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Insights in Biomedicine
1 Yalova University-Engineering
Faculty, Energy Systems Engineering
Department, Center Campus, 77200,
2 Istanbul Technical University-Energy
Instute, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak,
*Corresponding author: Cemil Koyunoğlu
Istanbul Technical University-Energy
Instute, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak, Istanbul,
Citaon: Koyunoğlu C (2019) A Case Study for
Vericaon of “E = mc2”: Calculaon of Food
Shortage. Insights Biomed Vol.4 No.2:9
According to the Ecological Footprint Atlas, we have lived in
a state of ecological overshoot since the 1970s, which means
that human demands have exceeded the Earth’s biocapacity
. Human demands measure the ecological assets that a given
populaon requires to produce the natural resources it uses and
biocapacity refers to the producvity of that ecological asset
. Human demands alter ecosystems by creang ecological
pressures such as land-use changes, resource extracon and
depleon (such as deforestaon and overshing), emissions
of waste and polluon and the modicaon and movement of
organisms . The resulng environmental impacts include,
but are not limited to, climate change, land degradaon, loss of
biodiversity, and polluon [4-6]. Consequences aect primarily
the very poor and vulnerable populaons in developing countries
through, for instance, famine, water shortages, and compeon
over resources [7-10].
Following secons are explained due to the below physical laws
used to calculate the food shortage according to the Einstein’s
famous quote; Stefan-Boltzmann radiaon law, Doppler eect,
Stefan-Boltzmann distribuon law Secon, E=mc2 denes as rest
How food depleon occurs?
In the Earth Overshoot Day plaorm declares each year nearly
1.3-billion-ton food produced in the worldwide . The Food
and Agriculture Organizaon of the United Naons gives an
energy value of each food if the means of the energy content of
the foods was calculated it is obtained that it is approximately
The overall energy of the food is calculated as 1.3 × 1015 × 21.8 =
28.34 × 1018 j. It means ants and or bees have a role to convert
sun energy to food which yearly of 28.34 × 1018 j.
The ideal body that completely absorbs all the energy falling on it
is also called the black body. The amount of energy a black body
emits by radiang energy per unit me is proporonal to the
fourth power of temperature. And calculated by Equaon 1.
This statement is known as Stefan-Boltzmann radiaon law.
Where E is the amount of energy emied from surface A by
irradiaon with A, T is surface temperature, and σ is Stefan-
Boltzman constant .
If the unit energy amount (heat current) W, the surface area
m2 and the temperature are expressed in K, then the size of σ
. The value is 5.6697 × 10-8 W/(m2.K4).
According to Equaon (1), E= 28.34 × 1018 (j).
A Case Study for Vericaon of “E = mc2”:
Calculaon of Food Shortage
“Earth Overshoot Day” means that we will begin to manage with the foods that
are produced in 1 year in our world on 4 August, which we passed, and only the
foods that are stocked in the markets. Albert Einstein tried to draw aenon to the
use of energy stored in the form of carbohydrates as nutrients in addion to the
ferlity-enhancing features of the bees, with a queson mark from many years ago
with the interpretaon of "all bees have vanished and humanity has 4 years le."
The depleon of the agricultural resources declared on August 4 has turned out to
be a threat to humanity.
; Earth overshoot day; Evoluonary environment eects;
Received: April 27, 2019; Accepted: May 08, 2019; Published: May 15, 2019
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And if we divide E with the value of σ we have nearly 4.99851 ×
1026 (m2.K4.s). Then if we divide with sun surface area of 73080
× 1012 (km2) we, therefore, have 6839,778325 (K4.s). Sun surface
temperature is known as 5,778 K so the value of me calculated
as 2,2091967 × 10-8 hours. It means, one year of food producon
energy comes from the sun with 2,2091967 × 10-8 hours. Also
expressed as 67.72 × 1014 km/h velocity (distance between earth
and sun is 149.6 million km). The energy 28.34 × 1018 (j) will be
used to calculate the usage of energy in the following secon.
For the “Doppler eect” of bees are calculated due to the
equaon below [13-16].
E 11 /E VC= ++
28.34 × 1018 = E1 + (1 + (67.72 × 1014)2/(300000)2)
E1= -2,33522E+19 J means key animals in the world are helping
about growing food. For occasions, nectar-eang bats are pivotal
pollinators for more than 500 plant species, a considerable lot
of which are environmentally huge, fruivorous bats travel
far separaons, helping plants to develop and make due in an
assortment of areas, so bats have been calling "ranchers of the
tropics." honey bees or ants devoured. Termites are detrivores
and decomposers, which means they expend decaying plant
maer and assume essenal parts in reusing environment
vitality, and also in adjusng biogeochemical cycles. Not at
all like dierent detrivores, the termite gut is one of a kind
in that it contains microorganisms that separate cellulose
(building obstructs for plants), which is unpalatable without
this advantageous relaonship. Seed-collecng ants transport
seeds to their supplement rich homes, where plants can securely
develop, free of damage from herbivores. Ants in some cases
travel far separaons with seeds, allowing plants their coveted
dispersal objecve for less light, space, sustenance, and water
rivalry with dierent plants. For what reason would ants be so
kind? Ants appreciate devouring elaiosomes, lile structures on
the external surface of seeds, without hurng the plant. Ants help
in disintegraon and turn up more soil than night crawlers. At the
point when ants dig tunnels, they circulate air through the dirt
and reuse supplements. This acon is environmentally signicant
in keeping up sound soil for plant (sustenance) development.
Ants even help decrease the ulizaon of synthec manures
and the requirement for water system. Huge numbers of us are
familiar with seeing honeybees y around our lawns on summer
nights, yet what we may not comprehend is exactly how essenal
these animals are to our proceeded with presence on this planet.
Honeybees are in charge of pollinang roughly 250,000 plant
species. Without the honeybees’ work, these plants would soon
wane into annihilaon, which would have a thump on impact on
the herbivorous creature species who rely upon them for survival
and would in the long run reason meat-eang creatures' numbers
to decrease as well, as their prey species vanish. Winged animals
play out a wide assortment of natural parts, including woodland
decay, bug control, supplement reusing, bio-sign of environment
wellbeing, plant ferlizaon, and seed dispersal. Some ground-
abiding winged animals even help circulate air through and turn
up soil with their paws. Despite the fact that subterranean insect,
termite, bat, and frog species may be the experts of their exchanges,
feathered creatures unquesonably appear like the jack of all [17-29].
It is known that in ecological communies, for example, there
are reciprocal interacons between plant species and animal
fodder or seed distributors. It is known that this interacon
varies according to the degree of funconing in nature due to
dierences in species characteriscs. Unl now, it has not been
invesgated how ecological networks correlate bioc funcon
grades with a climac niche broadness and vulnerability to
climate change. The prospect of this research is to prevent
species exncon and to break down species from ecological
communies under climate change . For this reason, it is
tried to explain how the disappearance of species in this study
is mathemacally expressed and how these creatures depend on
the human species. Because human beings are indirectly in direct
relaonship with other living species in nature.
Because the interacons of plants and their ve key pollinators
above are the main supporters of terrestrial biodiversity, and it
is very important for our society's food safety. Unfortunately,
the introducon of alien species into local ecosystems,
climate change, widespread use of pescides, habitat loss and
deterioraon seriously threaten the integrity of these interacons
in a negave way, and these issues need to be invesgated.
Despite the importance of pollinator interacons with plants, the
recent increase in factors that threaten food producon due to
the above problems suggests that it is also of great importance
to determine these interacons . Today, the work in this area
is oen divided into dierent disciplines and varies according to
the analycal approaches used in most of the studies. However,
as biodiversity and interacons are measured in dierent forms,
the focus is on the emergence of results on a wide range of scales
and the use of specic methods instead of general scienc
hypotheses. Apart from this, nowadays biological diversity and
the dynamics that link them are variable, as these dynamics are
both dependent on species populaons and biomass, as well as
their dependence on specic funconal groups or key species .
According to the Stefan-Boltzmann distribuon law [30-32].
for the populaon of the humans (no)
( ) ( )
2,3352210 /8, 314.. 6,02.10
/ . 298.15nn e
means world populaon will decrease by
Conrmaon earth overshoot day by famous
In modern physics
denes as rest energy and “The energy
mc2 associated with rest mass m rather than moon is called the
rest energy of the parcle” . So the rest “food stock (= mass)”
for the (1-0.99860987431) amount of people can be calculated
for the rest of me 1 human needs roughly 9414 Kj/day and if
7.442 billion of people in 2017 lost its (1-0.99860987431) amount
there will be reducing 10345316 populaon of human and;
The total energy is 28,34 × 1018 (j) and the rest energy is calculated
as 7442000000-10345316= 2292942356 humans and the rest
energy are 2292942356 × 9414000 (j) =2,159 × 1016 (j)/day. So,
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the total human populaon need 28,34 × 1018 (j) 2,159 × 1016 (j/
day) = 1312,64 day to survive is equal nearly 4 year as Einstein’s
quotes. So, if bees disappeared humans will have only 4 years to
The author declares using solar energy to produce food for
human populaon are depending on the key animals which above
menoned ants, bats, bees, termites and also birds. Furthermore,
research into the use of renewable energy sources has become
an urgent necessity, as well as exploring why global climate
is deteriorang, exploring the reducon of carbon footprints
and widespread poverty in the world, as well as sustainable
development and increased nutrional consumpon of means
of achieving a cleaner environment. Although some steps have
been taken in this direcon, such as invesgang the eect of
microbial organisms, praccal measures using 5 key living things
are sll missing. The year int the �instein quote is 4 year and
calculated is 3,60 year so God gives us 0,4 year more.
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