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日本美とヨーロッパ庭園 : 「シャラワジ」を求めて

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Abstract

(English summary at the end) 日本から東インド会社を通じて輸入された高価な陶芸・染織品・漆工芸品などの珍品は、17世紀後半に北西ヨーロッパ貴族たちの手に渡り、とりわけ日本の着物は大人気を博した。また、漆工芸においては豪華に装飾された蒔絵簞笥が驚くほどの高値で販売された。これらの珍品にみられる日本美はウィリアム・テンプル(一六二八~一六九九)によって「シャラワジ」(sharawadgi)として紹介され、「シャラワジ」はイギリス風景式庭園の発展のきっかけになる言葉になった。本論では、この日本美の伝播経路と、江戸期の「洒落」と「味」の美学、現在の「しゃれ味」とのかかわりに迫ってみた。 鍵なる人物は、オランダ人の文人ホイヘンス(一五九六~一六八七)と商人ホーヘンフック(?~一六七五)であった。これまで300有余年、謎の言葉であった「シャラワジ」を、当時のエッセイ、貴族の手紙や日本工芸品から解明し、江戸時代の工芸家の「しゃら味」の美学であると結論付けようとするものである。 この「シャラワジ」という言葉は、日本工芸品を通じてヨーロッパ貴族層の異国美意識の形成に大きな意味を持ったに違いない。すなわち東インド会社がもたらした日本工芸にしみ込んだ洒落味が、ヨーロッパの応用芸術である判じ絵エムブレマタ(emblemata)の美的働きに重なった。しかも、商人によって紹介された工芸美は富裕層のあいだで庭園を舞台として新しい自然観の発展にも通じるようになったのである。ヨーロッパ庭園は応用芸術として発達しながら、日本の工芸家からデザインのインスピレーションを受けた。いかに日本からの情報がヨーロッパ啓蒙を支えたのかを改めて認識した次第である。
<研究論文>
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園 : 「シャラワジ」を求めて
著者 カウテルト ウィーベ
雑誌名 『日本研究』巻 59
ページ 7-35
発行年 2019-10-10
(scroll down for the English summary)
URL http://doi.org/10.15055/00007324
<研究論文>日本美とヨーロッパ庭園 : 「シャラワ
ジ」を求めて
著者 カウテルト ウィーベ
雑誌名 日本研究
巻 59
ページ 7-35
発行年 2019-10-10
URL http://doi.org/10.15055/00007324
7 『日本研究』 No. 59(2019)
sharawadgi
1
2
3
4
5
without order
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6
Sharawadgi
sharawadgi
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
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Sir Constantijn Huygens, 1596–1687
hofdicht
7
Sir William Temple, 1628–1699
Sharawadgi Sharawadgi
8
 
  

10
sharawadgi
9
sharawadgi
10
11
12
Hofwijck
13
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
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14
15
 

 


  

12
16
Japonsche
Rock
17
 



Gedenkwaerdige Gesantschappen 

日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
13
18
19
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Anne d Autriche, 1601–1666
 
 

14
Watten
Watte ouate
21
Christiaan Huygens, 1629–1695
Caspar Netscher, c1639–1684
 
 

  
  

 

 


  

日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
15
22
23


 

   


 
16
24
25
26
27
28
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
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Contemptus Mundi
31
32
33
34
3536
18
37
 


日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
19
38
39
40


󱙜󱙝


20
41
42
43
44
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
21
sharaaji
w
sharawaji
w
45
François Caron, 1600?–1673
Jacob Specx, 1589?–1647
46
sharawadgi
Ernst van Hogenhoek, ?–1675
47
22
48
49
50
Henri Justel, 1620–1693
51
52
53
54







日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
23
55
56
11
57
58
59
60
61
13
14
Marie-Anne de Bavière 1660–
1690
62
24
12
13
63
14
󰔼
La voie du
imari: l'aventure des porcelaines à l'époque Edo

󰔼

日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
25
64
󰔼

26
65
emblemata
Dorothy Martha
66
67
68
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
27
69
sharawadgi
sharawadgi



    

28
70
Japanese Art, Aesthetics, and a European Discourse:
Unraveling Sharawadgi(Japan Review 27, 2014)sharawadgi
1
Christian Meyer and Mathias Poledna, Sharawadgi, Catalogue of an exhibition held
at Felsenvilla, Baden, Oct. 18–Dec. 20, 1998, Walter König, 1999; Mathew Aitchison
(ed.), Visual planning and the picturesque / Nikolaus Pevsner, Getty Research Institute,
2010; Anthony Vidl, Troubles in Theory, The Architectural Review 20 (December
2011).
2
William Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus; or Of Gardening in the Year 1685, in
Miscellanea, the Second Part, in Four Essays, Simpson, 1690, pp. 57, 58: What I have
said of the best Forms of Gardens, is meant only of such as are in some sort regular; for
there may be other Forms wholly irregular, that may, for ought I know, have more
Beauty than any of the others; but they must owe it to some extraordinary dispositions
of Nature in the Seat, or some great race of Fancy or Judgment in the Contrivance,
which may reduce many disagreeing parts into some Figure, which shall yet upon the
whole, be very agreeable. Something of this I have seen in some places, but heard more
of it from others, who have lived much among the Chineses [sic.]; a People, whose way
of thinking, seems to lie as wide of ours in Europe, as their Country does. ... But their
greatest Reach of Imagination, is employed in contriving Figures, where the Beauty
shall be great, and strik [sic.] the Eye, but without any order or disposition of parts,
that shall be commonly or easily observ d [sic.]. And though we have hardly any
Notion of this sort of Beauty, yet they have a particular Word to express it; and where
they find it hit their Eye at first sight, they say the Sharawadgi is fine or is admirable,
or any such expression of Esteem. And whoever observes the Work upon the best
Indian Gowns, or the Painting upon their best Skreens [sic.] or Purcellans [sic.], will
find their Beauty is all of this kind (that is) without order .
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
29
3
Ciaran Murray, Sharawadgi: The Romantic Return to Nature, International Scholars
Publications, 1999;
18
4
E. V. Gatenby, The Influence of Japanese on English, The English Society of Japan
, Tokyo Imperial University English Society 11:4
(10 October 1931), pp. 508520 from Japanese soro-waji ( ), not being
regular, a form of the verb sorou.
Ciaran Murray, Sharawadgi: The Japanese Source of
Romanticism, The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 4:13 (1998), p. 21
Takau Shimada, Is Sharawadgi Derived from the Japanese Word
Sorowaji? The Review of English Studies 48:191 (1997), 350352
5
Susi Lang and Nikolaus Pevsner, Sir William Temple and Sharawaggi, The Architectural
Review 106 (December 1949), pp. 39192.
I
6
Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus, op cit. without order
18
7
hofdicht
Cf. Willemien B. de Vries, Wandeling en verhandeling, Uitgeverij Verloren,
1998.
8
Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus, op cit.: they have a particular Word to
express it; and where they find it hit their Eye at first sight, they say the Sharawadgi is
fine or is admirable, or any such expression of Esteem.
9
Alexander Pope, 16881744 Horace Walpole, 1717
1797, letter of June 13, 1781 to Lord Strafford sharawadgi
(letter of August 12, 1724 to Digby) sharawaggi
Yu Liu, In the Name of the Ancients: The Cross-Cultural
Iconoclasm of Pope s Gardening Aesthetics, Studies in Philology 105:3 (2008), pp.
30
409428; The Letters of Horace Walpole, Fourth Earl of Orford by Walpole, Horace,
1717–1797, edited by Oxford: Clarendon press, 19031905.
10
John Fleming,
Hugh Honour, Nikolaus Pevsner, The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture, Penguin,
1980, p. 296
Jean-François Augoyard, Pascal Amphoux and Olivier
Balay, Environnement sonore et communication interpersonnelle, Centre de recherche sur
lespace sonore et l environnement urbain à l École Nationale Supérieure d Architecture
de Grenoble, 1985
Meyer and Poledna, Sharawadgi, op cit.
11
J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner (prep./
eds.), The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, 1989, vol. XV, pp.
17677, entry sharawaggi.
12
13
Enlightened Education: Growth, the Garden, and Japan Perceptions
of Constantijn Huygens (15961687)
14
Wybe Kuitert,
Japanese Robes, Sharawadgi, and the Landscape Discourse of Sir William Temple and
Constantijn Huygens, Garden History 41:2 (2013), pp. 161163
15
En, als ick oversloegh waer sulcken stell op trock,/ Soo viel ick op t on-eens van
een Japonschen Rock
T. van Strien (ed.),
Constantijn Huygens, Hofwijck, with Willemien B. de Vries, Band 1 (Monumenta
Literaria Neerlandica XV, 12). 2008, p. 53, v. 99192.
16
Verlappers (Verplanters) van oud werck kost ick genadigh dulden: / Maer Snijders
van niew stof en sagh ick niet t ontschulden. / Mijn Laken was geheel, en ick een
schele geck, / Soo ick t versnipperde met een versuft besteck.
Strien,
Constantijn Huygens, Hofwijck, p. 53, v. 10011004.
17
A. Montanus, Gedenkwaerdige Gesantschappen der Oost-Indische Maetschappy in t Vereenigde
Nederland, aen de Kaisaren van Japan: Vervaetende Wonderlijke voorvallen op de Togt der
Nederlandsche Gesanten: Beschryving Van de Dorpen, Sterkten, Steden, Landschappen,
Tempels, Gods-diensten, Dragten, Gebouwen, dieren, Gewasschen, Bergen, Fonteinen,
vereeuwde en nieuwe Oorlogs-daeden der Japanders: Verçiert met een groot getal Afbeeldsels
in Japan geteikent: Getrokken uit de Geschriften en Reis-aentekeningen der zelve Gesanten;
By Jacob Meurs, Boek-verkooper en Plaetsnijder, op de Keisars-graft, schuin over de
Wester-markt, in de stad Meurs. Amsterdam, 1669, p. 321.
18
Steven Wolters
(16821683), an unknown man (Gisbert Cuper) (1680), Cornelis van
Royen (1680)
RKDimages
8
19
Kuitert, Japanese Robes, op cit., pp. 16668.
20
J. A. Worp (ed.), De Briefwisseling van Constantijn Huygens (16081687), 6 vols.,
Martinus Nijhoff, 19131917.
21
Wybe Kuitert, De Japanse watten van Constantijn Huygens, Spiegel der Letteren
56:4 (2014), pp. 53950 Watte
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
31
ouette
watten ouate
22
they say the Sharawadgi is fine or is admirable And whoever observes the Work
upon the best Indian Gowns (Japonse Rok, wk.), or the Painting upon their best
Skreens or Purcellans, will find their Beauty is all of this kind (that is) without order.
Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus, op cit.
Indian Gown
Wybe Kuitert, Reply to A Letter to the Editor, Garden History 42:1
(2014), p.129; Wybe Kuitert, Japanese Art, Aesthetics, and a European Discourse:
Unraveling Sharawadgi, Japan Review 27 (2014), pp. 77101, here p. 79.
23
Kuitert, Japanese Robes, op cit.,
pp. 16668.
2425
26
No.17374-26
No.18774-38
27
2829
Luis
de Granada
30
32
31
De Imitatio Christi
Contemptus Mundi
CONTEMPTVS
mundi jenbu
Deus=
32
Rodrigues Girão, João Vocabolario da lingoa de Japam, com adeclaracão
em portugues, feito por alguns Padres e Irmaõs da Companhia de Jesus no collegio de Japam
da Companhia de Jesus (Nangasaqui), 1603, p. 140 Iaracu. Yocoximano
tanoximi. Torpes cu desordenados gośtos. Iaracuuo tanoxi-muna. Não vos deis a torpes,
& ruins de leitaçoés.
33
34
35
36
37
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
33
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Petra
Rothaug, Abriß der japanischen Lautgeschichte, Buske Verlag, 1991, pp. 55, 57
adgi agi
aggi adji aji
Vocabvlario de Iapon ... Tomas Pinpin, y lacinto Magaurtua, 1630
agi
shara’aji sharawaji
46
Lotharingen
Kuitert, Japanese Robes, 2013, p.174
47
48
17
18
49
Some Observations Concerning Japan , Philosophical Transactions 4 (1 January
1669), pp. 98386;
50
Martha Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers from the Seventeenth Century in the National
Museum of Denmark, National Museum Copenhagen, 1959, pp. 1213.
51
: Rupert Hall and Marie Boas Hall (eds./trans.), e Correspondence
of Henry Oldenburg, vol. 4: 16671668, University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 416, 417, 440,
and 441.
52
53
William Temple, An Essay Upon the CURE of the GOUT by MOXA. Written to
Monsieur de Zulichem, Nimegen, June 18, 1677. In e Works of Sir William Temple,
Bar in Two Volumes. Volume the First. To which is Prexd Some Account of the Life and
Writings of the Author, J. Round, J. Tonson, J. Clarke, B. Motte, T. Wotton, S. Birt,
and T. Osborne, 1731, p. 13446.
Monsieur de Zulichem
54
55
34
56
57
5859
Oliver Impey and Chistiaan Jörg, Japanese Export Lacquer, 1580–1850, Hotei,
2005, p. 8385.
60
Wybe Kuitert, Spruces, Pines, and the Picturesque in Seventeenth Century
Netherlands, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 38:1 (2017), pp.
123.
61
Th. H. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Aanbesteding en verspreiding van Japansch lakwerk
door de Nederlanders in de zeventiende eeuw, Oudheidkundig Genootschap
Jaarverslagen, vol. 82-83 (1941), pp. 5474, 6369.
Dagregisters van Zacharias Wagenaar van November 1656 in: Lunsingh
Scheurleer, ibid.
oliphants-
huysje
62
Catherine Tran (ed.) Un cabinet japonais oublié, L’oeuvre du mois, Musée des beaux-
arts Dijon, juin 2011, p. 12.
; Some Observations
Concerning Japan , op cit., p. 985.
63
P. F. Ferguson, Garnitures: Vase Sets from National Trust Houses, V&A Publishing,
London, 2016, p. 3.
64
(Qian Zhongshu, also Ch
ien Chung-shu), China in the English Literature of the Seventeenth Century,
Quarterly Bulletin of Chinese Bibliography 1 (1940), pp. 35184.
65
... the most curious, skilfull and
artificial drawings and limninge ... that represent ... the noble collection of those
manyfold chosen and selected characters, containing in [the] excellent Asiatic language
the wittiest speeches, proverbs, emblems, parables, paradoxes and other higher
mysteries, could be found such incontestable testimonies of our nations high and
transcendent wisdom above all other people of the world (J. A. Worp (ed.), De
Briefwisseling, op cit.; Zesde Deel 1663–1687, Martinus Nijhoff, 1917, pp. 456, 457,
letter September 27, 1685 (No.7231)).
66
Julia G. Longe (ed.), Martha, Lady Giard, Her Life and Correspondence (1664–1722),
Londen: George Allen & sons, 1911, pp. 37 and 139.
67
Qian Zhongshu, China in the English Literature
of the Seventeenth Century, op cit., pp. 37176.
68
or some great race of Fancy or Judgment in the Contrivance, which may reduce many
disagreeing parts into some Figure, which shall yet upon the whole, be very agreeable
(Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus, op cit., p. 57).
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園―「シャラワジ」を求めて
35
69
Geoffrey Jellicoe (ed.), e Oxford Companion to Gardens, Oxford University Press,
1986, p. 513; John Harris, Is Chiswick a Palladian Garden? Garden History 32:1
(2004), pp. 12436; Wybe Kuitert, Context & Praxis: Japan and Designing Gardens
in the West, Die Gartenkunst 28:2 (2016), pp. 27885.
70
Wybe Kuitert, Japanese Art, Aesthetics, and a European Discourse, op cit., pp.
7981.
論文要旨・SUMMARY
〈研究論文〉
日本美とヨーロッパ庭園
――「シャラワジ」を求めて
ウィーベ・カウテルト
日本から東インド会社を通じて輸入された高価な陶芸・染織品・漆工芸品などの珍品は、
17世紀後半に北西ヨーロッパ貴族たちの手に渡り、とりわけ日本の着物は大人気を博した。
また、漆工芸においては豪華に装飾された蒔絵簞笥が驚くほどの高値で販売された。これ
らの珍品にみられる日本美はウィリアム・テンプル(一六二八~一六九九)によって「シャラワ
ジ」sharawadgi)として紹介され、「シャラワジ」はイギリス風景式庭園の発展のきっかけにな
る言葉になった。本論では、この日本美の伝播経路と、江戸期の「洒落」と「味」の美学、現
在の「しゃれ味」とのかかわりに迫ってみた 鍵なる人物は、オランダ人の文人ホイヘンス
(一五九六~一六八七)と商人ホーヘンフック(?~一六七五)であった。これまで300有余
年、謎の言葉であった「シャラワジ」を、当時のエッセイ、貴族の手紙や日本工芸品から解明
し、江戸時代の工芸家の「しゃら味」の美学であると結論付けようとするものである。
この「シャラワジ」という言葉は、日本工芸品を通じてヨーロッパ貴族層の異国美意識の
形成に大きな意味を持ったに違いない。すなわち東インド会社がもたらした日本工芸に
み込んだ洒落味が、ヨーロッパの応用芸術である判じ絵エムブレマタemblemata)の美的
働きに重なった。しかも、商人によって紹介された工芸美は富裕層のあいだで庭園を舞台
として新しい自然観の発展にも通じるようになったのである。ヨーロッパ庭園は応用芸術とし
て発達しながら、日本の工芸家からデザインのインスピレーションを受けた。いかに日本か
らの情報がヨーロッパ啓蒙を支えたのかを改めて認識した次第である。
キーワード: コンスタンティン・ホイヘンス、イギリス風景式庭園、啓蒙、邪楽、ヤポンセ・ロック、
商人文化、蒔絵漆、洒落味、洒落、絹綿、ウィリアム・テンプル
Japanese Aesthetics and European Gardens: In pursuit of Sharawadgi
Wybe KUITERT
At the origin of a voluminous discourse on picturesque taste in eighteenth-century England stands
an essay by William Temple (16281699) that contains the word sharawadgi, which he claims is
Chinese. As a result of his introducing this concept, Temple is considered the originator of the
English landscape garden movement. In discourse on aesthetic and design of this garden style, the
term returns now and then without any clear indication of its meaning. In extended academic
debates the term has presently come to encompass ideas in town planning, contemporary art, or
even soundscape. This paper reconstructs the linguistics, function and historic context in the lands
VII
論文要旨・SUMMARY
of sharawadgi’s origin Japan. It demonstrates how sharawadgi was a term shara’aji
( 洒落味 ) in applied arts in the second half of the seventeenth century in Japan, and how
it traveled with Kyoto makie lacquerware to Europe. Key persons in the transmission are
Ernst van Hogenhoek (? 1675), a VOC merchant, and Constantijn Huygens (15961687), a
literary man, adviser to the court of Holland, and good garden friend of Temple.
Applied arts were very well understood as a medium with emblematic messages in this
period in the open, urbane societies of Europe that aligned on this point with the shara’aji of
Japan. Garden art as a final expression of the wealthy after all other needs are cared for
is a most sensitive stage for expressing aesthetics, so it is here that sharawadgi came to play
its role in novel views on nature. In this sense, this paper illustrates how Europe’s
enlightenment in garden art was supported by information from Japan.
Note: An earlier paper by this author published in English as “Japanese Art, Aesthetics, and a
European discourse unraveling sharawadgi”, (Japan Review 27, 2014) introduced the
European sharawadgi discourse and placed it in the context of the Edo period aesthetics of
shara’aji, as derived from the world of kimono design.
The present paper in Japanese demonstrates the Edo period linguistic roots of shara’aji
(=sharawadgi), and explores the aesthetic meaning it had for design of lacquerware screens
and chests that were exported to Europe and carried such concepts to William Temple who
introduced the idea to his readers in England. This paper reveals how the shara’aji aesthetic
entered Temple’s garden design, signaling the start of the English landscape style.
Keywords : Constantijn Huygens, English landscape garden, Enlightenment, jaraku,
Japonsche Rock, merchant culture, makie lacquer, shara’aji, sharawadgi, share,
watten; William Temple
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Band 1 (Monumenta Literaria Neerlandica XV, 1-2)
  • T Van Strien
T. van Strien (ed.), Constantijn Huygens, Hofwijck, with Willemien B. de Vries, Band 1 (Monumenta Literaria Neerlandica XV, 1-2). 2008, p. 53, v. 991-92.