ArticlePDF Available

Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Including Skunk Liquid, Household Cleaning Products, and Others - Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

FOR CITATION: Salem, H.S. (2019). Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Including Skunk Liquid, Household Cleaning Products, and Others. Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control 2(1): 106 (15 Pages). URLs: http://www.annexpublishers.com/articles/JEPC/2106-Sources-of-Indoor-Air-Pollutants-in-the-Occupied-Palestinian-Territories-Including-Skunk-Liquid-Household-Cleaning-Products-and-Others.pdf and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336812632_Sources_of_Indoor_Air_Pollutants_in_the_Occupied_Palestinian_Territories_Including_Skunk_Liquid_Household_Cleaning_Products_and_Others_-_Journal_of_Environmental_Pollution_and_Control ABSTRACT The air pollution’s situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) can be simply described as ‘catastrophic.’ Something uniquely characterizes the indoor air pollution in this region of the world, which is the noisome substance, known as ‘Skunk liquid,’ used by the Israeli occupation forces against innocent, nonviolent Palestinians and their properties. Skunk liquid, with reference to the animal ‘Skunk,’ is an obnoxious-odor’s liquid and a unique indoor and outdoor air pollution source, being used only in the OPT, where the Palestinian citizens have no control on it. Skunk liquid’s odor is overpowering; it feels like the smell of a mixture of raw sewage, sulfur, and rotten animal corpses. The use of Skunk liquid is intended to cause humiliation to Palestinians, as well as health and environmental harms, including indoor pollution. In addition to the many other kinds of lethal and nonlethal weapons that Israel has been using against innocent, nonviolent Palestinians in the OPT, Skunk liquid, in particular, has become one of the efficient, remarkable nonlethal weapons that Israel has been frequently and constantly using against Palestinians since it was first used in August 2008 in the West Bank’s village of Ni’lin. Since then, and according to Israeli and international civil- and human-rights organizations, Skunk liquid has been used, indiscriminately, by the Israeli occupation forces as a punitive measure against Palestinian crowds, homes, shops, schools, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, entire neighborhoods, and even at funeral processions in Palestinian cities, towns, villages, and refugee camps. After Skunk liquid makes contact with persons or objects, its putrid stench can stay for days and even weeks, causing nausea; vomiting; skin rash, irritation, and redness; eye irradiation; abdominal pain; suffocation; excessive coughing; headaches; ataxia; etc. In this paper, indoor air pollution, resulting from Skunk liquid, and other sources, including household cleaning products, smoking, etc. is investigated, analyzed, and discussed, with respect to their adverse impacts on health and the environment. However, monitoring mechanisms, including field observations, laboratory analyses, data collection (such as questionnaires and others), and computer modeling are still needed. KEYWORDS: Indoor Air Pollution Including Skunk Liquid Pollutant; Skunk Animal; Household Cleaning Products and Other Indoor Pollutants; Civil and Human Rights Organizations; Humiliation; Palestine (Occupied) and Israeli Occupation
Content may be subject to copyright.
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants in the Occupied Palestinian Territories,
Including Skunk Liquid, Household Cleaning Products, and Others
Salem HS*
Sustainable Development Research Institute, Bethlehem, West Bank, Palestine (Occupied)
*Corresponding author: Salem HS, Ph.D. (Prof. Dr.), Sustainable Development Research Institute, Bethlehem,
West Bank, Palestine (Occupied), E-mail: hilmisalem@yahoo.com
Citation: Salem HS (2019) Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Including
Skunk Liquid, Household Cleaning Products, and Others. J Environ Pollut Control 2(1): 106
Research article Open Access
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
is paper aims to explore and identify the problem of indoor air pollution, in general, and the use of the Skunk liquid, in particular,
that is uniquely used in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) by the Israeli occupation forces. is paper presents a very
important topic, with respect to the public health, the environment, and humanitarian issues. It is the inhumane use of the Skunk
liquid against innocent, nonviolent Palestinian citizens in the OPT, as it is widely used against crowds, homes, restaurants, hotels,
and other places, causing outdoor and indoor air pollution at the same time. To the best of the Author’s knowledge, this topic
is investigated herein for the rst time in such a technical, scientic, and legal manner, based on arguments made available by
observers, including Israeli and international civil and human rights organizations.
ISSN: 2639-9288
Abstract
e air pollutions situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) can be simply described as ‘catastrophic.’ Something unique-
ly characterizes the indoor air pollution in this region of the world, which is the noisome substance, known as ‘Skunk liquid,’ used by
the Israeli occupation forces against innocent, nonviolent Palestinians and their properties. Skunk liquid, with reference to the animal
‘Skunk,’ is an obnoxious-odor’s liquid and a unique indoor and outdoor air pollution source, being used only in the OPT, where the
Palestinian citizens have no control on it. Skunk liquids odor is overpowering; it feels like the smell of a mixture of raw sewage, sulfur,
and rotten animal corpses. e use of Skunk liquid is intended to cause humiliation to Palestinians, as well as health and environmen-
tal harms, including indoor pollution. In addition to the many other kinds of lethal and nonlethal weapons that Israel has been using
against innocent, nonviolent Palestinians in the OPT, Skunk liquid, in particular, has become one of the ecient, remarkable nonlethal
weapons that Israel has been frequently and constantly using against Palestinians since it was rst used in August 2008 in the West
Bank’s village of Ni’lin. Since then, and according to Israeli and international civil- and human-rights organizations, Skunk liquid has
been used, indiscriminately, by the Israeli occupation forces as a punitive measure against Palestinian crowds, homes, shops, schools,
hospitals, hotels, restaurants, entire neighborhoods, and even at funeral processions in Palestinian cities, towns, villages, and refugee
camps. Aer Skunk liquid makes contact with persons or objects, its putrid stench can stay for days and even weeks, causing nausea;
vomiting; skin rash, irritation, and redness; eye irradiation; abdominal pain; suocation; excessive coughing; headaches; ataxia; etc.
In this paper, indoor air pollution, resulting from Skunk liquid, and other sources, including household cleaning products, smoking,
etc. is investigated, analyzed, and discussed, with respect to their adverse impacts on health and the environment. However, monitor-
ing mechanisms, including eld observations, laboratory analyses, data collection (such as questionnaires and others), and computer
modeling are still needed.
Keywords: Indoor Air Pollution Including Skunk Liquid Pollutant; Skunk Animal; Household Cleaning Products and Other Indoor
Pollutants; Civil and Human Rights Organizations; Humiliation; Palestine (Occupied) and Israeli Occupation
List of abbreviations: ACRI: Association for Civil Rights in Israel; AHA: American Heart Association; AP: Air Pollution; CO: Carbon
Monoxide; CO2: Carbon Dioxide; DNA: Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid; EPA: Environmental Protection Agency, USA; GIS: Geographic
Information System; GPDM: Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model; HCPs: Household Cleaning Products; IAP: Indoor Air Pollution;
INCLO: International Network of Civil Liberties Organization; MAN: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg, Germany; MD: Medi-
cal Doctor; NO2: Nitrogen Dioxide; NOx: Nitrogen Oxides; OAP: Outdoor Air Pollution; OPT: Occupied Palestinian Territories; PA:
Palestinian Authority; PERC: Perchloroethylene; PHR: Physicians for Human Rights; PM: Particulate Matter: PM2.5: Particulate Mat-
ter 2.5 Micrometers or Less in Diameter; PM10: Particulate Matter 10 Micrometers or Less in Diameter; PMs: All Sizes of Particulate
Matter; QUATS: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; SO2: Sulfur Dioxide; SO4: Sulfate; TVs: Televisions; VAMC: Virginia Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College, USA; VOCs: Volatile Organic Compounds; WHO: World Health Organization, UN; WPTS: Water-Pipe
Tobacco Smoke; °C: Celsius Degrees; cc: Cubic Centimeter; °F: Fahrenheit Degrees; gm: Gram; kg: Kilogram; km: Kilometer; km2:
Square Kilometer; m: Meter; mm: Millimeter; ppm: Part per Million; μm: Micrometer or Micron (One-Millionth of a Meter); μg/m3:
Microgram (One-Millionth of a Gram) per Cubic Meter; %: Percentage
Practical Implications
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
2Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
Air pollution (AP) is generally dened as “e presence in, or introduction into the air of, a substance that has harmful or
poisonous eects.” Outdoor air pollution (OAP) can be dened as “e presence of solids, liquids, or gases in outdoor air in
amounts that are injurious or detrimental to human health and/or the environment,” or as “e substance (such as smoke, dust,
and obnoxious odors) that interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life and/or property.” Indoor air pollution (IAP) is dened
as “e pollution that refers to chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air.
AP is a concentration of foreign matter in the air that adversely aects the health and welfare of people and the environment. Air
pollutants include liquid, solid, gaseous, radioactive, and microbial substances suspended in the air, which are related to man-
made activities (such as industry, construction, transportation, communication, agriculture, etc.); and also to naturally-occurring
activities (such as gases released from volcanoes, biological decay, and forest res). According to a report issued in September
2016 by the World Health Organization (WHO 2016a) [1], health of more than 90% of the world’s population is aected by AP
(both OAP and IAP). erefore, AP continues to rise at alarming rates, and, thus, it aects economies and people’s quality of life,
representing a public health emergency.
Nowadays, AP (both OAI and IAP) is considered, in many countries around the world, as one of the main sources of morbidity
and mortality. Some studies (e.g., Raven-Ellison 2016) [2] indicate the following: 1) 10,000 people died as a result of AP in London,
UK, in 2015 alone; 2) Alzheimer disease could be caused by toxic AP’s particles found in brain tissues; and 3) One in seven children
(around 15% of the children) in London, UK, did not play in a natural environment in 2015. As related to IAP, in particular, the
United States’ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that indoor environment is 2–5 times more toxic than outdoor
environment, and in some cases, the air measurements indoors have been found to be 100 times more polluted (EPA 2016).
However, because of the political situation, it is not easy at all to undertake eld measurements and laboratory analyses, regarding
the Skunk liquid used by the Israeli occupation forces against Palestinians in the OPT. Nevertheless, in view of the available
information, the health and environmental impacts of the use of the Skunk liquid, as well as of other pollutants used in the
OPT are investigated in this paper. In view of the outcomes of this paper, medical doctors, environmentalists, research scientist,
academicians, educators, politicians, human-rights’ activists, and policy-makers, as well as international organizations should
collaborate for the purpose of supporting further investigations in the future, regarding the issues discussed in this paper, especially
the Israeli use of the Skunk liquid against Palestinians in the OPT.
It is noteworthy to mention that what is further needed on the topic of the illegal use of the Skunk liquid by the Israelis in the OPT
is assessment of the air quality. is can be done by taking some indoor measurements of the odor-type material (Skunk liquid) at
several houses and in dierent places across the OPT, and/or by predicting them with some air-quality models (for instance, the
Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model (GPDM)). Also, with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, maps of the
distribution of the Skunk liquids concentration can be obtained, based on the measurements of air quality, indoors and outdoors.
Nevertheless, in the presence of highly complicated geopolitical circumstances in the OPT and of the Israeli restrictions enforced
on the Palestinian population in the OPT, it can be concluded that these techniques are out of reach at the present time.
In this brief introduction, a background is presented on air pollution, in general, including denitions of indoor and outdoor air
pollution and their sources, as well as their impacts on public health and the environment, followed by the aim of this paper.
Background
Dierent pollutants cause IAP, depending on their sources, which include: 1) Natural sources, including, for instance, radon and
biological contaminants; 2) Combustion process, generating carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxides (NOx),
sulfur dioxide (SO2), and respirable suspended particles or particulate matter (PM); and 3) Man-made sources, including, for in-
stance, asbestos, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, low-pressure mercury vapor, argon, krypton, lead, polybro-
minated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, phenol, toluene, 2-ethylhexanol, and styrene.
ese chemical pollutants are found in/ caused by/ resulted from/ several materials, appliances, and sources, including, for exam-
ple, under-buildings’ soils and rocks; construction products; house dusts; infected humans and animals; beddings; poorly main-
tained humidiers; dehumidiers; air conditions; air lters; wet or moist surfaces; carpets and carpets’ vacuuming; home’s furnish-
ings; heating (furnaces, water heaters, and kerosene and natural gas’ heaters); charcoal grills; wood and coal stoves; re-places;
chimneys; cook tops and ovens; gasoline’s and diesel’s engines; tobacco’s smoke (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and water-pipes known as
‘Hookah,’ ‘Shisha,’ ‘Argileh,’ or ‘Nargileh’); aerosol and hair sprays; perfumes; solvents; glues and adhesives; fabrics soeners; dry-
cleaned clothing; households cleaning products (bleaching and cleaning solutions, etc.); moth-balls; pesticides; paints; damaged or
deteriorating ceilings and walls; exterior siding; pipe’s and thermal insulations; vinyl-asbestos oor’s materials; acoustic materials;
re-proofs gaskets; children’s plastic toys and games; cosmetics and personal care products (such as deodorizers, perfumes, etc.);
air fresheners; food’s and beverage’s packaging; indoor (and outdoor) re-works; and electronic and electrical appliances (such as
TVs, refrigerators, fans, computers, cell phones, etc.).
Indoor Air Pollutants and eir Sources and Health Impacts
Introduction
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
3
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
ese pollutants and their sources can result in health impacts, ranging from mild to moderate, and from severe to fatal,
aecting the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and other systems in the body. e health impacts include: colds;
ues; rash; irritation (burning eyes, burning nose, sore throat); chronic runny nose; sinus problems; coughing; headaches;
drowsiness; dizziness; fatigue; light and noise sensitivity; sleeping disorder; lethargy; nausea; muscle and joint pain; digestive
problems; allergies; asthma; breathlessness; neurological symptoms (mental confusion, neuro-developmental disorders);
memory problems (forgetfulness, poor concentration); respiration systems impairment (damage to respiratory tract and
lungs); damage to liver, kidneys, and brain; strokes; Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases; cancers; and even death (see, for
instance, Genc et al. 2012) [3].
e Occupied Palestinian Territories are recognized for their environmental problems caused by the Israeli military occupation
forces and the Israeli settlers. ese problems include the indoor air pollution and the outdoor air pollution. is paper reviews some
of the available data, regarding the indoor air pollution sources, including the Skunk liquid used by the Israeli occupation forces
against innocent, nonviolent Palestinians and their properties in the OPT. e pollution resulting from the Israeli-manufactured
and used Skunk liquid is treated in this paper as an indoor air pollution source. is is based on the denition of IAP, given above,
as “e pollution that refers to chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air.” Palestinian homes and other indoor
places are badly aected by chemical, biological, and physical contamination caused by the Skunk liquid sprayed at them (homes,
etc.) by the Israeli occupation forces.
is paper also discusses some other indoor air pollution sources, which also aect human health and the environment. is
paper is prepared with the aim of providing a reference/background for future scientic research of strategic relevance for the
OPT’s air quality management under a multi-pollutant framework, as well as in view of human- and civil-rights violations of the
Palestinian people living under the Israeli military occupation. However, the limited publicly accessible data and the little scientic
information prevent a comprehensive assessment of the local air quality in the OPT.
is awareness and eye-opening study was carried out with the focus on the OPT, including the West Bank (including East
Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip. As it is the rst of its kind, this study opens eyes on the great violations of the very basic human-
and civil-rights of the Palestinian people, experiencing very harsh, inhumane conditions under the Israeli military occupation
of the Palestinian Territories for more than 52 years now (i.e., since June 1967). is is due to the fact that the Israeli occupation
authorities (represented in the Israeli government, army, police, and settlers) have greatly endangered the public health of the
Palestinian population, and the environment in the OPT. is is despite the fact that environmental pollution does not know
borders, meaning that the environmental and health negative impacts caused by the Israeli occupation authorities are also reected
on the Israelis themselves at various levels.
It is worth-mentioning that it is not easy or even not possible to undertake eld or laboratory work in the OPT, regarding the
environmental and health-related problems investigated in this study, namely the use of the ‘Skunk liquid’ by the Israeli occupation
forces against innocent, nonviolent Palestinians. is is due to the dicult circumstances resulting from the Israeli military
occupation. However, it is still hoped that some eld and laboratory measurements and analyses, as well as computer modeling can
be undertaken in the future. Aside from eld and laboratory measurements and analyses to investigate the pollution levels caused
by the Skunk liquid and to monitor air quality in the OPT, one of the eective techniques that can be used for such purpose is the
use of the Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model (GPDM). is technique requires identication of the following factors: 1) Source
characteristics, such as the emission rate, and the distance of the receptor from the source; 2) Site and surrounding conditions; and
3) Meteorological/atmospheric conditions, such as the wind speed, wind direction, and the vertical temperature structure of the
local atmosphere (see, for instance, Melli and Runca 1979 [4]; Miller and Hively 1987 [5]; Liu et al. 2001 [6]; Abdel-Rahman 2008
[7]; Oura et al. 2018) [8].
e GPDM uses a realistic description of pollutants’ dispersion, where it represents an analytical solution to the diusion equation
for idealized circumstances. However, the GPDM assumes that the atmospheric turbulence is both stationary and homogeneous,
whereas in reality none of these conditions is fully satised. Regarding the monitoring of the pollution caused by the Skunk liquid
used by the Israeli forces, some of the factors needed to be introduced in the GPDM are not easy to obtain simultaneously, because
of reasons beyond control.
e environmental status in the OPT, including the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, can be simply
described as ‘disastrous’ (Salem 2019a) [9]. According to a study issued by the World Health Organization (WHO 2016b) [10], the
Israeli factories and their solid, liquid, and gaseous waste products pose a threat to the environment and to the physical and mental
health of the Palestinian population, which certainly have economic repercussions. Based on the same report (WHO 2016b)
[10], the status of the environment in the OPT represents the oen negative relationship between the Israeli occupation and the
dramatically accelerated environmental degradation (Figure 1).
Aim of the Study
Environmental Status in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT)
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
4
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
e practices of the Israeli occupation in the OPT and the Israeli control over the Palestinian population and their lands and natu-
ral resources have systematically hindered sustainable development in the OPT (Salem 2019a) [9]. e Israeli practices have badly
contributed to poverty increase among Palestinians, and to the damages inicted on the environment, which have resulted in severe
problems, including, for instance, the following:
1) e OPT’s dense population: e OPT, with an area of only around 6,000 km2, is the area where more than 5.1 million Pales-
tinians and around one million Jewish settlers live; 2) e OPT’s high population’s density: It is generally 800 persons/km2 (5,154
persons/km2 in the Gaza Strip and 519 persons/km2 in the West Bank, in mid-2016) (PCBS 2016); 3) e high rate of the annual
population growth: For the Palestinians it was 2.9% in 2015 (World Bank 2016) [12], and for the Jewish settlers it was 3.6% by
December 2012 (Cohen and Gordon 2012) [13]; 4) e Oslo Accords’ division of the occupied West Bank into three areas (A,
B, and C), which has made ‘Area C’ and large parts of ‘Area B, in particular, out of reach to many of the West Bank’s Palestin-
ians, especially the farmers (Salem 2019b) [14]; 5) e land degradation: It is resulted from the non-stopping conscation of the
Palestinian lands by the Israeli government, soldiers, and settlers; 6) e depletion of water and other natural resources, as Israel
has a full control over the natural resources, including, most importantly, the water resources (the Palestinians in the OPT obtain
less than 15% of their rightful water resources, while more than 85% of their water resources is taken by the Israelis (Salem and
Isaac 2007 [15]; IMEMCnews 2016 [16]; Salem 2019a [9]; Salem 2019b [14]); 7) e deterioration of biodiversity, along with the
rapid rate of desertication (Salem 2008) [17]. Israel has uprooted over a million trees since 1967, mainly olive trees that belong
to Palestinians (Chelala 2015 [18]; Salem 2019a [9]); 8) e water-, soil-, and air-pollution (Salem 2019a [9]); 9) e solid and
uid wastes (including hazardous waste) (Salem et al. 2007) [11]; 10) e climate change impacts (Salem 2008 [17]; Salem 2011)
[19]; 11) e lack or weakness of environmental administration, represented in the lack of regulations, rules, laws, and awareness
programs, etc.); and 12) e long-lasting problem of the Palestinian refugees (i.e. since 1948, where the situation in the Palestin-
ian refugee camps (established since 1948) is really miserable. Further details on these problems are given in Salem (2019a [9];
Salem 2019b [14]).
e huge demonstrations, which have been taking place in the Gaza Strip lately, started on 30 March 2018 and are still going, reect
the wishes and hopes of the Palestinian citizens in the Gaza Strip to go back to their homes, lands, and hometowns in Historic
Palestine, from where they were driven out in 1948. As a result of the demonstrations, which have been taking place peacefully,
hundreds of innocent Palestinians were killed and thousands were injured at the hands of the Israeli occupation forces. As related
to this, another environmental problem has been developing over there, because clouds of thick black smoke billowed across the
edges of the Gaza Strip with the Israeli borders, as Palestinian protesters use burning tires in an attempt to shield themselves from
the Israeli snipers’ re shot at them by heavily armed Israeli troops (Morris et al. 2018) [20].
Figure 1: e relationship between environmental degradation in the Occupied Palestinian
Territories (OPT) and the Israeli Occupation (Source: Aer Salem et al. 2007) [11]
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
5
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
A great deal of the Israeli pollutants ends in the OPT, because, in addition to the adverse impacts of the Israeli colonies (settlements
for-Jews-only), many Israeli factories exist there, and also due to the fact that the wind blows mainly from west to east (i.e., from
Israel to the OPT). Air pollution in the OPT is mainly due to the following anthropogenic sources (Salem 2015) [21]:
Such impacts have become even more damaging, due to the eects of other factors, such as the high temperatures, the aridity and
semi-aridity climate conditions aecting the region, and the OAP’s sources, including the stone and marble industry, and the sand-
and dust-storms caused by the ‘Khamsīn’ (or ‘Khamaseen’), which is a Middle-Eastern term for dry, hot winds that blow in from
the desert in North Africa and that take place, generally, from March through May, and sometimes during other months of the
year, as a result of climate change (Salem 2015) [21]. ese conditions, along with the climate change impacts and the shortages of
water due to the Israeli control over the Palestinian water resources (Salem and Isaac 2007 [15]; Salem 2019a [9]; Salem 2019b [14]),
the OPT have witnessed, during the last few decades, considerable periods of draught (Yihdego et al. 2019), representing another
environmental problem aecting the OPT.
A) e unlawful activities of the Israeli occupation forces and settlers, including: A.1) e use of all kinds of weapons during the
Israeli several wars (especially during the wars launched on the Gaza Strip), the Israeli intrusions of the Palestinian communities,
and the intensive ght against public demonstrations and uprisings (known in Arabic as ‘Intifadas’); and A.2) e presence of the
Israeli factories in the OPT, which produce large amounts of solid-, uid-, and volatile-pollutants (hazardous, chemical, industrial,
organic, etc.) that badly aect the neighboring Palestinian communities and the environment. B) e Palestinian unlawful activi-
ties, including: B.1) e industrial activities, particularly the stone and marble (commercial name) industry that includes quarry-
ing, cutting, polishing, crushing, transporting, etc., which badly pollutes the air, water, soil, and the vegetations cover and, thus,
badly aects the public health and the environment; B.2) e transport sector; B.3) e tires’ burning which Palestinians use during
demonstrations, as a tool to express their anger and opposition against the activities of the Israeli military occupation, and to shield
themselves from Israeli snipers who shoot at them; B.4) e landlls’ and open-air waste burning; B.5) e open-air waste dump-
ing (hazardous, chemical, industrial, organic, etc.); B.6) e open-air animal slaughterhouses; B.7) e intensive use of chemical
fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, etc.; and B.8) e wide-use of reworks, day and night throughout the year.
Indoor air pollutants and their sources in the OPT are not much dierent from those in other countries and regions of the world,
except the dierence in the intensity and frequent use of the pollutants’ sources, and, in particular, the use of the Skunk liquid by the
Israeli occupation forces against Palestinian citizens. Following are some examples of the main sources that cause IAP in the OPT,
starting with the Skunk liquid which will be discussed in some detail, as being the primary target of this paper:
e Israelis (successive governments, ministries, institutions, soldiers, police, settlers, industries, etc.) have never hesitated to al-
ways invent, manufacture, and import new hazardous, toxic, and lethal and nonlethal weapons to be used against the Palestinian
people in the OPT. One of the nonlethal weapons used by Israel against the Palestinian people in the OPT is the Skunk liquid, with
reference to the animal ‘Skunk.’ e animal ‘Skunk’ is discussed in the following section in order to explain the scientic linkages
(biologically, chemically, and physically) between the Israeli-used weapon – Skunk liquid – and the animal ‘Skunk.’ is is with
the consideration that environmental sciences and engineering are based on understanding the biology, chemistry, and physics of
things, which should help in nding solutions for environmental problems.
Skunk Liquid
Air Pollution in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT)
Indoor Air Pollution in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT)
Figure 2: Le: Pictures of dierent kinds of the animal ‘Skunk;’ Middle: Skunks skeleton; and Right: e major chemical compounds of Skunks defensive
secretion, including: (E)-2-butene-1-thiol (1); 3-methyl-1-butanethiol (2); S-(E)-2-butenyl thioacetate (3); S-3-methylbutenyl thioacetate (4); 2-phenyle-
thanethiol (5); 2-methylquinoline (6); and 2-quinolinemethanethiol (7) (Source: Aer Wood 1999 [24]; Wood et al. 2002 [25]; Wikipedia and MoO 2019) [26].
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
6Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
Skunks, varying in size, although most are the size of a house cat with average life span in the wild of 3 years, are omnivorous
animals, eating both plant and animal materials, and changing their diets as the seasons change (NG 2019). ey eat insects and
larvae, earthworms, grubs, rodents, lizards, salamanders, rats, mice, snakes, frogs, birds, moles, eggs, and sh, as well as berries,
roots, leaves, grasses, fungi, and nuts, and in settled areas they also eat garbage le by humans. is video (1:12 minutes) briey
gives an idea about what makes the odor of Skunk’s spray so terrible. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/
ask-smithsonian-what-makes-skunk-spray-smell-so-terrible-180955553/ (Ault 2015) [27].
As powerful as it is, the spray of the animal ‘Skunk’ is a closely-guarded ‘weapon of mass destruction,’ says Kenton Kerns, a biologist
at the ‘Small Mammal House of the Smithsonian’s National Zoo’ in Washington, D.C., USA (Ault 2015) [27]. is kind of weapon
is never used in skunk-on-skunk ghts over territory, but it is, usually and sparingly, used only against predators that do not get the
message. A single spray could almost completely deplete the liquid of the animal ‘Skunk, which is produced in its anal glands. It is
constantly being made in a slow process, which could take up to 10 days to rell the glands, during which time the animal ‘Skunk
would be highly vulnerable to predators like wolves, badgers, coyotes, and great horned owls.
e animal ‘Skunk’ can even control accurately the distance between itself and predators, so as to not waste its precious liquid
against them. Usually, a very small squirt is released—enough to make a predator (an animal or a curious human) stop, turn
around, and run away. According to OKP (2016) [28], the animal ‘Skunk’ is on the top (No. 1) of the ‘Ten Smelliest Animals,’ using
odor as a weapon (Nelson 2014) [29]. Because of their lack of speed, Skunks do not try to outrun their attackers.Instead, they rely on
their rancid spray for protection. e pungent liquid is a mix of sulfuric chemicals which they can spray accurately at threats up to 3
m away, with the foul odor reaching up to a mile [≈ 1.61 km] away. Despite the power of their spray, Skunks don’t really like to use it
as they only carry about 15cc [15 cubic centimeter = 15 mm] of the chemicals in their body (enough for about 5–8 sprays), and it can
take a week to replenish the supply” (OKP 2016) [28].
In addition to its notorious odor, the spray of the animal ‘Skunk’ can cause even temporary blindness. Aside from the oensive
smell that lingers for days or even weeks, the Skunk’s spray is intensely irritating and can cause temporary blindness in anyone
unfortunate enough to get caught in the stream (Keyser 2015) [22]. Even if one is nowhere near the scene of the Skunks spray,
one could still suer the unpleasant consequences. Accordingly, people can detect the scent from anywhere up to a mile (≈ 1.61
km) away from the spraying animal ‘Skunk.
As seen in Figure 2–Right, the spray secreted by the animal ‘Skunk’ is composed of 7 dierent chemical compounds (Wood 1999
[24]; Wood et al. 2002 [25]). ese complex compounds can be detected by the human nose at concentrations of only 10 ppm,
because they have extremely obnoxious odor (Wood et al. 2002) [25]. e secreted chemicals of the animal ‘Skunk’ are composed
of four chemical elements, which are: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) (Figure 2–Right). High concentra-
tions of the spray of the animal ‘Skunk’ can be toxic. Hydrogen sulde is very toxic to humans; methanethiol at concentrations of
1 part per 100 in air can kill rats (Wood 1999) [24]. Aldrich (1896) [30] made the following speculation, indicating that the toxic
properties of compounds in the spray of the animal ‘Skunk’ might result in death: “e substance is a powerful anaesthetic, and has
also been used as an antispasmodic. When inhaled without the admixture of a large amount of air, the victim loses consciousness, the
temperature falls, the pulse slackens, and, if the inhalation were prolonged, the results would doubtless prove fatal.
e anesthetic properties of the secretion of the animal ‘Skunk,’ mentioned above, stems from an 1881 report by W.B. Conway,
MD, at the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (VAMC) in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA (Conway 1881) [31], stating:
“Sometime during the summer of 1879, two or three boys [students at VAMC], secured a two-ounce [≈ 57 gm] bottle of the perfume
from the [animal] Skunk or pole-cat (Mephitis Americanae), and concluded to play a trick upon one of their school mates; enter-
ing his room, they held him, and administered the above nauseous uid (in its most concentrated form), by inhalation. I could not
ascertain what amount was administered. However, when I reached him I found the following symptoms: A total unconsciousness,
relaxation of the muscular system, extremities cool, pupils natural, breathing normal, pulse 65, temperature 94 [94 °F = 34.4 °C]; in
which condition he remained for one hour” (Conway 1881) [31].
e Israeli-Made Skunk Liquid Used Against Palestinians: Due to the fact that the animal ‘Skunk’ is widely known for its highly
odoriferous defensive spray secreted to repel predators and due to its harming eects, as explained above, the Israelis have given
the same name ‘Skunk’ to their invented weapon – Skunk liquid – to be frequently used against innocent, non-violent Palestinian
citizens, including children, young boys and girls, and elderly men and women, which is also sprayed at Palestinian homes and
entire neighborhoods during day- and night-times (Figure 3).
e Animal Skunk: e term ‘Skunk,’ given by the Israelis for their invented weapon ‘Skunk liquid,’ is with reference to the secreted
substance sprayed by the animal ‘Skunk.’ e ocial name for the animal Skunk family is ‘Mephitidae,’ which means ‘stink,’ belong-
ing to the ‘Mustelidae’ family (Keyser 2015) [22]. Aer their DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) – a self-replicating material which is
present in nearly all living organisms) was decoded, scientists learned that Skunks derived from a single common ancestor about
30–40 million years ago (Keyser 2015) [22]. Skunks, found in Canada, the USA, Mexico, and South America (Bradford 2016) [23],
are mammals that are classied into four groups (Figure 2–Le and Middle): Stripped Skunks, Spotted Skunks, Hog-Nosed Skunks,
and Hooded Skunks, which (all) are known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong odor.
e Israeli weapon – Skunk liquid – probably has the same chemical compounds secreted by the animal ‘Skunk’ demonstrated
in Figure 2–Right, in addition to other harmful manufactured chemical compounds of unknown toxicity, as discussed below. If
the secretion of the animal ‘Skunk’ can be toxic and even fatal, though natural (Conway 1881 [31]; Aldrich 1896 [30]; Wood 1999
[24]; Wood 2002) [25], one can imagine what would be the eects of the Israeli-manufactured weapon – Skunk liquid – used
against innocent Palestinians.
Skunk liquid is a substance that was used by the Israeli occupation forces for the rst time in August 2008 against peaceful, non-
violent Palestinian protestors in the OPT’s West Bank’s village of Ni’lin, near the City of Ramallah, occupied West Bank. e
noisome substance Skunk liquid has not been used anywhere in the world except in the OPT against Palestinians (e Economist
2015) [34]. Recently, and according to the Israeli daily – Haaretz – Israel sold the weapon ‘Skunk liquid’ to the Indian government
to be used against the Kashmiri demonstrators.Aer an incident that le many Kashmir protestors dead and blinded last year at
the hands of Indian forces with pellet guns, the Indian government turned to Israel for a non-lethal method of crowd containment.
ough Israeli security forces nd it eective against Palestinians, Indian protesters prove more tolerant to sewage-stinking weapon
nicknamed ‘Skunk’” (Haaretz 2017).
e Skunk liquid is manufactured (or better saying created or invented for the rst time) by the Israeli research and develop-
ment rm ‘Odortec,’ which is located near the occupied City of Jerusalem. ough ‘Odortec’ is owned by Israeli businessmen,
the production of this weapon – Skunk liquid – involves the German mechanical engineering company MAN (Maschinenfabrik
Augsburg-Nürnberg), headquartered in Munich, Germany, which provides the chassis for the military vehicles that carry the
weapon (Strickland 2014 [35]; Lewis 2015) [36].
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
7
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
e Skunk liquid is a yellow mist, having the viscosity of water and can be sprayed over large areas and huge crowds, using water
cannons (Figure 3). According to a recent study, titled: “Israel: e Skunk – A Humiliating Weapon, released jointly by the ‘Phy-
sicians for Human Rights’ (PHR) and the ‘International Network of Civil Liberties Organization’ (INCLO), the Skunk liquid is
described as, “Foul-smelling chemicals, oen coating not only individuals but also nearby homes and businesses in malodorous and
dicult-to-remove chemicals of unknown toxicity” (PHR and INCLO 2016) [37]. Witness testimony reveals that the Israeli police
and army indiscriminately and purposely spray the Skunk liquid towards houses, people, and restaurants brimming with people
and in crowded streets, causing harm to innocent residents (Figure 3).
Between July and December 2014, the Israeli police covered the narrow and crowded streets in many neighborhoods of the oc-
cupied City of East Jerusalem with 170 tons (170,000 kg) of the Skunk liquid (PHR and INCLO 2016) [37]. According to the
Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), the Israeli forces use Skunk liquid arbitrarily with no apparent justication, and in
the absence of any public disturbances (ACRI 2014) [38].
Inserted below are four short videos (1–2 minutes each) that clearly show the Israeli occupation forces using canons carried on
armored tanker trucks, spraying the Skunk liquid at innocent, non-violent Palestinians and their homes, residential properties,
cars, shops, yards, olive and other kinds of trees, and entire neighborhoods, as well as at funeral procession (Levy 2012 [39]; Levy
2013 [40]). ese videos show the Israeli occupation forces using the Skunk liquid against Palestinians in the Occupied West
Bank, red at: 1) Private Palestinian homes in the occupied West Bank:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jy5OwN1e-wk (Apol-
lonianKing 2014) [41]; 2) A funeral in the City of Hebron, occupied West Bank: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=adhGYqdjIsg
(B’Tselem 2012) [42]; 3) During protests in the City of Bethlehem and in the neighborhood of the Al-Azzah refugee camp, oc-
cupied West Bank: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sa23LSBFkoc (ODN 2014) [43]; and 4) Targeting residents of the Abu
Sneineh neighborhood in the City of Hebron, occupied West Bank, aiming directly into (inside, within) Palestinian homes and
kindergarten, causing direct, eective, and harmful indoor pollution: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmma62Epjrw (ISM
Palestine 2015) [44].
Figure 3: Le: Israeli military trucks used by the Israeli occupation forces, spraying Skunk liquid at non-violent
Palestinian protestors holding the Palestinian ag; Middle: At a child; and Right: At Palestinian homes and
entire neighborhood during night-time (Source: B’Tselem 2013 [32]; Shams 2014 [33]).
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
8
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
e short videos given above clearly show that the Israeli occupation forces indiscriminately shoot Skunk liquid in a strong jet,
using armed vehicles, at everything Palestinian for the purpose of causing humiliation and signicant harms to the Palestinian
citizens, and damage to their properties, indoors and outdoors. e odor of the Skunk liquid sprayed at Palestinians is horren-
dous and overpowering, similar to the odor of the spray of the animal ‘Skunk’ but worse than that. It smells of everything rotten,
as if it has been mixed with excrement noxious gas, raw stagnant sewage, sulfur, rotten decomposing animal corpses, meat, sh,
eggs, cabbage, etc. (Browning 2012) [45]. Palestinians, however, simply call the Skunk liquid ‘shit’ (Shams 2014) [33]. Aer the
Skunk’s lthy liquid makes contact with a person or object, the extremely putrid nauseating stench can persist for days and even
weeks, causing skin and eye rash, irritation, and redness; nausea; vomiting; suocation; headaches; breathing diculties; exces-
sive coughing; abdominal pain; and ataxia (ACRI 2014) [38].
Cancer Augmentation amongst Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT): Personal communications were
conducted by the Author of this paper with some Palestinians who and their communities are directly aected by the Israeli
Skunk liquid, as they have been frequently and constantly attacked, over many years now, by the Skunk liquid made and used by
the Israeli occupation forces. According to those Palestinians, they have witnessed several cases of ‘Cancer,’ with dierent types
spreading amongst various ages of males and females. ese types include blood cancer (leukemia), anal cancer, bladder cancer,
colon and rectal cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, lung
cancer, skin cancer (melanoma), non-hodgkin lymphoma cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, and thyroid cancer. Dra-
matically, in some cases several of these cancer types are found in the same persons. ough there is no single indicator of the
relationship between the widespread phenomenon of the Cancer cases and the Israeli use of Skunk liquid against Palestinian citi-
zens, it is noteworthy to mention that investigations, such as medical and laboratory tests, including blood, tissue, and otherwise
analyses, are necessarily and urgently needed to prove whether such a relationship, directly or indirectly, exists or not. However,
Halahleh and Gale (2018) [46] and Gale and Halahleh (2018) gave several types of cancer found in the Occupied Palestinian Ter-
ritories, as shown in Figure 4, which can be attributed to dierent reasons.
Cancer, unfortunately, is the second leading cause of death in the OPT at 14%, exceeded only by heart disease at 30% (Halahleh
and Gale 2018) [46]. e Cancer rates and burden in the OPT are expected to increase as the population ages, reaching levels that
further challenge the nancial and infrastructural resources of the current health-care system, of which nancial and political
uncertainty exacerbate the problem. Although several recent papers have reviewed Cancer in developing countries a few of which
have focused on the OPT. ere are several reasons for that, including, for instance, political sensitivities and the lack of surveys,
studies, and reliable data. It is hoped, however, that investigative, analytical studies would be carried out by research scientists
and physicians, with the focus on the Cancer augmentation in the OPT and their possible causes and impacts, with respect to the
harsh conditions of the Israeli military occupation since June 1967, politically, economically, socially, environmentally, stress-wise,
nutrition-wise, and work-wise.
Cancer care in the occupied Palestinian territories was fragmented before the year 2000, with little coordination amongst patholo-
gists, radiologists, surgeons, and medical oncologists. Cancer patients are insured by the Palestinian government and referred to
public and private hospitals within the OPT, as well as in the neighboring countries – Israel, Jordan and Egypt. However the Pales-
tinian Authority’s (PA) Health Ministry has recently stopped referring Palestinian patients in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to
Israeli hospitals (Rasgon 2019) [47]. “We will no longer refer patients to Israeli hospitals because Israel has been overcharging us for
medical services and taking funds for medical bills without our permission,e PAs Health Ministry spokesman Osama al-Najjar
told ‘e Times of Israel’ (Rasgon 2019) [47].
Figure 4: Top ten most common Cancer types in men and women in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT)
in 2015. HL = Hodgkin lymphoma; NHL = non-Hodgkin lymphoma (Source: Aer Halahleh and Gale 2018) [46].
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
9
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
Legal Perspectives of the Israeli-Made and Used Skunk Liquid against Palestinians: While evidence on the health impacts of
the Skunk liquid illustrates the medical concern for serious injury and ‘probably’ serious illnesses like Cancer and others, there
are also signicant economic loss, as well as practical, legal, and human-rights concerns, as related to collective punishment, sur-
reptitious identication, and targeting of innocent Palestinian citizens and peaceful protestors. Palestinian citizens reported feeling
deep humiliation, as the stench of the Skunk liquid covered their homes (in and out) and streets, shutting down their businesses,
and causing stigma.
In support of the many examples on the use of the Skunk liquid by the Israeli army and police in the OPT (West Bank, including
East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip) against innocent Palestinians and their entire neighborhoods and properties in dierent areas
of the OPT, B’Tselem (an Israeli human rights organization) reported, “Israeli forces regularly hose down Palestinian homes with
Skunk, raising suspicions that the practice is used as a punitive measure against Palestinian protestors(B’Tselem 2013) [32]. To this
connection, Anne Suciu – an Israeli Attorney from the ‘Association for Civil Rights in Israel’ (ACRI) faxed a letter, dated November
24, 2014, to the ‘Chief Commission of the Israeli Police,’ in which she wrote:
“Re: Ending the Use of Skunk Spray in [Occupied] East Jerusalem. I am contacting you regarding the police force’s unprecedented use
of Skunk spray in the heart of residential neighborhoods in [occupied] East Jerusalem over the last several months as a riot dispersal
method. From rst-hand accounts, it appears that the use of this measure [spraying the Skunk liquid against Palestinian citizens] in
the midst of densely populated neighborhoods causes severe, lasting, and extensive harm to the lives of all neighborhood residents. ere
is a disproportionate relationship between the intended use of the spray—for public disturbances—and the way it is being used—caus-
ing property damage and harming innocent bystanders (Suciu 2014) [49]. e Attorney mentioned in her letter some examples on
real cases related to persons and localities (homes, schools, restaurants, hospitals, hotels, etc.) on how the Skunk liquid has caused
harms to them and damages to their properties.
Only about 30% of new cancer cases in the OPT are in persons older than 65 years, 60% are in persons between 15 and 64 years,
and 10% are in children younger than 15 years old (Gale and Halahleh 2018) [48]. ese statistics indicate that Cancer is hitting
Palestinian males and females of all ages in the OPT. e three most common Cancer types in children are leukemia (30%), brain
and other central nervous system Cancers (20%), and lymphomas (14%). Breast Cancer is the most common Cancer in women
(34%), meanwhile lung Cancer is the most common Cancer in men, accounting for 14% of male Cancers (Gale and Halahleh 2018)
[48]. However, many reasons stand behind these high rates of Cancer amongst males and females in the OPT. ese, for instance,
include smoking; adoption of Western lifestyle, including consumption of processed food; reducing the healthy Mediterranean
diet; and decreasing physical activity. However, the Israeli inhumane practices against the Palestinian citizens in the OPT since
June 1967 should be always considered and, thus, investigated.
According to Gale and Halahleh (2018) [48], more than any intervention, a satisfactory political resolution will have the greatest
impact on improving Cancer care for the Palestinian citizens in the OPT, who live under the Israeli military occupation for more
than half a century now (i.e. since June 1997). erefore, what urgently needed, as regarded to the Israeli use of the Skunk liquid
and the widespread of Cancer cases in the areas which are frequently attacked by the Israelis using Skunk liquid, is frequent moni-
toring, associated with eld work, experimental work, laboratory measurements, and data collection to nd out if there were direct
or indirect relationship between the use of Skunk liquid by the Israeli occupation forces and the scary phenomenon of Cancer that
is widely spreading, like wildre.
e Attorney’s letter concluded, “e use of Skunk liquid in dense residential neighborhoods results in untold and long lasting de-
struction, which harms the daily life of the entire population of the area. e use of Skunk liquid in densely constructed residential
areas is likely to harm small children, sick people, elderly people, and pregnant women (Suciu 2014) [49].
In the end of the letter, the Attorney presented the following requests: “Immediate cessation of the use of Skunk liquid as a riot
dispersal method in the densely populated neighborhoods of [occupied] East Jerusalem; Explicitly forbids the use of this measure
[spraying the Skunk liquid against Palestinian citizens] in crowded residential areas; and Investigation of the claims [described in
the letter] regarding illegal use of Skunk liquid” (Suciu 2014) [49].
As a result of the letter, Attorney Anne Suciu mentioned, “e Police Freedom of Information Commissioner decided, in response
to our request for the procedure governing the use of Skunk liquid, not to provide to us ‘Appendix A’ of the procedure which includes
the expert opinion of the Chief Medical Ocer on the grounds that it is an internal opinion, and to censor the part of the procedure
which described the composition of Skunk liquid on the grounds that exposing this information may disrupt the Government’s work”
(Suciu 2014) [49].
e household cleaning products (HCPs) are known as ‘chemical hazards’ or ‘hidden toxins.’ Figure 5–Le is a diagram of air
quality at homes, with the fact that most of the Palestinian homes are aected by the same sources of IAP illustrated in this Figure.
Figure 5–Right shows some examples of the HCPs, which (same and/or other brands) are widely used in Palestinian homes for
dierent cleaning purposes.
Household Cleaning Products (HCPs)
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
10Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
e agents found in these HCPs (Table 1) are hazardous, which can cause considerable health problems, and have also negative
impacts on the environment. Some examples of these harmful chemical compounds and their sources, as well as their adverse
impacts on human health and the environment are given in Table 1.
Figure 5: Le: Air quality at homes (several sources of indoor air pollution (IAP)); Right: Some examples of the household
cleaning products (HCPs, with similar or other brands) used in Palestinian homes for dierent cleaning purposes (Aer
SLH 2014 (Le); and Indiamart 2016 (Right)).
Agent Source (found in) Health and Environmental Impacts
Phthalates:
Indicated on the product’s label by the word
‘fragrance.’ Exposure to this compound oc-
curs through inhalation or skin contact.
• Many fragranced household products,
such as air fresheners, dish soap, and even
toilet paper.
¶ Reduction of sperm counts in men ¶ Skin irrita-
tion ¶ Possible migraine and asthma triggers.
Perchloroethylene (PERC):
rough inhalation as it smells on clothes
when they return from the dry cleaner, or
the fumes that linger aer cleaning carpets.
• Dry-cleaning solutions • Spot removers •
Carpet and upholstery cleaners
¶ A neuro-toxin that may cause some troubles with
the nervous system ¶ Possible carcinogen that can
cause cancer in living tissues ¶ Dizziness and loss of
coordination.
Triclosan:
Indicated on the product’s label by the word
‘antibacterial.
• Most liquid dishwashing detergents•
Hand soaps
• Sanitizers.
¶ It is an aggressive antibacterial agent that can pro-
mote the growth of drug-resistant bacteria ¶ Toxic
to algae in rivers and streams ¶ Disrupt endocrine
(hormonal) functions ¶ A probable carcinogen.
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
(QUATS):
Indicated on the product’s label with the
word ‘antibacterial.
• Fabric soener liquids and sheets. ¶ Antimicrobial, and thus, pose the same problem as
Triclosan by helping breed antibiotic-resistant bacte-
ria ¶ Skin irritant ¶ Culprit for respiratory disorders.
2-Butoxyethanol:
Classied as ‘Glycol Ethers.
• Multipurpose cleaners (used for windows,
mirrors, kitchens, etc.).
¶ Sore throat when inhaled
¶ At high levels glycol ethers can contribute to
narcosis, pulmonary edema, and severe liver and
kidney damage.
Ammonia:
It evaporates and does not leave streaks.
• Polishing agents for bathroom xtures,
sinks, jewelry, and glass.
¶ Powerful irritant (it irritates the respiratory system
and mucous membranes if inhaled) ¶ Can cause
chemical burns if spilled on the skin ¶ Mostly aect-
ed are those who have asthma, and elderly people
with lung and breathing problems ¶ ose who get
a lot of ammonia exposure, like housekeepers, will
oen develop chronic bronchitis and asthma ¶ Can
create a poisonous gas if mixed with bleach.
Chlorine:
A highly ecient disinfectant.
• Scouring powders • Toilet bowl cleaners
• Mold and mildew removers • Laundry
whiteners • Household tap water to kill
disease-causing pathogens, such as bacteria,
viruses, and protozoans that commonly
grow in water supply reservoirs, on the
walls of water mains, and in storage tanks
¶ Respiratory irritant
¶ It may be a serious thyroid disrupter.
Sodium Hydroxide:
Extremely corrosive
• Oven cleaners
• Drain openers.
¶ Can cause sore throat that lasts for days.
Table 1: Chemical agents found in some of the household cleaning products (HCPs), their
sources, and their impacts on public health and the environment (modied aer Sholl 2011).
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
11
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
As many people around the world have already switched from eating genetically modied foods to organic foods, it is suggested
in this paper that people who frequently use such HCPs (Figure 5–Right; Table 1) are asked to switch from using them to ‘natural
(green) cleaning substances’ that have no adverse impacts on public health and the environment, and, at the same time, they are
much cheaper than the HCPs. ese are some examples of the green cleaning substances: 1) Baking soda (NaHCO3); 2) Hydro-
gen peroxide (H2O2); 3) Borax powder (Sodium Borate: Na2B4O7); 4) Vinegar (a liquid composed of about 5%–20% acetic acid
(CH3COOH) and water); 5) Olive oil and essential oils (naturally occurring, volatile aromatic compounds, found in seeds, bark,
stems, roots, owers, and other parts of plants); 6) Citrus (lemon juice and peel); 7) Simple detergents and soaps (like those made
from olive oil); 8) Hot water; and 9) A combination of some of the above-mentioned natural substances. In addition, opening win-
dows to let fresh air and sunshine get into homes and oces is a simple and highly ecient way to freshen the air indoors. However,
further research must be done in the OPT, regarding the HCPs’ adverse impacts on peoples health and the environment, in order
to encourage people to stop using HCPs or, at least, reduce their frequent usages.
ese are microbial (or biological) sources, known as pathogens, which release disease-causing toxins and allergens into the air
(Figure 5–Le), and, thus, they trigger sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, and even asthma attacks. Mold and mildew thrive and
reproduce by the presence of moisture and, thus, the control of moisture is a key factor for eliminating the mold and mildew
occurrence. In the OPT, many homes and public places (like some schools, mosques, markets, etc., especially old buildings)
suer from this phenomenon, which badly aects the public health.A case study of asthma in the OPT, involving participants in
cities, villages, and refugee camps, showed that 62 out of 110 homes (forming around 56%) have visible mold on the walls and
ceilings. e magnitude and prevalence of the homes characterized as damp with visible mold are highest in the OPT’s refugee
camps, whereby an estimated 50%–75% of the homes are aected (Heseltine and Rosen 2009) [50]. Awareness and monitoring
programs, regarding this phenomenon, should be undertaken by the institutions concerned, such as the Ministry of Health,
municipalities, and others.
Tobaccos smoke, including ‘second-hand smoking’ (passive smoking), is a major source of IAP. Tobacco’s smoke contains a num-
ber of toxicologically signicant chemicals and groups of chemicals, as well as some radioactive elements. As related to the OPT,
the number of smokers is dramatically high. Every year there are more than 1,400 people who are killed by tobacco-caused dis-
eases, while more than 42,600 children and more than 581,000 adults continue to use tobacco each day. In 2010, 14.2% of men and
3.9% of women of those who died in the OPT, died as a result of smoking (Eriksen et al. 2015) [51]. Remarkably, the water-pipe
tobacco smoke (WPTS) – known as ‘Hookah’ or ‘Shisha’ (as mentioned above) – is widely spreading in the OPT, among all ages of
males and females, especially the young (Tucktuck et al. 2018) [52]. is kind of smoke can be more harmful on individual smok-
ers and public health than regular tobacco smoke (cigarettes). According to the American Heart Association (AHA), the WPTS is
not safer than cigarettes, it oen contains more toxic chemicals, and their use may harm heart and blood vessels (Carne 2019) [53].
In the last few years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been used by some smokers in the OPT, who switched from tobacco
cigarettes’ smoking to e-cigarettes’ smoking, or some of whom are smoking both kinds of cigarettes at the same time.E-cigarettes
use a battery-powered device that heats a liquid to form vapors — or, more accurately, aerosol — that the user can inhale, thus ‘vap-
ing.’ ese devices heat up various avorings, nicotine, marijuana, or other potentially harmful substances. Nicotine in e-cigarettes,
addictive of course, replaces the nicotine found in tobacco cigarettes. In addition to lung and heart diseases caused by smoking in
general, some substances found in e-cigarettes’ vapor have been linked to an increased risk of various diseases, including Cancer
(Schubert 2018 [54]; Shmerling 2019) [55].
ese substances are produced from burning of fossil fuels, tobacco’s smoke, and human and animal respiration. CO is an odor-
less, colorless, highly toxic, and deadly poison. It adversely aects human health at only a few parts per million (ppm), and can
cause death at only 250 ppm, by reducing the oxygen supply in the body (Greiner 1991) [55]. ough CO2 is a non-toxic gas and
has benecial uses, as being the ‘zz’ in carbonated beverages, it can be harmful. At concentrations of 2,500–5,000 ppm, CO2 can
cause headaches; at extremely high levels (100,000 ppm), it becomes harmful, causing loss of consciousness in ten minutes; and at
200,000 ppm, it causes partial or complete closure of the glottis (Greiner 1991) [56].
e NOx (including NO2) are formed in reactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen during the combustion process,
particularly at higher combustion temperatures. NO2 has adverse respiratory health eects in adults and children, including in-
ammation, asthma, and reduced immune defenses that lead to exacerbation of, or susceptibility to, existing or new respiratory
infections (Lam et al. 2012) [57]. e majority of sulfur emitted indoors exists as SO2, but is later converted to secondary sulfur-
containing compounds in the atmosphere (e.g. sulfate ‘SO4’). Acute eects, attributed to SO2 exposure, include changes in pulmo-
nary function and respiratory symptoms, while chronic exposures at even low levels (less than 20 μg/m3) have been associated with
increases in all-age mortality and childhood respiratory diseases (Lam et al. 2012) [57].
Moisture, Mold, Mildew, and Strong Odors
Tobacco’s Smoke (Cigarettes, Pipes, Water Pipes, etc.)
Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), and
Particulate Matter (PM):
Use of Pesticides
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
12
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
Regarding the particulate matter (PM), in particular, it is a major cause of AP (both OAP and IAP), as being generated from stone
quarrying, cutting, and crushing operations, forming a large industry in the OPT. is industry heavily pollutes the environment
and causes considerable damage to the public health.e median aerodynamic diameter of PM emitted from this industry is
mainly below 10 μm (known as PM10) and below 2.5 μm (known as PM2.5). Also, tobacco smoking, with its consequences, as dis-
cussed above, releases PM2.5. Across three Indiana cities in the Indiana State, USA, the level of indoor air pollution, as measured
by average PM2.5 level was 94% lower in the venues that were required to be smoke-free compared to those where smoking was
permitted (ITPC 2005). In addition, the PM generated from fuel combustion is typically well-below 2.5 μm (PM2.5). e particu-
late matter’s majority of PM2.5 usually deposits in deep parts of the lungs. People in the OPT widely use in winter times heating
appliances that need wood or derivate of fossil fuel, like kerosene and natural gas, and because of the lack of good ventilation sys-
tems (no refreshment or circulation of indoor air), the consequences, in some cases, are disastrous, resulting in poisoning, res,
explosions, suocation, and even death. Accordingly, because the stone industry has major impacts on the Palestinian economy,
on the one hand, and because of the rising prices of electricity so that people will continue using fossil fuel for heating, on the
other hand, these two sources will stay for a long time as major causes of IAP and OAP in the OPT, generating all sizes of particu-
late matter (PMs). In conclusion, PM is greatly polluting the air in the OPT, as being generated from several sources, including
tobacco smoking; fuel combustion; stone quarrying, cutting, and crushing; and other sources as well.
e use of pesticides (including insecticides (for insects), fungicides (for fungi), herbicides (for plants), rodenticides (for rodents:
rats and mice), bactericides (for bacteria), and larvicides (for larvae, an active immature form of insects) is a serious health
concern, and can cause severe air pollution (both IAP and OAP), reected badly on public health (especially elderly people and
children) and the environment. e pesticides can easily be absorbed by furniture, children’s toys, and other surfaces at homes,
and they can remain actively airborne for days, weeks, or even longer.e immediate health eects, resulting from inhaling some
commonly used household’s pesticides, include breathing diculties, nausea, coughing, dizziness, blurred vision, and headaches.
Long-term exposure from repeated use and lingering residues of pesticides can damage the liver, kidneys, and nervous system,
and even may cause Cancers. In the OPT, pesticides are widely used, despite the following facts: 1) Some of them are expired; 2)
Some others are extremely toxic and hazardous; 3) Some are totally banned, internationally; 4) Some farmers store them in their
homes; and 5) All of the above. Furthermore, because of the dicult situations in the OPT, politically, socio-economically, etc.,
some Palestinians (especially young) committed suicide by using various kinds of pesticides – some of whom died immediately
and some others have suered from severe damages to their nervous systems, liver, kidneys, etc. Accordingly, these pesticides
should not be easily available and sold at stores and, thus, restrictions on selling them should be properly applied.
Outdoor air pollution (OIA) and indoor air pollution (IAP) go hand in hand, meaning if one is the cause, the other is the result;
and if one is controlled, the other can be easily tackled and stabilized. e IAP – the core subject of this paper – has become a big
concern for many people around the world, as it is a primary cause of chronic diseases (among them various kinds of Cancer)
and even death.
To maintain a good quality of the air that people breathe indoors, people need to ght against IAP. Accordingly, people need
to adapt ‘green-life styles’ to sustain healthy air quality.It is high time that people should develop indigenous methods to purify
indoor air, by using green (natural) substances, technologies, and techniques. People need to go green to control IAP, and they
also need to develop air-quality monitoring systems. However, the lack of awareness, scientic research, professionals, plans,
strategies, laws, and regulations have deteriorated the situation and, thus, created more problems resulting from air pollution, in
general, and from IAP, in particular.
In this study, several sources of indoor air pollution are investigated, analyzed, and discussed, which mainly include: 1) e Skunk
liquid sprayed by the Israeli occupation forces at innocent Palestinians and their properties all over the OPT (West Bank, including
East Jerusalem, and Gaza Strip); 2) e wide-use of household cleaning products; 3) Fossil fuels’ combustion; 4) Tobacco’s smoke;
5) Homes’ mold, mildew, and moisture (especially in refugee camps and in old buildings); and 6) e wide-use of pesticides.
e Skunk liquid, invented by the Israeli rm ‘Odortec,’ is given in this paper a special attention, because it is only used in the OPT
e Occupied Palestinian Territories suer from substantial pollution (air, water, soil, and noise), resulting from anthropogenic
and natural sources. e anthropogenic air pollution is mainly due to: 1) e geopolitical situation of the region, considering
the long-standing Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories since June 1967; 2) e Israeli wars, assaults, aggressions,
intrusions, invasions, sanctions, and restrictions launched and imposed by Israel on the Palestinian people in the OPT; 3) e
wide-use of a variety of weapons against Palestinians living under the Israeli occupation; 4) e hundreds of the Israeli colonies
(for-Jews-only) and the Israeli Segregation (Apartheid) Wall constructed illegally in the OPT, with a total length exceeding 700
km; 5) e expansion of the Israeli industrial zones and the lack of monitoring systems on them within the OPT; 6) e dumping
of Israeli wastes of all kinds in the OPT; 7) e lack of educational and awareness programs; and 8) e lack of regulations, rules,
and laws that need to be implemented to protect health of people and well-being of the environment.
Conclusions
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
13
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
and it is beyond the control of Palestinians living in the OPT. e Skunk liquid is a substance made of unknown ingredients, hav-
ing obnoxious odor and smelling like a mixture of raw sewage, rotten materials, decomposing animal corpses, and sulfur, which
is simply called by Palestinians ‘shit.’ e Skunk liquid is frequently and constantly used by the Israeli occupation forces against
Palestinian crowds, homes, hospitals, hotels, schools, mosques, shops, restaurants, yards, trees, entire neighborhoods, and even
funeral procession, as witnessed, reported, and documented by highly respected Israeli and international civil- and human-rights
organizations, and as also shown in the videos provided in this paper. e Israeli use of Skunk liquid against Palestinians causes,
not only air pollution (indoors and outdoors) resulted in bad health and environmental impacts, but also humiliation to people,
and damage to their properties.
e Skunk liquid has been integrated into the Israeli army arsenal, along with other fatal weapons (lethal and nonlethal), used
in the OPT at close distances against innocent, non-violent Palestinians, allegedly killing them, or inicting serious and per-
manent injuries, and sometimes rendering them maimed and disgured. ese weapons, used against the OPT’s Palestinian
citizens on a daily basis, include, besides Skunk liquid, tear-gas canisters, rubber-coated steel bullets, live ammunition, focused
noise beam called ‘scream,’ etc. e Israeli reckless use of these weapons is in breach of international laws and human rights’
treaties and agreements, as it represents a strong violation of numerous basic human rights of the Palestinian people living
under the Israeli military occupation since June 1967, and in some cases, it may rise to the level of war crimes as dened by
international law (Strickland 2014) [35].
It is noteworthy to mention that this research paper is the rst of its kind that tickles the issue of the Skunk liquid used by the Is-
raeli occupation forces against innocent, non-violent Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. us, it is highly recom-
mended that support is needed to undertake further research, including eld work, laboratory analyses, surveys, data collection,
computer modeling, GIS mapping, etc. is will be certainly of great importance and impact, with respect to the Skunk liquid and
other weapons that are illegally used by the Israeli occupation forces against the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian
Territories (OPT).
e Author extends his sincere thanks to the Reviewers (anonymous) of this paper and the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal (Journal
of Environmental Pollution and Control ‘JEPC’) for their critical comments and suggestions. He also extends his gratitude to his
colleagues and friends, who critically reviewed the paper, and to those who provided some technical ideas and information.
e Author of this paper declares the following: 1) Compliance with Ethical Standards, including: e research presented herein does
not involve human participants and/or animals; 2) Informed consent: ere is no potential of conict of interest of any kind (nancial
or otherwise); and 3) Funding: e research presented in this paper did not receive funding from any individuals or organizations.
Acknowledgements
Declaration
10. WHO (World Health Organization) (2016b) Health conditions in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian
Golan. Sixty-Ninth World Health Assembly. Provisional Agenda Item, Switzerlans.
9. Salem HS (2019a) No sustainable development in the lack of environmental justice. Environmental Justice 12: 140-57.
8. Oura M, Ohba R, Robins A, Kato S (2018) Validation study for an Atmospheric Dispersion Model, using eective source heights determined from wind tunnel
experiments in nuclear safety analysis. Atmosphere 9: 111.
6. Liu H, Zhang B, Sang J, Cheng AY (2001) A laboratory simulation of plume dispersion in stratied atmospheres over complex terrain. Journal of Wind Engineer-
ing and Industrial Aerodynamics 89: 1-15.
7. Abdel-Rahman AA (2008) On the atmospheric dispersion and Gaussian Plume Model. 2nd International Conference on Waste Management, Water Pollution,
Air Pollution, Indoor Climate (WWAI’08), Corfu, Greece.
5. Miller CW, Hively LM (1987) A review of validation studies for the Gaussian Plume Atmospheric Dispersion Model. Nuclear Safety 28: 522-31.
4. Melli, P., and Runca, E. (1979) Gaussian Plume Model parameters for ground-level and elevated sources derived from the atmospheric diusion equation in a
neutral case. J Applied Meteorology 18: 1216-21.
11. Salem HS, Hilal J, Ghattas R (2007) Status of the Environment in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Applied Research Institute–Jerusalem (ARIJ), Bethlehem,
Palestine.
12. World Bank (2016) Population Growth (Annual %).
13. Cohen Y, Gordon N (2012) e demographic success of the West Bank settlements. Columbia.Edu.
14. Salem H (2019b) Agriculture status and women’s role in agriculture production and rural transformation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. J Agricul
Crops 5: 132-50.
References
1. WHO (World Health Organization) (2016a) WHO releases country estimates on air pollution exposure and health impact. New interactive maps highlight areas
within countries that exceed WHO air quality limits, Switzerland.
3. Genc S, Zadeoglulari Z, Fuss SH, Genc K (2012) e adverse eects of air pollution on the nervous system: A Review Article. Journal of Toxicology: Article ID
782462.
2. Raven-Ellison D (2016) 10,000 people died as a result of air pollution in London last year, but there’s something we can do about it. Independent.
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
14
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
16. IMEMCnews (2016) PCBS: Israel controls more than 85% of the land of Historical Palestine. IMEMC News.
15. Salem HS, Isaac J (2007) Water agreements between Israel and Palestine and the regions water argumentations between policies, anxieties and sustainable
development. Germany.
17. Salem HS (2008) Impacts of climate change on biodiversity and food security in Palestine. A paper presented at the “International Conference on Climate
Change, Biodiversity and Food Security in the South Asian Region,” In: Jerath, N., Booj, R., and Singh, G. (Eds.): Conference Proceedings: Abstracts – Climate
Change, Biodiversity and Food Security in the South Asian Region, 2010. Sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO), and the Punjab State Council for Science and Technology (PSCST), Chandigarh, India.
27. Ault A (2015) Ask Smithsonian: What makes Skunk spray smell so terrible? When the omnivorous cat-size mammals take aim, the malodorous spray can hit
with pin-point accuracy up to 20 feet away. Smithsonian.Com.
26. Wikipedia and MoO (Museum of Osteology) (2019) Skunk.
25. Wood WF, Sollers BG, Dragoo GA, Dragoo GW (2002) Volatile components in defensive spray of the Hooded Skunk, Mephitis macroura. Journal of Chemical
Ecology 28: 1865-70.
18. Chelala C (2015) Destruction of Palestinian olive trees is a monstrous crime. Ecologist.
23. Bradford A (2016) Facts about Skunks. Live Science.
24. Wood WF (1999) e history of Skunk defensive secretion research. e Chemical Educator 4: 44-50.
22. Keyser H (2015) 10 pungent facts about Skunks. Mental Floss.
21. Salem HS (2015) Health aspects of air quality in Palestine (occupied). A presentation given at the “First Africa/Middle East Expert Meeting and Workshop on
the Health Impact of Airborne Dust.” Sponsored and organized by WHO, Jordan.
20. Morris L, Balousha H, Eglash R (2018) Burning tires, tear gas and live re: Gaza clashes turn deadly. e Washington Post.
19. Salem HS (2011) Social, environmental and security impacts of climate change on the Eastern Mediterranean. Coping with Global Environmental Change,
Disasters and Security 2011: 421-45.
28. OKP (One Kind Planet) (2016) Top 10 smelliest animals. Some animals smell foul for a number of reasons.
29. Nelson B (2014) 11 animals that use odor as a weapon. MNN Galleries.
30. Aldrich TB (1896) A chemical study of the secretion of the anal glands of Mephitis mephitica (Common Skunk), with remarks on the physiological properties
of this secretion. J Exp Med 1896: 323-40.
31. Conway WB (1881) A new anaesthetic. Virginia Medical Monthly 8: 259.
33. Shams A (2014) Israeli forces spray Bethlehem homes with putrid-smelling water; and Israeli military sprays Palestinian homes with chemical that reeks of sew-
age: July 8 and 20, 2014. MAAN (MA’AN News Agency), June 27, 2014. (Last visited: September 24, 2019).
32. B’Tselem (2013) Crowd control: Israel’s use of crowd control weapons in the West Bank. B’Tselem and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) –
Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People (PAPP).
44. ISM Palestine (International Solidarity Movement – Palestine) (2015) Israeli forces using Skunk-water as collective punishment. ISM Palestine.
43. ODN (On Demand News) (2014) Israeli soldiers re Skunk water from a cannon in clashes with Palestinian youths. On Demand News.
42. B’Tselem (2012) “Skunk” liquid sprayed on a funeral, Hebron. (In Hebrew: “Shortly aer scattering in a rally in Hebron, Border Police ocers sprayed ‘Skunk’
jets at a funeral on the way to a nearby cemetery”). B’Tselem, February 27, 2012.
40. Levy E (2013) Stink cannon against protesters also targeted homes [In Hebrew].
41. ApollonianKing (2014) Israeli security forces spray ‘Skunk’ at Palestinian homes. Is this a real thing? Isn’t this chemical warfare, Israel? ApollonianKing.
38. ACRI (Association for Civil Rights in Israel) (2014) Concerns of excessive use of Skunk spray in East Jerusalem.
39. Levy E (2012) Hebron funeral becomes target of ‘skunk’ weapon.
37. PHR and INCLO (Physicians for Human Rights and International Network of Civil Liberties Organization) (2016) Lethal in Disguise: e Health Conse-
quences of Crowd-Control Weapons.
45. Browning N (2012) Israeli “Skunk” fouls West Bank protests. Reuters, September 3, 2012.
46. Halahleh K, Gale RP (2018) Cancer care in the Palestinian Territories. Lancet Oncol 19: e359-64.
47. Rasgon A (2019) PA stops referring Palestinian patients to Israeli hospitals. Spokesman accuses Israel of overcharging and taking funds for medical bills without
its permission; Israeli Finance Ministry defends deductions. e Times of Israel.
48. Gale RP, Halahleh K (2018) Cancer care in the Palestinian Territories. Lancet Oncol 19: e359-64.
50. Heseltine E, Rose J (2009) Dampness and mold. WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: Dampness and mould. World Health Organization (WHO).
49. Suciu A (2014) Ending the use of Skunk spray in East Jerusalem. e Association of Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI).
34. e Economist (2015) A whi from hell. Skunk, a high-tech Israeli weapon against stone-throwers. e Economist.
36. Lewis R (2015) What is Skunk spray Israel uses against Palestinians? Israel security forces say putrid-smelling spray is a nonlethal crowd control tool; some
activists call it punishment. Aljazeera.
35. Strickland P (2014) Israel sprays ‘Skunk water’ into Palestinian homes. e Electronic Intifada.
52. Tucktuck M, Ghandour R, Abu-Rmeileh NME (2018) Waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smoking among Palestinian university students: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health 18: 1-9.
51. Eriksen M, Mackay J, Shulger N, Gomeshtapeh FI, Drope J (2015). e Tobacco Atlas, 6th Edition. World Lung Foundation and the American Cancer Society.
56. Greiner T (1991) Indoor air quality: Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (AEN-125). Iowa State University, Collage of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Agri-
culture and Biosystem Engineering.
55. Shmerling RH (2019) Can vaping damage your lungs? What we do (and don’t) know. Harvard Health Blog.
54. Schubert A (2018) 8 Silent ways e-cigarettes harm your body. e Healthy.
53. Carne N (2019) e trouble with hookahs: Water pipes as dangerous as cigarettes. Cosmos Magazine.
Submit your next manuscript to Annex Publishers and
benet from:
Submit your manuscript at
http://www.annexpublishers.com/paper-submission.php
→ Easy online submission process
→ Rapid peer review process
→ Open access: articles available free online
→ Online article availability soon aer acceptance for Publication
→ Better discount on subsequent article submission
→ More accessibility of the articles to the readers/researchers within the eld
Annex Publishers | www.annexpublishers.com
Volume 2 | Issue 1
15
Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control
61. PCBS (Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics) (2016). On the 68th Anniversary of the Palestinian Nakba.
60. NG (National Geographic) (2019) About the Striped Skunk.
59. ITPC (Indiana Tobacco Prevention and Cessation) (2005). Looking Forward: 2004–2005 Annual Report. ITPC, Indiana, USA.
57. Lam NL, Smith KR, Gauthier A, Bates MN (2012) Kerosene: A review of household uses and their hazards in low- and middle-income countries. J Toxicol
Environ Health B Crit Rev 15: 396-432.
58. Indiamart (2016)Household cleaning products formulation consulting, India.
62. Sholl J (2011) 8 Hidden toxins: Whats lurking in your cleaning products? Experience Life. e No-Gimmicks.
63. SLH (Scott-Lee Heating) (2014) Energy recovery ventilator necessary in air tight homes – Poor indoor air quality. Scott-Lee Heating.
64. Yihdego Y, Salem HS, Muhammed HH (2019) Agricultural pest management policies during drought: Case studies in Australia and the State of Palestine.
Natural Hazards Review 20: 1-10.
65. Haaretz (2017). Israeli-made sewage-stinking weapon not smelly enough to deter Indian protesters. ough Israeli security forces nd it eective against Pal-
estinians, Indian protesters prove more tolerant to sewage-stinking weapon nicknamed ‘Skunk.’ Haaretz, July 31, 2017.
Article
Full-text available
The Stone (limestone) and Marble (trade name) Industry (SMI) is one of the most important and active industries in Palestine, as being economically and financially rewarding and greatly beneficial to the public and private sectors. This industry, which employs about 15,000–20,000 workers, contributes 20–25% to the total industrial revenues of Palestine, and 4.5% to the total gross national product. Despite its benefits, SMI has adverse effects on public health, the environment, biodiversity, water systems (both surface and underground), green cover, and ecosystems in general, as it is considered one of the most air- water-, soil-, and noise-polluting sources. To achieve the purpose of this research paper, available data and literature are analyzed, evaluated, and used, in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the status of SMI, in light of sustainable development. This relates to various perspectives, including limestone geology, geopolitics, socioeconomics, culture, technology, legislation, as well as climate change, acid rain, and harmful effects of the SMI scale on public health and safety, environmental well-being, and challenges facing the industry. Two field studies, carried out in northern and southern West Bank, dealing with particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, and TSP) and environmental pollution, were analyzed, and their results were compared with each other, as well as with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guidelines. It is found that both West Bank’s areas are heavily polluted, resulting in considerable adverse impacts on public health, the environment, and green cover. Based on the findings of this paper, it is recommended that SMI should properly adhere to WHO guidelines and international standards to make the industry safer and more durable and sustainable, with fewer negative impacts on public health, the environment, and green cover.
Article
Full-text available
FOR CITATION: Salem, H.S. 2019. No sustainable development in the lack of environmental justice. Environmental Justice, 12(3): June 13, 2019. DOI: 10.1089/env.2018.0040, (Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers, New Rochelle, New York, N.Y., USA). https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/env.2018.0040 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342110072_No_Sustainable_Development_in_the_Lack_of_Environmental_Justice_Full_Paper ABSTRACT: Environmental justice is defined in a broader sense as, ‘‘The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people, regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.’’ In view of this definition, it is fair to say that no nation can achieve sustainable development if it lacks environmental justice. Sustainability or sustainable development is defined as, ‘‘The development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.’’ Accordingly, it is really difficult to maintain sustainable development without having environmental justice. The acts of many governments (particularly those of industrial countries) have, unfortunately, resulted in poisoning of communities and lands, and in genocides of peoples and the environment. As we are concerned here with the environmental status in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), it is important to focus on the injustices and oppressions practiced by the state of Israel and its successive governments, army, settlers, and industries against the environment in Palestine. This article sheds light on the issues of environmental justice (injustice) and sustainable (unsustainable) development in the OPT, in view of the Israeli violations of international law and international treaties, as well as the local and regional agreements related to the environment. Israel, since it occupied the Palestinian territories in June 1967, has committed what is believed to be racism and genocide against the environment and its constituents (land, soil, water, air, and biodiversity). In view of the above, certain principles of environmental justice should be universally affirmed and adopted, taking into account the tremendous violations of the Israeli authorities against the environment in the OPT, in particular, and in Historic Palestine, in general. Keywords: Mother Earth, sustainable development, environment, environmental justice and principles, environmental injustices and destruction, environmental racism and genocide, Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, Historic Palestine, and Israel and its apartheid system
Article
Full-text available
FOR CITATION: Salem, H.S. 2019. Agriculture status and women’s role in agriculture production and rural transformation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Journal of Agriculture and Crops. 5(8-August): 132–150. (Published by Academic Research Publishing Group, Germany, Denmark, and Pakistan). ISSN(e): 2412-6381, ISSN(p): 2413-886X DOI: https://doi.org/10.32861/jac.5(8)132.150 and https://arpgweb.com/journal/journal/14 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334770801_Agriculture_Status_and_Women's_Role_in_Agriculture_Production_and_Rural_Transformation_in_the_Occupied_Palestinian_Territories_Journal_of_Agriculture_and_Crops_2019_58_132-150 ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), comprised of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, with respect to the status of agriculture and the role of Palestinian women in the agriculture sector, water management, and agricultural sustainability in rural areas in the OPT. Recent estimates indicate that 15.4% and 7.8% of the total employed are employed in the agriculture sector in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, respectively. Despite the fact that the contribution of the agriculture sector to the GDP has decreased to 3% only, this sector is still hosting until recently 7.5%–10.5%, on average, of the employed in the OPT. Palestinian women only compose 18% of the labor force, and a little bit more than one fifth of them (22%, which is equivalent to around 4% of the women’s labor force) contribute to the agricultural sector in the OPT. However, most of women’s labor in the informal sector remains hidden and, thus, their contribution to the agriculture sector in the form of home-based activities is much higher than what is officially reported. Over 30% of informal agricultural work is performed by women as part of their domestic responsibilities. In addition, Palestinian women work at home as well as in the field, contributing effectively to the agriculture sector (plant and animal production) and, thus, to sustainable development in the OPT. With respect to water resources, women in rural areas play a considerable role in making water available for domestic and agricultural use, either by bringing water from far distances or getting water from springs and domestic harvesting wells (cisterns). Despite the fact that the status of agriculture in the OPT is really bad and getting even worse, and despite the presence of economic, financial, and political hardships and challenges, Palestinian women have obviously contributed to the agricultural sector towards achieving sustainable development in their communities in the OPT’s rural areas.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Due to increases in water demand—caused by escalating increases in population and water deficiency and scarcity—and due to the increase in climate change and global warming impacts, much focus has been directed to regional and national drought policies related, particularly, to water resources and agriculture. This paper aims to review the consequences and impacts of droughts on pest outbreaks. The approaches presented herein demonstrate various actions to be taken in order to limit drought outcomes and the impacts of pests. In Australia alone, the analyses showed that drought caused approximately a $7.4 billion drop in the agricultural sector. Accordingly, drought can be considered as one of the major causes of agricultural pests. To manage them, biological controls and self-reliance for drought are the best and most inexpensive approaches to be taken within the framework of an integrated pest management scheme. Australia and the State of Palestine were selected as case studies for investigation in this study, because both regions have common problems related to water resources and water scarcity. In addition, although both regions suffer droughts, they have developed different adaptation measures, which are affected by different political and socioeconomic influences, with the aim of supporting farmers, who are unable to maintain feed to their livestock and take care of their agricultural crops and yields (plant production). Breakthrough offers new hopes for global food security, as parts of wheat that relate to coeliac disease and other allergies can now be tracked. Some solutions are suggested in this study, and the national drought policies in both regions are investigated and analyzed. FOR CITATION: Yihdego, Y., Salem, H.S., and Muhammed, H.H., 2019. Agricultural Pest Management Policies during Drought: Case Studies in Australia and the State of Palestine. Natural Hazards Review, Vol. 20, Issue 1, PP: 1-10, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston (ASCE), Reston, VA, USA. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000312. https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000312 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327905409_Agricultural_Pest_Management_Policies_during_Drought_Case_Studies_in_Australia_and_the_State_of_Palestine?_sg=JvLA-IcWV-U5Ev-6CzJKb6Kflw-TFMZf33KyAzxDK8Qlw-obNh6VppUxJsH9MovucpLqBpcfjwxco941YtZHfc-ZFtrzKQBH64ESbMS7.3udPiRxENzw-DVMphTliOLQwsXRK22JTeo8DHvpUjBatA8UV46h8DShNq_EBPPrwamPl4B5fZK4p_FU2-RzVYQ
Article
Full-text available
For more than fifty years, atmospheric dispersion predictions based on the joint use of a Gaussian plume model and wind tunnel experiments have been applied in both Japan and the U.K. for the evaluation of public radiation exposure in nuclear safety analysis. The effective source height used in the Gaussian model is determined from ground-level concentration data obtained by a wind tunnel experiment using a scaled terrain and site model. In the present paper, the concentrations calculated by this method are compared with data observed over complex terrain in the field, under a number of meteorological conditions. Good agreement was confirmed in near-neutral and unstable stabilities. However, it was found to be necessary to reduce the effective source height by 50% in order to achieve a conservative estimation of the field observations in a stable atmosphere.
Article
Full-text available
Background During the last two decades, waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), also known as hookah, witnessed a global increase in use, especially among youth. Little information is known about the burden of WTS among Palestinian youth. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of WTS and cigarette smoking and explore the associated factors among a sample of Palestinian university students. Methods 1891 students, from five Palestinian universities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, completed a self-administered, web-based survey in 2014–2015. The questionnaire, which was based on the Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS), had questions on WTS and cigarette smoking patterns and socio-demographic and university-related characteristics. Binary logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate associated factors with WTS and cigarette smoking. Results 50.9% of the sample was women. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.0. Overall, 30.0% of participants were current tobacco smokers and 33.4% reported ever smoking tobacco through a waterpipe. The prevalence of current WTS (24.4%) surpassed the prevalence of current cigarette smoking (18.0%), with a significantly higher prevalence among men compared to women. The gender gap for WTS (36.4% vs. 12.9%) was smaller than that for cigarette smoking (32.8% vs. 3.6%). Binary logistic regression models for the total sample (men and women) revealed that men were more likely to be current waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smokers compared to women (AOR = 4.20, 95% CI = 3.22–5.48, and AOR = 10.91, 95% CI = 7.25–16.42, respectively). Geographic area of residence, faculty of study and self-reported academic achievement were also associated with the likelihood of being current waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smokers. Conclusion A high prevalence of WTS was reported among our study sample, and it surpassed the prevalence of cigarette smoking. Interventions to curb the practice of tobacco smoking among Palestinian youth should be tailored differently to WTS and cigarette smoking, be gender-sensitive and specific and target the regional variation in the smoking behavior. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4524-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As an air pollutant is transported from a source to a potential receptor the pollutant disperses into the surrounding air so that it arrives at a much lower concentration than it was on leaving the source. Strict environmental regulations worldwide resulted in an ever growing concern about the validity and reliability of air quality dispersion models. The present work is a try to evaluate the applicability of dispersion models from an industrial source. Two examples of the air quality dispersion models are considered here; the classical Gaussian plume model by Sutton and PRISE (Plume Rise) model by Henderson-Sellers and Allen.
Article
The precise population of the Palestinian territories is disputed, but a 2017 estimate was 4 543 126 people, including 2 155 743 people in the West Bank and 1 795 183 in Gaza. The Palestinian territories rank 121st out of 233 countries and dependencies by population (its people comprise 0·07% of the world population). Palestinian health care has been a major concern since the 1994 Oslo agreement when the Palestinian Authority took over the administration of health care for the region. This effort has been supported by WHO and foreign donors, especially the US Government. Despite major political, economic and social challenges for the region, health care in Palestine is one of the best among Arab countries in terms of life expectancy and maternal, infant, and child mortality rates. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Palestine at 14%, exceeded only by heart disease at 30%. The cancer burden in Palestine is expected to increase, reaching levels that further challenge the financial and infrastructural resources of the current health-care system, of which financial and political uncertainty exacerbate the problem. In this Review, we discuss the current state of cancer care in the Palestinian territories including epidemiology, screening, and prevention efforts, and infrastructural and workforce issues for the region. We also discuss examples of some encouraging progress that has been made for health in the region and the enormous challenges that the Palestinian health-care system still faces.
Article
Stratified flows over a three-dimensional topography have been investigated using a stratified towing tank to illustrate airflow pattern and plume behaviors under different conditions, aiming to investigate pollutant dispersion mechanism over Hong Kong Island. The stratified atmospheres are achieved by using stratified salt water. Various towing speeds are used to represent the different wind speeds. Some flow phenomena such as dividing streamline, leeward vortices and leeward wave are observed to explain the causes of high pollution over Hong Kong Island.