Conference PaperPDF Available

Employee Engagement, Satisfaction and Loyalty: Preliminary Findings

Employee Engagement, Satisfaction and Loyalty: Preliminary Findings
Syahrizal Syahrizal1, Dina Patrisia2, Abror Abror3
1Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia,
2Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia,
3Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia,
Employee loyalty is an important factor in managing the organisation such as a university.
There are some antecedents of employee loyalty, such as employee engagement and job
satisfaction. This study examines the relationship between employee engagements, job
satisfaction and employee loyalty. This preliminary study has been conducted in a
university in Indonesia. We employed lecturers of one state university in West Sumatera as
the sample of study. We used Structural Equation Model (SEM) Partial Least Square (PLS)
with Smart PLS 3 as the data analysis software package. This study found that employee
engagement has a significant impact on job satisfaction. There is no significant direct effect
of employee engagement on employee loyalty. Surprisingly, we also found that employee
engagement has a significant mediating impact on the link between employee engagement
and employee loyalty. Furthermore, some limitations and future research are discussed.
Keywords: employee engagement, job satisfaction, employee loyalty, structural equation
model (SEM), partial least square (PLS)
The higher education sector becomes a highly competitive sector nowadays (Asrar-ul-Haq et al.,
2017). University as one of the higher education entities has to develop innovative programmes, such
as digital based service quality, which might create a better competitive advantage. One important
factor in creating a competitive advantage is human resource management. One of the human
resources in a university is lecturer. There are some indicators of the quality of lecturer. For example,
we can see the quality of the lecturer in his/her ability to teach and his/her loyalty to the university.
Universitas Negeri Padang (UNP) as one of the state universities in Indonesia has also faced the
competition problem. It has to survive and retain its customers. Today UNP has 1125 lecturers and
405 supporting staffs with more than 35,000 enrolled students. One problem in the universities such
as UNP right now is the lecturer’s loyalty. According to Ineson et al. (2013) there are several
influenced factors of employee loyalty, such as employee satisfaction and engagement.
Furthermore, employee satisfaction is not an instant result. Some previous studies have asserted
that there are several antecedents of employee satisfaction, such as employee engagement and self-
efficacy (De Simone et al., 2018, Perera et al., 2018, Suhartanto et al., 2018). Recently, the university’s
management has a program to change the university’s mindset from the teacher’s university to the
research university. This program is in line with the performance contract between rector and the
Directorate General of Higher Education and it will be followed by the contract between rector and
deans in Universitas Negeri Padang. Accordingly to achieve this vision, it should be followed by the
loyalty of lecturer to participate in achieving the university’s vision. However, study on employee
loyalty is still neglected, hence, this study aims to investigate the link between employee loyalty and
its antecedents, including employee engagement and employee satisfaction.
Employee Loyalty
Employee loyalty refers to an employee’s feeling of attachment to his/her employer (Masakure,
2016). According to Ineson et al. (2013), there are some antecedents of employee loyalty, such as
employee commitment, personal satisfaction, work environment, social benefit and monetary
rewards. Furthermore, Lee et al. (2017), Longo and Mura (2011) dan Bhattacharya (2015) assert that
employee will stay in the company when he/she satisfied with his/her job. Employee loyalty can be
Third International Conference On Economics Education, Economics, Business and Management, Accounting and Entrepreneurship (PICEEBA 2019)
Copyright © 2019, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
measured by using some items, including (1) want to do the job more than the organisation
expectation to make sure the organisation successfulness (2) want to make the company as his/her
own carrier (3) care with the organization condition (4) want to stay in the organization (Jun et al.,
Employee Satisfaction
Employee satisfaction becomes an important factor because managements’ view on human
resource has changed. In the past, they argued that human resource is only a cost for the company;
whilst, today they assert that human resource is an asset for the business. Some previous studies also
argue that employees may become a competitive advantage which is not easy to imitate by the
competitor (Suhartanto et al., 2018). When the employees satisfied with the company, they will do
their best and it will increase the company’s performance (De Simone et al., 2018). Employee
satisfaction refers to the employee’s feeling about the job based on his/her experience (like or dislike)
(Drydakis, 2017, Asrar-ul-Haq et al., 2017, Coetzee and Stoltz, 2015). Some prior studies argue that
employee satisfaction has some antecedents, such as self-efficacy, employee engagement and social
support (De Simone et al., 2018, Orgambídez-Ramos and de Almeida, 2017, Malinen and Savolainen,
2016). Employee satisfaction has also related to some consequences such as employee loyalty and
organizational citizenship behavior (Ocampo et al., 2018, Xie et al., 2017, Ineson et al., 2013). In
addition, according to Xie et al. (2017), employee satisfaction can be measured by using some
indicators, such as overall satisfaction of the job.
Employee Engagement
Employee engagement is a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by
vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2002). It relates to the positive emotional
relationship between employees and their job (Orgambídez-Ramos and de Almeida, 2017).
Accordingly, employee engagement has three main dimensions, including vigor, dedication and
absorption (Orgambídez-Ramos and de Almeida, 2017, Lu et al., 2018). Furthermore, Albrecht and
Marty (2017) have asserted that employee engagement has a close relationship with the psychological
factor, such as satisfaction which has an impact on employee’s performance. Cahill et al. (2015) also
argue that employee engagement will affect the employee’s work-life balance. Albrecht and Marty
(2017) argue that employee engagement can be measured by using four indicators, such as “my job
inspires me”.
Some prior studies have found that employee engagement has a relationship with employee
satisfaction (De Simone et al., 2018, Orgambídez-Ramos and de Almeida, 2017, Ocampo et al., 2018).
For example, Orgambídez-Ramos and de Almeida (2017) have revealed that employee engagement is
one significant antecedent of employee satisfaction. They have conducted their study to 215 nursing
professionals in Portugal. In line with Orgambídez-Ramos and de Almeida (2017), Suhartanto et al.
(2018) have also found that employee satisfaction is influenced by employee engagement. They
studies 408 frontline staffs of retail stores. Moreover, Perera et al. (2018) have investigated 574
teachers in Australia. By using Structural Equation Modeling as the data analysis tools they found
that the teachers’ satisfaction with their job is affected by the teachers’ engagement. Therefore from
the discussion above, we propose a hypothesis that employee engagement has a positive and
significant impact on employee satisfaction (H1).
Employee Engagement and Employee Loyalty
Employee engagement is also related to employee loyalty (Milliman et al., 2018, Karatepe and
Ngeche, 2012, De Simone et al., 2018, Salmela-Aro and Upadyaya, 2018). Milliman et al. (2018) and
Karatepe and Ngeche (2012) have asserted that employee engagement has a relationship with job
embeddedness. When an employee engages with his/her job in the company, he/she will have a better
job embeddedness, whilst, job embeddedness is related to the employee loyalty. Moreover Shahpouri
et al. (2016) have examined the mediating role of work engagement on the link between job resources
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
and turn over intention. They found that work engagement has a significant impact on turn over
intention. On the other hand, turn over intention relates to employee loyalty. Hence, we argue that
employee engagement has a direct impact on employee loyalty. Therefore, we posit that employee
engagement is a significant and positive antecedent of employee loyalty (H2).
Employee Satisfaction and Employee Loyalty
Several previous studies have revealed that employee satisfaction has a significant and positive
influence on employee loyalty (Collins et al., 2014, Masakure, 2016, Ineson et al., 2013). Masakure
(2016) argues that the employees will be loyal to the organisation when they satisfied with their job
and the work environment. Moreover, in marketing context, the prior studies also found that
customer satisfaction will have a positive effect on customer loyalty (Han et al., 2017). Hence, we
argue that employee satisfaction has a significant and positive impact on employee loyalty (H3).
Sampling and Data Collection Procedures
This preliminary study has been conducted in a state university in Padang West Sumatera. It is a
part of the main study where the study’s population is all permanent lecturers in this university.
However, we have employed only 30 respondents as the samples for this preliminary study. For the
data collection, we used several steps: First, we sent the questionnaires to 30 lecturers who agreed to
participate in this study. Second, we input the data to the SPSS software program.
This study has employed three constructs (i.e., employee engagement, employee satisfaction and
employee loyalty). We adopted the measurement for employee engagement from Albrecht and Marty
(2017). The sample of items from this construct is “at my job I feel strong and vigorous”. The
employee satisfaction construct has been adopted from Xie et al. (2017) and Messersmith et al. (2011).
The example of the measurement items is “All things considered, I feel pretty good about this job.”
Finally, the employee loyalty construct has been measured by using three loyalty indicators from Jun
et al. (2006). We employed Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) PLS with Smart PLS-3 to analyse the
data (Hair et al., 2014)
However, before the main analysis, we have done some preliminary tests, such as normality,
heteroschedasticity, multicollinearity and outlier test (Wardi et al., 2018b, Patrisia and Dastgir, 2017)
Result and Discussion
This study has analysed the data by using SEM PLS. However, before the main analysis, we have
conducted some prior tests. For example we examined the validity and reliability of the data. Table 1
shows the construct validity and reliability. We found all the constructs are valid (the Average
Variance Extracted values are ≥ 0.50) and reliable based on two values ( Cronbach’s alpha and
Construct Reliability ≥ 0.70) (Abror and Akamavi, 2015, Wardi et al., 2018a).
Table 1 Construct validity and Reliability
Employee Loyalty
Employee Satisfaction
Employee Engagement
CR= Construct Reliability, AVE= Average Variance Extracted
Moreover, we have also examined the discriminant validity of the constructs by using the square
root of AVE. Table 2 shows the value of square root of AVE in the diagonal should be greater than the
correlation (Hair et al., 2013).
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
Table 2 Discriminant Validity
Employee Loyalty
Employee Satisfaction
Employee Engagement
Note: Diagonal is the square root of AVE
The primary analysis in Table 3 has revealed that the employee engagement has a positive and
significant effect on employee satisfaction (H1). Moreover, the employee engagement has not
significantly affected the employee loyalty (H2). Finally, we also found that employee satisfaction has
a positive and significant impact on the employee loyalty (H3). Surprisingly, even though employee
engagement has no significant direct impact on employee loyalty, it has a significant indirect effect on
employee loyalty through employee satisfaction as a mediator. This finding has been tested by using
Sobel’s Test with significant value 0.005 (< 0.05). for the research model please see Figure 1.
Table 3 Hypothesis Testing
EmpSat -> EmpLoy
Engage -> EmpLoy
Engage -> EmpSat
Figure 1 Research Model
The findings of this study revealed that employee engagement has a significant influence on
employee satisfaction (H1). This finding reflects the previous findings, such as Orgambídez-Ramos
and de Almeida (2017); Ocampo et al. (2018) and Suhartanto et al. (2018) who have examined the link
between employee engagement and employee satisfaction. They argue that when an employee is
engaged with the company, it will affect his/her satisfaction. Accordingly, to make sure that the
employees have a high employee satisfaction, the company has to concern with the engagement
programs. Moreover, Perera et al. (2018) have highlighted that the teacher’s satisfaction has been
affected by the teacher’s engagement. Therefore, employee engagement is a significant and positive
antecedent of employee satisfaction.
The findings highlight that employee engagement has not significantly impacted the employee
loyalty (H2). This finding is not in the lines with some prior studies (Milliman et al., 2018, Karatepe
and Ngeche, 2012, Shahpouri et al., 2016) who argue that employee engagement has a significant
impact on employee loyalty. However, although the employee engagement has no significant direct
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
impact on employee loyalty, it has a significant indirect impact through employee satisfaction as the
mediating variable. Therefore, to increase employee loyalty, the company has to address the
employee engagement, hence, it will have a positive impact on employee satisfaction as a significant
antecedent of employee loyalty.
Finally, we found that employee satisfaction is a significant and positive antecedent of employee
loyalty (H3). This finding is congruent with several prior studies (Masakure, 2016, Ineson et al., 2013).
For instance, Han et al. (2017) and Masakure (2016) have asserted that satisfaction is an antecedent of
loyalty. Therefore, when an employee is satisfied with his/her job, he/she will be loyal to the
organisation. The employees will show their loyalty with some indicators, such as do their job
seriously and want to recommend the organisation to other people.
In conclusion, we have revealed some important findings; including there is a significant direct
effect of employee engagement on employee satisfaction. We also found that employee satisfaction
has a significant impact on employee loyalty. Finally, even though there is no significant direct impact
of employee engagement on employee loyalty, surprisingly, we found a significant direct impact on
that relationship through employee satisfaction as the mediator. Furthermore, this research also has
some limitations, such as the number of samples is still small, hence, for the main study, we suggest
to use a larger sample size. This study has only been conducted in one university and for future
study, it can be extended to some universities in Indonesia to get more generalize results. Finally, this
study only focused on employee engagement and satisfaction as the antecedents of employee loyalty.
For future research, it can be expanded to some new variables, such as self-efficacy and
Organisational Citizenship behaviour (OCB).
Abror & Akamavi, R. K. 2015. Psychological safety and organisational performance in indonesian
companies: Preliminary findings. Applied psychology. World Scientific.
Albrecht, S. L. & Marty, A. 2017. Personality, self-efficacy and job resources and their associations
with employee engagement, affective commitment and turnover intentions. The International
Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-25.
Asrar-ul-Haq, M., Kuchinke, K. P. & Iqbal, A. 2017. The relationship between corporate social
responsibility, job satisfaction, and organisational commitment: Case of pakistani higher
education. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 2352-2363.
Bhattacharya, Y. 2015. Employee engagement as a predictor of seafarer retention: A study among
indian officers. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 31, 295-318.
Cahill, K. E., McNamara, T. K., Pitt-Catsouphes, M. & Valcour, M. 2015. Linking shifts in the national
economy with changes in job satisfaction, employee engagement and worklife balance. Journal
of Behavioural and Experimental Economics, 56, 40-54.
Coetzee, M. & Stoltz, E. 2015. Employees' satisfaction with retention factors: Exploring the role of
career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 89, 83-91.
Collins, B. J., Burrus, C. J. & Meyer, R. D. 2014. Gender differences in the impact of leadership styles
on subordinate embeddedness and job satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 660-671.
De Simone, S., Planta, A. & Cicotto, G. 2018. The role of job satisfaction, work engagement, self-
efficacy and agentic capacities on nurses' turnover intention and patient satisfaction. Applied
Nursing Research, 39, 130-140.
Drydakis, N. 2017. Trans employees, transitioning, and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behaviour,
98, 1-16.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. 2013. A primer on partial least squares structural
equation modeling (pls-sem), SAGE Publications.
Hair , J. F. J., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L. & G. Kuppelwieser, V. 2014. Partial least squares structural
equation modeling (pls-sem). European Business Review, 26, 106-121.
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
Han, H., Meng, B. & Kim, W. 2017. Bike-traveling as a growing phenomenon: Role of attributes,
value, satisfaction, desire, and gender in developing loyalty. Tourism Management, 59, 91-103.
Ineson, E. M., Benke, E. & László, J. 2013. Employee loyalty in hungarian hotels. International Journal of
Hospitality Management, 32, 31-39.
Jun, M., Cai, S. & Shin, H. 2006. Tqm practice in maquiladora: Antecedents of employee satisfaction
and loyalty. Journal of Operations Management, 24, 791-812.
Karatepe, O. M. & Ngeche, R. N. 2012. Does job embeddedness mediate the effect of work
engagement on job outcomes? A study of hotel employees in cameroon. Journal of Hospitality
Marketing & Management, 21, 440-461.
Lee, T. W., Hom, P., Eberly, M. & Li, J. 2017. Managing employee retention and turnover with 21st
century ideas. Organisational Dynamics.
Longo, M. & Mura, M. 2011. The effect of intellectual capital on employees’ satisfaction and retention.
Information & Management, 48, 278-287.
Lu, X., Xie, B. & Guo, Y. 2018. The trickle-down of work engagement from leader to follower: The
roles of optimism and self-efficacy. Journal of Business Research, 84, 186-195.
Malinen, O.-P. & Savolainen, H. 2016. The effect of perceived school climate and teacher efficacy in
behaviour management on job satisfaction and burnout: A longitudinal study. Teaching and
Teacher Education, 60, 144-152.
Masakure, O. 2016. The effect of employee loyalty on wages. Journal of Economic Psychology, 56, 274-
Messersmith, J. G., Patel, P. C., Lepak, D. P. & Gould-Williams, J. 2011. Unlocking the black box:
Exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance. J Appl Psychol,
96, 1105-18.
Milliman, J., Gatling, A. & Kim, J. 2018. The effect of workplace spirituality on hospitality employee
engagement, intention to stay, and service delivery. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism
Management, 35, 56-65.
Ocampo, L. A., Tan, T. A. G. & Sia, L. A. 2018. Using fuzzy dematel in modeling the causal
relationships of the antecedents of organisational citizenship behaviour (ocb) in the hospitality
industry: A case study in the philippines. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 34, 11-
Orgambídez-Ramos, A. & de Almeida, H. 2017. Work engagement, social support, and job
satisfaction in portuguese nursing staff: A winning combination. Applied Nursing Research, 36,
Patrisia, D. & Dastgir, S. 2017. Diversification and corporate social performance in manufacturing
companies. Eurasian Business Review, 7, 121-139.
Perera, H. N., Granziera, H. & McIlveen, P. 2018. Profiles of teacher personality and relations with
teacher self-efficacy, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Personality and Individual
Differences, 120, 171-178.
Salmela-Aro, K. & Upadyaya, K. 2018. Role of demands-resources in work engagement and burnout
in different career stages. Journal of Vocational Behaviour.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-romá, V. & Bakker, A. B. 2002. The measurement of
engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of
Happiness Studies, 3, 71-92.
Shahpouri, S., Namdari, K. & Abedi, A. 2016. Mediating role of work engagement in the relationship
between job resources and personal resources with turnover intention among female nurses.
Applied Nursing Research, 30, 216-221.
Suhartanto, D., Dean, D., Nansuri, R. & Triyuni, N. N. 2018. The link between tourism involvement
and service performance: Evidence from frontline retail employees. Journal of Business Research,
83, 130-137.
Wardi, Y., Abror, A. & Trinanda, O. 2018a. Halal tourism: Antecedent of tourist’s satisfaction and
word of mouth (wom). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23, 463-472.
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
Wardi, Y., Susanto, P., Abror, A. & Abdullah, N. L. 2018b. Impact of entrepreneurial proclivity on
firm performance: The role of market and technology turbulence Pertanika J Soc. Sci. & Hum, 26,
Xie, B., Zhou, W., Huang, J. L. & Xia, M. 2017. Using goal facilitation theory to explain the
relationships between calling and organisation-directed citizenship behaviour and job
satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 100, 78-87.
Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 97
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
This study was aimed at examining the impact of entrepreneurial proclivity on business performance of SMEs in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The moderating variables of this study were role of market and technology turbulence. Data was collected from survey of selected managers or owners of SMEs and later analysed using Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). Findings show dimensions of entrepreneurial proclivity have significant effects on business performance. There is no significant moderating effect of the role market and technology turbulence on entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs. Therefore, this study contributes to literature by highlighting the relationship between entrepreneurial proclivity and business performance. Managerial implications are discussed as well.
Full-text available
The concept of Halal tourism has emerged recently in research. It becomes an important factor in determining the satisfaction of tourists or their loyalty. However, this concept is still not well known; thus, it needs to be developed in certain areas. The research was conducted to see the link between the attributes of Halal tourism (i.e. Islamic facility, Halalness, general Islamic morality, and alcohol drinks- and gambling-free), satisfaction of tourists and word of mouth (WOM). The respondents of the research were 345 derived from 5 municipals in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The research used structural equation model. The result of the research shows that the attributes of Halal tourism have significant impacts on satisfaction of tourists and WOM. There is no significant direct relationship between the attributes of Halal tourism and WOM. However, the satisfaction of tourists is significant as the mediator. Furthermore, some limitations and future research are discussed.
Full-text available
This paper attempts to identify the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the hospitality industry and to determine their causal relationships. As a case study, experts with key positions in top hotels and restaurants in Cebu, Philippines were asked to identify the OCB antecedents they observe and experience in practice. Using fuzzy DEMATEL to understand the causal relationships with imprecise information, organizational commitment emerged as the most prominent antecedent with the highest number of impact, both given and received. Furthermore, human resource practices appeared as the most influential antecedent, which showed a higher degree of causality to the other antecedents. Finally, job satisfaction and employee engagement have the highest number of impacts received which means that they are more dependent on other antecedents in the list. These findings may serve as guidelines in making resource allocation decisions, employee performance evaluation and human resource strategy formulation, among others.
Full-text available
This paper reports on research conducted to identify profiles of personality among teachers. We also examine the associations of profile membership with dimensions of teachers' self-efficacy for teaching, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Latent profile analyses revealed four distinct profiles of teacher personality (i.e., “rigid”, “ordinary”, “well-adjusted”, and “excitable”). Underpinning the validity of the profiles, results revealed that the dimensions of teacher self-efficacy, work engagement, and job satisfaction differed meaningfully across the profiles. Generally, well-adjusted teachers reported the highest levels on the outcomes. Notably, job satisfaction was lowest among excitable teachers. Equally noteworthy, ordinary and rigid teachers did not significantly differ on seven of the eight distal outcomes; only job satisfaction differed significantly between these profiles, with ordinary teachers reporting significantly lower satisfaction. The findings provide novel evidence suggesting that models of teacher attrition, effectiveness, or selection, should consider trait interactions rather than only additive effects of personality.
Integrating the life-span approach with the Job-Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, this study examined the associations between personal and job demands and resources and work burnout and engagement during the early, mid, and late career stages. A further aim was to include novel job-related demands caused by digitalization, globalization and diversity. We also examined the extent to which work engagement and burnout were associated with general well-being, i.e., life satisfaction and depressive symptoms, among employees in different career stages. Employees (N = 1415) from three large organizations participated in the study via their occupational health services. The research questions were analyzed using structural equation modeling. In line with the life-span approach, the results for personal demands showed that, especially during the early career stage, economic problems were associated with work burnout symptoms, whereas during the late career stage caregiving demands were associated with work burnout and, negatively, with work engagement. In line with the JD-R model, job resources were related to work engagement in all career stages and high resilience buffered against the associations between demands and work engagement and burnout. The results for job demands showed that ICT demands were associated with work burnout during the early career stage and multicultural job demands with work burnout during the middle career stage. Finally, work engagement was associated with life satisfaction and work burnout was associated with depressive symptoms in all career stages. To conclude, an integrative life-span framework can be applied in the context of the demands-resources model.
A key challenge facing hospitality organizations is how to retain and engage frontline employees who play an important role in influencing customer satisfaction. Although engagement has recently received considerable attention from scholars, much still remains to be learned about its intrinsic motivation and work meaning antecedents. Workplace spirituality has been conceptualized as offering new insights into how individuals experience a deeper level of intrinsic work motivation and engagement. This study found that workplace spirituality has a direct effect on employee engagement and intention to stay in a study of 292 employees in a U.S. hospitality organization. Engagement was found to be related to employees' service delivery, but not to their intention to stay. In doing so, this study provides new insights into the intrinsic work motivation antecedents of engagement and is the first investigation to empirically assess the joint effects of workplace spirituality and engagement on employee service delivery and intention to stay.
Despite the increasing attention on employee performance, empirical research to explain the consequences of employee involvement in tourism on their service performance has been overlooked. This study proposes new insights into theoretical concepts and evaluates the empirical evidence on the direct relationship between tourism involvement and employee service performance and its indirect relationship through work engagement and job satisfaction in the context of retail. To test the proposed model, this study applies variance-based structural equation modeling partial least squares (PLS) with a sample of 408 frontline store employees in Bandung, Indonesia. The results reveal that tourism involvement directly affects service performance. Further, this study confirms that the linkage between tourism involvement and service performance is partially mediated by work engagement and job satisfaction. The theoretical and managerial practices consequences of these findings are discussed.
The present research seeks to explore how and when leader work engagement trickles down to the follower. Relying on social learning theory, we hypothesize that optimism mediates the relationship between leader work engagement and follower work engagement. Follower self-efficacy is supposed to strengthen the effect of follower optimism on work engagement. In a sample of 707 employees from 72 teams in Chinese enterprises, we tested the hypotheses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). The results suggest that leader work engagement is positively related to follower work engagement and that follower optimism significantly mediates the relationship. Moreover, follower self-efficacy strengthens the positive relationship between follower optimism and work engagement as well as the indirect effect of leader work engagement on follower work engagement via follower optimism. Theoretical and practical implications are further discussed.
Background Nurses' voluntary turnover is a worrying global phenomenon which affects service quality. Retaining nursing staff within a hospital is important to eliminate the negative influence of voluntary turnover on the quality of care and organisation costs. Objectives This research helps explain nurses' voluntary turnover by analysing the role of self-efficacy, agentic capacities, job satisfaction, and work engagement on hospital turnover intention, and to study the relationships between these variables and patient satisfaction. Setting and participants This study gathered data from 194 nurses and 181 patients from 22 inpatient wards at two hospitals in southern Italy. Results Correlation analysis revealed that job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy and agentic capacities were positively interrelated and negatively correlated with turnover intention. Path analysis showed that self-efficacy, some agentic capacities (anticipation and self-regulation), job satisfaction, and work engagement had direct or indirect effects on nurses' turnover intention, and that job satisfaction exerted a stronger effect on turnover intention. Also, patient satisfaction was positively correlated with nurses' job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy, self-regulation and anticipation and negatively correlated with nurses' turnover intention. Conclusion Results highlighted the importance of implementing actions (for example through feedforward methodology and the goal setting technique) to improve self-efficacy, self-regulation skill, work engagement and job satisfaction in order to reduce nurses' turnover intention and increase patient satisfaction with nursing care.