intestine) and systemic (liver and head kidney) levels. The use of tissue-specific PCR-arrays of 93 genes in total rendered 13, 12, and 9 differentially expressed (DE) genes in the intestine, liver, and head kidney, respectively. Illumina sequencing of gut microbiota yielded a mean of 125,350 reads per sample, assigned to 1,281 operational taxonomic unit (OTUs). Bacterial richness and alpha diversity were lower in fish fed with the PAP diet, and discriminant analysis displayed 135 OTUs driving the separation between groups with 43 taxa correlating with 27 DE genes. The highest expression of intestinal pcna and alpi was achieved in PAP fish with intermediate values in non-PAP, being the pro-inflammatory action of alpi associated with the presence of Psychrobacter piscatorii. The intestinal muc13 gene was down-regulated in non-PAP fish, with this gene being negatively correlated with anaerobic (Chloroflexi and Anoxybacillus) and metal-reducing (Pelosinus and Psychrosinus) bacteria. Other inflammatory markers (igm, il8, tnfα) were up-regulated in PAP fish, positively correlating the intestinal igm gene with the inflammasome activator Escherichia/Shigella, whereas the systemic expression of il8 and tnfα was negatively correlated with the Bacilli class in PAP fish and positively correlated with Paracoccus yeei in non-PAP fish. Overall changes in the expression pattern of il10, galectins (lgals1, lgals8), and toll-like receptors (tlr2, tlr5, tlr9) reinforced the anti-inflammatory profile of fish fed with the non-PAP diet, with these gene markers being associated with a wide range of OTUs. A gut microbiota-liver axis was also established, linking the microbial generation of short chain fatty acids with the fueling of scd1- and elovl6-mediated lipogenesis. In summary, by correlating the microbiome with host gene expression, we offer new insights in the evaluation of fish diets promoting gut and metabolism homeostasis, and ultimately, the health of farmed fish.
... This requires nutritional fortification. 98 Blending insect meal or oil with other materials 96,[99][100][101] or compensating for deficient components in insect-based diets, for example amino acids, 84 ...
Article
We retrieved data from various studies to investigate the consequences of insect meal production and insect meal-based diets with respect to their environmental impact, including global warming potential, energy use, land use, water use, acidification, eutrophication as well as to economic fish-in fish-out ratio and solid waste output production. Analysis indicated that insect meals’ production exerted positive effects on land use but was associated with greater energy use and a larger carbon footprint compared to conventional protein sources. Substitution of silkworm meal (Bombyx mori) meals for fishmeal in aquatic animal diets significantly reduced solid phosphorus waste compared to insect-free diets. In contrast, the inclusion of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), housefly (Musca domestica), mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) has led, in comparison to insect-free diet, to greater solid nitrogen waste. Reducing the proportion of fishmeal and, to a lesser extent fish oil, by various insect meals in aquatic diet formulations significantly reduces economic fish-in fish-out, indicating less marine forage fish required per unit fish yield. The simulated data showed environmental benefit associated with land use of insect-containing aquafeeds compared to insect meal-free feeds, especially insect species of M. domestica and T. molitor. In all, this study suggested a trade-off of using insect meal as an aquafeed ingredient regarding environmental consequence. Since insect meal has excellent potential to supply protein for aquafeeds in the coming years, improvement in insect meal production systems and nutritional composition will be essential to make insect meal a sustainable aquafeed ingredient.
... Insect protein sources have been identified as high protein and valuable feed ingredient for freshwater fish (Aragão et al., 2020;Barroso et al., 2014;Henry et al., 2015;Kroeckel et al., 2012;Odesanya et al., 2011). Insects need fewer natural resources than plants and can be reared on by-products, thus converting abundant low-cost organic waste into animal biomass that is rich in protein and fat and suitable for use in fish feed (Barroso et al., 2014). ...
Article
A study was conducted with non‐conventional ingredients to test their efficacy as fishmeal (FM) replacers in the diet of fringe‐ lipped carp. Labeo fimbriatus first feeding larvae and fry were reared for 30 and 60 days in indoor, 50 L, aerated, circular plastic tanks at 100 and 30 numbers tank−1, respectively. In the first feeding larvae to fry rearing experiment (Exp. 1), the fish were fed with either of the following isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets – live plankton, FM diet, green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata) larvae meal (GBFLM) diet and silkworm pupa (SWP) diet. The fry to fingerling rearing (Exp. 2), was also conducted using the same diets described above except live plankton. All compounded diets were formulated to contain 40% crude protein for the experiment 1 and 35% for experiment 2 and were fed ad libitum. Triplicate tanks were maintained for each treatment in both the experiments. In Exp. 1, the mean final weight of fry was higher with plankton and FM diets, while no difference (p > .05) was observed between FM and GBFLM diets. Weight of fish fed SWP diets was not statistically different from those fed GBFLM diet. No difference (p > .05) in final length, survival and condition factor was recorded. Analysis of digestive enzyme activity of whole fish revealed lower (p < .05) activity of amylase in fish fed plankton. In Exp. 2, no difference (p > .05) was observed between the different diet groups in terms of mean final weight, length, survival and condition factor. Analysis of digestive enzyme activity of whole fish revealed no difference (p > .05) in the activity of digestive enzymes between the treatments except a lower (p < .05) activity of trypsin in FM diet and lipase in FM and GBFLM diets. Since the survival and condition factors of animals is the most important aspect during nursery rearing, similar (p > .05) values recorded in different treatments indicate the possibility of incorporation of these non‐conventional protein sources in the diet of L. fimbriatus during first feeding larvae to fry and fry to fingerling rearing.
... Hence seeking for new or underexploited feed protein sources to replace or complement conventional ones in farmed fish diet is considered a suitable way to reduce and/or mitigate possible adverse effects of certain high vegetable diets on growth and health of some fish species (Aragão et al., 2020). ...
Article
In the last decades, processed animal proteins, such as poultry by-product meal (PBM) and insect meals have received great attention as sustainable and nutritious aquafeed ingredients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth performances, liver and gut histology, macromolecular composition and inflammatory response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets deprived of fish meal, where graded levels of vegetable protein-rich ingredients, were replaced by defatted Hermetia illucens pupae meal (HM) or PBM, singly or in combination. To this end eight grossly isoproteic (45% DM), isolipidic (26% DM) and isoenergetic (23.5 MJ/kg DM) were offered each to triplicated groups of juveniles' fish in a 91 days feeding trial. A diet rich in vegetable protein derivatives high in soybean meal (CV) was prepared to have a 10:90 and 20:80 fish to vegetable protein and lipid ratios respectively. By contrast, a fish-based diet (CF) was formulated with opposite fish to vegetable protein and lipid ratios. Six more diets, were obtained by replacing graded levels of protein (10, 30 and 60%) of diet CV, by protein from a defatted Hermetia illucens pupae meal and/or poultry by-product meal, singly or combined, while maintaining the same vegetable to fish lipid ratio as in the CV diet. Relative to diets CV and CF, a medium to high substitution (30 and 60%) of dietary vegetable protein-rich ingredients, with HM and/or PBM resulted in improved growth performance as well as in a minor incidence of distal intestine morphological alterations. The diet including both the test animal proteins led to nearly the best overall response in terms of growth and gut/liver health. Both HM and PBM when included at moderate or high levels in the diet, resulted in a downregulation of the expression of inflammatory-related genes relative to diet CV. This effect was greater with HM than that observed with PBM and goes beyond the parallel reduction of vegetable protein and SBM levels in the same diets, suggesting a beneficial role of insect meal that warrant further investigation. The results obtained so far, provide support to a reliable use of alternative/underexploited protein and lipid sources [(HM) or (PBM)] in developing a new generation of sustainable and healthy trout diets that meet the circular economy principles.
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Aquaculture has been challenged to find alternative ingredients to develop innovative feed formulations that foster a sustainable future growth. Given the most recent trends in fish feed formulation on the use of alternative protein sources to decrease the dependency of fishmeal, it is fundamental to evaluate the implications of this new paradigm for fish health and welfare. This work intends to comprehensively review the impacts of alternative and novel dietary protein sources on fish gut microbiota and health, stress and immune responses, disease resistance, and antioxidant capacity. The research results indicate that alternative protein sources, such as terrestrial plant proteins, rendered animal by-products, insect meals, micro- and macroalgae, and single cell proteins (e.g., yeasts), may negatively impact gut microbiota and health, thus affecting immune and stress responses. Nevertheless, some of the novel protein sources, such as insects and algae meals, have functional properties and may exert an immunostimulatory activity. Further research on the effects of novel protein sources, beyond growth, is clearly needed. The information gathered here is of utmost importance, in order to develop innovative diets that guarantee the production of healthy fish with high quality standards and optimised welfare conditions, thus contributing to a sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry.
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Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is vulnerable to low water temperature, which may occur in the Southern Europe and Mediterranean region during Winter. Fish are poikilothermic animals, therefore feed intake, digestion, metabolism and ultimately growth are affected by water temperature. This study aimed to evaluate growth performance, feed utilisation, nutrient apparent digestibility, and nitrogen losses to the environment in gilthead seabream juveniles reared under low temperature (~ 13 °C). Three isolipid and isoenergetic diets were formulated: a diet similar to a commercial feed (COM) that contained 44% crude protein and 27.5% fishmeal, and two experimental diets with a lower protein content of 42% (ECO and ECOSup). In both ECO diets fishmeal inclusion was reduced (10% in ECO and 7.5% in ECOSup diet) and 15% poultry meal was included. Additionally, the ECOSup diet was supplemented with a mix of feed additives intended to promote fish growth performance and feed intake. The ECO diets presented lower production costs than the COM diet, whilst incorporating more sustainable ingredients. Gilthead seabream juveniles (±154.5 g initial body weight) were randomly assigned to triplicate tanks and fed the diets for 84 days. Fish fed the ECOSup diet attained a similar final body weight than fish fed the COM diet, significantly higher than fish fed the ECO diet. ECOSup fed fish presented significantly higher hepatosomatic index than COM fed fish, most likely due to higher hepatic glycogen reserves. The viscerosomatic index of ECOSup fed fish were significantly lower compared to COM fed fish, which is a positive achievement from a consumer's point of view. ECOSup diet exhibited similar nutrient digestibility than the COM diet. Moreover, feeding fish with the ECO diets resulted in lower faecal nitrogen losses when compared to COM fed fish. The results suggest that feeding gilthead seabream with an eco-friendly diet with a mix of feed additives such as the ECOSup diet, promoted growth and minimised nitrogen losses to the environment. Nutritional strategies that ultimately promote feed intake and diet utilisation are valuable tools that may help conditioning fish to sustain growth even under low temperatures.
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Producing food according to the sustainability and “circular economy” principles is considered a strategic goal by several world Institutions. Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) responds to these criteria and stemming from it, the “Self-sufficient Integrated Multitrophic AquaPonic” (SIMTAP) aims to drastically reduce production inputs and waste outputs while maximizing the total food production. In order to succeed, proper selection of the most suitable fish, intermediate organisms and plant species to be grown in the system plays a fundamental role. To validate the SIMTAP concept and experimental prototype, the biological characteristics of fish and other species should be assessed taking into account their complementarity and adaptability to the physical and technical traits of the considered system. This study aimed to identify the most suitable marine organisms for food production within the SIMTAP system and to create a decision model via the DEXi decision support system. Hence, in the present work a brief description of the SIMTAP concept, as well as the biological, zootechnical and commercial characteristics of several candidate fish species, are discussed. The criteria considered to address the species selection were: natural geo-distribution, domestication degree, environmental requirements, feeding regime, growth performances, and market value. The candidate species were: Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil cephalus, Diplodus puntazzo, Seriola dumerili, Umbrina cirrosa, Argyrosomus regius, Psetta maxima, Acipenser spp., Solea spp., Octopus vulgaris. Finally, it seems that the DEXi approach increased the objectivity of the species selection process. Gilthead Sea Bream, European Sea Bass and Flathead Grey Mullet resulted to be the most suitable species for SIMTAP production.
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There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations.
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Animal by-products (ABPs), such as processed animal proteins, animal fats, milk and egg products, and former food products represent a potentially valuable resource for feeding livestock. According to Europe s authorities, around 18 million t of animal fat and meat industry by-products arise annually in the European Union (EU) from slaughterhouses, dairies and plants producing food for human consumption. Another 8 to 12 million t emerge every year as former foodstuffs. Recycling of slaughter by-products and other animal products, sometimes considered as waste materials, into animal feed can bring major benefits to the economics of livestock production and the environment in the EU. Nevertheless, improper and unregulated use of ABPs and food waste, as could be noticed from a number of food crises in the recent past, have a strong public health and economic impact. For a safety reasons most ABP materials have been subject to severe restrictions in their use for feed farm animals in the EU. However, due to the decreasing risk of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, important positive changes of animal by-product processing industry in Europe and developing validated diagnostic methods to test for species-specific material in feed, the European Commission started to reform these stringent rules, thus non-ruminant processed animal proteins has been authorized in aqua feed starting from 1 June 2013. The aim of this review was to describe the status of ABPs in the feed industry, to identify new opportunities, and to place these residue materials in the framework of the EU legislation for safety.
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In the present study, the nutritional value of Tetraselmis suecica and Tisochrysis lutea (previously known as Isochrysis aff galbana T-ISO strain) freeze-dried biomass for feeding Sparus aurata fry was evaluated. A total of 25,500 fry (3.7 mg body weight) were fed for 55 days on diets containing 5 and 10 % (w/w) Tetraselmis or Tisochrysis, as well as on a microalgae-free diet. Fish fed 5 % Tetraselmis showed higher growth performance, nutrient utilization, and survival values than fish fed Tisochrysis. The use of microalgae significantly decreased the body lipid content in fry fed the highest microalgae level. Fry fed Tisochrysis-supplemented diets increased the DHA content in muscle, and consequently the EPA/DHA ratio decreased significantly, whatever dietary level considered. In general, digestive protease activities were not adversely affected by dietary microalgae inclusion, although slight variations were observed during fish development. Microalgae utilization causes a positive effect on intestinal mucosa ultrastructure owing to an increase of total enterocyte absorption surface that was observed in fish fed microalgae-supplemented diets. Cluster analysis of data separated clearly fish fed Tisochrysis-supplemented diets from the rest of experimental groups. This study confirms that Tetraselmis freeze-dried biomass can be used as dietary ingredient in started feeds for S. aurata fry, although an inclusion level of 5 % is recommended.
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This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA) compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0), 25% (TM25) and 50% (TM50) as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control, the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50) reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.
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Carob seed germ meal (CSGM) was evaluated as ingredient for meagre juveniles' diets. For that purpose meagre was fed diets with increasing levels of CSGM (75gkg-1, 150gkg-1 and 225gkg-1) replacing fish meal. Effects on growth performance, feed efficiency, activities of digestive enzymes and key liver amino acid catabolism enzymes were assessed. Digestive tract and liver histology were also evaluated for morphological alterations. Dietary CSGM inclusion up to 225gkg-1 did not affect growth performance or whole-body composition. Nevertheless, N retention was lower in fish fed the diets with more than 75gkg-1 CSGM. Digestive enzymes activity decreased with the increase of dietary CSGM. Liver histomorphology and lipid deposition were not affected, while distal intestine showed hyaline droplets of varying sizes with the increase of CSGM in the diets. No signs of inflammation were recorded. Overall, the present study indicates that inclusion of CSGM in meagre juveniles' diets, replacing dietary fish meal as protein source, was suitable up to 225gkg-1. However, the decrease of digestive enzymes activity, together with decreased protein retention in fish fed the higher levels of CSGM suggest that problems may arise with long-term feeding high levels of CSGM, and this should be confirmed in further studies. Statement of relevance: The successful inclusion of carob in aquafeeds may reduce the amount of fish meal used, having the advantage of producing more cost-effective and environmental friendly aquafeeds. Additionally, meagre is as important candidate for Mediterranean aquaculture diversification and if aquafeeds for this species would benefit from using locally produced feedstuffs such as carob, both aspects will contribute to the industry's sustainability.
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A single layer of epithelial cells separates the intestinal lumen from the underlying sterile tissue. It is exposed to a multitude of nutrients and a large number of commensal bacteria. Although the presence of commensal bacteria significantly contributes to nutrient digestion, vitamin synthesis and tissue maturation, their high number represents a permanent challenge to the integrity of the epithelial surface keeping the local immune system constantly on alert. In addition, the intestinal mucosa is challenged by a variety of enteropathogenic microorganisms. In both circumstances, the epithelium actively contributes to maintaining host-microbial homeostasis and antimicrobial host defense. It deploys a variety of mechanisms to restrict the presence of commensal bacteria to the intestinal lumen and to prevent translocation of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms to the underlying tissue. Enteropathogenic microorganisms in turn have learnt to evade the host's immune system and circumvent the antimicrobial host response. In the present article, we review recent advances that illustrate the intense and intimate host-microbial interaction at the epithelial level and improve our understanding of the mechanisms that maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were fed for 99 days on experimental diets with 40% of fish meal replaced, on a crude protein basis, with intact yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (ISC), extracted yeast (ESC), Rhizopus oryzae fungus (RHO) or de-shelled blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) (MYE). The fish were evaluated for growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fish intestinal function. Growth performance, retention of crude protein and sum of amino acids were not affected in fish fed diets ISC or MYE compared with those fed the reference (REF) diet. However, fish fed diet ISC displayed decreased digestibility of crude protein and indispensable amino acids and decreased intestinal barrier function compared with fish fed the REF diet. Fish fed diet ESC exhibited decreased growth performance and protein retention, but had comparable digestibility to fish fed the REF diet. Fish fed diets MYE and RHO showed similar performance in terms of growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal barrier function. Overall, the results indicated that blue mussel and intact S. cerevisiae yeast are promising protein sources for Arctic charr.
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In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO3− can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO3− secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH–Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO3− results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen.
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A 12-week performance trial was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a concomitant replacement of fishmeal and fish oil in a practical diet for gilthead seabream with a complementary mixture of vegetable proteins (soy, peas, corn and wheat) and oils (soybean, rapeseed), in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, apparent digestibility of nutrients and soluble nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion. Fifteen homogenous groups of 50 seabream each (mean initial body weight: 180.7 ± 0.4 g) were stocked in 1000-L tanks and fed one of five experimental extruded diets formulated to be isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic. A control diet (CTRL) was formulated with practical ingredients to contain 48% protein, 20% fat and 23 kJ/g energy. Two other diets were formulated in order to replace 40 and 60% of fishmeal by increasing levels of selected plant-protein ingredients (PP40FO and PP60FO, respectively). Based on these two last diets, two others were formulated in which fish oil was replaced at a 65% level by a mixture of soy and rapeseed oils (PP40VO and PP60VO). Growth of seabream, expressed either as weight gain or daily growth index was not significantly affected by the replacement at either 40 or 60% of fishmeal by plant-protein sources. At 40% fishmeal replacement level, the further replacement of 65% of fish oil by vegetable oils had no effect on growth performance. However, the concomitant replacement of 60% fishmeal and 65% replacement of fish oil caused a slight reduction in weight gain, but essentially a significant decrease in feed efficiency (FE). Proximate composition of fish was not affected by the various dietary treatments. Replacement of both fishmeal and fish oil had no significant effects on daily deposition of N, fat or P. Soluble P excretion was significantly reduced by the use of plant protein-rich diets. Growth performance of gilthead seabream during the grow-out phase was sustained by a practical dietary formulation containing as little as 13% of marine-derived proteins.
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Methods currently in use for the quantitative measurement of fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography after transesterification are usually lengthy and cumbersome. The technique described is a one-step reaction that is carried out in the same tube and bypasses all the extraction and purification steps. Recoveries of fatty acid and triglyceride standards (C6:0 to C24:1) were better than 96%. When the direct transesterification method was compared to the Folch extraction procedure, increases of fatty acid concentration of 11.4% and 15.8% were observed in human milk and adipose tissue, respectively. The method appears to be particularly advantageous for the recovery of the highly volatile medium chain triglycerides and there is no need to add an antioxidant to protect unsaturated lipids.
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Experimental diets were formulated to evaluate a “pure” poultry meat meal (PMM) source in diets formulated for juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). The digestible protein contribution of fish meal in a control diet was substituted by 25%, 50% and 75% of a processed poultry meat meal (PMM) on a digestible crude protein (DCP) basis and by 5% and 10% for an enzyme‐treated feather meal (EFM) and also a spray‐dried haemaglobin meal (SDHM), respectively. In a consecutive trial, diets were designed to assess the value of a “pure” (defatted) poultry protein substituting the fish meal (FM) protein content. Experimental diets included: a control diet, two test diets where 75% of FM was replaced by a full‐fat PMM (PMM75) or a defatted grade of PMM (dPMM75) and two test diets where 50% of FM was substituted for defatted PMM (dPMM50) or a 50:50 blend of soya bean meal and defatted PMM (SBM/dPMM) to produce a composite product. This soya bean/dPMM blend was tested to enhance the nutritional value of this key plant ingredient commonly employed in sea bream diets that can be deficient in specific amino acids and minerals. In the first trial, gilthead sea bream grew effectively on diets containing up to the 75% replacement of FM attaining a mean weight of 63.6 g compared to 67.8 g for the FM control fed group. For the consecutive trial, the fishmeal‐based control diet yielded the highest SGR followed by dPMM50 and SBM/dPMM blend inclusion but was not significant. Carcass FA profiles of gilthead sea bream conformed to the expected changes in relation to the dietary FA patterns, with the 18:1n‐9 representative of the poultry lipid signature becoming more apparent with PMM inclusion. The ratio of n‐3/n‐6 fatty acids was greatly affected in sea bream fed the full‐fat PMM at 75% inclusion due to fish oil exclusion. Defatted dPMM, however, allowed more of the fish oil to be used in the diet and reducing this latter effect in sea bream carcass, hence restoring the higher total omega‐3 HUFA fatty acids namely EPA and DHA and n‐3/n‐6 ratio. It is concluded that poultry meat meal can be modestly incorporated into formulated diets for sea bream and can be used in conjunction with soya bean meal without any fundamental changes in performance and feed efficiency.
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A growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary plant-protein replacement by corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and of exogenous carbohydrases supplement (Natugrain®TS, BASF) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. For that purpose, a basal diet was formulated with 35% of fish meal and 20% soybean meal (SBM) as main protein sources. Two other diets were formulated incorporating 15 or 35% of DDGS, replacing 37.5% or 100% of SBM (diets DDGS15 and DDGS35, respectively). Another diet was formulated similar to diet DDGS35 and supplemented with 0.1% of a commercial non-starch polysaccharidases complex, Natugrain®TS, BASF (CHOase; diet DDGS35ENZ). Triplicate groups of fish (IBW = 15 ± 1 g) were fed the experimental diets for 67 days at 22 °C. At the end of the trial, growth performance, voluntary feed intake, feed efficiency, protein and energy retention were not affected by dietary DDGS incorporation. Dietary CHOase supplementation also did not affect growth performance, but increased feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy retention. Dietary inclusion of DDGS tended to decrease production cost (€ per kg of fish), and dietary CHOase supplementation further reduced production cost, which was significantly lower with diet DDGS35ENZ than with the basal diet. Whole-body composition, hepatosomatic and visceral indexes were not affected by the dietary inclusion of DDGS, though a trend was noticed for a decrease of whole-body lipid, energy, and visceral index with the increase dietary DDGS. Plasma glucose, protein, albumin, and globulins levels were similar among diets, whereas plasma triglycerides increased, and cholesterol decreased with the increase of dietary DDGS. Hepatic glycolytic enzymes activities (hexokinase and glucokinase) were similar among groups, while gluconeogenic (fructose biphosphatase) activity, GDH and ASAT activities decreased with the increase of dietary DDGS. The hepatic activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were not affected by dietary treatments, but G6PDH and GR activities decreased, and liver lipid peroxidation increased with dietary DDGS level. Dietary CHOase supplementation decreased overall lipid peroxidation. Overall, results of this study indicate that total replacement of SBM by DDGS in diets for gilthead seabream did not compromise growth performance or feed utilization efficiency, while supplementation of DDGS-based diet with exogenous carbohydrases improved feed utilization efficiency and economic efficiency ratio.
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Two feeding trials examined the replacement of fishmeal (FM) with poultry by‐product meal (PBM) in the diet of juvenile Sparus aurata. In Feeding trial I (100 days), three diets were formulated, where FM protein was replaced by 50% (PBM50) and 100% (PBM100) PBM, while in Feeding trial II (110 days), four diets were formulated using the same FM control diet, but FM was replaced at lower levels: 25% (PBM25), and 25% (PBM25 + ) and 50% (PBM50 + ) with the supplementation of lysine and methionine amino acids. PBM protein can successfully replace 50% of FM protein in the diet of S. aurata without adverse effects on survival, feed intake, growth performance and feed utilization, given that the diet is balanced with lysine and methionine. The proximate composition of body and muscle was unaffected by the diet, but the total FM replacement resulted in reduced lipid and energy contents in fish. A fifty per cent FM replacement by PBM did not affect haematological parameters indicating a good fish health. Similarities in trypsin and chymotrypsin activities with FM‐fed fish suggest a high digestibility of PBM. High dietary levels of PBM reduced the liver gene expression of GH/IGF axis and of cathepsin D suppressing fish growth and modulating the protein turnover.
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Processed microalgae concentrates recently have been considered potentially viable alternatives to partially replace fishmeal (FM) and fish oil in aquafeeds. Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate incremental replacement of FM and soy protein concentrate (SPC) with different types of microalgae in the diet of hybrid striped bass. Microalgae evaluated in feeding trial 1 included dried products from monocultures of Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nanochloropsis salina, as well as mixed cultures of those two species. Several preparations of Chlorella sp. lipid extracted by various means as well as bluegreen algae biomass (BGAB) also were evaluated. In feeding trial 2, the microalgae products supporting most efficient fish performance in feeding trial 1 were reassessed along with mixed cultures of Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nanochloropsis salina as well as BGAB. Two additional mixed cultures of Nanochloropsis salina with Amphora sp. or Cylindrotheca sp. also were evaluated. Algae products were substituted to replace either 10, 15 or 20% of protein provided equally from menhaden FM and SPC in the Reference diet. All diets were isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) and isocaloric (3.3 kcal digestible energy g−1), and each were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile fish with average initial weights (+SEM) of 15.1 ± 0.6 g and 21.4 ± 1.3 g/fish in feeding trials 1 and 2, respectively for 7 weeks. Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of hybrid striped bass were high (> 330% of initial weight and 0.79) but significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diet in trial 1 with no mortality. Fish fed the Reference diet and the one containing BGAB had the greatest but similar weight gain. Substitution of the other algae meals significantly reduced weight gain by 8.2 to 14.7% compared to the Reference diet. Most diets containing algae meal yielded similar FER as the Reference diet except for those containing solvent-extracted Chlorella sp. (both 10% and 20% substitution), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (10%), and Phaeodactylum tricornutum×Nanochloropsis salina (10% and 20%), in which FER was significantly reduced by 5.8 to 8.1%. Whole-body proximate composition and protein retention efficiency values revealed no significant differences among diets. In feeding trial 2, the various diets with algae products substituted at 10 or 15% of dietary protein did not significantly affect growth performance or whole-body composition of hybrid striped bass compared to the Reference diet. In conclusion, replacement of up to 15% crude protein in the Reference diet with BGAB, the Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nanochloropsis salina mixture, as well as mixtures of Nanochloropsis salina with Amphora sp. or Cylindrothecatheca sp.was possible without affecting growth performance or body composition of hybrid striped bass.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the potential of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) to partially replace fishmeal (FM) in practical diets for turbot. For that purpose, a control diet was formulated to include 40% FM and a mixture of plant protein ingredients (soybean meal, corn gluten, and wheat gluten). Three other diets were formulated based on the control but with 10, 17.5, or 25% of DDGS replacing FM. Diets were tested in triplicate, in an 84-days growth trial with juveniles of 29 g initial body weight. Feed intake was not affected by diet composition, but growth and feed efficiency linearly decreased with the increase of dietary DDGS level. Whole-body dry matter and protein contents were not affected by diet composition, but lipid and energy content were higher in fish fed the control diet than the 17.5DDGS and 25DDGS diets and the 25DDGS diet, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of protein and amino acids were similar among diets, while the ADCs of energy decreased with the increase of dietary DDGS level. Digestive amylase and lipase activities in posterior intestine were lower in fish fed the 17.5DDGS and 25DDGS diets than the control diet, while proteases activity was not affected by diet. No differences among dietary treatments were observed on plasma glucose, but plasma total protein, albumin, triglycerides, and cholesterol were lower in fish fed the DDGS diets. Activity of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipogenesis was not affected by diet composition, but activity of alanine aminotransferase increased with the increase of dietary DDGS. Moreover, oxidative status of liver and intestine was not affected by dietary treatments, but susceptibility to oxidative stress was higher in the intestine than in the liver. Overall, it is concluded that replacing FM by DDGS in practical diets for turbot juvenile reduced growth performance and impaired overall nitrogen and energy metabolism.
Article
Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of processed agro-food by-products were assessed in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Each experimental diet was obtained by replacing 300 g/kg of a commercial-based diet used as reference (REF) with a test ingredient: wheat germ (GERM), okara meal (OKA), poultry by-product meal (POULT), steam hydrolysed (FeHY) and enzyme-treated feather meal (FeENZ), beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and peptide fractions >3,000 Da obtained from brewer's yeast (YeastP) and fish by-products (FishP). Dry matter ADC was highest in β-Lg (95%) and lowest in OKA (40%). Protein ADCs were high in β-Lg, FishP, GERM and POULT (>93%); intermediate in FeHY and FeENZ (85%–88%); and moderate in OKA and YeastP (70%–78%). The essential amino acids' ADC mean was above 91% in POULT, β-Lg, GERM and FishP, 84%–89% in FeHY and FeENZ and 73%–76% in YeastP and OKA. Energy ADC was highest in POULT and β-Lg (89%–95%) and lowest in YeastP and OKA (61%–64%). Lipid ADC was highest for POULT and GERM (100%). Phosphorus ADC was lowest in GERM (19%) and highest in β-Lg (88%). FeHY, FeENZ, POULT, GERM, FishP and β-Lg are highlighted as protein sources for European seabass.
Article
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of replacing fish meal with poultry by-product meal (PBM) and feather meal (FEM) in giant croaker (Nibea japonica) diet. The control diet (C) contained 400 g/kg fish meal, and 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the fish meal in diet C was replaced by a blend of PBM and FEM (PBM: FEM = 7:3) in diets B20, B40, B60 and B80, respectively. The weight gain and feed intake of fish fed diet C did not differ from those of fish fed diets B20 and B40 (p > .05), but were higher than those of fish fed diets B60 and B80 (p < .05). Phosphorus retention efficiency was lower in fish fed diets C, B20 and B40 than in fish fed diets R60 and R80 (p < .05). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio, nitrogen retention efficiency, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, body composition and nitrogen waste among the treatments (p > .05). Ratio of fish meal consumption to fish production linearly declined with the decrease in dietary fish meal level. This study indicates that dietary fish meal for giant croaker could be reduced to 240 g/kg by inclusion of the blend of PBM and FEM.
Article
The effects of replacing fishmeal by increasing levels of hydrolyzed feather meal (HF) on the nutrient utilization, growth performance and muscle fatty acid composition of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles were evaluated. The humoral non-specific immune parameters were also evaluated in plasma. A growth trial was conducted for 18 weeks, using a practical feed formulation with 32% fishmeal and no HF added, as control (FM). Three experimental diets were formulated with the inclusion of 5 (HF5), 7.5 (HF7.5) and 12.5% HF (HF12.5), leading to a replacement of about 28, 55 and 76% fishmeal compared to the FM diet.
Article
A feeding trial was carried out to assess the effect of partially replacing fish meal (FM) by Black soldier fly pre-pupae meal (HM) in diets for European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. A FM-based diet was used as a control and three other diets were formulated to include 6.5%, 13%, and 19.5% of HM, replacing 15%, 30% and 45% of FM respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 50g) for 62days. At the end of the trial, there were no differences among groups in growth performance or feed utilization. Plasma metabolic profiles also remained unaffected, except that plasma cholesterol was reduced with dietary HM inclusion. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of protein, lipids, dry matter, organic matter, and energy were generally high, and not affected by the dietary treatment. The ADC of arginine, histidine, and valine were higher in HM diets when compared to the control. Amylase and protease activities were not affected by dietary HM, while lipase activity was lower in HM 6.5 diets than in the control and HM 19.5 diets. In conclusion, up to 19.5% of HM, corresponding to 22.5% of total dietary protein, may successfully replace FM in diets for juvenile European seabass, without adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization or digestibility.
Article
Soybean meal (SBM) is widely used in aqua feed products. In the European Union, only non-genetically modified (non-GM) SBM is accepted. However, global production of non-GM soybeans is declining and is limiting its utilization in aqua feeds. Therefore, non-GM SBM alternatives are required. In this study, guar meal was evaluated as a substitute for non-GM SBM in test feeds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (initial weight of 57 ± 10.1 g) were stocked to 12 experimental tanks of a freshwater recirculation system with a stocking density of 6 kg/tank (500 L). Fish were organized in triplicate groups and received isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds designated as control and test feeds 1–3, where 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg feed of non-GM SBM was replaced by guar meal. During the experimental test period of 56 days, fish were fed twice a day until apparent satiation. Compared to the control group, daily feed intake of test feeds 1–3 was significantly increased by guar meal inclusion. No significant differences in feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were detected among all the treatments. Furthermore, guar meal inclusion did not affect protein efficiency ratio. However, protein productive value was significantly impaired when guar meal incorporation was above 100 g/kg feed. In accordance with the affected protein productive value, the crude protein content of the proximate whole fish body declined significantly. In contrast, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, slaughter yield and fillet yield provided no significant differences between the experimental groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that non-GM SBM could be entirely replaced by guar meal without affecting the general performance of fish and suggests guar meal as an appropriate alternative for non-GM SBM in the nutrition of rainbow trout.
Article
A 12-week trial was performed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) utilizing combinations of ingredients at two nutrient targets. Ingredient combinations were fishmeal-based diet (FMD), animal product-based diet (APD), plant product-based diet (PPD), novel plant-based diet (NPD) and potential future plant-based diet (FPD). Two nutrient concentrations were targeted: 1) to meet published amino acid targets for rainbow trout utilizing approximately 450 g/kg crude protein (400–420 g/kg digestible protein) and 2) to meet the amino acid targets based on ideal amino acid balance of trout muscle for Lys, Met and Thr utilizing approximately 400 g/kg crude protein (370–380 g/kg digestible protein). Interactive effects between ingredient combination and nutrient concentration occurred across all response variables. When diets were formulated to Target 1, fish consuming FMD and APD displayed better weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than plant-based diet, while graded effects were found within the plant-based treatments. When differing ingredient combinations were utilized and formulated to Target 2, fish grew equally well except for the NPD treatment which supported lower growth and higher FCR. Based on the data from the current experiment, one can completely remove fishmeal from trout feeds and reduce protein levels when dietary digestible amino acids are balanced.
Article
Two trials were carried out on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of a full-fat Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal. A first growth trail was performed on 450 European sea bass using three isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets (3 tanks/diet, 50 fish/tank) formulated to contain increasing levels of TM meal inclusion and precisely: 0 (TM0), 25 (TM25) and 50% (TM50) as fed basis. The performances, proximate body composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of whole fish fed the experimental diets were evaluated. A digestibility trial was then conducted on 180 fish to evaluate the in vivo apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of diets having 25% of TM inclusion in absence (TMD) or presence of exogenous enzymes (Carbohydrases, TM-Carb; Proteases, TM-Prot) compared to a fish meal based control diet (CD). The growth trial results showed that the highest inclusion level (TM50) led to a worsening of final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feeding rate if compared to the control diet (TMO). Regarding the whole body composition, crude protein and ether extract were not significantly influenced by the use of TM, while changes were observed in the FA profile. In particular, C18:2 n6 increased (+91% and +173% in TM25 and TM50, respectively vs TMO) with the inclusion of TM while sharp decreases of C20:5 n3 (-30% and 58% in TM25 and TM50, respectively vs TMO) and C22:6 n3 (-35% and -67% respectively vs TMO) were highlighted. Consequently, the Sigma n3/Sigma n6 FA ratio showed a significant decrease (-63% and -84% in TM25 and TM50, respectively vs TMO). As far as digestibility trial is concerned, the crude protein ADC of the fish fed TMD was significantly higher than that of the fish fed CD (92.31 vs 89.97, respectively). The supplementation of digestive enzymes did not improve the protein and ADF digestibility.
Article
The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390–396 g and 0.69–0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.
Article
European aquaculture industry should be at the forefront of sustainable development, providing healthy and safe food of the highest quality to the consumer, through an environmentally sound approach. The purpose of this review was to explore in what way the current drive for sustainability has affected what the consumer perceives as quality in fish, specifically in gilthead seabream, one of the most important farmed species in the Mediterranean. It focuses on nutritional aspects such as fish meal and fish oil replacement, quality tailoring through finishing strategies, the influence of different farming systems and the effect of slaughter stress on seabream quality. In general, fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable ingredients will result in changes in the fatty acid profile of the fillets, and consequently the potential health benefits seabream offers to the consumer. While organoleptic properties suffer little change, the impact of these ingredients on welfare has not been fully investigated. Further studies are also needed to evaluate the effect of land animal ingredients on seabream quality. In either case, although finishing strategies to restore essential fatty acids are not completely effective, seabream can still retain a high nutritional value. Information on the use of dietary supplements as finishing strategies is still extremely scarce. Regarding fish welfare, the high densities practised in intensive production systems pose concerns which warrant further research in this area. Furthermore, new alternatives for common harvesting and slaughter methods are needed to improve welfare, as traditional methods are clearly stressful.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of two macroalgae as dietary ingredients on growth, body composition, intermediate metabolism, intestinal enzymes and gut histology of Sparus aurata juveniles. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets incorporating 5%, 15% or 25% of Gracilaria cornea or Ulva rigida meal were tested against a control diet. Duplicate groups of fifteen fish (14 g) were fed the experimental diets for 70 days. Growth performance showed an inverse linear relationship with the inclusion level of Gracilaria. Feed conversion ratio increased significantly in fish fed 25% Gracilaria. Ulva presented a quadratic relationship with the lowest SGR at 15% of inclusion. Fish fed 25% Ulva exhibited significantly lower lipid content than those fed control diet. Overall, metabolites did not show differences with specimens fed control diet, except for plasmatic glucose and muscle lactate. Intestinal proteolytic activity was reduced with the macroalgae inclusion level, but all fish showed the same enzyme pattern. The histological study revealed no negative effect on liver and intestine structure by the macroalgae inclusion. The present work demonstrated that these ingredients can be used in practical diets for sea bream, but a more comprehensive research is needed to determine the optimum dietary level in a longer feeding trial.
Article
Fishmeal (FM) and soy meal (SM) are the most common protein sources used in fish feed, but they are associated with environmental, economic or production problems. Insects could be an interesting alternative source of protein. This work investigates the nutritive value of Tenebrio molitor meal (TM) and the effect of total replacement of SM by TM (TM/FM diet) or partial replacement of FM by TM (TM/FM/SM diet) versus a diet based in SM and FM (FM/SM diet) for tilapia. We studied the chitin content in TM, the in vitro protein digestibility, protease activity, oxidative stress and antioxidant defences, growth performance and nutrient utilization. The results indicate that an inclusion up to 500 g kg−1 of TM in the diet did not affect feed intake, in vitro protein digestibility, muscle amino acid composition or biometric indexes. However, their inclusion reduced growth performance and affected the muscle fatty acid profile. The lowest values for protease activity, elevated FRAP in digestive tracts and ROS level in muscle and higher SOD activity were observed in fish fed with SM/FM diet. The use of TM requires better understanding of the role of chitin in digestion and the study of toxins that might affect fish growth.
Article
Duplicate groups of rainbow trout (mean initial weight 16.7 ± 0.1 g) were fed six isonitrogenous (43.7 % crude protein) diets for 12 weeks. A fish-meal-based diet was designated the control. In the other five diets, 75 or 100 % of the fish meal was replaced with either poultry byproduct meal (PBM), hydrolyzed feather meal (FEM), and spray-dried blood meal (BM) or with defatted soybean meal and corn gluten meal. Trout fed the diets in which 75 and 100 % of the fish meal was replaced with rendered animal protein showed comparable growth performance to trout fed the control diet except in terms of the protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio. The feed intake of the trout fed a combination of fish meal and rendered animal protein (either with or without plant protein) was significantly higher than the feed intake of trout on the fishmeal-based diet. Apparent crude protein digestibility coefficients were significantly higher in trout fed the diets in which 75 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant protein sources than in trout fed the diets in which 75 % of the fish meal was replaced with rendered animal protein sources (P\0.05). These results suggest that a combination of PBM, FEM, and BM is a good substitute for most of the fish meal in practical feed for rainbow trout.
Article
This study evaluated the potential of using poultry by-product meal (PBM) to replace fish meal in diets for Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus. Fish (initial body weight 8.5 g fish−1) were fed six isoproteic and isoenergetic diets in which fish meal level was reduced from 400 g kg−1 (diet C) to 320 (diet PM1), 240 (diet PM2), 160 (diet PM3), 80 (diet PM4) or 0 g kg−1 (diet PM5), using PBM as the fish meal substitute. The weight gain (WG), specific growth rate, nitrogen retention efficiency, energy retention efficiency and retention efficiency of indispensable amino acids were higher in fish fed PM1, PM2, PM3 and PM4 diets than in fish fed diets C or PM5. The phosphorus retention efficiency was lower in fish fed PM3, PM4 and PM5 diets than in fish fed C, PM1 or PM2 diets. Fish fed diet PM5 had the highest feed conversion ratio, total nitrogen waste output (TNW) and total phosphorus waste output (TPW) among the treatments. No significant differences were found in the hepatosomatic index or body contents of moisture, lipid and ash among the treatments. Fish fed diet C had lower condition factor and viscerosomatic index than those of fish fed PM1, PM3, PM4 and PM5 diets. The results of this study indicate that using fish meal and PBM in combination as the dietary protein source produced more benefits in the growth and feed utilization of Japanese sea bass than did using fish meal or PBM alone as the dietary protein source. The dietary fish meal level for Japanese sea bass can be reduced to 80 g kg−1 if PBM is used as a fish meal substitute.
Article
The use of carob seed germ meal (CG) as a substitute for fish meal was evaluated in fingerlings (average weight 10 g) of gilthead sea bream fed isonitrogenous (46% Crude Protein, CP) and isolipidic (19.5% Crude Lipid, CL) diets containing four CG levels (0, 17, 34 and 52%). The duration of the trial was 83 days. The diets were tested in triplicate, and the fish were fed to satiation twice daily. The apparent protein and energy digestibility coefficients decreased in response to the dietary inclusion of CG. The decreases in the values of the ADC ranged from 93% for the 0 diet to 80% for the 52 diet. The amount of digestible Arg in the diets increased with the inclusion of CG, from 3.2 g Arg 100 g− 1 in the 0 diet to 4.81 g Arg 100 g− 1 in the 52 diet. The digestible Arg content increased in the diets because the amounts of the remaining digestible amino acids decreased.
Article
Rendered animal protein ingredients, such as feather meal and blood meal, are promising animal protein sources for the replacement of fish meal often proved to combine synergistically. Three practical diets containing similar amounts of PD/ED (22.0 mg/kJ) but differing in the amount of digestible protein were tested in sea bream juveniles of initial body weight 41.81 +/- 1.12 g. FBCM diet (40%PD) and FBM diet (42%PD) contained similar percentages of blood and feather meal (10% and 5%, respectively) but differed in the proportion of soybean / rapeseed meal. Although growth performance and feed utilization were very similar in all treatments, chemical composition showed that blood and feather meal supplementation increased significantly whole-body lipid content compared with fishmeal diet (P205A). Liver lipid content was significantly lower in fish fed FBCM diet. Whole-body fatty acids composition was similar between treatments, ranging between 242.57 +/- 14.17 mg g(-1) in FBM diet and 274.62 +/- 23.95 mg g(-1) for FBCM diet. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid; EPA and DHA were the most abundant fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipid fractions of the fish. Economical evaluation indicated that the incorporation of blood and feather meal as a substitute of fish meal decreased feed costs leading to a better economic conversion ratio
Article
Larvae of black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens) are commercially produced on agricultural waste streams and convert these into animal body protein and fat. A feeding trial was carried out for 56 days in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) by replacing fish meal protein subsequently by Hermetia meal (HM) protein. Six diets were formulated for the replacement and contained 0%, 17%, 33%, 49%, 64%, and 76% of HM (54.1 +/- 1.1% crude protein, 13.4 +/- 0.7% crude lipid, dry matter basis). The diets were fed to triplicate groups of turbot 54.9 +/- 0.9 g once a day by hand until apparent satiation. Feed intake was affected by dietary HM inclusion and decreased with increasing HM incorporation due to low palatability. Growth performance was high, but affected by dietary HM inclusion. SGR was lower in all treatments containing HM whereas FCR was significantly higher at HM inclusion levels > 33%. Protein retention was highest at HM inclusion <= 33% and decreased significantly with increasing HM supplementation. Whole-body protein content was not affected by treatment, while body lipid decreased with increasing HM inclusion levels. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of HM were low for organic matter, crude protein, crude lipid, and gross energy. Chitinase activity or chitinolytic active bacteria were not detected in the mid gut of turbot. The presence of chitin might have influenced the feed intake, availability, and digestibility of the nutrients and therefore growth performance. In general, our study shows that the incorporation of HM protein in fish diets is possible, but limited by its low nutritive value. Considering that HM is produced on local greenhouse waste streams, HM might be a feasible alternative protein source for the partial replacement of fish meal. Further research on HM meal processing to increase nutrient utilization is needed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Article
Three trials, with classical experimental designs for in vivo digestibility studies, were conducted to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein (ADCp), lipid (ADCl), energy (ADCe) and amino acids (AA) in selected animal by-products fed to European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Trial 1), gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Trial 2), and turbot, Psetta maxima (Trial 3). In each trial, five experimental diets [including a reference diet (RD)] where fish meal (FM) was used as the sole protein source were fed ad libitum to the fish for a period of 4 weeks. Test diets were based on the FM RD and obtained by replacing 30% of the RD with a category III designated European animal by-products (fit for human consumption), namely: steam hydrolysed feather meal (HFM), enzyme-treated feather meal (EFM), poultry meat meal (PMM) and spray-dried haemoglobin meal (SDHM). Faecal material was collected using the ‘Guelph system’, and nutrient and energy digestibility coefficients were related to the measurement of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) incorporated into the diet at a rate of 0.5%. Without any exception, FM diets yielded the best digestibility values for all macro-nutrients and by all fish. Among the test ingredients, ADCp was consistently higher for PMM and SDHM in the three species (85.5%, 91.1% in sea bass; 79.2%, 82.8% in sea bream; and 78.4%, 74.8% in turbot). Conversely, ADCp of HFM and EFM were less efficiently digested (67.2%, 68.2% in sea bass; 21.5%, 21.7% in sea bream; and 46.6%, 36.0% in turbot). However, the novel processing method applied to feather meal did not considerably influence the digestibility of most of the nutrients in this feedstuff. The current investigation yielded valuable numerical ADC for EAA considered to be of prime importance in generating balanced diet formulations.
Article
A trial was conducted to test the effect of partial replacement of fishmeal (Danish LT fishmeal - the only protein source in the control diet) by brewers yeast, in isonitrogenous (48% CP) and isoenergetic (22 MJ kg-1) diets for sea bass juveniles with an initial average weight of 12 g. Diets were formulated to include 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% or 50% of dietary N from yeast (diets D0, D10, D20, D30, D50, respectively); another diet supplemented with methionine (diet D50M) was also prepared. Each diet was distributed by hand to satiation to duplicate groups of 25 fish and the growth trial lasted 12 weeks. During the trial, feed intake (g kg-1 day-1) was identical in all groups. At the end of the trial growth rate was not significantly different among groups, except for the D50M diet, which was significantly lower than diet D30. Feed conversion was better for diets D10, D20 and D30, containing yeast than for the control diet. N retention (% N intake) was significantly higher in fish fed diets containing yeast (except for the D50M diet) than in those fed the control diet. There were no significant differences among groups in energy retention (% E intake). The protein content of the fish was significantly higher in fish fed diets containing yeast (except for the D50M diet) than in those fed the control diet. Apparent digestibility of the diets was determined in a separate trial with fish weighing 62 g. Feces collection was performed according to the Guelph system. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter and energy significantly decreased with the increase of dietary yeast level. ADC of protein was significantly lower for the D50 diet than for the other diets. Results of this trial indicate that brewers yeast can replace 50% of fishmeal protein with no negative effects in fish performance. Moreover, the inclusion of up to 30% brewers yeast in the diet improved feed efficiency. There was no beneficial effect of supplementing the brewers yeast diets with methionine.
Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/893 of 24 May 2017 amending Annexes I and IV to Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Annexes X, XIV and XV to Commission Regulation (EU) No 142/2011 as regards the provisions on processed animal protein
  • European Commission
European Commission (2017). Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/893 of 24 May 2017 amending Annexes I and IV to Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Annexes X, XIV and XV to Commission Regulation (EU) No 142/2011 as regards the provisions on processed animal protein. Official Journal of the European Union, L138, 92-116.
Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
  • European Parliament
European Commission (2013). Commission Regulation (EU) No. 56/2013 of 16 January 2013 amending Annexes I and IV to Regulation (EC) No. 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Official Journal of the European Union, L21, 3-16.
Commission Regulation (EU) No. 56/2013 of 16 January 2013 amending Annexes I and IV to Regulation (EC) No. 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
  • European Commission
VITAL: 800 g/kg CP, 75 g/kg CF
  • Premix Lda
Premix Lda. 7 VITAL: 800 g/kg CP, 75 g/kg CF;
11 Carob germ: 450 g/kg CP, 40 g/kg CF
  • Roquette Frères
Roquette Frères. 11 Carob germ: 450 g/kg CP, 40 g/kg CF; Premix Lda.
320 g/kg CP, 93 g/kg CF; Pannonia Ethanol Zrt. 14 Poultry meal 65: 670 g/kg CP, 120 g/kg CF
  • Gold Pannonia
  • Ddgs
Pannonia GOLD DDGS: 320 g/kg CP, 93 g/kg CF; Pannonia Ethanol Zrt. 14 Poultry meal 65: 670 g/kg CP, 120 g/kg CF; Sonac.
620 g/kg CP, 90 g/kg CF
  • Chlorella
Chlorella sp.: 620 g/kg CP, 90 g/kg CF; Allmicroalgae.
Vitamins (IU or mg/kg diet): dl-alpha tocopherol acetate 100 mg; sodium menadione bisulphate 25 mg; retinyl acetate 20,000 IU; dl-cholecalciferol 2,000 IU; thiamin 30 mg
  • Premix Lda
PREMIX Lda: Vitamins (IU or mg/kg diet): dl-alpha tocopherol acetate 100 mg; sodium menadione bisulphate 25 mg; retinyl acetate 20,000 IU; dl-cholecalciferol 2,000 IU; thiamin 30 mg; riboflavin 30 mg;
Official methods of analysis. Gaithersburgs, MD: Association of Official Analytical Chemists
AOAC (2006). Official methods of analysis. Gaithersburgs, MD: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.