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A Case Study for Verification of “E = mc2”: Calculation of Food Shortage

Vol.4 No.2:9
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Insights in Biomedicine
ISSN 2572-5610
DOI: 10.36648/2572-5610.4.2.60
Koyunoğlu C1,2*
1 Yalova University-Engineering
Faculty, Energy Systems Engineering
Department, Center Campus, 77200,
Yalova, Turkey
2 Istanbul Technical University-Energy
Instute, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak,
Istanbul, Turkey
*Corresponding author: Cemil Koyunoğlu
Istanbul Technical University-Energy
Instute, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak, Istanbul,
Tel: +90-212-285-3939
Fax: +90-212-285-3884
Citaon: Koyunoğlu C (2019) A Case Study for
Vericaon of “E = mc2”: Calculaon of Food
Shortage. Insights Biomed Vol.4 No.2:9
According to the Ecological Footprint Atlas, we have lived in
a state of ecological overshoot since the 1970s, which means
that human demands have exceeded the Earth’s biocapacity
[1]. Human demands measure the ecological assets that a given
populaon requires to produce the natural resources it uses and
biocapacity refers to the producvity of that ecological asset
[2]. Human demands alter ecosystems by creang ecological
pressures such as land-use changes, resource extracon and
depleon (such as deforestaon and overshing), emissions
of waste and polluon and the modicaon and movement of
organisms [3]. The resulng environmental impacts include,
but are not limited to, climate change, land degradaon, loss of
biodiversity, and polluon [4-6]. Consequences aect primarily
the very poor and vulnerable populaons in developing countries
through, for instance, famine, water shortages, and compeon
over resources [7-10].
Following secons are explained due to the below physical laws
used to calculate the food shortage according to the Einstein’s
famous quote; Stefan-Boltzmann radiaon law, Doppler eect,
Stefan-Boltzmann distribuon law Secon, E=mc2 denes as rest
How food depleon occurs?
In the Earth Overshoot Day plaorm declares each year nearly
1.3-billion-ton food produced in the worldwide [11]. The Food
and Agriculture Organizaon of the United Naons gives an
energy value of each food if the means of the energy content of
the foods was calculated it is obtained that it is approximately
21.8 Kj/g.
The overall energy of the food is calculated as 1.3 × 1015 × 21.8 =
28.34 × 1018 j. It means ants and or bees have a role to convert
sun energy to food which yearly of 28.34 × 1018 j.
The ideal body that completely absorbs all the energy falling on it
is also called the black body. The amount of energy a black body
emits by radiang energy per unit me is proporonal to the
fourth power of temperature. And calculated by Equaon 1.
This statement is known as Stefan-Boltzmann radiaon law.
Where E is the amount of energy emied from surface A by
irradiaon with A, T is surface temperature, and σ is Stefan-
Boltzman constant [12].
If the unit energy amount (heat current) W, the surface area
m2 and the temperature are expressed in K, then the size of σ
becomes as
( )
/.W mk
. The value is 5.6697 × 10-8 W/(m2.K4).
According to Equaon (1), E= 28.34 × 1018 (j).
A Case Study for Vericaon of “E = mc2”:
Calculaon of Food Shortage
“Earth Overshoot Day” means that we will begin to manage with the foods that
are produced in 1 year in our world on 4 August, which we passed, and only the
foods that are stocked in the markets. Albert Einstein tried to draw aenon to the
use of energy stored in the form of carbohydrates as nutrients in addion to the
ferlity-enhancing features of the bees, with a queson mark from many years ago
with the interpretaon of "all bees have vanished and humanity has 4 years le."
The depleon of the agricultural resources declared on August 4 has turned out to
be a threat to humanity.
Keywords: Bees;
; Earth overshoot day; Evoluonary environment eects;
Received: April 27, 2019; Accepted: May 08, 2019; Published: May 15, 2019
ISSN 1698-9465
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And if we divide E with the value of σ we have nearly 4.99851 ×
1026 (m2.K4.s). Then if we divide with sun surface area of 73080
× 1012 (km2) we, therefore, have 6839,778325 (K4.s). Sun surface
temperature is known as 5,778 K so the value of me calculated
as 2,2091967 × 10-8 hours. It means, one year of food producon
energy comes from the sun with 2,2091967 × 10-8 hours. Also
expressed as 67.72 × 1014 km/h velocity (distance between earth
and sun is 149.6 million km). The energy 28.34 × 1018 (j) will be
used to calculate the usage of energy in the following secon.
For the “Doppler eect” of bees are calculated due to the
equaon below [13-16].
( )
E 11 /E VC= ++
28.34 × 1018 = E1 + (1 + (67.72 × 1014)2/(300000)2)
E1= -2,33522E+19 J means key animals in the world are helping
about growing food. For occasions, nectar-eang bats are pivotal
pollinators for more than 500 plant species, a considerable lot
of which are environmentally huge, fruivorous bats travel
far separaons, helping plants to develop and make due in an
assortment of areas, so bats have been calling "ranchers of the
tropics." honey bees or ants devoured. Termites are detrivores
and decomposers, which means they expend decaying plant
maer and assume essenal parts in reusing environment
vitality, and also in adjusng biogeochemical cycles. Not at
all like dierent detrivores, the termite gut is one of a kind
in that it contains microorganisms that separate cellulose
(building obstructs for plants), which is unpalatable without
this advantageous relaonship. Seed-collecng ants transport
seeds to their supplement rich homes, where plants can securely
develop, free of damage from herbivores. Ants in some cases
travel far separaons with seeds, allowing plants their coveted
dispersal objecve for less light, space, sustenance, and water
rivalry with dierent plants. For what reason would ants be so
kind? Ants appreciate devouring elaiosomes, lile structures on
the external surface of seeds, without hurng the plant. Ants help
in disintegraon and turn up more soil than night crawlers. At the
point when ants dig tunnels, they circulate air through the dirt
and reuse supplements. This acon is environmentally signicant
in keeping up sound soil for plant (sustenance) development.
Ants even help decrease the ulizaon of synthec manures
and the requirement for water system. Huge numbers of us are
familiar with seeing honeybees y around our lawns on summer
nights, yet what we may not comprehend is exactly how essenal
these animals are to our proceeded with presence on this planet.
Honeybees are in charge of pollinang roughly 250,000 plant
species. Without the honeybees’ work, these plants would soon
wane into annihilaon, which would have a thump on impact on
the herbivorous creature species who rely upon them for survival
and would in the long run reason meat-eang creatures' numbers
to decrease as well, as their prey species vanish. Winged animals
play out a wide assortment of natural parts, including woodland
decay, bug control, supplement reusing, bio-sign of environment
wellbeing, plant ferlizaon, and seed dispersal. Some ground-
abiding winged animals even help circulate air through and turn
up soil with their paws. Despite the fact that subterranean insect,
termite, bat, and frog species may be the experts of their exchanges,
feathered creatures unquesonably appear like the jack of all [17-29].
It is known that in ecological communies, for example, there
are reciprocal interacons between plant species and animal
fodder or seed distributors. It is known that this interacon
varies according to the degree of funconing in nature due to
dierences in species characteriscs. Unl now, it has not been
invesgated how ecological networks correlate bioc funcon
grades with a climac niche broadness and vulnerability to
climate change. The prospect of this research is to prevent
species exncon and to break down species from ecological
communies under climate change [23]. For this reason, it is
tried to explain how the disappearance of species in this study
is mathemacally expressed and how these creatures depend on
the human species. Because human beings are indirectly in direct
relaonship with other living species in nature.
Because the interacons of plants and their ve key pollinators
above are the main supporters of terrestrial biodiversity, and it
is very important for our society's food safety. Unfortunately,
the introducon of alien species into local ecosystems,
climate change, widespread use of pescides, habitat loss and
deterioraon seriously threaten the integrity of these interacons
in a negave way, and these issues need to be invesgated.
Despite the importance of pollinator interacons with plants, the
recent increase in factors that threaten food producon due to
the above problems suggests that it is also of great importance
to determine these interacons [20]. Today, the work in this area
is oen divided into dierent disciplines and varies according to
the analycal approaches used in most of the studies. However,
as biodiversity and interacons are measured in dierent forms,
the focus is on the emergence of results on a wide range of scales
and the use of specic methods instead of general scienc
hypotheses. Apart from this, nowadays biological diversity and
the dynamics that link them are variable, as these dynamics are
both dependent on species populaons and biomass, as well as
their dependence on specic funconal groups or key species [27].
According to the Stefan-Boltzmann distribuon law [30-32].
nn e
for the populaon of the humans (no)
( ) ( )
( )
19 23
2,3352210 /8, 314.. 6,02.10
/ . 298.15nn e
= 0.99860987431.
means world populaon will decrease by
(1-0.99860987431) amount.
Conrmaon earth overshoot day by famous
energy equaon
In modern physics
denes as rest energy and “The energy
mc2 associated with rest mass m rather than moon is called the
rest energy of the parcle” [33]. So the rest “food stock (= mass)”
for the (1-0.99860987431) amount of people can be calculated
for the rest of me 1 human needs roughly 9414 Kj/day and if
7.442 billion of people in 2017 lost its (1-0.99860987431) amount
there will be reducing 10345316 populaon of human and;
The total energy is 28,34 × 1018 (j) and the rest energy is calculated
as 7442000000-10345316= 2292942356 humans and the rest
energy are 2292942356 × 9414000 (j) =2,159 × 1016 (j)/day. So,
ISSN 1698-9465
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Insights in Biomedicine
ISSN 2572-5610
the total human populaon need 28,34 × 1018 (j) 2,159 × 1016 (j/
day) = 1312,64 day to survive is equal nearly 4 year as Einstein’s
quotes. So, if bees disappeared humans will have only 4 years to
survive [34-42].
The author declares using solar energy to produce food for
human populaon are depending on the key animals which above
menoned ants, bats, bees, termites and also birds. Furthermore,
research into the use of renewable energy sources has become
an urgent necessity, as well as exploring why global climate
is deteriorang, exploring the reducon of carbon footprints
and widespread poverty in the world, as well as sustainable
development and increased nutrional consumpon of means
of achieving a cleaner environment. Although some steps have
been taken in this direcon, such as invesgang the eect of
microbial organisms, praccal measures using 5 key living things
are sll missing. The year int the �instein quote is 4 year and
calculated is 3,60 year so God gives us 0,4 year more.
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Highly aggressive Africanized honeybees (AHB) invaded Puerto Rico (PR) in 1994, displacing gentle European honeybees (EHB) in many locations. Gentle AHB (gAHB), unknown anywhere else in the world, subsequently evolved on the island within a few generations. Here we sequence whole genomes from gAHB and EHB populations, as well as a North American AHB population, a likely source of the founder AHB on PR. We show that gAHB retains high levels of genetic diversity after evolution of gentle behaviour, despite selection on standing variation. We observe multiple genomic loci with significant signatures of selection. Rapid evolution during colonization of novel habitats can generate major changes to characteristics such as morphological or colouration traits, usually controlled by one or more major genetic loci. Here we describe a soft selective sweep, acting at multiple loci across the genome, that occurred during, and may have mediated, the rapid evolution of a behavioural trait.
Glycerol conversion into chemicals and fuel additives is pursued to valorise a burgeoning byproduct in the bioenergy sector. To this aim, heterogeneous catalysts have been developed that enable, in many...
In January 2016, the 2030 goals for sustainable development were set by the United Nations for achieving environmental, social and economic growth through green methods and cleaner production technologies. The most significant targets of these goals are the fulfillment of basic human needs and desires, since essential human necessities like food, cloth, shelter and health care are still not accessible to a majority of the people despite the great pace in the world's economy. Increased waste products and continuously depleting natural resources have diverted human attention towards efficient green and clear production technologies. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) aim at providing these fundamental necessities to everyone through the intelligent use of sustainable science. In this perspective, microorganisms, which are vital to the maintenance of life on earth, can play a major role. Although most people focus primarily on the disease-causing capabilities of microorganisms, there are numerous positive functions that microbes perform in the environment and hence, a need to explore the microbial world astutely as it can contribute tremendously to sustainable development. In this review, the integration of microbial technology for the achievement of SDGs is being put forth. The scope of the use of microorganisms, points of their control, methods for their better utilization and the role of education in achieving these targets are being discussed. If the society is educated enough about the ways that microbes can affect our lives, and if microbes are used intelligently, then some significant problems being faced by the world today including food, health, well-being and green energy can be adequately taken care of.