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The Business Model Ontology – A Proposition in a Design Science Approach

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Abstract

The goal of this dissertation is to find and provide the basis for a managerial tool that allows a firm to easily express its business logic. The methodological basis for this work is design science, where the researcher builds an artifact to solve a specific problem. In this case the aim is to provide an ontology that makes it possible to explicit a firm's business model. In other words, the proposed artifact helps a firm to formally describe its value proposition, its customers, the relationship with them, the necessary intra- and inter-firm infrastructure and its profit model. Such an ontology is relevant because until now there is no model that expresses a company's global business logic from a pure business point of view. Previous models essentially take an organizational or process perspective or cover only parts of a firm's business logic. The four main pillars of the ontology, which are inspired by management science and enterprise- and processmodeling, are product, customer interface, infrastructure and finance. The ontology is validated by case studies, a panel of experts and managers. The dissertation also provides a software prototype to capture a company's business model in an information system. The last part of the thesis consists of a demonstration of the value of the ontology in business strategy and Information Systems (IS) alignment.

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... However, for this paper, we follow the general definition of [Te10, S. 173], who defines a business model as "the logic (…) how a business creates and delivers value to customers" and, further, as "the architecture of revenues, costs, and profits associated with the business enterprise delivering that value". Sometimes, a subrange of a business model is understood under the term "business model", which does not represent a holistic business model [LC00,Os04]. According to [Os04], it is not sufficient to look at individual parts of a business model. ...
... Sometimes, a subrange of a business model is understood under the term "business model", which does not represent a holistic business model [LC00,Os04]. According to [Os04], it is not sufficient to look at individual parts of a business model. Instead, it is crucial for success to see the complete picture. ...
... Likewise, the potential for success of a business model must not be taken for granted. Ultimately, success depends on the implementation and execution of those responsible [Os04]. ...
Conference Paper
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Data has fundamentally changed the way companies cooperate. Traditional strategies of companies require to be rethought, revisioned, and reimagined based on the new environment of the data economy. Data as a key resource opens up new opportunities that companies need to leverage in data-driven business models (DDBM). Instead of acting in a vacuum, working together and creating value conjointly in an ecosystem based on data is paramount to success. Although DDBMs and ecosystems are not new, per se, there has been a lack of an overarching view of how many DDBMs interact in the context of ecosystems. The paper starts at this point as it develops a taxonomy of these business models in ecosystems. Thus, it contributes to helping researchers and practitioners understand the specifics of data-driven business models working in ecosystems.
... Furthermore, it incorporates different elements [14] or components as well as linkages between them [11]. Business model concepts are often visualized based on Osterwalder and Pigneur's business model canvas (BMC) [14] (or, as first seen, a business model ontology suggested by Osterwalder [15]), e.g., by Wirtz [16] and Schallmo [9]. The BMC originally built on four main areas or pillarsnamely, product (value proposition), infrastructure management, customer interface and financial aspects-that have been further developed to the BMC [14,15] (see Figure 1). ...
... Business model concepts are often visualized based on Osterwalder and Pigneur's business model canvas (BMC) [14] (or, as first seen, a business model ontology suggested by Osterwalder [15]), e.g., by Wirtz [16] and Schallmo [9]. The BMC originally built on four main areas or pillarsnamely, product (value proposition), infrastructure management, customer interface and financial aspects-that have been further developed to the BMC [14,15] (see Figure 1). The nine business model elements in the BMC are customer segments, value proposition, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partnerships and cost structure [14]. ...
... Nevertheless, in the BMC, suppliers are regarded as one of the key partners (in the sector of infrastructure management). As reasonable and non-debatable allocation to one of the areas is not possible, nor to the evaluation criteria, it is suggested to consider suppliers in only one of the areas to avoid a double analysis and counting-e.g., as part of market attractiveness, as shown in Figure 5. [5,14,15,17,42]). ...
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Recent developments, such as climate change, demographic change and resource scarcity, have forced companies to turn towards more sustainable resources, processes and products. Thus, their business models should be developed in a way that meets social, ecological and economic challenges. A vital part of this development process is the evaluation of business models against the background of sustainability targets during different phases of this process. This paper addresses the, thus far, largely neglected sustainability-related strategic evaluation in the earlier phases of business model development. Based on a sustainability-related canvas approach and concepts from strategic management theory, it suggests a method for sustainability-related strategic evaluation of business models as well as business model ideas and options. Therefore, a procedure for evaluation is presented and five main criteria are developed that should be taken into account: eligibility to create stakeholder’s benefit, market attractiveness, heterogeneity/singularity, permanence and eligibility to generate sustainability-oriented value.
... The BM concept originates in the works of Drucker (1954) and Bellman et al. (1957), which constitute the original attempts to provide viewpoints that would explain what business is and how it works. After the rise of the Internet and information technology in the late 1990s, BMs gained extensive popularity Afuah, 2003;Osterwalder, 2004). In those days, academics began to consider the concept as a form of logic for value creation, particularly focusing on online environments (e.g., Timmers, 1998). ...
... Although the term business model is over a halfcentury old, the concept has gained more attention since the millennium due to the rise of the internet (e.g. Afuah, 2003;Osterwalder, 2004). It has been used for multiple purposes in strategic planning, for example, to evaluate the commercial potential of innovations (Doganova and Eyquem-Renault, 2009), to assess value creation in online businesses , and in re-organizing firm structures (Teece, 2009;Teece, 2010). ...
... Second, ten key value-creating activities were identified to provide a foundation of the C2C ecommerce activity system. This study supported business model theories Day and Moorman, 2010;Sorescu et al., 2011) acknowledging that activities and activity systems (Zott and Amit, 2010; exist and are carefully designed as a critical part (Nenonen and Storbacka, 2010;Osterwalder, 2004) of C2C ecommerce business models. ...
Thesis
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Retail connects production and consumption in ways that enable consumers to attain value. Current developments in the field indicate that the retail industry is reaching an evolutionary phase. The emergence of new forms of commerce, such as platform businesses have diversified retail operations. Consequently, the traditional retail characteristics are being challenged, which may have major implications for the retail industry as a whole. Therefore, understanding how value is created in retailing is still important. Since this phenomenon has remained underexplored, the purpose of this article-based dissertation is to explore and analyze retail transformation from a business model perspective. This dissertation consists of an introductory section and four articles. Article I explores business models in a changing traditional retail environment from the viewpoint of retail managers. Article II analyzes how differentiation is conducted in platform business using a value proposition. Article III explores and analyzes how activity systems are designed when value creation occurs in networks. Finally, Article IV develops a typology that characterizes various business models that are emerging in retail markets. Based on these four articles and the compilation part, three propositions are formulated to understand retail transformation and suggest how retail firms could navigate in it. Further, several managerial implications are discussed, and future research avenues are identified.
... Basically, what is important to customers (product) must be first defined, and then the processes must be optimised by removing wastes and by establishing the pull, and finally improve continuously. Osterwalder (2004) presented a commonly used definition of a systematic and efficient business. There are three layers of business sustainability: strategy (planning), business model (architecture) and processes (implementation). ...
... The BM defines the revenue logic of a company, and it is important as a concrete and effective management method to describe and communicate the logic of a company (Osterwalder 2004;Johnson et al. 2008). A simplified BM should include three key elements: the offering, the value creation system and the revenue model (Suikki et al. 2006;Pekuri et al. 2013;Brege et al. 2014). ...
... Key operative processes should implement and operationalise a BM (Becker et al. 2003;Osterwalder 2004). The main areas or operations of a typical company can be logically conducted based on the BM: product process (creating an offering) and order-delivery process (delivering value to customers) (Pekuri et al. 2014). ...
... Johnson et al. [46] proposed a business model framework consisting of four interlocking components: the customer value, the profit formula, key resources (technology, people, brand or partnerships), and key processes. Based on a review of existing business model literature, Osterwalder [47], synthesized a business model framework consisting of nine building-blocks, namely, value proposition, key processes, key resources, key partners, customer relationships, channels, customer segment, revenue streams, and cost structure [38]. ...
... Hartmann et al. [38] developed a framework that allows for a systematic analysis and comparison of DDBMs. The dimensions of DDBM framework were derived from a systematic review of the most important existing business models (including the work of [46,47]). The DDBM model is structured into six key dimensions: key resources, key activities, value proposition, customer segment, revenue model, and cost structure [38]. ...
Article
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This paper explores the current attitudes of managers and executives working in the energy sector towards the Data-Driven Organizational Model implied by Big Data. The aim is to explore and understand the current mindset of senior decision makers, since their success depends as much on cognitive and behavioral processes as on their technical competences. We adopt a grounded-theory approach, developing models of understanding and belief abductively, driven by the data obtained from participants through a reflection guide. We find that managers differ significantly in their understanding and engagement with their challenges; they display interest but differ in their commitment and enthusiasm; they identify a lack of strategy and skills as current barriers; and they are currently unwilling to trust data, treating evidence according to their own prior commitments. This is a significant barrier to establishing the Data-Driven Organizational Model. These findings raise concerns, and the paper concludes that by considering initiatives for implementing more agile and forward-looking approaches, establishing a data-driven organizational culture, and managing such changes effectively.
... Večina ogrodij v središče poslovnega modela postavlja dodano vrednost, različna ogrodja pa se razlikujejo predvsem v tem, na katere vrste vrednosti se osredotočajo. Med najbolj prepoznanimi ogrodji sta kanvas poslovnega modela (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010;Osterwalder, 2004) in Richardsonov poslovni model (Richardson, 2008) . ...
... Kanvas poslovnega modela (Osterwalder, 2004) je v poslovnem svetu najbolj prepoznano ogrodje. Kanvas poslovnega modela, ki je predstavljen na sliki 1, obsega devet elementov poslovnega modela, ki so utemeljeni okoli sredinskega konstrukta ustvarjanja dodane vrednosti za kupce. ...
Chapter
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Digitalna preobrazba se nanaša na uporabo digitalnih tehnologij za poenostavitev poslovanja, povečanje učinkovitosti, inoviranje proizvodov in storitev, prilagajanje potrebam strank, spreminjanje načinov dela in povezovanja znotraj in med organizacijami. Ima širši vpliv, zato je pomembno, da jo obravnavamo celovito (z vidika ekonomije, družbe in okolja). V monografiji predstavljamo teme s področja digitalne preobrazbe, ki bodo organizacijam in posameznikom v tem procesu v pomoč pri lažjem prehodu v digitalno poslovanje. V prispevkih opisujemo merjenje digitalne in podatkovne zrelosti v malih in srednje velikih podjetjih, analizo vpliva digitalnih tehnologij na elemente poslovnega modela, vpliv digitalne probrazbe na posameznika in družbo na problemu tehnologije podkožnih mikročipov ter spremembe obnašanja potrošnikov. Sledijo prispevki o uporabi tehnologije veriženja podatkovnih blokov in pregled raziskav na področju interneta stvari in kiberfizičnih sistemov, metodologija za obravnavo strateške usklajenosti med poslovnim delom podjetij in informacijsko tehnologijo ter pristop Essence, ki povezuje standarde kakovosti programske opreme in inženiring programske opreme.
... In this sense, the more reasonable approach is connected with limited and careful applying of mechanisms and stimulate of market nature only regarding some university activities. The analysis could be made on the grounds of the business model theory [90][91], where to look for the organizational and marketing innovations that would be efficient and would improve the organization activity's results, without getting into conflict with the academic values in the Humboldt sense of the term. ...
... A short description of the possible directions for innovations in the university business model are presented in Fig. 5 [90][91]. ...
Book
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The monograph addresses the changing social processes in the pandemic situation that has occurred around the world. The study presents analyses of the labour market situation in Bulgaria during the pandemic crisis and some solutions to new challenges to the higher education system. Special emphasis is put on the differentiated effect on higher education institutions, depending on the field in which universities carry out teaching and research activities, as well as on the peculiarities of the university business model in the changing environment for development of the higher education institutions. An attempt was made to analyze the emerging critical processes in the labour market, the prospects for action and the post-crisis measures, as well as to forecast the future actions.
... Business Model Canvas (BMC) is a strategic management template that offers a visual chart with elements describing a firm"s value proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances, assisting businesses to align their activities by illustrating potential trade-offs 114). The BMC have nine building blocks that includes customer value proposition, customer segments, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key partners, key activities, and cost structure (Osterwalder, 2004). Business models are important in innovation hubs as they are stories that explain how enterprises work. ...
... Closed ended questions were asked to allow respondents to indicate their opinion on the inclusion of certain components in the innovation hub business model. The components of the BMC included are as indicated by Osterwalder (2004), key partners, key activities, key resources, value proposition, customer segments, communication channels, cost structure, income streams and key relationships. Pilot testing was done with four experts in the field of innovation and commercialization. ...
Article
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The importance of innovation hubs and business models continues to grow yet research remains concentrated in developed countries. Although several researchers provide evidence of the importance of innovation hubs, very little of similar evidence exists in the area of business models and innovation hubs. Empirical evidence of the business model formulation for innovation hubs particularly from developing countries remains scarce. The purpose of this paper was to establish a stakeholder founded business model for the strategic management of innovation hubs in Zimbabwean universities. To achieve this, a positivist research philosophy was adopted. A survey of 120 respondents constituting heads of academic departments, final year students, and Journal of African Education (JAE) Indexed by EBSCO, COPERNICUS and SABINET Volume 3, Number 2, August 2022 Pp 155-179 A stakeholder founded business model for strategic … 156 entrepreneurs in the innovation hubs was used. Closed-ended questionnaire was distributed online. The data was analyzed statistically using SMARTPLS3 and PLS-SEM was conducted. Results of this study provides that communication channels, customer segments, cost structure and key partners significantly influence the stakeholder founded business model of an innovation hub. These results imply that universities must develop contextual innovation hub business models that increase the rate of commercializing innovations as well as technopreneurship activities. The study contributes to literature by extending the stakeholder founded business model and innovation hub discussion to the university environment in a developing country context. This was important because business model knowledge is contextual, as such cannot easily be transferred from one country to the other.
... Typically, it consists of elements describing what kind of product or service is offered, who the customers are, how the production is organized, who the partners are and how the company generates income. Additionally, digital technology is an integral part of the business model; in fact, the concept of business model was initiated to describe the new ways of doing business in the dot-com era (Bouwman et al., 2008;Nielsen & Lund, 2014;Osterwalder, 2004). ...
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Our knowledge concerning the link between internationalization and business model innovation remains limited. This study investigates the change in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) searching for organizational resilience. It particularly focuses on discovering how SMEs innovate their business models when seeking organisational resilience through international growth. In order to answer this research question, we conducted a multiple-case study of three Finnish SMEs. The critical sources of resilience were digitalization, strategic collaboration, customer intimacy, agile use of resources/expertise, and an improved revenue model. For all the case firms, significant business model innovation was required for resilient international growth. Based on the study findings, a new concept is proposed for future research: SME international resilience. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... The tourist industry has seen many changes within the business over the past few decades, and the most significant is definitely the accelerated development of the ICT sector. The development of the virtual world has led to the introduction of e-commerce and e-business which have influenced change in business models (Osterwalder 2004). One of the largest industries using internet services as a tool to introduce innovation in e-business is right within the travel sector (Chio et. ...
Chapter
This research analyses the results of the Belt and Road Initiative in 17 Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European countries that signed the China-Central and Eastern European Countries Initiative. The subject of the research is the extent to which the initiative would provide benefits for the growth and development of these countries. Special attention will be paid to the link between infrastructure development and FDI, and whether environmental standards are taken into account in the projects belonging to the domain of the Initiative. The authors analyse which areas of economy belong to Chinese investments in the selected countries, and whether the countries have taken into account strategically important investments for the society and the country's economy. One of the goals of the research will be whether in the previous period the countries regularly settled their debts to China and how the COVID-19 crisis has had an impact on debt repayment.
... The task can be separated into diverse design elements, which are operationalized on different granularity levels. From a design science perspective, the elements of a business model can be separated into interconnected building blocks (Osterwalder, 2004) (e.g., value proposition, customer segment, revenue models, partner, key resources). In addition, research in recent years has crystallized a consensus on three overarching fundamental pillars of a business model. ...
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Business model patterns are a common tool in business model design. We provide a theoretical foundation for their use within the framework of analogical reasoning as an important cognitive skill for business model innovation. Based on 12 innovation workshops with students and practitioners, we discuss scenarios of pattern card utilization and provide insights on its evaluation.
... The tourist industry has seen many changes within the business over the past few decades, and the most significant is definitely the accelerated development of the ICT sector. The development of the virtual world has led to the introduction of e-commerce and e-business which have influenced change in business models (Osterwalder 2004). One of the largest industries using internet services as a tool to introduce innovation in e-business is right within the travel sector (Chio et. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Illegal migrations have especially after 2015 been recognized as one of the top priority problems to be solved in the EU. Scattered policies and dissonance among the EU states have mostly been followed by repressive ex-post policies being, however, massively attacked by liberal democracy. Starting from the Arrow-Debreu theory of markets they analyze these processes from the point of the applied theory of markets. Beyond instability and insecurity as push factors on the supply side in these processes of illegal immigrants, there is also the emergence of smuggling businesses. The authors try to prove the hypothesis that illegal refugee smuggling does demonstrate clear elements of the tourist industry, apart from entailing massive fraud practices. The authors will elaborate on the comparison of business models between a tourist agency and a typical illegal business entity dealing with the smuggling of illegal immigrants. Here, the approach of similarity of business process models will be used. The study will outline some policy proposals for the regulation of the migration market. Deriving from the results, the authors consequently propose market intervention policies and measures, so as to try to frame migration processes regarding the level of benefit for sending and host countries. Creative Commons Non-Commercial CC BY-NC: This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 License (https://creative-commons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission.
... S'intéresser à l'information conduit à étudier les processus cognitifs de ceux qui entreprennent (Gaglio, Taub, 1992 ;Kaish, Gilad, 1991 ;Hills, 1995 ;Cooper et al., 1995) et replace le rôle de l'idée dans les débats théoriques sur l'entrepreneuriat. La notion d'idée d'affaires est souvent associée à celle de créativité inhérente à toute innovation (voir Nystrom, 1995 ;Osborn, 1988 ;Nilsson, 1994 ;Carrier, 1997 ;Brazeal, Herbert, 1999 ;voir Amabile, 1988, pour la notion de créativité organisationnelle, ainsi que Ford et . ...
... Explicitly or implicitly, every company has a business model, used to describe and articulate the logic of creating, delivering and capturing value to its customers (Teece, 2010). Such a model can be considered a scheme that will guide the company in the definition and implementation of the strategy through organizational structures, processes and systems (Osterwalder, 2004). ...
... In the field of entrepreneurship, the business model canvas illustrates similar tradeoffs. Developed as part of a design science dissertation in the field of information systems ( Osterwalder, 2004 ), the 'business model ontology' traded off the goal of accurately describing the increasing variety of e-business models with the very pragmatic goal of being easy to understand and of providing "the foundation for subsequent concepts and tools, possibly computer based? " ( Osterwalder, 2004 : 2). ...
Article
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The Journal of Business Venturing Design is premised on the idea that it is productive to consider entrepreneurship a form of design and entrepreneurship studies a design science. This introductory essay will attempt to clarify and relate these concepts. But before doing so, a few words about design and artifacts in general.
... In 2013, Strategic Organization dedicated an Essay Forum to address whether the business model is "a valuable concept for strategic organization" (Coff, Felin, Langley and Rowley, 2013: 1). Prior theoretical work had focused on business model definitions (e.g., Johnson, Christensen, and Kagermann, 2008;Osterwalder, 2004) while empirical research had emphasized the significance of novel business models for high performance (e.g., Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002;Zott and Amit, 2007). Within the Forum, authors argued that the business model concept was relevant for how executives both conceptualized their businesses (Arend, 2013;Baden-Fuller and Mangematin, 2013;Eckhardt, 2013) and structured their activities (Zott and Amit, 2013). ...
Article
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In the past decade, the business model has emerged as a fundamental strategic and organizational concept. In this essay, we first "look back" to synthesize recent research on designing high-performing business models into two influential research streams. Managerial cognition grapples with the role of holistic mental models and strategic thinking for designing effective configurations of business model attributes. Learning processes address the uncertainties that emerge from the major disruptions that create opportunities for new business models. We then "look forward" to the exciting work on business models that remains for both extending current research and exploring broad societal impacts. Overall, we argue that the business model is rapidly replacing strategy as the most significant source of competitive advantage.
... The concept EA framework (Freitas et al., 2019) provides an extended list of attributes that relate technology integration to other business elements. Current approaches in the literature trigger the development of business models, but do not optimise a specific segment in the business model canvas (Osterwalder, 2004;Osterwalder et al., 2005;Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010). ...
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This paper is dedicated to the core challenge of sustainably integrating new and viable business models into logistics systems in the context of the digital transformation. On the one hand, enterprises are facing increased competitive pressure and growth gaps in their own product portfolio; on the other hand, new technology and system solutions are finding their way into enterprises. These new solutions lead to significant changes in the cost structure as well as in the process design. Especially in increasingly digitalised and automated economic sectors such as logistics, production or processing industries, the adaptation and development of the own business model requires a systematic approach that presupposes the use and integration of proven methods. In the context of designing Smart Logistics Zones the interaction of logistical objects, processes, systems and the physical and digital infrastructure is achieved in a goal-oriented manner, depending on the requirements and the situation. An interactive design of the future of human-technology organization takes places. The procedure of the Smart Logistics Zone should support entrepreneurial decision processes purposefully and on the core idea of an Industry 4.0 in preliminary way. In addition to the integrative research concept, this paper focuses on the application of the methodological approach to a reference scenario of the Smart Logistics Zone and an exemplary business model.
... The movement has created awareness among consumers who demand more from companies and translate these into value and quality concepts. Therefore, companies must respond to these expectations and demands, and must change their business models or the ways in which they capture, create, and deliver value (Weinstein, 2019;Kotler & Keller, 2016;Michelini & Fiorentino, 2011;Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010;Osterwalder, Pigneur & Tucci, 2005;Osterwalder, 2004) -this certainly can affect their bottom line, or performance and success. Hence, ignoring corporate citizenship can be costly in the long term. ...
Article
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The research highlights the voice of novice-teachers in Israeli high schools, relating specifically to academic graduates who have chosen teaching as a second career. The research aimed to identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Risk, and Threats (SWOT model) and the dreams of those experiencing the first year of their induction into teaching. This was a qualitative research analyzing learning products collected from 119 novice-teachers. The findings reveal two main paths: novice-teachers with personal strengths succeeded in identifying opportunities, embroidering dreams, and enjoying a sense of success. Contrastingly, novice-teachers whose weaknesses impeded their strengths experienced disappointment and a sense of failure.
... (2003), Osterwalder (2004), Hamel (2001), Linder e Cantrell (2000) "Conceptual models of the way we do business, in which business models describe a metamodel [28,59] ...
Thesis
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A modelagem de negócio ganhou destaque na década de 1990, após o advento da Internet no ambiente de negócios. Com a expansão do mercado digital, o uso dos meios de comunicação e produtos digitais se tornou frequente, aprofundando a dependência das empresas com as soluções digitais. Entre estas empresas estão os estúdios de jogos digitais, que se destacam pela quantidade de produtos presentes nas plataformas de distribuição de software. Os novos estúdios de jogos, em grande parte, são formados por profissionais que se agrupam, formando os estúdios independentes. Este movimento resultou no crescimento da rede de atores e de produtos, de modo que algumas das grandes empresas da indústria de jogos adotaram uma estratégia diferenciada para capturar valor deste cenário. Tal estratégia resultou na criação de plataformas tecnológicas comuns, onde os atores e produtos se integram, o que tem sido explorado com o conceito de Ecossistemas de Software (ECOS). A concorrência para atingir os consumidores, as rápidas evoluções tecnológicas, a necessidade de produção ágil e a alta qualidade exigida trazem desafios para o planejamento e gestão dos estúdios independentes imersos em ECOS de Jogos Digitais (ECOSJD). Baseado no contexto brasileiro, esta dissertação apresenta um modelo de negócio focado nos estúdios independentes em ECOSJD. O modelo proposto, intitulado Game Software Ecosystem Business Model (GSECO­BM), emergiu dos resultados de um Mapeamento Sistemático da Literatura (MSL) e de uma pesquisa de opinião (survey research). O MSL identificou outros modelos de negócio utilizados na investigação e prática de jogos digitais. Por sua vez, a pesquisa de opinião utilizou a Teoria Fundamentada em Dados (TFD) para identificar benefícios, problemas e desafios no ponto de vista de 200 participantes da academia e da indústria de jogos do Brasil. Por fim, foi conduzida uma avaliação do GSECO­BM por meio de 15 entrevistas com especialistas em jogos, resultando em uma nova versão do modelo de negócio construído. Os resultados mostram que o modelo reúne componentes relevantes para os estúdios independentes de jogos digitais, com destaque para o foco no contexto brasileiro. As contribuições desta dissertação são um modelo composto por 15 componentes, um modelo conceitual, uma metodologia de mudança e uma ferramenta de design que podem auxiliar tanto estúdios independentes na concepção e manutenção de negócios, como pesquisadores na condução de estudos sobre o funcionamento deste tipo de negócio.
... OSTERWALDER I sitt doktorgradsarbeid, som delvis tar utgangspunkt i nettbaserte bedrifter, viser Osterwalder (2004) bland annat at forretningsmodeller ofte vekker interesse hos bransjefolk. De ser at en forretningsmodell kan gi et overordnet, samlet bilde av både sentrale sider ved bedriften og av de viktige eksterne relasjonene som den er avhengig av. ...
... A business model is a complex structure that involves organizational behavior to create, deliver, and capture value. The business model is the process of creating value creation (Osterwalder, 2004). Business model innovation is the modification of a business model to capture value creation. ...
Article
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This research in the background interests researcher to the phenomenon where occur drop performance organization company, especially on product existing (voice and SMS), revolution Industry 4.0 brings challenges new for the old company for anticipating the new business models offered by player new,
... A blueprint of what individual components make up a business model, what relationships exist between them, and how they interact to generate revenue for a company (Osterwalder et al., 2005). It supports companies in defining the value proposition, i.e., the product or service they want to offer to a customer segment (Osterwalder, 2004;Teece, 2010). In this context, a business model is not a one-time fixed construct. ...
Conference Paper
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Data is an integral part of almost every business. Sharing data enables new opportunities to generate value or enrich the existing data repository, opening up new potentials for optimization and business models. However, these opportunities are still untapped, as sharing data comes with many challenges. First and foremost, aspects such as trust in partners, transparency, and the desire for security are issues that need to be addressed. Only then can data sharing be used efficiently in business models. The paper addresses this issue and generates guidance for the data-sharing business model (DSBM) design in the form of a taxonomy. The taxonomy is built on the empirical analysis of 80 DSBMs. With this, the primary contributions are structuring the field of an emerging phenomenon and outlining design options for these types of business models.
... By means of BMC, the organization can bring into line profit and value creation to customers to enable its sustainability (Ahmad & Ahmad, 2018;Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). The business model canvas conveying business model is a conceptualization of three most significant key aspects of organizations (Chesbrough, 2010); (Osterwalder, 2004): ...
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ICIB 2015 & 2016 Proceedings edited by Aristidis Bitzenis and Panagiotis Kontakos. Special thanks to Maria Elisavet Dimitriadi and Vasileios Vlachos. © 2016 «Εργαστήριο Διεθνών Σχέσεων και Ευρωπαϊκής Ολοκλήρωσης του Πανεπιστημίου Μακεδονίας» Πανεπιστήμιο Μακεδονίας Οικονομικών και Κοινωνικών Επιστημών, Εγνατία 156, Τ.Κ. 54006, Θεσσαλονίκη. http://www.diethneis-sxeseis.gr Τμήμα Διεθνών και Ευρωπαϊκών Σπουδών Τηλ. 2310 891498 | Fax: 2310 891465 Μπιτζένης Π. Αριστείδης, Ph.D. ISBN 978-618-5255-01-5 (e-book) 978-618-5255-00-8 (Hard Copy) ISSN 2241-5645
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this paper we introduce Ontologies as a basis for modelling enterprises. An ontology "consists of a representational vocabulary with precise definitions of the meanings of the terms of this vocabulary plus a set of formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms." [Campbell & Shapiro 95]. Axioms provide the basis of an ontology's deductive capability. We begin by introducing the concept of a Generic Enterprise Model (GEM). We then extend the concept of a GEM to a Deductive Enterprise Model (DEM) and then briefly review research to date
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Under capitalism there is a potential for increasing socioeconomic complexity and greater specialization of skills. 1 One implication is that there is a potential for increasing inequalities of wealth, income, and power on both a national and international scale. What follows is an updated, broad-brush account of possible future developments in a knowledge-intensive capitalist economy. They can themselves be manifest in different ways, in a number of quite different institutional frameworks (Hodgson 2001).
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Abstract This paper examines in detail the meaning of two frequently used—and misused—terms, namely, “business model” and “strategy”. It is argued that as used by leading thinkers these two terms might reasonably be interpreted as having roughly equivalent meanings. However, we argue that there is another distinct and potentially useful role for the term “business model”. In this role, strategies would be treated as grounded firmly in the real world, whereas business models would be,treated as abstractions of firms’ real-world strategies. Such abstractions, it is argued, have attracted the attention of so many researchers because they are useful for evaluating alternative possible future ways,of building profitable businesses. Keywords
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Der Begriff „Geschäftsmodell“ bzw. englisch „business model“ ist mit der Verbreitung des Electronic Commerce in der Zeit von 1996–2000 zum Modewort avanciert und wird ebenso häufig wie uneinheitlich in journalistischen wie wissenschaftlichen Quellen verwendet. ■ Der Artikel rekonstruiert die Verwendung des Begriffs „Geschäftsmodell“ und seine unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen. Ausgehend vom Begriffsverständnis, das in der Literatur anzufinden ist, wird eine Arbeitsdefinition erarbeitet. ■ Der Begriff wird von anderen, bisweilen synonym verwendeten Begriffen abgegrenzt und die Berechtigung und der Nutzen eines eigenständigen Begriffs „Geschäftsmodell“ in der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Forschung wird erörtert. Dabei wird auch auf ein möglicherweise geändertes Konzept der strategischen Planung Bezug genommen.
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This chapter intrudes the book that focuses on e-Business. The book is divided into four parts, each of which discusses e-Business in the context of one of the following topics: ontologies and taxonomies, markets and strategies, performance measurement and value creation, and applications and services. The book combines material by scholars mainly from the business school, information systems (IS), and computer science areas. The first part of the book on ontologies and taxonomies presents contributions that largely seek to understand the concept of e-Business model and its relationship to other areas and to delineate e-Business models into their component parts. The second part of the book on markets and strategies combines material on both external (market) factors and internal (organizational) strategy making. The third part of the book on performance measurement and value creation identifies some of the methods and tools for evaluating success and failure factors from e-Business, which is a perennial theme within the literature. In the fourth part of the book, the accent is on software applications and services used in e-Business. This covers the development and implementation of emerging technologies for healthcare, supply-chain e-Management systems, and Web services. Indeed, all the chapters in this book point to the need for more rigor and relevance in both developing and implementing e-Business solutions.
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Executive Overview In November 1998, authors of papers in the special issue met to discuss their papers, receive feedback, and integrate themes. After the presentations, the authors devoted a morning to discussion of common themes in the papers, and the identification of opportunities for further integration and research. This article presents a synthesis of those discussions.
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Management tools such as strategic planning, benchmarking, pay-for-performance, outsourcing, customer segmentation, reengineering, balanced scorecard, and total quality management garner considerable attention in the popular management literature. Companies throughout the world spend millions of dollars each year implementing a dozen or so of these tools. This survey examines the usage of these tools over a seven-year period, assesses user satisfaction with the tools, and attempts to correlate tool usage with company performance. It identifies tools that have been consistently used over time as well as those that seem to have been passing fads.
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Manufacturers must accurately understand user needs in order to develop successful products-but the task is becoming steadily more difficult as user needs change more rapidly, and as firms increasingly seek to serve “markets of one.” User toolkits for innovation allow manufacturers to actually abandon their attempts to understand user needs in detail in favor of transferring need-related aspects of product and service development to users along with an appropriate toolkit.User toolkits for innovation are specific to given product or service type and to a specified production system. Within those general constraints, they give users real freedom to innovate, allowing them to develop their custom product via iterative trial-and-error. That is, users can create a preliminary design, simulate or prototype it, evaluate its functioning in their own use environment, and then iteratively improve it until satisfied. As the concept is evolving, toolkits guide the user to insure that the completed design can be produced on the intended production system without change.Pioneering applications in areas ranging from the development of custom integrated circuits to the development of custom foods show that user toolkits for innovation can be much more effective than traditional, manufacturer-based development methods.
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This study analyzes organization of economic activity within and between markets and hierarchies. It considers the transaction to be the ultimate unit of microeconomic analysis, and defines hierarchical transactions as ones for which a single administrative entity spans both sides of the transaction, some form of subordination prevails and, typically, consolidated ownership obtains. Discusses the advantages of the transactional approach by examining three issues: price discrimination, insurance, and vertical integration. Develops the concept of the organizational failure framework, and demonstrates why it is always the combination of human with environmental factors, not either taken by itself, that causes transactional problems. The study also describes each of the transactional relations of interest, and presents the advantages of internal organization with respect to the transactional condition. The analysis explains why primary work groups of the peer group and simple hierarchy types arise. The same transactional factor which impede autonomous contracting between individuals also impede market exchange between technologically separable work groups. Peer groups can be understood as an internal organizational response to the frictions of intermediate product markets, while conglomerate organization can be seen as a response to failures in the capital market. In both contexts, the same human factors, such as bounded rationality and opportunism, occur. Examines the reasons for and properties of the employment relation, which is commonly associated with voluntary subordination. The analysis attempts better to assess the employment relation in circumstances where workers acquire, during the course of the employment, significant job-specific skills and knowledge. The study compares alternative labor-contracting modes and demonstrates that collective organization is helpful in enhancing the acquisition of idiosyncratic knowledge and skills by the work force. The study then examines more complex structures -- the movement from simple hierarchies to the vertical integration of firms, then multidivisional structures, conglomerates, monopolies and oligopolies. Discusses the market structure in relation to technical and organizational innovation. The study proposes a systems approach to the innovation process. Its purpose is to permit the realization of the distinctive advantages of both small and large firms which apply at different stages of the innovation process. The analysis also examines the relation of organizational innovation to technological innovation. (AT)
This paper analyzes the availability of electronic customer relationship management (E-CRM) features on retail Web sites and their relationship to consumer satisfaction and site traffic. The top 100 specialty store, standard retail store, and Internet retailer Web sites were analyzed for the presence of 41 E-CRM features. The availability of these features was then assessed for their relationship with consumer traffic to the site and customer satisfaction with the site. Internet retailers were significantly more likely to have E-CRM attributes on their site. However only the chat feature, spare parts availability, gift certificate purchase, mailing address, search engine, links, and a company profile were associated with customer satisfaction. No E-CRM feature was associated with customer traffic to a site. Standard retailers appear to be behind in implementing E-CRM features in current operations. It is not clear that retailers understand what aspects of E-CRM will be important in customer satisfaction.
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Product R&D at many companies is a major bottleneck. The difficulty is that fully understanding the needs of just a single customer can be an inexact and costly process - to say nothing of the needs of all customers or even groups of them. In the course of studying product innovation across many industries, authors Stefan Thomke and Eric von Hippel have found several companies that have adopted a completely new, seemingly counterintuitive, approach to product R&D. Essentially, these companies have abandoned their efforts to understand exactly what products their customers want; instead, they equip customers with tool kits to design and develop their own products. Doing so can create tremendous value, but capturing that value is hardly a simple or straightforward process. Not only must a company develop the right tool kit, but it must also revamp its business models and management mind-set. When companies relinquish a fundamental task-such as designing a new product-to customers, the two parties must redefine their relationship, and this change can be risky. With custom computer chips, for instance, companies traditionally captured value by both designing and manufacturing innovative products. With customers taking over more of the design, companies must now focus more on providing the best custom manufacturing. In other words, the location where value is created and is captured changes, and companies must reconfigure their business models accordingly. This article offers basic principles and lessons for industries undergoing such transformations.
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After explaining why business executives and academics should consider thinking about a rigorous approach to e-business models, we introduce a new e-Business Model Ontology. Using the concept of business models can help companies understand, communicate and share, change, measure, simulate and learn more about the different aspects of e-business in their firm. The generic e-Business Model Ontology (a rigorous definition of the e-business issues and their interdependencies in a company's business model), which we outline in this paper is the foundation for the development of various useful tools for e-business management and IS Requirements Engineering. The e-Business Model Ontology is based on an extensive literature review and describes the logic of a "business system" for creating value in the Internet era. It is composed of four main pillars, which are product innovation, infrastructure management, customer relationship and financials. These elements are then further decomposed.