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The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This study presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the UK, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being. Three hundred forty-nine participants self-reported levels of ikigai as well as state measures of mental well-being, depression, anxiety and stress. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original three-factor model, favouring instead a single-factor solution. Results indicated that above sex and age, ikigai predicted greater scores of mental well-being and lower scores of depression. The Ikigai-9 has high internal reliability and presents a logistically convenient measure of ikigai for English-speaking populations. However, further validation (e.g. test-retest reliability) is required to develop a better understanding of the potential protective role of ikigai in mental health.
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Running head: Ikigai, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample: A brief report
Dean Fido1*, Yasuhiro Kotera1, & Kenichi Asano2
1 University of Derby Online Learning, University of Derby (UK)
2 Department of Psychological Counseling, Faculty of Human Sciences, Mejiro University,
Tokyo (Japan)
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Dean Fido, University of
Derby Online Learning, University of Derby, Enterprise Centre, Bridge Street, Derby, DE1
3LD, UK.
Tel.: +44 (1332) 597861. Email: deanfido.psych@gmail.com
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Abstract
In Japanese culture, the psychological construct of ‘ikigaireflects the sense of having a
‘reason for living’ and has been associated with positive health-related outcomes such as
increased mortality. This study presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, and for the first
time, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in a Western population as well as its
associations with facets of well-being. Three hundred and forty-nine participants from the
United Kingdom self-reported levels of ikigai as well as state measures of mental well-being,
depression, anxiety, and stress. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original
three-factor model, favouring instead a single-factor solution. Results indicated that when
controlling for effects of sex and age, ikigai predicted greater scores of mental well-being and
lower scores of depression, but not anxiety or stress. The Ikigai-9 has high internal reliability
and presents a logistically-convenient measure of ikigai for English-speaking populations.
However, further validation (e.g., test-retest reliability) as well as a better understanding of
the potential protective role of ikigai in mental health is required. Data, transparency files,
and supplementary materials are available here: [shorturl.at/kIP27], and a pre-print is
available here: [to be inserted].
Key words: ikigai; scale development; well-being; depression; anxiety, stress
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English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample: A brief report
1. Introduction
In Japanese culture, the term ikigai’ refers to having ‘purpose in lifeor a ‘reason for living’
(Mathews, 1996; Mori et al., 2017; Park, 2015). Although other translations exist, such as
those pertaining to the processes of realising’ or ‘gaining joy from’ such purpose (Toshirō,
Skrzypczak, & Snowden, 2003), scholars maintain that ikigai should be considered a
composite construct; encompassing meaning, motivations, and values in life (Kumano, 2012;
Weiss, Bass, Heimovitz, & Oka, 2005).
Recently, there has been a significant increase in the exploration of ikigai across areas of
positive-psychology and preventative-medicine (Buettner, 2017; García & Miralles, 2017),
with ikigai being considered a key predictor of physical and psychological well-being (Mori
et al., 2017; Weiss et al., 2005). At a cross-sectional level, having ikigai has been positively
associated with self-reported physical health in the elderly (Murata, Kondo, Tamakoshi,
Yatsuya, & Toyoshima, 2006) and negatively associated with psychological burden in their
carers (Okamoto & Harasawa, 2009). Moreover, the presence of ikigai has been consistently
shown to benefit facets of well-being and mortality across multiple, large-scale longitudinal
studies. Specifically, the presence of ikigai has been significantly associated with reduced
incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke (Koizumi, Ito, Kaneko, & Motohashi, 2008
[13.3-year follow-up]; Tanno et al., 2009 [5-year follow-up]; Sone et al., 2008 [7-year
follow-up]), functional disability after controlling for symptoms of depression (Mori et al.,
2017 [12-year follow-up]), and other causes of mortality such as injury, lesions, and suicide
(Tanno et al., 2009). Regarding mortality as a consequence of cancer, converging evidence
suggests an absence of any association with ikigai after long-term follow-up (Sone et al.,
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2008; Tanno et al., 2009), however one study did identify an inverse relationship between
ikigai and breast cancer, more specifically, elsewhere (Wakai et al., 2007). Importantly, the
precise mechanism underpinning the benefit of ikigai on well-being remains unknown.
One key limitation of this literature, however, is the categorical nature by which ikigai is
measured (Okamoto & Harasawa, 2009; Murata et al., 2006; Sone et al., 2008; Tanno et al.,
2009). If we are to believe the complex and multifaceted conceptualisation of ikigai
(Mathews, 1996), then simply confirming or rejecting a static state of ikigai neither seems
appropriate nor useful in terms of exploring ikigai as a psychological construct. The Ikigai-9
(Imai, Osada, & Nishi, 2012) is a psychometric tool published and validated only in
Japanese, that has been proposed as a means of measuring ikigai across the dimensions of [1]
optimistic and positive emotions toward life, [2] active and positive attitudes towards one's
future, and [3] acknowledgment of the meaning of one's existence. Although other measures
of ikigai exist, these are either limited in terms of their narrow response options, leading to
reduced variance in data (Kondo & Kamada, 2003), or are heavily orientated towards the
enjoyment of leisure pursuits and free time, and so not fully encapsulating the most common
definitions of the experience of ikigai (Kono, Walker, Ito, & Hagi, 2019).
Although the potential importance of ikigai appears to be pervasive across core health and
well-being outcomes, current empirical literature is restricted to middle-aged or elderly
Japanese samples, with no indication as to the manifestations or correlates of ikigai in
Western populations. Commentaries of the potential importance of ikigai have begun to reach
the United Kingdom (UK) through conceptual books (García, Miralles, & Cleary, 2017;
Matthews, 1996) and written media (Barr, 2018; Ough, 2017), however there currently exists
no published empirical research exploring the presence of ikigai in Western populations. In
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part, this is likely a result of the absence of an English-language tool enabling such research.
As such, the aim of this study was to translate the Ikigai-9 into English and subsequently
validate it within a population derived from the UK. Further, we sought to delineate baseline
associations between ikigai and aspects of mental health; hypothesising a positive association
with well-being, and negative associations with measures of depression, anxiety, and stress.
2. Methods
2.1. Participants and procedure
In line with guidelines for individual differences researchers (Gignac, & Szodoraim
2016), an a priori power analysis (f2 = .03, α = .05) determined around 368 participants were
required to have 80% power in the planned analyses (G*Power, v3.1). Three hundred and
forty-nine participants (Mage = 34.68 years, SD = 12.01 years; RNGage = 18-72 years; 50.7%
female), all originating from the UK, completed an online questionnaire advertised through
Prolific; a crowdsourcing website whose data quality is considered comparable to that
obtained via face-to-face means (Peer, Brandimarte, Samat, & Acquisti, 2017). On average,
the study took around 10 minutes to complete, and participants provided written informed
consent in accordance with approved central university research protocols by ticking a box on
both the first and last pages of the survey. All completers were reimbursed with £0.85 for
their participation.
2.2. Materials
The Ikigai-9 (Imai et al., 2012) consists of nine items measuring one’s reason for
being through dimensions of emotions towards one’s life, attitudes towards one’s future, and
the acknowledgement of one’s existence. The Ikigai-9 was translated from Japanese into
English by KA, before being back-translated by YK. Both KA and YK are bilingual, and any
discrepancies in translation were resolved through discussion. Participants are asked to rate
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whether each statement applies to them on a five-point scale (1 = Does not apply to me, 5 =
Applies to me a lot).
The Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS; Stewart-
Brown et al., 2009) consists of seven items measuring recent (i.e., past two weeks)
psychological functioning and emotional and mental wellbeing. Participants are asked to rate
their experience of each statement on a five-point scale (1 = None of the time, 5 = All of the
time).
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)
consists of 21 items reflecting recent (i.e., past week) tendency to feel depression, anxiety,
and stress. Participants are asked to rate their experience of each statement on a four-point
scale (0 = Never, 3 = Almost Always).
3. Results
3.1. Construct validity of the Ikigai-9
A confirmatory factor analysis of the three-factor solution of the Ikigai-9 showed that
the data did not fit the model outlined in Imai et al. (2012): χ²(24) = 186.73, p < .001,
RMSEA = .14, CFI = .91, TLI = .87 (cut off values provided by Hu & Bentler, 1999; see
Supplementary Data). As such, we computed a principal axis factor analysis with varimax
rotation on all nine items. Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant, p < .001, and the
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure verified the sampling adequacy for the analysis, KMO = .88,
with all KMO values for individual items greater than .80; well above the acceptable limit of
.50. Convergence of the scree plot and eigenvalues over Kaiser’s criterion of 1, suggested a
single factor structure explaining 56.10% of the variance. This single factor model was used
for subsequent analyses. Table 1 shows the factor loadings after rotation.
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3.2. Sex differences in questionnaire measures
Independent t-tests were used to delineate sex differences within our sample; means
and standard deviations for questionnaire data are reported in Table 2. On average, males
were older, t(347) = 2.83, p = .01, d = .30, and reported greater levels of depression t(347) =
4.66, p < .001, d = .50, than female participants. There were no significant differences in
scores on measures of ikigai, well-being, anxiety, or stress.
Table 1. Exploratory factor analysis of the Ikigai-9 (n = 349)
Factor 1
9. I believe that I have some impact on someone.
.84
7. My life is mentally rich and fulfilled.
.78
5. I am interested in many things.
.76
3. I feel that I am contributing to someone or the society.
.75
8. I would like to develop myself.
.73
1. I often feel that I am happy.
.73
6. I think that my existence is needed by something or someone.
.71
2. I would like to learn something new or start something.
.69
4. I have room in my mind.
.46
Eigenvalues
5.05
% of variance
56.10
α
.90
Table 2. Descriptive statistics for questionnaire scores with between sex comparisons.
α
Total
M (SD)
M (SD)
Females (n = 177)
M (SD)
p
Age
-
34.68 (12.01)
32.90 (11.70)
.01
Ikigai
.90
32.87 (7.91)
33.33 (8.37)
.26
Well-being
.88
22.79 (5.12)
23.32 (4.73)
.05
Depression
.93
25.72 (11.19)
22.60 (10.21)
< .001
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3.3. Concurrent validity: prediction of well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress
Although not correlated with measures of anxiety or stress, scores on ikigai correlated
positively with well-being and negatively with depression. Scores on depression, anxiety, and
stress were all positively correlated with one another and negatively correlated with well-
being (see Table 3). Next, we conducted four hierarchical multiple regression analyses. In
each analysis, age and sex (0 = male, 1 = female) were entered at step one, and ikigai was
entered at step two. The dependant variables were scores on well-being, depression, anxiety,
and stress. All models met the assumptions required for hierarchical multiple regression
analysis.
In step 1, sex and age positively contributed to the prediction of well-being, and
negatively contributed to the prediction of depression and anxiety. Only age significantly
(negatively) contributed to the prediction of stress. In addition to these findings holding at
step 2, introducing scores on ikigai explained an additional 15% of variation in well-being
(positive association) and 2% of variation in depression (negative association). There were no
significant increases in the explained variances of anxiety or stress (see Table 3).
[Table 3 around here currently at the end of document]
4. Discussion
The notion of having ikigai – a “reason for living” (Mathews, 1996) has been associated
with a series of health-related outcomes including the absence of psychological burden and
decreased mortality rates. Findings are consistent and often derived from large-scale
Anxiety
.86
22.10 (9.11)
21.16 (9.51)
.05
Stress
.88
27.49 (9.67)
27.33 (10.00)
.76
Note. Significant differences highlighted in bold.
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longitudinal research; however, current literature is restricted to Japanese samples with no
psychometric tools available to empirically test or understand ikigai in English-speaking
cohorts. For that reason, this study aimed to translate, and subsequently validate, the Ikigai-9
in an English-speaking sample derived from the UK.
Confirmatory factor analysis of the English version of the Ikigai-9 did not support the three-
dimensional structure originally proposed in Imai et al. (2012). Instead of comprising the
facets of optimistic and positive emotions toward life, positive attitudes towards one's future,
and acknowledgment of the meaning of one's existence, data reported in this study favoured a
single factor solution of ikigai, which explained 56.10% of the variance with high internal
consistency (α = .90). As such, it appears that although ikigai might be described through
overlapping notions of motivations and values pertaining to life (Kumano, 2012; Weiss, Bass,
Heimovitz, & Oka, 2005), such facets cannot be teased apart in a meaningful way, at least in
this first cohort to complete the English version of the Ikigai-9.
Analyses of concurrent validity in this study outlined associations between self-reported
ikigai and indices of psychological health including greater mental well-being and lower state
depression. Such findings, in addition to the strong psychometric properties of the English
version of the Ikigai-9, lend support for the usefulness of this measure in subsequent
exploration of the potential protective benefits of ikigai; unrestricted to the Japanese
population. This is important due to the global prevalence of depression thought to impact the
lives of more than 300 million people worldwide; contributing to higher incidence of suicide
as well as wider financial and resource implications for health care professionals (World
Health Organization, 2018). Japanese suicide prevention policies aim to enhance ikigai in
people to reduce the number of suicides (Ministry of Health and Labour Welfare, 2017).
Suicide has previously been negatively associated with the presence of ikigai (Tanno et al.,
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2009), however it remains unknown whether this association might be mediated in part
through depression. Important to note, is the admittedly small but significant effect size of the
contribution of ikigai to the depression model. Moreover, although not explicitly explored
here, ikigai is consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in Japanese
samples (Koizumi et al., 2008; Tanno et al., 2009; Sone et al., 2008). Owing to the UK’s
National Health Service (2019) identifying cardiovascular disease as a clinical priority over
the next 10 years of health care provisions – with the aim of preventing 150,000 heart attacks
- the ability to test the prospective protective effect of ikigai in the UK is a timely resource.
Interestingly, what were not identified were any associations between ikigai and self-report
measures of anxiety or stress. Such associations have not previously been explored (or at
least, published) in Japanese cohorts, which might indicate that ikigai plays little-to-no roll in
anxiety or stress. However, as psychometric measures reported in this investigation were
state measures, it is possible that ikigai might play a protective role whereby feelings of
anxiety, stress, and indeed depression are attenuated when individuals are faced with
situations that would normally evoke such states. In addition to experimental research being
required to test these hypotheses, understanding is needed as to the mechanism by which
ikigai might underpin health-related benefits. For example, Tanno et al. (2009) hypothesised
that ikigai may be associated with positive health-related behaviours (e.g., reduced smoking
and drinking) and psychosocial factors (e.g., living with a spouse and having a fulfilling job).
Results are discussed in light of some limitations. First, this is a cross-sectional study of a UK
general population and so we can neither make any direct comparisons between the
experience of ikigai in Eastern or Western civilisations, nor infer causation from the
correlations presented, while noting that our scores were similar to 428 Japanese people
(33.1±5.4 years for 128 males, 33.4±5.4 years for 300 females, and 33.3±5.3 years in total;
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Imai et al., 2012). Second, this is the first time the English version of the Ikigai-9 has been
tested, and so to compound and further validate our understanding of associations outlined
above, further pre-registered replications are essential. Third, the ikigai measure was only
administered at a single time-point, and so we are not able to state that this measure is stable
across time.
In conclusion, the translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 reported here provides an initial
step in aiding our understanding of the manifestation and associated mental health-related
correlates throughout the West. Importantly, future research should seek to replicate this data
inside and outside of the UK, as well as establish both the mechanisms by which ikigai might
bring about – or protect – mental and physical well-being, and also whether ikigai is
malleable to change. If one can obtain or develop ikigai, then it would be possible to develop
interventions aimed at increasing ikigai as a means of supporting established health-care
measures.
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Acknowledgements
This work was funded by departmental funding awarded to DF and YK by the University of
Derby.
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Table 3. Correlations and standardized regression coefficients between ikigai, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress.
Well-being
Depression
Anxiety
Stress
Correlations
Ikigai
Well-being
Depression
Anxiety
Stress
.40***
-
-.14**
-.59***
-
.04
-.35***
.68***
-
.04
-.43***
.71***
.77***
-
Standardized regression coefficients
Step 1 Sex
.14**
[.33, 2.46]
-.26***
[-8.14, -3.54]
-.14**
[-4.41, -.63]
-.04
[-2.76, 1.34]
Age
.21***
[.04, .13]
-.12*
[-.21, -.02]
-.22***
[-.25, -.09]
-.14*
[-.20, -.02]
Model
F(2,346) = 9.64, p < .001
F(2,346) = 13.81, p < .001
F(2,346) = 11.09, p < .001
F(2,346) = 3.22, p = .04
R2
.05
.07
.06
.02
Step 2
Sex
.11*
[.16, 2.12]
-.25***
[-7.95, -3.31]
-.14**
[-4.47, -.70]
-.04
[-2.82, 1.29]
Age
.20***
[.04, .12]
-.12*
[-.21, -.02]
-.23***
[-.25, -.09]
-.14*
[-.20, -03]
Ikigai
.39***
[.19, .31]
-.13*
[-.32, -.03]
.06
[-.06, .18]
.04
[-.08, .18]
Model
F(1,345) = 64.53, p < .001
F(1,345) = 5.95, p = .02
F(1,345) = 1.12, p = .29
F(1,345) = .65, p = .42
R2
.20
.09
.06
.02
... Par ailleurs, on constate les bienfaits de l'ikigai sur le plan de la santé mentale. On observe une relation entre le niveau d'Ikigai et le niveau de symptômes dépressifs (Fido et al., 2020 ;Okuzono et al., 2022). L'ikigai contribuerait également à la réduction du stress (Lee & Ashton, 2020) et de l'anxiété (Belice et al., 2022), notamment par son action régulatrice des neurotransmetteurs tels que la sérotonine, la dopamine et la ␤-endorphine dans les lobes préfrontaux (Ishida, 2012). ...
... Psychologie française xxx (xxxx) xxx-xxx ce questionnaire en trois dimensions : (1) les émotions envers la vie, (2) les attitudes envers l'avenir, et (3) la reconnaissance de sa propre existence (Imai et al., 2012). Cependant, une validation plus récente par analyse factorielle confirmatoire sur un échantillon de 368 participants du Royaume-Uni remettait en question la structure factorielle du questionnaire en trois dimensions, et laissait penser à une structure à une dimension (Fido et al., 2020). Cette structure à une dimension est soutenue dans une l'étude de Belice et al. (2022) ayant réalisé une analyse factorielle exploratoire de l'Ikigai-9 sur un échantillon turc de 381 participants. ...
... Le déplacement de l'item 3 (« Je sens que je contribue à aider quelqu'un ou la société ») dans le facteur 2 (reconnaissance de sa propre existence) était proposé par un indice fort de modification (63,95) et suggérait un ajustement quasi-similaire au modèle suggéré par l'AFE (modèle 4, voir Tableau 2). Dans le Tableau 2, nous avons testé le modèle à un facteur comme décrit dans les études de validation précédentes (Fido et al., 2020 ;Belice et al., 2022) (modèle 1) ainsi que trois modèles à trois facteurs : soit celui d 'Imai et al. (2012) (modèle 2), soit descendant directement de l'AFE réalisée précédemment (modèle 3), soit descendant de l'AFE avec le déplacement de l'item 3 (modèle 4). ...
... Further, we gathered short comments from older participants at the end of the final session. To quantitatively assess the preworkshop and postworkshop changes in the older participants' subjective sense of well-being ("ikigai" in Japanese), we administered the Ikigai-9 scale [33,34] before the first session and right after the fourth session. This scale was used because it consists of nine short questions with plain wording (9-item questionnaires), and we considered it applicable for participants with mild cognitive decline, as well as those with normal cognitive functions. ...
... Older participants were given the well-being questionnaire using the Ikigai-9 scale [33,34] before the first session and right after the fourth session. Ikigai-9 is a psychometric tool tested for reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) and validity for the use with the older Japanese people. ...
... The well-being scale Ikigai-9 [33,34] collected from older participants was analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the significance between the pre-and post-workshop. We first compared the Ikigai-9 results site by site and then cross-checked them with the qualitative analysis to consider the factors influencing the differences in Ikigai-9 outcomes, such as the participants' demographics and implementation context. ...
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Intergenerational theater activities have been recently employed in recreation for older adults. We held a series of four intergenerational theater workshops in two older adults’ care facilities in Japan and sought the experiences of older participants, younger participants, and the facility managers. With a qualitatively driven mixed-methods multiple-case study design, we obtained data from field observation, interviews with participants, and preworkshop and postworkshop changes on a well-being scale (Ikigai-9) among older participants, and the results of the two sites were compared. “Immediate effects” were seen in older adults because they responded actively and demonstrated surprising faculties during the workshop. Facility staff members and younger participants received “extended effects” because they gained new ideas regarding the remaining skills of older participants and a sense of reuniting with old neighbors through the exercise. In the Ikigai-9 scale, the items measuring “present happiness” significantly improved at Site 1 but not at Site 2. Better results at Site 1 might have been caused by the lower care needs of participants and the inclusion of children. Less support from facility staff members during the activities also might have promoted the voluntary participation of older adults. Involving children and engaging the facility staff in preparation could enhance the quality of activities.
... The English version of the Ikigai-9 (Fido et al., 2019) comprises 9 items measuring an individual's reason for being, exploring emotions about one's life, attitudes about one's future, and recognition of one's existence (e.g. 'I believe that I have some impact on someone'). ...
... Greater scores indicate greater levels of ikigai. The scale has high internal consistency (Fido et al., 2019). ...
... The BDI-II and GAD-7 were used to overcome the possible limitations of the DASS-21 used within Fido et al. (2019). ...
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The Japanese construct of ikigai reflects a sense of having ‘purpose in life’ or a ‘reason for living and has been associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. However, to date little research into ikigai exists within Western populations. This study explored the predictive power of ikigai for measures of well-being, depression, and anxiety in an adult Western population. Ninety-four participants (70% female) responded to an online survey. After accounting for the covariates of sex, age, employment status, and student status, multiple hierarchical regression indicated that ikigai positively predicted well-being and negatively predicted depression. While on its own, ikigai negatively predicted anxiety; this was not the case after accounting for the aforementioned covariates. The findings support the importance for investigating ikigai in the West and the need for further exploration of ikigai as a potential means of bringing about benefit in mental well-being.
... In the past few decades, researchers in Japan have developed three scales and conceptual models specifically for measuring ikigai: the K-1 scale (Kondo and Kamada, 2003), the constituent-based model (Hasegawa et al., 2001), and the Ikigai-9 scale (Imai et al., 2012). The ikigai-9 has been validated in the UK (Fido et al., 2020). ...
... The participant self perception survey included validated scales measuring ikigai and related concepts. The included K-1 scale (Kondo and Kamada, 2003) is widely used with OAs in Japan, while the ikigai-9 scale (Fido et al., 2020) is frequently used in surveys conducted by the municipal/regional governments in Japan. We included four PROMIS subscales selected from the National Institute of Health's Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to measure meaning and purpose, positive affect, companionship, and emotional support (Hahn et al., 2010;Broderick et al., 2013;Hanmer, 2021). ...
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Previous research in human-robot interaction has explored using robots to increase objective and hedonic aspects of well-being and quality of life, but there is no literature on how robots might be used to support eudaimonic aspects of well-being (such as meaning in life). A sense of meaning has been shown to positively affect health and longevity. We frame our study around the Japanese concept of ikigai , which is widely used with Japanese older adults to enhance their everyday lives, and is closely related to the concept of eudaimonic well-being (EWB) known in Western countries. Using a mixed-methods and exploratory approach, including interviews with 17 older adults and the collection of 100 survey responses, we explored how older adults in the US experience a sense of meaning, and if and how a social robot could be used to help foster this sense. We find that meaning for older adults is often obtained by helping others, through family connections, and/or through activities of daily life, and that sources of meaning often differ based on the older adults’ living situation. Assessing how meaning compares to happiness and social connection, we highlight general similarities and differences, and also find that living situation influences older adults’ sources of happiness, desire for social connection, and barriers to well-being., in addition to companionship and happiness having a weaker correlation with meaning for those who live alone than for those who live with others. Additionally, we evaluated initial perceptions of a social robot (QT) meant to enhance ikigai and overall well-being. Finding mostly positive perceptions, though those who live alone also reported being less willing to adopt a social robot into their homes. Using both data collected on older adults’ meaning and the potential use of QT to support meaning, we make several design recommendations with regards to using robots to enhance ikigai , such as by prompting daily reflecting, enhancing family bonds, and suggesting new experiences and volunteer opportunities.
... Demura et al. (2005) demonstrated that ikigai is imperative to comprehend the elderly's QOL (24). Studies have also found that the effect of mental QOL on ikigai was more marked in subjects who did not exercise habitually than those who did [23][24][25]. The purpose of this study was to compare ikigai, a positive psychological factor, with other parameters including exercise and polypharmacy. ...
... Ikigai-9 UK and Ikigai-9 Turkey Scale: A separate study was conducted between 1 November and 31 December 2019 to determine the validity and reliability of Ikigai-9 Turkey. Subsequently, the Ikigai-9 Turkey Scale was administered to the participants of this study from 1 February to 31 March 2020 (25). The items of the scale are presented in Table 1. ...
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The aim: The Japanese word “ikigai” indicates “something to live for” and “having a purpose in life”. Ikigai or well-being, has been associated with many positive outcomes in the physical and mental health of elderly people. In this study, the relationship between ikigai and level of physical activity and polypharmacy was examined in a Turkish population. Material and methods: Both telephonic interviews and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 307 participants (59.2 % women) who completed the Ikigai-9 Turkey Scale and provided demographic information. Results: Correlations between groups (polypharmacy vs. non-polypharmacy) were analyzed with an independent t-test and analysis of variance. The means of the ikigai scores were statistically significant in the polypharmacy (24.04±8.72) and non-polypharmacy 32.64±7.53) groups (p
... It can be understood as happiness (Trudel-Fitzgerald et al., 2019), and has been defined as "meaningfulness in one's life" (Kotera et al., 2020, p. 22) or "having a reason for living" (Park, 2015;Fido et al., 2019, p. 1).Ikigai as conceptualized as "purpose of life" has been found to be associated with physical well-being, including reduced mortality and cardiovascular events (Tanno et al., 2009;Ishida, 2012;Cohen et al., 2016;Yasukawa et al., 2018); Trudel-Fitzgerald et al., 2019), and a strong subjective sense of good health (Lee & Ashton, 2020;Kumano, 2018). Research suggests it can influence immune function and decrease mortality risk (Ishida, 2012), and can have a positive effect on depression (Fido et al., 2019). Some studies indicate a positive effect on stress (Ishida, 2012;Lee & Ashton, 2020), although others have not been able to find evidence for this (Fido et al., 2019). ...
... Research suggests it can influence immune function and decrease mortality risk (Ishida, 2012), and can have a positive effect on depression (Fido et al., 2019). Some studies indicate a positive effect on stress (Ishida, 2012;Lee & Ashton, 2020), although others have not been able to find evidence for this (Fido et al., 2019). In general, ikigai is mainly understood to have positive effects at the psychological level. ...
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The aim of this chapter is to expand the discourse on how the Japanese philosophy of ikigai could be integrated into existing andragogical theories such as transformational pedagogy(s) as an instrument of self-reflection, location reassurance and reorientation. In this way, ikigai could be applied beyond the Japanese culture to support people in adult education as “beings in development” regarding self-reflexive processes about themselves and their environment. This can be done in a variety of ways, including by: (a) initiating such processes, (b) designing them in a holistic and sustainable way, (c) potentially considering the individual and the environment in equal measure, and (d) resulting in transformation processes for individuals themselves and the world around them.
... In the same year, Google disruptively proposed a neural machine translation model that completely abandoned recurrent neural networks and convolutional neural networks. e model also uses "encoder-decoder" as the framework of the model and employs a multiheaded attention mechanism and feedforward neural networks for the structure of encoder and decoder in the model, and the model has achieved exciting results in machine translation tasks for many language pairs [12]. ...
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This paper adopts the algorithm of the deep neural network to conduct in-depth research and analysis on the factors associated with the improvement of English translation ability. This study focuses on text complexity, adding discourse complexity features in addition to focusing on lexical and syntactic dimensions, exploring the application of neural network algorithm in the construction of text complexity grading model based on feature optimization, and examining the performance and generalization ability of the model. The rationality of the grading of the material is verified. After determining the model input features and training corpus, different classification algorithms were used to build the models and compare their performance. Meanwhile, compared with the models constructed based on common traditional readability formulas and other single-dimensional features, the models constructed based on the feature set of this study have significant advantages, with 20 to 30 percentage points higher in each performance evaluation index. The pseudo-parallel corpus is constructed, back translation is performed after obtaining the pseudo-parallel corpus, and finally, the data migration effect is measured and recorded on the low-resource Chinese-English parallel corpus and Tibetan-Chinese parallel corpus, and the cycle continues until the model performance is no longer improved. The low-resource neural machine translation model based on model migration learning improved 3.97 and 2.64 BLEU values in the low-resource English translation task, respectively, and reduced the training time; based on this, the data migration learning method further improved 2.26 and 2.52 BLEU values.
... Japanese research offers the Ikigai-9 scale (Imai, 2012) based on a three-dimensional model measuring: optimistic and positive emotions towards life, active and positive attitudes towards one's future, and acknowledgment of the meaning of one's existence. This scale has been translated and tested in the UK (Fido et al., 2019). This study did not confirm the three-dimensional model, results showing a single-factor solution. ...
Conference Paper
In recent times, there have been substantial changes in the context in which work is carried out. Technological advancement, the process of globalization, heterogeneity in the workforce, increase in competition, and an increase in the number of women in the workforce, are some of the changes that have influenced the work environment. Employee well-being is under increasing threat due to the pressures at work and in society, and hence there is a strong ethical case for focusing on employee well-being. In addition to this, the Covid pandemic has posed severe challenges to organisations and employees. People in low-paid, self-employed, or insecure occupations experienced the greatest impact due to loss of work or the temporary closure of their business. Heightened feelings of anxiety and depression were reported along with fear of post lockdown anxiety and paranoia. The largest stressor was an overarching feeling of loss (loss of income, routine or social interaction). This paper aims to focus on identifying and systematically analysing the literature published on employee well-being from 2015 to 2021. Specifically, it aims to answer two questions: “Q1 – What are the antecedents and outcomes related to employee well-being?” and “Q2 – How can the findings of this research be used to further research in the domain of employee well-being?”. The five stages suggested by Denyer and Tranfield, (2009) for systematic literature review have been followed. Training & Development, Job design, Workplace Environment, Participative management, and Organisation support were identified as antecedents that address the above concerns of the employees. It was also found that the psychological perception of an employee has a significant positive impact on the relationship between job design and employee performance. A significant relationship was found between workplace environment and job performance, where work motivation mediated this relationship. Participation in workplace decision-making and employee voice behaviour have a positive impact on employee well-being. In addition to this, there were also findings in the literature related to well-being that could have important ramifications in the current Covid times. The findings of this research can be used by organisations as a starting point for conceptualising well-being orientated HR-Practices. The review will enable the researchers to improve their understanding of employee well-being in the current scenario and recommend measures to enhance the well-being of employees thereby leading to positive attitudes, outcomes, and performance. This will also enable the organisations to effectively tide over pandemic situations where the employees are stressed and overworked.
... The effect size is the adjusted for age, education, occupation, marital status, family structure, number of family members, presence of family members below 14 years old, job hours per day, time to commute to work, shift work, working overtime or extra job, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol drinking status in the Japanese cohort, history of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, kidney diseases, liver diseases, and cancer.Eshak ES, et al. ikigai were expected. Despite being a Japanese concept, the ikigai purpose of life was tested among other populations35,36 including Egyptians ...
Article
Background: Work-family conflicts (total-WFCs) could associate with mental health, and having ikigai (a purpose of life) may mediate this association. Methods: In a cross-cultural study of 4792 Japanese Aichi Workers' Cohort study participants and 3109 Egyptian civil workers, the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) questionnaire measured total-WFCs and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) 11-item scale measured depression. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) of having depression and a high-ikigai across levels of total-WFCs (low, moderate, and high), and the PROCESS macro of Hayes tested the mediation effect. Results: The prevalence of high total-WFCs, depression, and having a high-ikigai were 17.9%, 39.4%, and 70.1% in Japanese women, 10.5%, 26.8%, and 70.1% in Japanese men, 23.7%, 58.2%, and 24.7% in Egyptian women, and 19.1%, 38.9%, and 36.9% in Egyptian men. Compared with participants with low total-WFCs, the multivariable ORs (95% CIs) of depression in Japanese women and men with high total-WFCs were 4.11 (2.99-5.65) and 5.42 (4.18-7.02), and those in Egyptian women and men were 4.43 (3.30-5.95) and 4.79 (3.53-6.48). The respective ORs of having a high-ikigai were 0.46 (0.33-0.64) and 0.40 (0.31-0.52) in Japanese women and men and were 0.34 (0.24-0.48) and 0.28 (0.20-0.39) in Egyptian women and men. No interaction between total-WFCs and country was observed for the associations with depression or ikigai. Ikigai has mediated (up to 18%) the associations between the total-WFCs and depression, especially in Egyptian civil workers. Conclusions: Total-WFCs were associated with depression, and having low-ikigai mediated these associations in Japanese and Egyptian civil workers.
... (2019) studied the İkigai-9 for validation and reliability in the UK as an English version [10,11]. The İkigai-9 scale evaluates the individual's awareness of the way they derive purpose in life, the presence of active, positive attitudes and behaviors toward the future, and optimistism and positive emotions in their outlook on life [5]. ...
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The aim: İkigai, or well-being, has been associated with many positive outcomes in the physical and mental health of elderly people. In the present study, we conducted a validity and reliability study of the İkigai-9 scale in Turkish society and outlined its associations with facets of well-being. Methods: A translation, re-translation method was used to create linguistic equivalence of the İkigai-9 scale in the Turkish language. The correlations between the İkigai-9 Turkish version with the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Short Form and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) were studied. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with volunteers regarding the scale. Data were saved in excel files and analyzed with SPSS (IBM SPSS for Windows, ver.24). Results: The findings confirmed the validity and reliability of the İkigai-9 Turkish version using 382 participants. The total scores on the İkigai-9 Turkish version were correlated positively with mental well-being and negatively correlated with depression, anxiety, and depression (p<0.05). Moreover, the total İkigai-9 Turkish version scores had a positive correlation with age (p<0.05) but did not differ according to gender (p>0.05). Conclusions: İkigai and studies related to the concept of mental well-being should be widened and expanded across nations. These studies could be beneficial to healthcare providers to attenuate the impact of suffering from various diseases. We present the İkigai-9 Turkish version for further study in both in the national and international contexts that healthcare workers could compare their results in other countries.
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The purpose of this mixed-methods research project is to theorize the linkage between leisure experience and life worthiness, or what the Japanese call ikigai. A grounded theory analysis of photo-elicitation interview data from 27 Japanese university students led to the inductive development of a substantive theory. This theory was then tested based on online survey data collected from 669 Japanese students using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that leisure pursuits enhance students’ perception of ikigai when they are valued as enjoyable and/or effortful. Moreover, the balance between overall enjoyment and/or effort is found to be a key mediator in the relationship between valuable leisure experience and life worthiness. Ikigai comprises the subjective perceptions that one's daily life is worth living and that it is full of energy and motivation. Our findings are discussed in light of relevant leisure and well-being theories as well as their implications for practice.
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The success of Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as an online research platform has come at a price: MTurk has suffered from slowing rates of population replenishment, and growing participant non-naivety. Recently, a number of alternative platforms have emerged, offering capabilities similar to MTurk but providing access to new and more naïve populations. After surveying several options, we empirically examined two such platforms, CrowdFlower (CF) and Prolific Academic (ProA). In two studies, we found that participants on both platforms were more naïve and less dishonest compared to MTurk participants. Across the three platforms, CF provided the best response rate, but CF participants failed more attention-check questions and did not reproduce known effects replicated on ProA and MTurk. Moreover, ProA participants produced data quality that was higher than CF's and comparable to MTurk's. ProA and CF participants were also much more diverse than participants from MTurk.
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 12years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai ("no", "uncertain" or "yes") using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: The 12-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the "no" group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36-1.02) for the "uncertain" group and 0.50 (0.30-0.84) for the "yes" group. Conclusion: A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability.
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Individual differences researchers very commonly report Pearson correlations between their variables of interest. Cohen (1988) provided guidelines for the purposes of interpreting the magnitude of a correlation, as well as estimating power. Specifically, r = 0.10, r = 0.30, and r = 0.50 were recommended to be considered small, medium , and large in magnitude, respectively. However, Cohen's effect size guidelines were based principally upon an essentially qualitative impression, rather than a systematic, quantitative analysis of data. Consequently, the purpose of this investigation was to develop a large sample of previously published meta-analytically derived correlations which would allow for an evaluation of Cohen's guidelines from an empirical perspective. Based on 708 meta-analytically derived correlations, the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles corresponded to correlations of 0.11, 0.19, and 0.29, respectively. Based on the results, it is suggested that Cohen's correlation guidelines are too exigent, as b3% of correlations in the literature were found to be as large as r = 0.50. Consequently, in the absence of any other information, individual differences researchers are recommended to consider correlations of 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 as relatively small, typical, and relatively large, in the context of a power analysis, as well as the interpretation of statistical results from a normative perspective.
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This paper focuses on “sense of Ikigai” and social support shown in the peoples&apos; response data obtained from the Asia Pacific Values Survey 11countries/areas. Although researchers have not yet agreed on a single definition of the term Ikigai, a very common word in Japanese, for the purposes of this study I tentatively use the term “reason for living” to mean Ikigai. The results show that Japan, South Korea, and the Chinese cultural sphere share common relationships, in contrast to the United States and India. In particular, in East Asian countries both emotional and appraisal support have impacts on perceived reason for living. In other words, a sense of social bond with others and receiving praise and acknowledgment are factors contributing to a sense of Ikigai in those countries.
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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In order to classify the caregivers at high risk of increase in their burden early, linear discriminant analysis was performed to obtain an effective discriminant model for differentiation of the presence or absence of increase in caregiver burden. The data obtained by self-administered questionnaire from 193 caregivers of frail elderly from January to February of 2005 were used. The discriminant analysis yielded a statistically significant function explaining 35.0% (Rc=0.59; d.f.=6; p=0.0001). The configuration indicated that the psychological predictors of change in caregiver burden with much perceived stress (1.47), high caregiver burden at baseline (1.28), emotional control (0.75), effort to achieve (-0.28), symptomatic depression (0.20) and "ikigai" (purpose in life) (0.18) made statistically significant contributions to the differentiation between no increase and increase in caregiver burden. The discriminant function showed a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81%, and successfully classified 83% of the caregivers. The function at baseline is a simple and useful method for screening of an increase in caregiver burden among caregivers for the frail elderly at home.