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A review on bioactive potential of Benzoin Resin

  • University of Okara


Styrax benzoin (benzoin resin) is a perennial tree belonging to the family (Styracaceae). It has been cultivated in the different regions of the world for thousands of year for incense and pharmaceutical preparations. Styrax benzoin usually contains benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate cinnamic acid and vanillin. Its chemical composition is influenced by the place of its origin, geographical, and climatic conditions. Styrax benzoin has been used traditionally for the treatment of skin diseases, arthritis, wounds, muscle pain, anxiety, and nervous disorders. Benzoin oil is widely used in the food, drinks and alcoholic beverage to give flavor, and for varnishing woods. The methods of production of resins are much traditional so there is a growing need to develop the new methods to maximize the production of resins.
IJCBS, 10(2016):106-110
Sharif et al., 2016 106
A review on bioactive potential of Benzoin Resin
Atia Sharif1, Haq Nawaz1, Rafia Rehman1, Ayesha Mushtaq1*, Umer Rashid2
1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040-Pakistan and 2Institute of Advanced Technology,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Styrax benzoin (benzoin resin) is a perennial tree belonging to the family (Styracaceae). It has been cultivated in the different
regions of the world for thousands of year for incense and pharmaceutical preparations. Styrax benzoin usually contains
benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate cinnamic acid and vanillin. Its chemical composition is influenced by the place of its
origin, geographical, and climatic conditions. Styrax benzoin has been used traditionally for the treatment of skin diseases,
arthritis, wounds, muscle pain, anxiety, and nervous disorders. Benzoin oil is widely used in the food, drinks and alcoholic
beverage to give flavor, and for varnishing woods. The methods of production of resins are much traditional so there is a growing
need to develop the new methods to maximize the production of resins.
Key words: Benzoin resin, dermatology, cinnamic acid, diuretic
Full length article *Corresponding Author, e-mail:
1. Botany
1.1. Introduction
Styrax Benzoin (benzoin resins) are perennial trees
which belong to the family (Styracaceae). Styracaceae is
native to subtropical or tropical regions, for example
Mediterranean, North or South America and Asia. There are
approximately 150 species of Styrax present which are used
for the production of aromatic resin when they are burned.
The Styrax, genus is different from all the members of the
family Styracaceae due to the production of the resins which
excrete from the trunks and barks of the plants after injured
with sharps [1]. Styrax is self or cross pollinated and
variability is present in flowers, fruits shape and colours and
stem wood or chemical composition of resins due to cross
pollination [2].
Styrax Benzoin is known by different names
depending where you are in the world. The common names
of the Styrax Benzoin are benzoin resins, benzoin trees,
Sumatra benzoin. Styrax in Swedish is known as benzoin. In
German, it is called as benzoebaum. In Spanish, it is well
known as bálsamo de Benjuí and in French as arbre à
benjoin. In Chinese it is known as xi xiang. The species of
Styrax is divided into two groups ‘Siam Benzoin and
‘Sumatra Benzoin’. Styrax benzoin and Styrax
paralleloneurm are known as ‘Saim benzoin’ and ‘Styrax
tonkinensis is known as ‘Sumatara benzoin’[3]. The plant
can be shrub or tree with approximately 25m in length and
has diameter 30cm with smooth and simple hairy dark green
leaves and white flowers. The fragrance of the benzoin
resins is most familiar among the people since ancient times
and used in every culture of the world as medicine or
The resin has great variability between the species
and cultivars and is thought to be related to growing
conditions, geographic origin, genetic factors, different
chemo-types and differences in the nutritional status of the
plants. In Indonesia, Styrax benzoin which is known as
Sumatra benzoin is tapped to get the resin, after collection it
is dried. This dried resin gave the fragrance when burned
and it was believed that it has magical properties. In north
Sumatra greater than 18,000 families are depending on the
production of benzene resins [4]. A benzoin resin have
vanilla like fragrance with reddish yellow to milky white
colour in ‘Siam benzoin’ due to presence of benzoic acid
while in ‘Sumatra benzoin ‘its colour is dull reddish to
greyish brown with storax like fragrance due to presence of
cinnamic acid.
Benzoin resins have variability between the species
and quality of benzoin resins depends on the practice of the
farmers. There are two main varieties of benzoin resins;
Sumatra benzoin and Saim benzoin which are present in the
market. These two varieties grow in different geographical
areas. Saim benzoin grows in Laos while Sumatra benzoin
grows in Indonesia [5]. Due to distinct growing region, their
chemical composition is also different. Sumatra benzoin is
reported to contain more cinnamic acid and cinnamates than
Siam benzoin [6]. It is not possible to give annual
consumption of benzoin resins due to sufficient accuracy
International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences
(ISSN 2226-9614)
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Sharif et al., 2016 107
worldwide. Sumatra benzoin mainly used in incense purpose
while Saim benzoin is mainly used in pharmaceutical
industries and its minor use in varnishes the town woods [7].
1.2 History/Origin
Styrax benzoin is native to the South-East or East
Asia from tropical region to warm temperate of Northern
Hemisphere. The name Styrax originates from the Greek
word sturax and benzoin is derived from Arabic word luban
jawi which means java incense. In Roman it was used
approximately 2000 years ago.
In 15th and 16th centuries, England imported
benzoin in powdered form with spices for perfume
preparation which was used by Queen Elizabeth Ӏ. Benzoin
was also used in religious ceremonies and drives away the
evil spirits in the culture of ancient Malayan. Styrax
Benzoin trees are most abundantly present in Indonesia
especially in Sumatra therefore it is also known as Sumatra
1.3 Demography/Location
Styrax benzoin grows in warm temperate to tropical
regions. Some are found also across the equator in South
America. Natural home of Styrax benzoin is Sumatra,
Indonesia but it is also available in the Western countries
from ancients. Styrax species other than Styrax benzoin
grow in many countries such as China, Laos, Malaysia,
Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. The plant grows in the
rain forests of tropical region of Sumatra.
Singapore imports 5330 tons of benzoin, Malaysia
133 tons, China 77 tons, United Arab Emarates, 22tons,
Kuwait 16 tons, India 70 tons, Pakistan 16 tons, Saudi
Arabia 10 tons, Japan 25 tons, respectively. Singapore is the
biggest importer of benzoin resins and then Europe imports
benzoin resins for pharmaceuticals and other direct
importers of Sumatra benzoin are Indian sub-continent,
Japan and other countries of Middle East.
1.4 Botany, Morphology, Ecology
Styrax benzoin is a perennial tree of tropical areas
which grow up to height of 15-25 meters. Styrax benzoin has
tap roots which disappear laterally and tree also has shallow
root system. Leaves are ovate and arranged alternately in the
form of crown around the stem with hairy underside and
smooth upper surface having length in the range of 6-10 cm
and 3-5 cm wide. Flowers are bisexual and white in colour
or bell shaped in the time of blooms in spring and has 5
petals which are arranged in the form of cluster along the
branches. Fruits are closed in the hard and flat shell having
the diameter approximately 2-3 cm. Seeds dormant after 6-7
months of fruit fall [8]. Resins of Styrax benzoin obtained
from tapping of the bark which is produced after 15-20
years. Styrax benzoin resins are yellow in colour when
obtained and later it becomes reddish-brown after hardening
and thickening.
Styrax benzoin originated in rainforest that has
medium to high altitude. Cultivation periods require 1300
millimetre rain per year or 3 to 6 dry months. Plants survive
in extremely low or high temperatures ranging from -4 to
45°C. Soil having low base saturation and high acid content
(pH below than 4.5) is required for best growth.
2. Chemistry
Styrax benzoin is acrid, impressively aromatic and
have strong vanilla like smell [9]. Main components of
Styrax benzoin are benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl
benzoate, cinnamic acid and vanillin [6]. Vanilla like
fragrance of plant is due to the presence of vanillin.
Cinnamates present in the Styrax benzoin are used as
flavouring agent and produce chocolate like flavor.
2.1. Chemical composition
Styrax benzoin contains cinnamyl cinnamate 8-14
%, methyl cinnamate 10-17 %, cinnamic acid 4-7 %, benzyl
cinnamate 2-4 % and little amount of vanillin, benzoic acid,
phenylpropylic alcohol. Before the use of Styrax benzoin, a
skin test must be taken as it causes allergy. Styrax benzoin is
composed of 18% of benzoic acid, a little amount of volatile
acids and 75 % of amorphous resins. Free benzoic and
cinnamic acid and their corresponding esters such as
coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohol are present in different
amounts and also some other higher molecular weight
compounds like pinoresinol is also present [6].
2.2. Phyto-chemistry
Styrax benzoin has vanilla like odour due to the
presence of vanilline. Trans-coniferyl alcohol benzoate or
trans-p-cumaryl alcohol is obtained from the Styrax benzoin
[10]. Styrax benzoin contains the cinnamic acid, benzoic
acid, methyl cinnamate, coniferyl benzoate,cinnamayl
cinamate, cinamic acid, phenylethylene, and vanillin. Figure
1 shows structures of important phytochemicals of Styrax
benzoin. Due to difference in production region and varieties
of benzoin such as Siam benzoin and Sumatra benzoin, it
has significant differences in chemical composition [11].
Table.1. Compounds composition in the styrax species of
Styrax benzoin and Styrax paralleloneurm
Benzoic acid
Cinnamic acid
Cinnamyl benzoate
Benzyl cinnamate
Cinnamyl cinnamate
ρ-Coumaryl benzoate
Coniferyl cinnamate
Benzoic acid ester
Cinnamic acid ester
Benzoic acid
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Sharif et al., 2016 108
Cinnamic acid
Figure 1. Structures of some bioactive compounds found
in Styrax benzoin
4. Postharvest technology
Styrax benzoin resins are obtained by tapping of the
trees. In order to obtain the resins in the form of tears having
5-6 cm length and 8-10 cm wide notches are made on the
cambium of trunk and bark of tree is removed. The tapper
makes a notch of 8-10 cm wide and 5-6 cm long into the
cambium of the trunk and the bark is removed. Along the
trunk of tree a number of notches are made after the interval
of 20 to 30 cm and the first notch is made at a length of 30
cm above the ground level. After tapping exuded resins are
lifted on the trunk of tree after approximately 4 to 5 months
for hardening the resins. The process of tapping occurs
during the first cold day of the winter and benzoin tear is
obtained. In natural forests, first tapping of benzoin tree is
done in the age of 3-5 years while in the regenerated forests;
tapping is done in the age of 6 to 8 years. After the
collection of resins, sorting and hard cleaning is carried out
for the removal of bark pieces but extra care is required to
retain the whole tear as such.
5. Value addition
A few local industries of Central Java produced
cigarette known as Klembak menyan which is used to
reduce stress. The components of this cigarette are tobacco,
a large amount of benzoin resins and cloves [12]. According
to the papyrus records, benzoin resins are grinded in powder
form and mixed with cypress, galbanum, juniper and pine to
make a cone that the Egyptian dancers used to place on their
heads. Romans and Greeks used benzoin resins from
ancients for incense purpose and in their traditional dishes;
they use benzoin oil with black paper, juniper, berry, ginger,
lavender, sweet marjoram and rosemary. The native people
of Sumatra use Lubanja; a benzoin resins it is burnt with
coffee and gave vanilla like odour in their coffee ceremonies
as relaxant.
Benzoin oil is also used in the treatment of skin
diseases by mixing 10 ml of almond oil, 6 drops of benzoin
oil and 2 drops of wheat germ oil and by applying on the
affected area such as wounds, skin ulceration, burn and bad
sores. Benzoin oil is used for the treatment of psoriasis and
eczema with clay as taking 2 tbsp clay and by adding 3
drops of benzoin oil along with distilled water to make paste
apply on affected areas and leave it for 20 minutes and then
rinse off with water. Benzoin is useful with lemon juice for
the treatment of brown marks on the face by adding 2 drops
of lemon juice, 10 ml almond oil, 4 drops benzoin oil and 2
drops of wheat germ oil [13].
6. Uses Styrax bnzoin resin is widely used as an ingredient
in the incense and is believed that it helps to drive out the
evil spirits. Benzoin is also used as a preservative and
fragrance compound in the perfumes, soaps, cosmetics and
toiletries. Benzoin is also used as a flavouring agent in the
food, alcoholic beverage and soft drinks. Benzoin resins act
as powerful antioxidants and help to prevent the rancidity of
fats. Styrax benzoin is also used in the healing of wounds
6.1. General uses
Styrax benzoin is used as disinfectant and it is a
good herbal remedy for the throat infection and for
respiratory elements. Styrax benzoin tincture is used as a
mouthwash for the treatment of cold sores. After the tooth
extraction, dentists use benzoin resins tincture as an anti-
inflammatory agent. Benzoin resins are familiar in the
products which are used in the treatment of skin diseases
like irritated or dry skin, wounds and inflamed skin. Benzoin
resins are used as a herbal remedy for the muscle pain, poor
circulation, gout and arthritis. Benzoin resins are used in the
religious ceremonies in the many regions of the world. After
burning, it produces a sweet smell that uplifts the mood and
stimulates the nervous system. It stimulates the heart beat by
giving the warm feelings and improves the circulation of
blood [5]. Oil extracted from the aromatic plant is known as
essential oil [15-18] which has various pharmacological uses
[19-20] due to the presence of various bioactive
components. Benzoin oil is used as sedative and relaxant
and relieves the tension, stress, anxiety and nervousness. It
brings out the neurotic or nervous system to normal. GC-MS
analysis is generally used to find out bioactive components
present in essential oils [18-21-22]. Styrax benzoin contains
the compounds like benzoic acid, benzaldehyde and benzyl
benzoate which are most effective bactericidal, germicidal,
antiviral substances and fungicidal. If smoke of benzoin
resin is spread then smoky zone become free of germs.
Benzoin oil also has anti- flatulent and carminative
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7. Pharmacological uses
7.1. Phytotherapy in dermatology
Phytotherapy in dermatology is the process of
reparation of medicines from plants and their uses in the
treatment of skin. Benzoin is used in conditioning of the
skin and also to toughen the skin [23]. Benzoin oils are also
used for beauty of skin, making the skin fresh and youthful.
It also has ability to heal the wounds and scars. Benzoin oil
has healing properties that owe to benzoic acid,
benzaldehyde and benzyl benzoate. Cinnamate present in
the benzoin is also used in toughening of the skin but it is
quite toxic and cause allergy [23].
7.2. Respiratory problems
There are a lot of respiratory problems such as
chest infection, pneumonia, asthma, noisy breathing,
obstructive sleep apnoea and aspiration [24]. Essential oil of
benzoin is used to treat congestion, coughing and other
respiratory problems. Benzoin is an excellent disinfectant
and has expectorant qualities which help free mucus and
ease breathing. As well as clearing up the respiratory
system, its sedative properties can help clear the way to a
good night’s sleep. Styrax benzoin used in the
pharmaceutical industries for the treatment of bronchitis,
cough laryngitis and as an antiseptic for prevent the
7.3. For digestion
In digestive issues like cramping and flatulence,
then benzoin essential oil might provide relief. This
wonderful essential oil has carminative properties as well as
being able to relieve gas and inflammation in the intestines.
It helps to relax the stomach muscles enabling excess wind
to pass naturally, relieves pain related to gas. Benzoin
essential oil also improves general digestion and helps
improve your appetite. One of the health benefits of benzoin
essential oil is preventing the acidity that occurs in the
stomach and avoid many diseases are caused by gastric
acidity. In cultivated region of Styrax benzoin people use it
for the ache of stomach.
7.4. Diuretic
Diuretic is the disease which commonly
characterized as the excess of extracellular fluid, the
nephritic syndrome, kidney diseases, heart failure and
cirrhosis [25]. Benzoin essential oil has natural diuretic
properties, which essentially means that it helps to boost
both urine production and frequency of urination. Diuretics
are used to efficiently cleanse and remove toxins from the
blood stream. These properties can have a positive effect on
blood pressure and can even help you to lose weight caused
by stubborn water retention [26]. Styrax benzoin has
diuretic properties as it promotes and facilitates the quantity
and frequency of urination and through urination it also
helps to remove the toxic substances from the blood. It also
helps to reduce weight, improving digestion and lowering of
the blood pressure.
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... The gum obtained from S. benzoin has a dull reddish to grayish brown with a fragrant aroma due to the presence of cinnamic acid. [1] In contrast to other types of S. benzoin tends to have high cinnamic acid compounds around 20 mg/g samples with a level of purity (86%-93%), and high levels of cinnamic acid in the sap determine the good quality of the sap. [2] Frankincense resin has 165 bioactive compounds that can be isolated so it has many benefits, especially as pharmaceutical raw materials used traditionally or modern. ...
Styrax benzoin is a type of incense produced in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. The content of metabolite compounds provides wide use in pharmaceuticals. The occurrence of deposits in the extract makes this preparation unstable; this instability creates problems, especially in the concentration of the extract and is impractical so it needs to be redissolved. The method of using surfactants can be used as a suspending agent, a mixture of two types of surfactants gives variations in hydrophilic and lipophilic balance (HLB), by finding the optimum HLB value to create optimum solution stability and organoleptic, various mixture ratios were carried out with test parameters such as organoleptic, pH, viscosity, particle size, and components of chemical compounds. The results show that the optimum HLB of S. benzoin is 12.7 in surfactants Tween 80 and Span 80.
... Salix caprea L., 28,32,40 Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult., 23,32,45 Tamarix gallica L., 23,46 Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr., 19,23,[27][28]34,48 Styrax benzoides W. G. Craib, 24,49 Paeonia emodi Royle., 19,24,[33][34][54][55] Zingiber officinale Roscoe, 27 40,[45][46]48,[54][55]66 Unani medications, both single and compound formulations, are beneficial in the treatment of COVID-19. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, 84 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) ...
Full-text available
Benzoin resin, produced by the native Indonesian trees Styrax sumatrana and Styrax benzoin, has been incorporated into medical practices to treat wounds, erythema, and many other conditions for centuries. Endophytic fungi that reside within medicinal plants have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacities, contributing to plant health and derivative products. In this study, we determined the antifungal, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacities of endophytic fungal isolates from three different tissues (leaves, bark, and stems) of S. sumatrana and S. benzoin trees. The genera of fungal isolates were determined by phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences. A total of 58 fungal isolates were classified into 15 different fungal genera from eight taxonomic orders—Hypocreales, Botryosphaeriales, Glomerellales, Diaphortales, Pleosporales, Eurotiales, Xylariales, and Mucorales—with a pattern of host species specificity. Among these isolates, Trichoderma sp. 6407 consistently exhibited high inhibition of the growth of plant pathogens Fusarium sp., Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger. With respect to antioxidant activity, Phyllosticta sp. 6454 consistently showed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition (37.59 ± 0.05%), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)-based antioxidant activity (25.04 ± 0.27 mgTE/g), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (52.15 ± 10.08%). Neopestalotiopsis sp. 6431 was notably potent in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition (49.65 ± 0.80%), ferric reducing antioxidant power-based antioxidant activity (197.49 ± 8.65 mgTE/g), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (52.88 ± 4.93%). This study revealed that Trichoderma sp. 6407, Phyllosticta sp. 6454, and Neopestalotiopsis sp. 6431 exhibited antifungal, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.
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Ionic liquids are those ionic compounds which are liquid below 100 °C and are a combination of organic cations and inorganic/organic anions. They have wide potential to be used as solvents, extraction systems especially for biomedical applications. The past two decades have witnessed exponential rise in publications wherein ionic liquids have found applications in metal ion detection by coordination. This overview gives you a brief insight into the use of different ionic liquids for metal ion analysis.KeywordsIonic liquidOrganic ionsMetal chelationCoordinating ionsMetal extraction
There has been an exponential rise in chemical research since past three decades, which has witnessed an equal growth in the use of toxic and detrimental solvents, reagents, and reactants, leading to long-term environmental damage. Thereafter, with invent and advancement in green chemistry perspective, there has been a slight shift toward utilization of green chemistry principles in research, devolvement, and implementation. But the past decade has witnessed an immense rise in the use of green analytical chemistry owing to recent development in materials and methods that support the green concept.KeywordsGreen analytical chemistryGreen approachesTwelve Principles of Green analytical chemistryEco-friendly techniquesGreen chemistrySample preparationGAPINEMI
Green chemistry was called to protect the environment and human beings from the used or wasted chemicals and solvents that represent hazards in the research laboratories. This chapter summarizes the fundamentals and applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternate green and safe approach for the extraction of essential oils from different plants. At first, we explained essential oils and enumerated their sources and medicinal uses. Then, we discussed old technology for their extraction then presented the SFE approach as a green environmentally benign approach for essential oils extraction. The advantages of using SFE for essential oil extraction over traditional classical techniques were emphasized. SFE could reduce the use of petroleum solvents as well as decrease the extraction time compared to traditional extraction methods. The supercritical fluids (SFs) were characterized with a solubility like liquid and diffusivity like gas, which could dissolve different types of essential oils. Next, the effect of extraction parameter optimization on the SFE of essential oil was discussed. Finally, the taxonomy of different plant sources for essential oils and their SFE method of extraction were summarized and emphasized with many examples from the literature.KeywordsEssential oilsTaxonomyExtractionGreen solventsSupercritical fluid extractionMedicinal uses
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This study described a simple and green approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing benzoin gum water extract as a reducing and capping agent and their applications. The AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs showed promising antimicrobial activity against various pathogens (Gram-negative, Gram-positive and fungus) and possessed high free radical scavenging activity (104.5 ± 7.21 % at 1 mg/ml). In addition, the AgNPs exhibited strong cytotoxicity towards human cervical cancer and human lung cancer cells as compared to the normal mouse macrophage cells. Moreover, the AgNPs possessed anti-biofilm activity against Escherichia coli, and compatibility to human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, which suggests the use of dressing with the AgNPs in chronic wound treatment. Therefore, AgNPs synthesized by benzoin gum extract are comparatively green and may have broad spectrum potential application in biomedicine.
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Foods are substances or mixture of substances both solid and/or liquid, which are intended for human consumption or ingestion for their nutritional of pleasurable benefits. The classification of food, its storage and chemistry were treated in this study. Different methods of food preservations which include drying (spray drying, freeze drying), freezing, vacuum-packing, canning, sugar crystallization, pickling, food irradiation, etc. and its effect were also reviewed. Further, Food additives and its effect, and significance of food preservatives and additives were also explained in this review.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the vapor of the resins of two aromatic medicinal plants, Commiphora molmol and Boswellia papyrifera on the growth of some reference bacteria and clinical isolates, as antibacterial material. Resins were subjected to successive solvent extraction using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The method employed in this study was Micro-atmosphere assay. The study showed that the vapor of the methanolic extracts of these resins suppressed -to some degree-the bacterial growth, this may be due to its antibacterial activity confirming its positive application in inhalation therapy to treat bronchitis and sinusitis in traditional medicine.
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The present study explores the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum). Omani basil essential oil was extracted using a Clevenger type appartus. The oil yield of Omani basil was found to be 0.171%. A total of 75 compounds representing 99.8% of Omani basil oil were identified. Linalool (69.9%) was identified as the major component present in Omani basil oil, followed by geraniol (10.9%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), -bergamotene (1.6%) and geranyl acetate (1.4%). Omani basil essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the bacteria tested except Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strongest inhibition activity of Omani basil was observed against Streptococcus pneumoniae 2 (60 mm), Hemophilus influenzae (45 mm), Candida albicans (45 mm), S. pneumoniae 1 (37 mm) and Aspergillus niger (35 mm). Total antioxidants content quantified in Omani basil essential oil using a commercial kit were found to be 50.32±1.8 mM. The essential oil extracted from Omani basil was found to have higher linalool content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities than most of earlier reported values. In this regard, this variety can be very useful for medical purposes and in food and perfumery industries.
Sumatra benzoin resins originating from two species of Styrax were studied using modern analytical techniques. Analysis of these types of resins usually involves several steps including alkaline hydrolysis, derivatization of the polar groups and chromatography. Two different resins, and three different qualities from each resin, were investigated using a fast analytical method which omits the hydrolysis step and makes it possible to identify all of the individual components of the resin in one gas-chromatography–mass spectrometry measurement. Resins from both Styrax benzoin Dryand and S. paralleloneurum Perk contain free cinnamic and benzoic acids and their corresponding esters with p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols, although in different relative amounts. Pinoresinol and some higher molecular weight esters of cinnamic and benzoic acids were also found. The structure of these compounds was verified by high performance liquid chromatography–continuous flow fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. For quantitation, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was performed. Molecular response factors of the identified compounds were calculated as correction factors of the peak areas. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The benzoate of trans-coniferyl alcohol and the benzoate of trans-p-coumaryl alcohol have been obtained from propolis and the styrax benzoin, this being the first time that the latter has been described.
A new sesquiterpene was isolated from extracts of Sumatra benzoin gum. Its structure was elucidated by means of mass spectrometry and two-dimensional NMR. This new compound presented an acenaphthylene-type skeleton unpreviously described among the family of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons.
Diuretics are agents commonly used in diseases characterized by excess extracellular fluid, including chronic kidney disease, the nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and heart failure. Multiple diuretic classes, including thiazide-type diuretics, loop diuretics and K(+)-sparing diuretics, are used to treat patients with these diseases, either individually or as combination therapies. An understanding of what determines a patient's response to a diuretic is a prerequisite to the correct use of these drugs. The response of patients with these diseases to diuretics, which is related to the dose, is best described by a sigmoid curve whose contour can become distorted by any of the several sodium-retaining states that are directly or indirectly associated with renal disease. Diuretic actions are of considerable importance to patients who have renal disease, as their effective use assists in extracellular fluid volume control, reducing excretion of protein in urine and lessening the risk of developing hyperkalemia. Diuretic-related adverse events that involve the uric acid, Na(+) and K(+) axes are not uncommon; therefore the clinician must be vigilant in looking for biochemical disturbances. As a result of diuretic-related adverse events, clinicians must be resourceful in the dose amount and frequency of dosing.