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Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia digitata Linn

Authors:
  • Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, Pune

Abstract and Figures

Adansonia digitata (AD) Linn has been used to cure PU in Ayurveda but its efficacy has not been validated. The current study was so carried out to evaluate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (ADFP), n hexane extract of Adansonia digitata seed oil (ADSO) and their combination (ADFP+ADSO) in rats. The effect of AD on gastric ulcer in pylorus ligation induced and ethanol induced models was studied using doses [ADFO (500 mg/kg), ADSO (300 mg/kg) and combination of ADFP and ADSO] for 10 days. Omeprazole (10 mg/kg) were used as the standard drug. Depending on the model, outcomes measures were gastric volume, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index, percentage inhibition of ulcer index, protein, pepsin, mucus, antioxidant marker enzyme level (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Lipid peroxidation), morphological and Histopathological study. The result obtained with combination was set up near to the standard drug and consequence showed that the combination of ADFP and ADSO was found to be more effective than the individual extract of AD. The outcomes were statistically evaluated with the one-way ANOVA followed by the test of Dennett’s‘t’. The secondary-metabolites such as flavonoids, proteins, saponins, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids and Fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid) are potent as antioxidant, antiulcer and anti-inflammatory. The finding of this reading confirmed that AD has antiulcer activity due to 1 or more of the secondary-metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its antiulcer use in Ayurveda. Future investigation on separation of specific phytochemicals and elucidate MOA are needed.
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263
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2019; 11(5): 263-271
RESEARCH ARTICLE
ISSN: 0975-248X
CODEN (USA): IJPSPP
Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of
Adansonia digitata Linn
Kajal Kamalso Malgave*, Nilofar Shahnwaj Naikwade, Padma Laxmikant Ladda,
Tabbasum S. Shikalgar, Sudhir S. Patil
Department of Pharmacology, Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy, Sangli-416416, Maharashtra, India
Copyright © 2019 Kajal Kamalso Malgave et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as
the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
ABSTRACT
Adansonia digitata (AD) Linn has been used to cure PU in Ayurveda but its efficacy has not been validated. The
current study was so carried out to evaluate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp
(ADFP), n hexane extract of Adansonia digitata seed oil (ADSO) & their combination (ADFP+ADSO) in rats. The effect
of AD on gastric ulcer in pylorus ligation induced and ethanol induced models was studied using doses [ADFO (500
mg/kg), ADSO (300 mg/kg) & combination of ADFP & ADSO] for 10 days. Omeprazole (10 mg/kg) were used as the
standard drug. Depending on the model, outcomes measures were gastric volume, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer
index, percentage inhibition of ulcer index, protein, pepsin, mucus, antioxidant marker enzyme level (Superoxide
dismutase, Catalase, Lipid peroxidation), morphological & Histopathological study. The result obtained with
combination was set up near to the standard drug and consequence showed that the combination of ADFP & ADSO
was found to be more effective than the individual extract of AD. The outcomes were statistically evaluated with the
one-way ANOVA followed by the test of Dennett’s‘t’. The secondary-metabolites such as flavonoids, proteins,
saponins, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids and Fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid) are potent as
antioxidant, antiulcer and anti-inflammatory. The finding of this reading confirmed that AD has antiulcer activity due
to 1 or more of the secondary-metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its antiulcer use in Ayurveda.
Future investigation on separation of specific phytochemicals and elucidate MOA are needed.
Keywords: Peptic ulcer, Adansonia digitata Linn, Seed oil, Pulp, Antioxidants.
DOI: 10.25004/IJPSDR.2019.110518
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. 2019; 11(5): 263-271
*Corresponding author: Ms. Kajal Kamalso Malgave
Address: Department of Pharmacology, Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy, Sangli-416416, Maharashtra, India
Tel.: +91-9764378107
E-mail : kajalmalgave75@gmail.com
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or
financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Received: 16 August, 2019; Revised: 08 September, 2019; Accepted: 10 September, 2019; Published: 25 September, 2019
INTRODUCTION
In the world peptic ulcer is major gastrointestinal
disorders. Annually, peptic ulcer perforation rate was
3.81 - 14 and haemorrhage rate was 19.4 - 57 per 100,000
people. [1] It is a chronic disease which may leads
serious and life threatening complications such as
bleeding and/ or perforation that may necessitate
surgery and if untreated it can cause death. This
disease represents worldwide heath problem due to its
high morbidity, mortality, economical loss. [2] Over 90%
of peptic ulcers are caused by bacterial infection (H.
pylori) or by use of NSAIDS. [3] Other factor such as
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mucosal damaging mechanisms (Mucus, bicarbonate,
synthesis of PG & Nitric oxide). [4] In Indian
pharmaceutical industry shares 6.21 billion rupees for
antiulcer drugs and these drugs occupy 4.31% of the
market share. [1] Synthetic drugs produce several side
effects. Such as, proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole,
Lansoprazole) may cause nausea, abdominal pain,
constipation, diarrhea and H2 receptor antagonists
(Cimetidine) may causes libido loss because of these
severe side effects, herbal medicines are considered as
safe for use and better alternatives for peptic ulcer
therapy. [5] Decrease in gastric acid juice and increase in
production of gastric mucosa were the main strategies
for the management of peptic ulcer. Therefore demand
of synthetic drugs is increased and proposing newer
options for prevention/treatment of peptic ulcer. The
types of drugs vary from proton pump inhibitor to H2
antagonist and at the same moment, these synthetic
drugs produce some adverse drug reaction like
arrhythmias, gynaecomastia, and haemopoetic changes.
Because of these ADR there is need to thought of better
natural alternative of peptic ulcer. [6] Adansonia digitata
Linn is a large tree, commonly known as Baobab. It is
used in many ways; every part of AD is stated to be
useful. [7-8] Chemical constitutes of this plant were
reported to have flavonoids, steroids, vitamins, fatty
acids, terpenoids, besides tannin. [9-10] Antioxidants
have protective role in gastric ulcers. [11] Adansonia
digitata is high in antioxidants [12-13] in recent year,
flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, vitamin C, fatty acids
shows antisecretory, antiulcer and ulcer healing activity
in many research paper. [14-16] Therefore Adansonia
digitata Linn is selected for evaluation of antiulcer
activity based on its reported phytoconstituents of fruit
of Adansonia digitata Linn.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preparation of extraction
Fruit of Adansonia digitata Linn were collected in month
of September and November 2018 from Miraj region
(Dist - Sangli) Maharashtra (India) and Authenticated
by Prof. M. D. Wadmare, Department of Botany from
Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College Sangli. The fruit were
dried at room temperature. Then seeds were separated
from fruit pulp and seeds were ground to a coarse
powder using mixer grinder. The powders were stored
in airtight container. Weighed quantity of pulp powder
and seed powder with ethanol and n- hexane
respectively was subjected to extraction using Soxhelet
apparatus at [60-70°C], [60-65ºC] boiling point of
solvent respectively, then solvent was allowed to
evaporate at RT. [17-18] The final extract was weighed
and the % of extract was calculated by formula:
Percentage extract obtained = Wt. of extract (g) / Wt. of
sample (g) ×100
Phytochemical investigation
Tests were carried out to get the presence of
constituents viz flavonoids, saponins, glycosides,
alkaloids, carbohydrate, tannins, phenols in fruit pulp
and proteins, steroids, calcium, fatty acids in seed oil.
Animals
Adult albino Wistar rats of either sex, weighting 150 -
200 g obtained from animal house of Appasaheb
Birnale College of Pharmacy Sangli, were used
experiment. Form B protocol were prepared and
submitted to Institutional Animal Ethics committee
(IAEC). Animals were kept in well- ventilated room at
23 ± 2°C, with humidity of 65-70%, and they were feed
with a standard pellet diet with mineral water.
Procedures involving laboratory animal were done in
accordance with CPCSEA guidelines. Approval for
animal use was obtained from IAEC prior to
experimental study. The experimental protocol
(IAEC/ABCP/4/2018-19) was approved by the IAEC.
Acute Toxicity study in rat (LD50 determination)
According to literature survey the LD50 of ADFP and
ADSO was reported previously as 5000 mg/kg and
3000 mg/kg respectively. [19-20]
Dose selection
According to OECD guidelines as the LD50 of ADFP
and ADSO was found to be 5000 mg/kg and 3000
mg/kg respectively, then one dose is selected for
further evaluation as 1/10th i.e. 500 mg/kg and 300
mg/kg respectively. Combination group was given 250
mg/kg of fruit pulp extract & 150 mg/kg of seed oil.
Experimental Design
Pyloric ligation in rat
Adult albino rats of Wistar strain of either sex weighing
150-200 g were used for the study. All the animals were
divided into the seven groups with 6 animals in each
group.
Normal: DW 10 ml/kg p.o.
Control I: DW 10 ml/kg + Pylorus ligation p.o.
Control II: Tween 80 5 ml/kg Pylorus ligation p.o.
Standard: Omeprazole 20 mg/kg +Pylorus ligation p.o.
Test I: Fruit pulp 500 mg/kg (For 10 days) +Pylorus
ligation p.o.
Test II: Seed oil 300 mg/kg (For 10 days) +Pylorus
ligation p.o.
Test III: [Fruit pulp (250 mg/kg) + seed oil (150 mg/kg)
(For 10 days)] +Pylorus ligation p.o.
Test sample was given for a period of 10 days. On day
10, once the last dose of test sample, the rats were kept
for 24 hours fasting. On day 11the animal were
anesthetized by using Thiopentone sodium. The
stomach had been opened and pylorus was ligated
without causing any injury to its blood vessels. The
stomach was put and the stomach had been closed with
sutures. All animals were sacrificed by CO2 euthanasia
technique 19 hours after ligation. Then stomach was
dissected out and the matter of stomach have been
gathered into tube and centrifuged. Supernatant was
collected for analysis of gastric volume, pH, free
acidity, total acidity, protein, pepsin, mucus in gastric
juice. Further the stomach was incised along the greater
curvature and the inner surface was examined for
ulceration by giving score number and severity was
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assessed microscopically. The stomach tissue is then
homogenate into phosphate buffer using tissue
homogenizer; this homogenate was used for estimation
of different antioxidant markers. [21-23]
Ethanol induced ulcer in rat model
Adult albino rats of Wistar strain of either sex weighing
150-200 g were used for the study. All the animals were
divided in to the seven groups with six animals in each
group.
Normal: DW 10 ml/kg p.o.
Control I: DW 10 ml/kg + Ethanol (5 ml/kg) p.o.
Control II: Tween 80 5 ml/kg Ethanol (5 ml/kg) p.o.
Standard: Omeprazole 20 mg/kg + Ethanol (5 ml/kg)
p.o.
Test I: Fruit pulp 500 mg/kg (For 10 days) + Ethanol (5
ml/kg) p.o.
Test II: Seed oil 300 mg/kg (For 10 days) + Ethanol (5
ml/kg) p.o.
Test III: [Fruit pulp (250 mg/kg) + seed oil (150 mg/kg)
(For 10 days)] + Ethanol (5 ml/kg) p.o.
Test sample was given for a period of 10 days. On day
10, after the last dose of test extract, the rats were kept
for 24 hours fasting. On day 11th ethanol were
administered at dose 5 ml/kg and after 1 hr. animals
were sacrificed by CO2 chamber. Then stomach was
removed out and contents were taken into clean tubes
& centrifuged. Supernatant was collected for measuring
parameters. Further stomach of all animals was cut
with the greater-curvature and the internal surface was
examined for ulceration by giving score number and
severity was assessed microscopically. The stomach
tissue is then homogenate into phosphate buffer using
tissue homogenizer; this homogenate was used for
estimation of different antioxidant markers. [21, 24-25]
Parameters was determined
Determination of gastric volume & pH, determination
of free, total acidity in gastric juice, determination of
gastric protein content, determination of total pepsin,
determination of gastric mucus content determination
of ulcer index, morphological study of stomach,
determination of mucous in gastric content, estimation
of antioxidant markers [Superoxide dismutase,
Catalase, Lipid peroxidation i.e. Malondialdehyde
(MDA)], Morphological study, Histopathological study.
Statistical Analysis
Data was expressed as Mean ± SEM. The comparisons
between the averages of series of values were
performed by one way ANOVA test followed by
Dunnett’s‘t’ test.
RESULTS
In both models the result on the effect of ADFP, ADSO
& combination of ADFP + ADSO reveals that the
extract have significantly (p<0.001) reduced the ulcer
index. Ulcer index was severe in control group and
decreased in test group Maximum inhibition of ulcer
index was observed in the animal treated with the
combination group. Administration of fruit extract
significantly (p<0.001) decreased level of offensive
factors such as gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity,
ulcer index, protein, pepsin, while increased level of
pH, gastric mucus. The level of total protein in the
stomach was increased in control group, when
compared to test group. Administration of Omeprazole
also reduced protein content in the stomach juice. The
activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase
decreased in control group while lipid peroxidation
increased & treatment with fruit extract and
Omeprazole increased SOD, catalase level while
decreased lipid peroxidation.
Morphological study in both model showed that the
stomach integrity was maintained in normal group and
control group showed severe bleeding, perforation,
spot ulcer, streaks but standard group and extract
treated groups showed extremely fewer ulceration and
stomach integrity was maintained. Microscopical
change of pylorus ligation induced & ethanol induced
model. In Control group, gastric mucosa showed
damaged gastric mucosal epithelium, glands with
hemorrhages, edema & inflammatory cells infiltration
in the submucosal layer. The test groups showed
significant regeneration of mucosal layer and
significantly prevented the hemorrhages, edema and
severity of damage to mucosal epithelium as compared
to control. In all over parameters result obtained with
combination was set up near to the standard drug and
consequence showed that the combination of ADFP &
ADSO was found to be more effective than the
individual extract of AD.
Table 1: Effect of ADFP and combination of ADFP+ADSO on Gastric volume, pH, Free acidity, Total acidity and Ulcer index in Pylorus
ligation induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Gastric volume (ml)
pH
Free Acidity
(mEq/L/100 g)
Total Acidity
(mEq/L/100 g)
Ulcer Index
Control
(10 ml/kg bw)
6.033 ± 0.09
3.458 ± 0.011
59 ± 0.856
73 ± 0.816
16.17 ± 0.333
Standard
(20 mg/kg)
3.417 ± 0.04****
(43.36%)
6.232 ± 0.004****
(44.51%)
34 ± 0.365****
(42.37%)
52 ± 0.365****
(28.76%)
4 ± 0.182****
(75.26%)
ADFP
(500 mg/kg)
4.633 ± 0.03****
(23.20%)
4.885 ± 0.008****
(29.21%)
41.50 ± 0.763****
(29.66%)
56.33 ± 0.33****
(22.83%)
6.83 ± 0.166****
(75%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg
+ 150 mg/kg)
4.200 ± 0.03****
(30.38%)
5.578 ± 0.007****
(38%)
37.67 ± 0.557****
(36.15%)
54.50 ± 0.50****
(25.34%)
5.33 ± 0.278****
(67.01%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Kajal Kamalso Malgave et al. / Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia…..……
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. September-October, 2019, Vol 11, Issue 5 (263-271)
266
Table 2: Effect of ADSO and combination of ADFP+ADSO on Gastric volume, pH, Free acidity, Total acidity and Ulcer index in Pylorus
ligation induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Gastric volume(ml)
pH
Free Acidity
(mEq/L/100 g)
Total Acidity
(mEq/L/100 g)
Ulcer Index
Control
1 ml/kg Tween 80
6.033 ± 0.09
3.435 ± 0.009
63.83 ± 0.401
72.33 ± 0.802
15.17 ± 0.307
Standard
(20 mg/kg)
3.417 ± 0.04****
(43.36%)
6.23 ± 0.004****
(44.88%)
34 ± 0.365****
(46.73%)
52 ± 0.365****
(28.10%)
4 ± 0.1826****
(73.63%)
ADSO
(300 mg/kg)
4.633 ± 0.03****
(23.20%)
4.71 ± 0.166****
(27.07%)
46 ± 0.365****
(27.93%)
63.17 ± 0.90****
(12.66%)
6.917 ± 0.20****
(54.40%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
4.200 ± 0.03****
(30.38%)
5.57 ± 0.007****
(38.41%)
37.67 ± 0.557****
(40.98%)
54.50 ± 0.50****
(24.65%)
5.33 ± 0.278****
(64.84%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 3: Effect of ADFP and combination of ADFP + ADSO on Protein, Pepsin and Mucus in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Protein g/ml)
Pepsin (µg/ml)
Mucus (mg/ml)
Control (10 ml/kg bw)
104.2 ± 0.222
79.33 ± 0.421
44.81 ± 0.316
Standard (20 mg/kg)
47.47 ± 0.658****
(54.44%)
48.83 ± 0.401****
(38.44%)
109.6 ± 0.393****
(59.11%)
ADFP (500 mg/kg)
68.05 ± 0.755****
(34.69%)
53 ± 0.365****
(33.19%)
101.1 ± 0.311****
(55.67%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg +150 mg/kg)
52.76 ± 0.684****
(49.36%)
51.17 ± 0.4777****
(35.49%)
105.5 ± 0.732****
(57.52%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 4: Effect of ADSO and combination of ADFP + ADSO on Protein, Pepsin and Mucus in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Protein (µg/ml)
Pepsin (µg/ml)
Mucus (mg/ml)
Control (1 ml/kg Tween 80)
103.3 ± 0.851
76.67 ± 0.494
49.17 ± 0.270
Standard (20 mg/kg)
47.47 ± 0.658****
(54.04%)
48.83 ± 0.401****
(36.31%)
109.6 ± 0.3938****
(55.13%)
ADSO (300 mg/kg)
71.10 ± 0.396****
(31.17%)
59.83 ± 0.542****
(21.96%)
99.04 ± 0.168****
(50.35%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
52.76 ± 0.684****
(48.92%)
51.17 ± 0.477****
(33.25%)
105.5 ± 0.732****
(53.39%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 5: Effect of ADFP and combination of ADFP + ADSO on SOD, Catalase and MDA in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
SOD (U/mg of protein)
Catalase (U/mg of protein)
MDA (nmol/mg of protein)
Normal
53.58 ± 0.525
35.67 ± 0.333
3.915 ± 0.216
Control (10 ml/kg bw)
18.41 ± 0.453####
15.50 ± 0.428####
13.37 ± 0.115####
Standard (20 mg/kg)
52.13 ± 0.322****
31.33 ± 0.760****
7.867 ± 0.098****
ADFP (500 mg/kg)
43.26 ± 0.302****
24.33 ± 0.333****
11.53 ± 0.126****
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
46.24 ± 0.371****
27.17 ± 0.600****
9.483 ± 0.104****
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control. # indicates control group compared with normal.
Table 6: Effect of ADSO and combination of ADFP + ADSO on SOD, Catalase and MDA in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
SOD (U/mg of protein)
Catalase (U/mg of protein)
MDA (nmol/mg of protein)
Normal
53.58 ± 0.525
35.67 ± 0.333
3.915 ± 0.216
Control (1 ml/kg Tween 80)
18.65 ± 0.2150####
16.67 ± 0.494####
13.45 ± 0.129####
Standard (20 mg/kg)
52.13 ± 0.322****
31.33 ± 0.760****
7.867 ± 0.098****
ADSO (300 mg/kg)
37.74 ± 0.222****
22.50 ± 0.806****
12.04 ± 0.080****
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
46.24 ± 0.371****
27.17 ± 0.600****
9.483 ± 0.104****
DISCUSSION
Peptic ulcer is because of imbalance between
aggressive-factors and defensive factor. To recover the
balance, the use of therapeutic agents prevents gastric
juice discharge to enhance the processes of mucosal
protection by increasing mucosal output. [26] The
current research was conducted to assess the anti-ulcer
effect of oral administration of ADFP extract (500
mg/kg) and ADSO extract (300 mg/kg) and the
mixture of ADFP (250 mg/kg) and ADSO (150 mg/kg)
of A. digitata Linn against gastric mucosal ulceration
induced experimentally by Pylorus ligation in rats and
ethanol.
Kajal Kamalso Malgave et al. / Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia…..……
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. September-October, 2019, Vol 11, Issue 5 (263-271)
267
Table 7: Effect of ADFP and combination of ADFP + ADSO on Gastric volume, pH, Free acidity, Total acidity and Ulcer index in Ethanol
induced gastric ulcer
Treatment
& Dose
Gastric volume (ml)
pH
Free Acidity
(mEq/L/100 g)
Total Acidity
(mEq/L/100 g)
Ulcer Index
Control (10 ml/kg b/w)
5.217 ± 0.1046
3.572 ± 0.025
49.50 ± 0.428
69.50 ± 0.223
15 ± 0.258
Standard (20 mg/kg)
3.150 ± 0.042****
(39.58%)
6.147 ± 0.007****
(41.89%)
36.50 ± 0.428****
(26.26%)
49.17 ± 0.477****
(29.25%)
4.33 ± 0.166****
(71.13%)
ADFP (500 mg/kg)
4.133 ± 0.033****
(20.77%)
5.233 ± 0.144****
(31.74%)
39.17 ± 0.166****
(20.86%)
56.50 ± 0.428****
(18.70%)
6.83 ± 0.166****
(54.44%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
3.667 ± 0.033****
(29.71%)
5.192 ± 0.026****
(31.20%)
41.17 ± 0.703****
(16.82%)
53.50 ± 0.018****
(23.02%)
5.58 ± 0.153****
(62.80%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 8: Effect of ADSO and combination of ADFP + ADSO on Gastric volume, pH, Free acidity, Total acidity and Ulcer index in Ethanol
induced gastric ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Gastric volume (ml)
pH
Free Acidity
Total Acidiy
Ulcer Index
Control (1 ml/kg Tween 80)
5.467 ± 0.033
3.483 ± 0.009
52.33 ± 0.76
72.17 ± 3.005
15.67 ± 0.27
Standard (20 mg/kg)
3.150 ± 0.042****
(42.38%)
6.147 ± 0.007****
(43.38%)
36.50 ± 0.42****
(30.25%)
49.17 ± 0.47****
(31.86%)
4.333 ± 0.16****
(72.34%)
ADSO (300 mg/kg)
4.367 ± 0.049****
(20.12%)
4.693 ± 0.04****
(25.78%)
45.50 ± 0.42****
(13.05%)
58.33 ± 0.55****
(19.17%)
7.333 ± 0.21****
(53.20%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg +150 mg/kg)
3.667 ± 0.03****
(32.92%)
5.192 ± 0.02****
(32.91%)
41.17 ± 0.70****
(21.32%)
53.50 ± 0.56****
(25.86%)
5.583 ± 0.15****
(64.37%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 9: Effect of ADFP and combination of ADFP + ADSO on Protein, Pepsin and Mucus in Ethanol induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Protein (µg/ml)
Pepsin (µg/ml)
Mucus (mg/ml)
Control (10 ml/kg bw)
107.0 ± 1.06
79.82 ± 0.275
55.50 ± 0.562
Standard (20 mg/kg)
48.54 ± 0.230****
(54.63%)
48.71 ± 0.244****
(38.97%)
141 ± 0.516****
(60.63%)
ADFP (500 mg/kg)
64.78 ± 1.168****
(39.45%)
53.34 ± 0285****
(33.17%)
123.3 ± 0.421****
(54.98%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
53.17 ± 0.591****
(50.30%)
51.70 ± 0.326****
(35.22%)
138.3 ± 0.421****
(59.86%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 10: Effect of ADSO and combination of ADFP + ADSO on Protein, Pepsin and Mucus in Ethanol induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
Protein (µg/ml)
Pepsin (µg/ml)
Mucus (mg/ml)
Control ( 1 ml/kg Tween 80)
104.9 ± 0.239
78.08 ± 0.405
51.67 ± 0.421
Standard (20 mg/kg)
48.54 ± 0.230****
(53.72%)
48.71 ± 0.244****
(37.62%)
141.0 ± 0.516****
(63.35%)
ADSO (300 mg/kg)
67.99 ± 0.584****
(35.18%)
56.61 ± 0.299****
(27.49%)
130.0 ± 0.632****
(60.25%)
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
53.12 ± 0.591****
(49.36%)
51.70 ± 0.326****
(33.78%)
138.3 ± 0.421****
(62.63%)
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control.
Table 11: Effect of ADFP and combination of ADFP + ADSO on SOD, Catalase and MDA in Ethanol induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
SOD (U/mg of protein)
Catalase (U/mg of protein)
MDA (nmol/mg of protein)
Normal
53.58 ± 0.525
35.67 ± 0.333
3.915 ± 0.216
Control (10 ml/kg Dw)
18.14 ± 0.520####
17 ± 0.3651####
13.17 ± 0.084####
Standard (20 mg/kg)
48.47 ± 0.355****
32.67 ± 0.333****
8.100 ± 0.148****
ADFP (500 mg/kg)
40.90 ± 0.366****
25.17 ± 0.4014****
11.26 ± 0.065****
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
43.48 ± 0.588****
27.83 ± 0.3073****
9.683 ± 0.060****
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control. # indicates control group compared with normal.
Yield of ethanolic extract ADFP was 12.5% and n
hexane extract of ADSO was 22.5% thus supporting
that ethanol & n-hexane solvent possesses a good
extracting potential. In the preliminary phytochemical
screening, the fruit pulp was positive for flavonoids,
steroids, proteins, amino acids, tannin, vitamins,
terpenoids. Seed oil having protein, lipids, vitamin B1,
Fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid). [9]
Kajal Kamalso Malgave et al. / Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia…..……
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. September-October, 2019, Vol 11, Issue 5 (263-271)
268
Table 12: Effect of ADSO and combination of ADFP + ADSO on SOD, Catalase and MDA in Ethanol induced ulcer.
Treatment & Dose
SOD (U/mg of protein)
Catalase (U/mg of protein)
MDA (nmol/mg of protein)
Normal
53.58 ± 0.525
35.67 ± 0.333
3.915 ± 0.216
Control (1 ml/Tween 80)
16.94 ± 0.233####
17 ± 0.3651####
12.70 ± 0.051####
Standard (20 mg/kg)
48.47 ± 0.355****
32.67 ± 0.333****
8.100 ± 0.148****
ADSO (300 mg/kg)
35.54 ± 0.742****
25.17 ± 0.4014****
19.95 ± 0.117****
ADFP + ADSO
(250 mg/kg + 150 mg/kg)
43.48 ± 0.588****
27.83 ± 0.3073****
9.683 ± 0.060****
ADFP: Adansonia digitata fruit pulp, ADSO: Adansonia digitata seed oil; All the values were expressed is a Mean ± SEM. The results were analyzed
statistically by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test (n = 6). ****p<0.0001 Considered Significant when compared
with Control. # indicates control group compared with normal.
In pylorus ligated model Ulcer is caused by ligation
of the pyloric end at the beginning of small intestine
that can cause gastric acid to accumulate in the
stomach. This is due to the gastric mucosa auto
digestion leading to a breakdown of the gastro mucosal
barrier. Therefore, an increase in accumulation of acid-
pepsin due to pylorus blockade may trigger later
digestion of the mucosa. [24] In pylorus ligation model
the result indicated that the Omeprazole treated group
showed 73.63% protection of ulceration and average
percentage decrease in gastric volume, free acidity,
total acidity, pepsin, protein, 43.36%, 46.73%, 28.10%,
36.31%, 54.04% respectively and average percentage
increased in the pH , gastric mucous content 44.88%,
55.13% respectively in pylorus ligation model. The
ethanolic extract of ADFO (500 mg/kg) were
administered for 10 days which showed 59.25%
protection of ulceration and average percentage
decrease in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity,
pepsin, protein, 19.77%, 29.66%, 22.83%, 33.19%, 34.69%
respectively and average percentage increased in the
pH, gastric mucous content 29.21%, 55.67% respectively
in pylorus ligation model. 10 days oral pretreatment
with n-hexane extract of ADSO (300 mg/kg) showed
54.40% protection of ulceration and decrease in level of
gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, pepsin,
protein, 23.20%, 27.93%, 12.66%, 21.96%, 31.17%,
respectively and increased in the level of pH, gastric
mucous content 27.07%, 50.35% respectively in pylorus
ligation model. Combination group [ethanolic extract of
ADFP (250 mg/kg) + n-hexane extract of ADSO (150
mg/kg)] result was set up near to the standard drug &
has got better and more effective result than individual
fruit extract of Adansonia digitata Linn. It means when
combination extract was administered which gives
maximum protection of ulceration & significantly
decreased the level of ulcer index (64.84%), gastric
volume (30.38%), free acidity (40.98%), total acidity
(24.65%), pepsin (33.25%), protein (48.92%) & increases
level of pH (38.41%), gastric mucous content (53.39%).
It means the result obtained with combination was set
up near to the standard drug and consequence showed
that the combination of ethanolic extract of ADFP & n-
hexane extract of ADSO was found to be more effective
than the individual extract of Adansonia digitata Linn.
The concentration of flavonoids and vitamin C is rich in
fruit pulp, vitamin C is Natural antioxidant. [7] Reduced
catalase and SOD are considered as antioxidant
enzymes which are responsible for the antioxidant
activities (scavenging and disposal of free radicals from
the tissues).
Activities of reduced catalase and SOD enzymes was
reduced in the current research while LPO level high in
ulcerated animal, whereas the activities of SOD (52.13
U/mg of protein), CAT (31.33 U/mg of protein),
enzymes were increased & LPO (12.70 nmol/mg of
protein) level decreased in the animals which were
treated with standard drug. Then administered
ethanolic extract of ADFP showed increase in SOD
(24.33 U/mg of protein), CAT (43.26 U/mg of protein)
while LPO (9.267 nmol/mg of protein) level decreases
as compared to control group. While n-hexane extract
of ADSO contains Vitamin E which having antioxidant
property & it showed increase in antioxidant enzymes
i.e. SOD (22.50 U/mg of protein) & CAT (37.74 U/mg
of protein) while LPO (9.667 nmol/mg of protein) level
decreases as compared to control group but the results
of individual extract of ADFP & ADSO are lesser than
combination of ADFP & ADSO. Antioxidant enzyme
level in combination group was increased i.e., SOD
(27.17 U/mg of protein), CAT (46.24 U/mg of protein)
while LPO (11.95 nmol/mg of protein) level decreases
as compared to control group. This observation clearly
indicated that the fruit extract of Adansonia digitata Linn
are more capable of enhancing the antioxidant-
activities. This act may be due to the presence of
antioxidant phytochemicals in the extract of Adansonia
digitata Linn. Morphological study in both model
indicated that the normal group, stomach integrity was
maintained and appeared normal. In experimental
control group, perforation, several bleeding, spot ulcer,
streaks were observed. The gastric mucosa was
appeared intact in the stomach of Omeprazole treated
animals. The gastric mucosa was seen to be slightly
damaged with red coloration, spot ulcers in the
stomach of ethanolic extract of ADFP, n-hexane extract
of ADSO & in Combination of both extract treated
groups. Scoring of ulcer was made as follows;
Normal coloured stomach (0)
Red coloration (0.5)
Spot ulcer (1)
Hemorrhagic ulcer (1.5)
Deep ulcer (2)
Perforation (2.5)
Microscopical change of pylorus ligation induced &
ethanol induced model were showed in below,
Histopathological changes in experimental control
group showed damaged mucosal epithelium,
Kajal Kamalso Malgave et al. / Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia…..……
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. September-October, 2019, Vol 11, Issue 5 (263-271)
269
hemorrhage, edematous appearance of the gastric
tissue whereas ethanolic extract of ADFP, n hexane
extract of Seed oil and combination of both had less
mucosal damage to epithelium observed.
Normal
Pylorus ligation induced gastric
ulcer Control (DW)
Ethanol induced gastric ulcer
Control (DW)
Control (Tween 80)
Control (Tween 80)
Standard
Standard
ADFP
ADFP
ADSO
ADSO
ADFP + ADSO
ADFP + ADSO
Fig. 1: Morphological study of stomach in Pylorus ligation induced
ulcer and Ethanol induced ulcer.
Normal
Control
Control
Standard
Standard
ADFP
ADFP
ADSO
ADSO
Combination ADFP+ADSO
Combination ADFP+ADSO
Fig 2: Histology of stomach in pylorus ligation induced ulcer and
Ethanol induced gastric-ulcer.
Omeprazole treated groups showed regeneration of
mucosal layer and substantial prevention of the
formation of hemorrhage and edema. Ulcer due to
ethanol is the result of reactive oxygen species
generation, micro vascular injury and release of
inflammatory mediators, which leads to increased
vascular permeability, edema formation resulting in
necrotic lesions in the gastric mucosa. Ethanol causes
ulceration by creation of reactive oxygen species and
gives lesion in mucosa.
During ulcerogenesis the total protein level in the
stomach were greater than before, because of stress in
Kajal Kamalso Malgave et al. / Peptic Ulcer Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia…..……
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. September-October, 2019, Vol 11, Issue 5 (263-271)
270
the gastric blood flow which gave to the broadening of
hemorrhage and tissue damage due to necrosis.
Because of tissue damage, the total protein count was
rise in stomach fluid of ulcerated animals. [6] control
group rises level of offensive factors such as ulcer
index, gastric volume(ml), free and total acidity,
protein, pepsin and decreases the level of pH , gastric
muscus [6] When ethanolic extract of ADFP (500 mg/kg)
was administered to animal result showed significantly
decreased the level of offensive factors such as ulcer
index (54.44%), gastric volume (20.77%), free acidity
(20.86%), total acidity (18.70%), pepsin (33.17%), protein
(41.98%) increases level of pH (31.74%) gastric mucous
content (54.98%). Similarly, when n-hexane extract of
ADSO (300 mg/kg) was administered which were
showed significantly decreased the level of ulcer index
(53.20%), gastric volume (20.12%), free acidity (13.05%),
total acidity (19.17%), pepsin (27.49%), protein (35.18%)
& increases level of pH (25.78%) gastric mucous content
(60.25%). In combination treated group [ethanolic
extract of ADFP (250 mg/kg) + n-hexane extract of
ADSO (150 mg/kg)] result was set up near to the
standard drug & has got better and more effective
result than individual fruit extract of Adansonia digitata
Linn. Which showed significantly decreased the level of
ulcer index (64.37%), gastric volume (32.92%), free
acidity (21.32%), total acidity (25.86%), pepsin (33.78%),
protein (49.36%) & increases level of pH (32.91%)
gastric mucous content (62.63%). The secondary
metabolites such as flavonoids, proteins, saponins,
tannins, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids and Fatty acids
(palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid) are act as
antioxidant, anti-ulcer. Flavonoids are increasing
mucosal PG content, reduction in histamine secretion.
Saponins may stimulate mucous membrane protective
factors, and tannins render the outermost layer of the
mucosa less permeable, for instance to chemical
irritation. In addition, terpenoids and alkaloid
compounds are also reported to have potent activity
against gastric ulcers. [27] In both the models, extracts
provided a significant protection against ulcer as
indicated by a decrease in the ulcer index, gastric
volume, free acidity, total acidity, protein, pepsin and
increase in mucous, pH of gastric content. The
pathogenesis of pylorus ligation and ethanolinduced
ulcer also involves the generation of reactive oxygen
species (ROS). Adansonia digitata Linn has been
previously reported of its strong free radical
scavenging properties against superoxide anion,
hydroxyl radicals, NO radical, and peroxynitrite anion.
In peptic ulcer the level of antioxidant enzymes like
SOD, CAT is decreased while LPO is increased.
Ascorbic acid acts as an antioxidant molecules The
present study reports that standard drug having
increase in SOD (32.67 U/mg of protein), CAT (48.47
U/mg of protein) while decrease in LPO(12.70
nmol/mg of protein) 0 Then in test group there was
individual ethanolic extract of ADFP showed
significant (p<0.001) increase in the activity of SOD
(25.17 U/mg of protein), CAT (40.90 U/mg of protein)
& decrease in LPO (9.683 nmol/mg of protein) & in n-
hexane extract of ADSO showed increase in antioxidant
enzymes i.e. SOD (23.17 U/mg of protein) & CAT
(35.54 U/mg of protein) while LPO (11.95 nmol/mg of
protein) level decreases as compared to control group
but the results are lesser than combination of ADFP &
ADSO. Antioxidant enzyme level in the combination
group was increased i.e., SOD (27.83 U/mg of protein),
CAT (43.48 U/mg of protein) while LPO (12.13
nmol/mg of protein). The combination suggests its
potent antiulcerogenatic and healing effect also
reduction in gastric lesion reflects the gastric
mucoprotective effect. Hence Adansonia digitata Linn
showed anti-ulcer activity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am thankful to Principal of Appasaheb Birnale
College of Pharmacy, Sangli-416416, Maharashtra,
India and HOD of Department of Pharmacology for
their guidance.
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HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Malgave KK, Naikwade NS, Ladda PL, Shikalgar TS, Patil SS. Peptic Ulcer
Healing Activity of Fruit Pulp Extract and Seed Oil of Adansonia digitata Linn. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. 2019;
11(5): 263-271. DOI: 10.25004/IJPSDR.2019.110518
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Africa has abundant wild plants and cultivated native species with great agronomic and commercial potential as food crops. However, many of these species, particularly the fruits and nuts, have not been promoted or researched and therefore remain under-utilized. Moreover, many of these species face the danger of loss due to increasing human impact on ecosystems. Sudan, as in many other African countries, is endowed with a range of edapho-climatic conditions that favor the establishment of many plant species, most of which are adapted to specific ecological zones. Among these plants is the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) which is a fruit-producing tree belonging to the family Bombacaceae. The baobab has an exceedingly wide range of uses ranging from food and beverages to medicinal uses. Despite its potential, which is well recognized, very little is known about the tree phenology, floral biology, husbandry or genetic diversity. In this article, we have aimed to bring out detailed information on various aspects of its botany, ecology, origin, propagation, main uses, genetic improvement and especially its importance for nutrition and poverty alleviation in the Sudan.
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Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is considered as one of the common diseases in the world. Treatment of peptic ulcer with synthetic drugs such as proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has shown adverse effects, relapses, drug interactions. Medicinal plants containing active chemical constituents are useful in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Literatures suggest that polyherbal formulations of medicinal plants are considered to be potential source for the treatment of ulcers. Combination of ayurvedic knowledge with modern medicine can produce better antiulcer drugs of natural origin from medicinal plants with fewer side effects. This study has presented the review of commonly used anti-ulcer plants which are used for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers and the other reported activities of these plants.
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Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of Ethanolic extract of Momordica Dioica in pylorus ligation and ibuprofen induced gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by giving ibuprofen (200mg/Kg) and by pylorus ligation method. The animals used for the experiment were divided into 4 groups for each model, 6 rats in each group. In pylorus ligation model, all groups of rats were pre-treated with test drugs, Group-I (control) received 2%gum acacia-2ml/100g, Group-II (standard) received Ranitidine (60mg/kg.) and group-III, IV were treated with Ethanolic extracts 150mg/kg, 300mg/kg. respectively orally 30mins prior to pylorus ligation. The Antiulcer activity of Momordica Dioica was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, pH, percentage of ulcer protection, ulcer index. In ibuprofen induced ulcer model, all groups of rats were treated with test drugs for 7 days prior to ibuprofen induced ulcer. Animals were divided into 4 groups and treated with drugs as in above model. After 7 days of treatment, animals were fasted for 24 hrs. Ulcers were produced by giving ibuprofen (200mg/Kg) on the day of sacrifice. The animals were sacrificed 4 hours later and stomachs were open along the greater curvature and ulcers were graded. Percentage of ulcer protection, ulcer index were observed and calculated. Results: The extract of Momordica Dioica in pylorus ligation model, it decreased the ulcer index (1.66) and there was a decrease in total gastric acid and free acid (p