Article

Is there a price telecommuters pay? Examining the relationship between telecommuting and objective career success

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Abstract

Telecommuting has long been noted for its ability to foster work-family balance and job satisfaction. However, for employees seeking to advance in their careers, it is commonly advised to exercise caution, since telecommuting is often viewed as signaling a lack of dedication to one's career. Despite the prevalence of such advice, almost no research has investigated if telecommuting actually impacts career success in objective terms. Integrating research on the flexibility stigma and signaling theory, we first compared the career success of telecommuters and non-telecommuters using a sample of 405 employees matched with corporate data on promotion and salary growth. Then, we examined the relationship between extent of telecommuting and career success as well as the moderating influence of contextual factors. Results indicated telecommuters and non-telecommuters did not differ in number of promotions, but telecommuters experienced lower salary growth. Additionally, extent of telecommuting was negatively related to promotions and salary growth, indicating it is not simply telecommuting per se that effects career success, but rather the extent of telecommuting. Moreover, work context played a highly influential role. A greater number of promotions were received by extensive telecommuters when they worked where telecommuting was highly normative, and when they engaged in higher supplemental work. Extensive telecommuters with higher supplemental work and higher face-to-face contact with their supervisor also received greater salary growth. Together, results challenge previous research that has tended to portray telecommuting as harmful to one's career success by providing a more informed understanding of how to harness its benefits.

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... Scholars classify employees into telecommuters and non-telecommuters by using a binary "yes or no" variable in the conceptualization and measurement of telecommuting, but they also indicate that research should consider the telecommuting degree of an individual (Allen et al., 2015;Golden and Eddleston, 2020). The binary variable disregards the variation in the way telecommuters work remotely and the differences among telecommuters themselves (Golden et al., 2008;Golden and Eddleston, 2020). ...
... Scholars classify employees into telecommuters and non-telecommuters by using a binary "yes or no" variable in the conceptualization and measurement of telecommuting, but they also indicate that research should consider the telecommuting degree of an individual (Allen et al., 2015;Golden and Eddleston, 2020). The binary variable disregards the variation in the way telecommuters work remotely and the differences among telecommuters themselves (Golden et al., 2008;Golden and Eddleston, 2020). The telecommuting experiences of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic vary between occasional telecommuting and regular telecommuting (i.e., multiple days per week; Golden and Veiga, 2005); thus, the influences on their wellbeing differ. ...
... The telecommuting experiences of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic vary between occasional telecommuting and regular telecommuting (i.e., multiple days per week; Golden and Veiga, 2005); thus, the influences on their wellbeing differ. In accordance with earlier literature on telecommuting (Golden and Veiga, 2005;Golden et al., 2006Golden et al., , 2008Allen et al., 2015;Golden and Gajendran, 2019;Golden and Eddleston, 2020), the extent of telecommuting and its effects on employees are focused on in the current study. ...
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Meta-analytical research has demonstrated the benefits brought by telecommuting to wellbeing. However, we argue that such a setup in the course of the coronavirus disease pandemic exerts negative effects. On the basis of conservation of resources theory, this study determined how telecommuting depletes wellbeing (defined by job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion) through obstructing psychological detachment from work. Moreover, we incorporated family interfering with work and family–work enrichment as moderators that can buffer the negative effect of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work. Time-lagged field research was conducted with 350 Chinese employees, and findings largely supported our theoretical hypotheses. The elevated level of telecommuting results in minimal psychological detachment from work, which then leads to low wellbeing. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the extent of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work is reduced by family interfering with work. These findings extend the literature on telecommuting and psychological detachment from work through revealing why teleworkers present negative feelings during the pandemic.
... 'Telework' and a host of other terms, such as 'homeworking', 'telehomeworking', 'telecommuting', 'remote working', 'virtual work', 'electronic homeworking' and 'distributed work' have been used interchangeably (Golden and Eddleston, 2018;Haddon and Brynin, 2005;Illegems and Verbeke, 2004;Lautsch et al., 2009;Nunes, 2005). The terms 'e-Work' and 'home-anchored work' have also been suggested as an alternative to 'telework' (Nunes, 2005;Whittle and Mueller, 2009). ...
... Telework is related to negative career outcomes because of the perceived lack of dedication to one's career and the flexibility stigma that is "the devaluation of employees who use flexible work practices … because they are seen as deviating from the work devotion schema that places work at the center of one's life" (Golden and Eddleston, 2018). In fact, Golden and Eddleston, 2018 found similar results for teleworkers and non-teleworkers in terms of promotions. ...
... Table 9 presents an analysis of the future research suggestions per article while Table 10 summarizes these suggestions into the most prominent future research directions. Golden and Eddleston, 2018 To identify contextual factors which could help teleworkers minimize the flexibility stigma and organisational factors which could normalize the use of teleworking More research on how the flexibility stigma varies within different work contexts and on the career consequences of extensive teleworking Delanoeije et al. (2019) To include different dimensions of teleworking: for example, whether teleworking is requested by the employee or the organisation or whether the employee has control over the use of telework More research on the specific characteristics of the role transitions: for example, whether they are self-initiated or other-initiated Müller and Niessen (2019) To investigate any possible predictors, outcomes and underlying mechanisms of self-leadership To examine other outcome variables, i.e. work engagement, which might be influenced by self-leadership To examine whether there are any possible moderators such as daily level self-control demands or task variety To factor in the role of co-workers relationships and differences in communication. ...
Article
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Given the work and life conditions imposed by the ‘new normal’ Covid-19 era, a massive shift towards telework is expected and will likely continue long after the pandemic. Despite the resurgent interest in telework as an important aspect of ensuring business continuity, the literature base remains fragmented and variable. This study presents a taxonomical classification of literature on teleworking along with a comprehensive bibliography and future research agenda. To this aim, a systematic literature review methodology was adopted drawing on an evidence base of 40 articles published in high-ranking journals during the years 2000–2020. Findings capture key developments and synthesize existing areas of research focus. Important insights and gaps in the existing research are also pinpointed. The study may stimulate future research, represent a reference point for scholars interested in telework and at the same time provide an added advantage to managers for understanding crucial dimensions thereof.
... Even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the work-from-home trend was increasing in popularity due to technological advancements making flexible work arrangements more feasible (Golden and Eddleston 2020). Though ideas about traditional work environments have transitioned and evolved over time, researchers are just beginning to understand the impact that remote work has on individuals and their overall careers. ...
... Regarding career success and the remote worker, several important factors emerge, including the continuum of interaction, as well as the context of work. For example, in their study of career success and telecommuting (when workers substitute only a portion of their normal working hours with remote work and typically work from home) in the United States, Golden and Eddleston (2020) found that, in general, telecommuters did not differ in the number of promotions received, though they did experience lower salary growth as compared to their on-site colleagues. However, this study also found that the extent of telecommuting played an important role in these outcomes, as workers that telecommuted more extensively were more negatively impacted by fewer promotions and lower salary growth. ...
... Yet, extensive telecommuters in industries where telecommuting was common experienced a greater number of promotions as did extensive telecommuters who had higher supplemental work and a higher number of face-to-face interactions with their supervisors. Thus, though Golden and Eddleston (2020) found that telecommuting itself was not necessarily detrimental to one's career, workers that telecommuted only occasionally received the best benefits and experienced the most career success. ...
... Teleworking, i.e. work activities performed outside a company-based workplace (mainly from home), where technologies are used to interact with colleagues or customers and to complete work tasks (e.g., Allen et al., 2015), has advantages and disadvantages (see e.g., Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). Previous studies have produced contradictory results revealing both positive and negative consequences of telecommuting (e.g., Golden & Eddleston, 2020;Vega et al., 2015) such as increased job satisfaction, improved work-life balance, higher productivity, or reduced costs for organizations in some studies whereas other studies found lower work satisfaction, increased work-family conflicts or difficulties in developing shared knowledge in teams (see Boell et al., 2016 for an overview). ...
... During the COVID-19 pandemic, when suddenly all (or most) colleagues were working from home, new communication routines and methods could be developed within the team and solutions could be worked out together, which may have increased the perception of potential positive consequences of telework (see Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). Indeed, Golden and Eddleston (2020) found that employees working in teams where telework was highly normative (as compared to work groups where this was rather uncommon), experienced more positive consequences, such as promotions. If, on the other hand, only individual employees work from home and ways to stay in touch with them need to be found, it could be that the disadvantages related to the team and colleagues (such as feelings of isolation, poorer communication and relationships with colleagues and superiors) are of particular importance. ...
Article
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The implications of telework are discussed controversially and research on its positive and negative effects has produced contradictory results. We explore voluntariness of employee telework as a boundary condition which may underpin these contradictory findings. Under normal circumstances, individuals who do more telework should perceive fewer disadvantages. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, employees could no longer voluntarily choose to telecommute, as many organizations were forced to introduce telework by governmental regulations. In two studies, we examine whether the voluntary nature of telework moderates the association between the amount of telework and perceptions of disadvantage. In Study 1, we collected data before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 327). Results show that pre-pandemic participants (who were more likely to voluntarily choose this form of work) reported fewer disadvantages the more telework they did, but this was not the case for employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. To validate these findings, we measured employees’ voluntariness of telework in Study 2 (N = 220). Results support the importance of voluntariness: Individuals who experience a high degree of voluntariness in choosing telework perceive fewer disadvantages the more they telework. However, the amount of telework was not related to reduced perceptions of disadvantages for those who experienced low voluntariness regarding the telecommuting arrangement. Our findings help to understand when telework is related to the perception of disadvantages and they can provide organizations with starting points for practical interventions to reduce the negative effects of telework.
... Prior research found that remote workers were more likely to work overtime than those with more traditional workplace arrangements [122]. Remote workers may be inclined to work more hours to signal "work devotion" in lieu of being able to do so through consistent physical presence at the office [54]. ...
... Microsoft employees and external information workers have expressed concerns about the need to "look productive" and the fact that their work is now less visible to their manager or team [26]. This may be aggravated by job security concerns resulting from COVID-19's effect on the economy, but it is also expected from the prior literature on remote work: physical presence in the office is a typical means of signaling "work devotion," and remote workers before the pandemic frequently felt the need signal devotion in other ways (e.g., by working longer hours as discussed earlier) [54,122]. In this vein, while some Microsoft employees appreciate the benefit, some have indicated reluctance to take the Paid Pandemic School and Childcare Closure Leave [26,69]. ...
Preprint
We now turn to understanding the impact that COVID-19 had on the personal productivity and well-being of information workers as their work practices were impacted by remote work. This chapter overviews people's productivity, satisfaction, and work patterns, and shows that the challenges and benefits of remote work are closely linked. Looking forward, the infrastructure surrounding work will need to evolve to help people adapt to the challenges of remote and hybrid work.
... This is consistent with prior studies identifying a higher productivity when adopting WFH (Bailey & Kurland, 2002; Belzunegui-Eraso & Erro-Garcés, 2020; SHRM, 2018) due to less absenteeism (Kitou & Horvath, 2008), saved turnover cost from less commute and stress (Redman et al., 2009), better worklife balance (Wheatley, 2012), and reduced the costs of pollution and urban congestion (Helminen & Ristimäki, 2007). However, adopting WFH practices often requires organizational changes, such as surveillance and control or management of the psycho-sociological distance from the work environment (Wilton et al., 2011), considering limited promotions, raises, and career success often associated with WFH (Golden & Eddleston, 2020). Otherwise, the benefit of WFH could be compromised or even lost. ...
... This means WFH still has a potential room to further grow if more firms are ready for the change. The sustainability of WFH and even its further growth will call for firm human resource management (HRM) innovations to address the current concerns on managers' control and surveillance needs (Coenen & Kok, 2014), employees' career path (Golden & Eddleston, 2020), and psycho-sociological distance (Taskin & Devos, 2005;Wilton et al., 2011). Accordingly, other public policy measures related to urban planning may need to adjust. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, many firms began operating in a working-from-home environment (WFH). This study focuses on the relationship between WFH and small business performance during the pandemic. We built a theoretical framework based on firm profit maximization, compiled an up-to-date (March through November) real-time daily and weekly multifaceted data set, and empirically estimated fixed-effect panel data, fractional logit, and multilevel mixed effects models to test our hypotheses. We find that in states with higher WFH rates, small businesses performed better overall with industry variations, controlling for the local pandemic, economic, demographic, and policy factors. We also find that WFH rates increased even after stay-at-home orders (SHOs) were rescinded. With the ready technology and practice of WFH in the pandemic, our robust empirics confirm our theory and hypotheses and demonstrate WFH as a potential force that may expedite “creative destruction” instance and permanently impact industrial structure and peoples’ work lives. Plain English summary The Rise of Working from Home (WFH) as a Silver Lining and “Creative Destruction” in the Pandemic: WFH Helps Small Businesses Perform Better with Industry Variations and Continues to Shine after Stay-at-Home Orders Ended. This study focuses on the role of working from home (WFH) for small business performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. We built a theoretical framework based on firm profit maximization and identified WFH as a rational business choice. We then compiled a real-time multifaceted data set, estimated panel fixed-effect, fractional logit, and multilevel mixed effects models, and find that (1) small businesses in states with higher WFH rates performed better with industry variations, controlling for local pandemic and socioeconomic factors; and (2) WFH rates increased after stay-at-home orders were rescinded. Our study demonstrates WFH as a potential “creative destruction” force that may expedite our technologically ready WFH adoption and permanently impact industrial structure and peoples’ work lives.
... However, the increased implementation of telework options in working life has raised employers' concern about possible negative impacts on work efficiency and work relations. Above all, social and professional isolation and work-life conflicts are often mentioned as potential consequences of telework that could decrease work satisfaction, well-being, and organizational work performance [8][9][10]. According to boundary theories, the integration of work and nonwork may challenge teleworkers' ability to distinguish between their private and professional roles. ...
... However, in parallel to telework being perceived as boundless, it was considered important for mental recovery by providing an escape from the social interaction at the office. In contrast to previous findings showing that ICTs may expand the availability in work [10], our findings show that communication through ICTs could facilitate control over social availability during teleworking. Besides this, telework was also seen to facilitate coping with physical injuries and pain by enabling the adaption of physical activity and rest to individual health-related needs. ...
Article
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An increasing number of academic institutions offer their staff the option to work from other places than the conventional office, i.e., telework. Academic teaching and research staff are recognized as some of the most frequent teleworkers, and this seems to affect their well-being, work performance, and recovery in different ways. This study aimed to investigate academics’ experiences and perceptions of telework within the academic context. For this, we interviewed 26 academics from different Swedish universities. Interviews were analyzed with a phenomenographic approach, which showed that telework was perceived as a natural part of academic work and a necessary resource for coping with, and recovering from, high work demands. Telework was mostly self-regulated but the opportunity could be determined by work tasks, professional culture, and management. Telework could facilitate the individual’s work but could contribute to challenges for the workgroup. Formal regulations of telework were considered a threat to academics’ work autonomy and to their possibility to cope with the high work demands. The findings provide insight into academics’ working conditions during teleworking, which may be important for maintaining a sustainable work environment when academic institutions offer telework options.
... Scholars have also indicated that career development-related issues are a concern for remote e-workers (Campbell et al., 2016;Golden & Eddleston, 2020). Some studies have reported that remote e-working is a barrier to career progress and success because it could negatively affect their career growth including limited opportunities for career development and promotions, and reducing workplace presence (Golden & Eddleston, 2020). ...
... Scholars have also indicated that career development-related issues are a concern for remote e-workers (Campbell et al., 2016;Golden & Eddleston, 2020). Some studies have reported that remote e-working is a barrier to career progress and success because it could negatively affect their career growth including limited opportunities for career development and promotions, and reducing workplace presence (Golden & Eddleston, 2020). Specifically in the COVID-19 pandemic era, employees working from home may perceive that their career advancement and development could be restricted because of limited opportunities to demonstrate excellent skills or work results (Raišienė et al., 2020). ...
Article
The Problem As most employees have been forced to work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is considerable concern about how to preserve employee health and well-being by supporting their work in this unpredictable situation. In this sense, research highlighting how to support remote e-workers in the COVID-19 pandemic era is urgently needed to inform scholars and practitioners about effective strategies and interventions to support remote e-workers. The Solution By reviewing conceptual and empirical studies, we discuss the challenges of remote e-workers from the perspective of psychological well-being. We also summarize the factors that support psychological well-being. Based on the findings, we suggest how human resource development (HRD) professionals can support remote e-workers’ psychological well-being and career development in the COVID-19 pandemic era. The Stakeholders This article has relevance for scholars, scholar-practitioners, and practitioners who are interested in seeking ways to support remote e-workers from an HRD perspective across countries, disciplines, and contexts in the COVID-19 pandemic era.
... Precisely stated, and as put forward by work design theory (Morgeson and Humphrey, 2006) as well, it is not the telecommuting arrangement in general, but it is the certain aspects of telecommuter's task (managerial, work and individual) that determine the job performance for telecommuters. Past research reflects the existence of telecommuting paradox in terms of extent; available literature shows that telecommuting is beneficial when limited to a few days in a week, and its negative effects (poor work-life balance, professional isolation, perceived dissatisfaction with pay and performance and reduced job satisfaction and performance) increases with the extent (Bellmann and H€ ubler, 2020;Golden and Eddleston, 2020;Palumbo, 2020;Virick et al., 2010). ...
... Across telecommuting literature, the relationship between increased job autonomy and better job performance is well established; telecommuters have been reported to have better performance and increased productivity because of job autonomy (Jamal et al., 2021;Vega et al., 2015). Past research attributes increased job performance to social exchange theory (Golden and Eddleston, 2020;Golden and Gajendran, 2019). Added control given to employees is often considered a privilege and employees consider that organization is committed to their wellbeing. ...
Article
Purpose: Based on self-determination theory (SDT), the present study aims to assess the effect of managerial (manager trust and support), work (job autonomy) and individual (intrinsic motivation) characteristics on job performance of telecommuters in a pre- and post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak period and is further studied longitudinally after six months of continued mandatory telecommuting. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from information technology (IT) sector employees in three phases and model fitness, reliability and validity of the data for all three phases were assessed through CFA models, while the hypotheses were tested through path analysis. Findings: Perceived manager trust and support increases job performance and the effect strengthens with an increase in telecommuting extent. Job autonomy had similar effects with the exception that employees did not enjoy autonomy when mandatory telecommuting arrangement was initially introduced. Lastly, intrinsic motivation fades away as employees continue to work permanently from their homes. Practical implications: Permanent full-time telecommuting is expected to continue for the unforeseeable future; the present study suggests that while ensuring increased trust, support and job autonomy to employees, managers must also ensure that employees do not feel professionally isolated and attempt to keep individuals intrinsically motivated. Originality/value: The authors assess the effect of managerial (manager trust and support), work (job autonomy) and individual (intrinsic motivation) characteristics on job performance under three different types of telecommuting arrangements (voluntary part-time, mandatory full-time and continued mandatory full-time) by collecting data in three different time frames from the same individuals.
... However, Golden and Eddleston (2020) found that the extent of teleworking negatively affected salary growth and promotions. This negative effect could be offset with frequent face-to-face contact with supervisors. ...
... Less than a quarter of the respondents wanted to telework full-time, reflecting the importance that Japanese respondents placed on maintaining regular face-to-face contact with colleagues and supervisors. Similarly, Golden and Eddleston (2020) had indeed found a positive relationship between colocated work and performance evaluation and promotion, which would discourage teleworking. ...
Article
Purpose This exploratory paper aims to examine attitudes and practices with regard to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the effects of mandatory teleworking from home in the wake of the first state of emergency orders in Japan in 2020. Design/methodology/approach An online survey of married employees retrospectively assessed changes in work style, subjective well-being, work–family conflict and job performance before and during forced teleworking from home in Tokyo and three of the surrounding prefectures. Findings Regular employees reported high levels of anxiety and to have thoroughly implemented government-recommended hygiene and safety practices. A majority of respondents were satisfied with mandatory telework from home and desired to continue partial telework after the end of the pandemic. The strongest predictor of satisfaction with mandatory telework from home turned out to be adequate workspace at home for both men and women. However, the antecedents of the desire to continue working from home differed by gender. Practical implications These findings can help individuals, firms and governments better understand the effects of mandatory teleworking from home and devise countermeasures to maximize employee well-being and job performance. This is all the more crucial, as Japan has had successive waves of the virus and has declared numerous states of emergency since the beginning of the pandemic, forcing office workers to continue social distancing and remote working for the time being. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is one of the first to provide insights on how imposed teleworking from home in the context of COVID-19 in Japan affected regular employees’ personal and professional lives and to identify predictors of satisfaction with teleworking and the desire to continue doing so.
... A lack of face-to-face contact with supervisors in a WFH context poses a major threat to women's careers in maledominated fields, as supervisor advocacy for women's career advancement (i.e., sponsorship) and help in assimilating to the work culture and learning occupation-specific skills are key factors in women's career development in such occupations (Schmitt, 2021). The extent of WFH time is negatively related to objective indicators of career success, including promotions and salary growth (Golden & Eddleston, 2020), raising concerns for women in male-dominated fields, who already face these barriers (Hunt, 2016). ...
... For women in male-dominated fields to garner the benefits of WFH, it is essential that WFH be normalised and supported at all levels of the organisation, making WFH a routine and expected part of work life rather than a special accommodation. Women benefit more from WFH in terms of managing work-family conflict and securing promotions when a majority of their co-workers WFH (Golden & Eddleston, 2020;van der Lippe & Lippényi, 2018). To ensure that a majority of employees WFH at least some of the time, organisations and supervisors should make it clear to all employees that WFH is expected and will not influence their career advancement prospects. ...
Chapter
Women pursuing male-dominated careers face well-documented barriers to career success (e.g., stereotypes, sexual harassment, limited access to professional networks, and mentoring), which have the potential to be exacerbated or diminished by the increasing prevalence of work from home (WFH). In this chapter, the authors first review key career obstacles for women in male-dominated fields and analyse the impact of WFH on these barriers and, second, provide actionable strategies for organisations to implement WFH in a way that promotes rather than hampers the success of women in these fields. Both career obstacles and WFH remedies are considered through an overarching framework focussed on the significance of work–family boundary management, inclusion, and career advancement. Drawing on the extant research, the authors provide evidence-based, actionable guidance to help organisations and supervisors leverage WFH to support the career success of women in male-dominated careers.
... The main challenges of teleworking with regards to employee performance are the following: maintaining synergy between them, replicating informal learning, and creating opportunities for interpersonal relationships (Morilla-Luchena, et al., 2021). Teleworking diminishes interpersonal interactions, thus affecting the opportunities for professional growth, and enhancing the sense of employee isolation (Golden and Eddleston, 2020). At the same time, it favours professional isolation, exerting a negative impact on job performance and a positive one on turnover intention (Aizenberg and Oplatka, 2019). ...
Article
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The new social context brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic has generated significant changes in the work of employees. Social distancing and isolation have imposed the adoption of teleworking in most cases. Teleworking existed before the COVID-19 pandemic, and was considered a facilitator of job flexibility, thus increasing employees’ autonomy in their work. This paper aims to identify how teleworking, through its dimensions (teleworking autonomy and interaction reduction) influences self-regulatory capacity, professional isolation, task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behaviours. The data were collected from 641 respondents, namely Romanian employees, who operated by teleworking. The theoretical model and relation between the constructs were tested with the aid of structural equation modelling in SmartPLS. The interaction reduction in the context of teleworking significantly, positively, and strongly influences professional isolation, and to a lesser extent, but significantly nonetheless, counterproductive work behaviour and employee self-regulatory capacity. The research originality lies in expanding the theoretical contributions regarding teleworking theory by proposing a new teleworking scale based on teleworking autonomy and interaction reduction. It also contributes to the development of Self-regulatory Theory and Social Exchange Theory. From a managerial perspective, it highlights the importance of the dimensions of teleworking for the employer, as well as the effects of teleworking on task performance and contextual performance in the COVID-19 pandemic, offering helpful solutions to employers in the identification of viable solutions for the improvement of employee outcomes, and for the reduction of counterproductive work behaviour
... However, according to Golden and Eddleston (2020), telecommuting per se does not lead to a lower likelihood of promotion, but employees are less likely to be promoted the more they work from home and receive lower salary increases. These adverse career consequences are also referred to as the flexibility stigma, describing the perception that people who are working flexibly (e.g., remotely) contribute less and are less committed to their workplace, particularly when employees are engaging in flexible work due to care duties (Williams, Blair-Loy, & Berdahl, 2013). ...
Article
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The Corona crisis and the lockdown in the spring of 2020 had various effects on working life in Europe. In this three-wave study, we assessed the trajectories of job demands and resources of 302 employees 2 weeks before the lockdown, over 1 week after lockdown start, and 6 weeks following the beginning of the lockdown. We applied a pre-post follow-up design with 129 employees who switched to telecommuting and a control group of 173 employees who remained in their on-site workplace. Results from the repeated-measures MANCOVA indicate that, despite various general changes to job characteristics because of the Corona crisis, telecommuting changes contributed to significant changes only in communication opportunities and – before Bonferroni correction – in physical job demands. These results may imply that the most visible massive switch to telecommuting of many employees during the first phase of the Corona crisis is only one explanatory factor for general changes to job characteristics.
... Research of the last years has shown that telecommuting, including home office jobs, is subject to stigmatisation, accompanied by prejudices. Promotion chances seem to decrease for employees working in a telecommuting environment in comparison with office jobs [34]. Studies showed that only a minority of managers was coming from a telecommuting working background or was working in telecommuting in the moment that they were sent on home office [35]. ...
Article
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This study investigates the effect of COVID-19 lockdowns and non-lockdown phases on managers and employees in the Czech Republic in the year 2020. The Czech Republic came through the first COVID-19 wave in spring 2020 with low case numbers, but became one of the countries with the highest case incidences in the second autumn wave in Europe. The study focused on examining the differences of perceptions on digital readiness of the company, working style, and mental health variables of working personnel in lockdown and non-lockdown phases. Data was obtained by an online survey conducted monthly from March-2020 to December-2020 with the same questions each month. Collected data consisted of respondents’ basic information on the actual situation, on perceptions on company and technology and on perceptions of the own mental state in the given month, retrieved from a pool of employees and managers from the Czech Republic machine and equipment manufacturers’ industry. Statistical analysis was conducted with the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordinal variables to check for significant differences in perceptions during 2020. Results show that managers in general and telecommuting-experienced workers in particular are better able to adapt to forced home office, while telecommuting-inexperienced employees struggle to adapt positively even with increasing company support and with an increasing digital team communication.
... T his scenario is not completely new. 2 Remote work is a 40-year phenomenon now, and its drawbacks have been largely discussed by previous literature, such as, for instance, feelings of social isolation, 3,4 pressure deriving from the need to balance family and work expectations, 5 and negative consequences on individual career. 6 However, the COVID-19 scenario has exacerbated these issues since: 1) an unprecedentedly large part of the working population is currently involved by WFH (and often times, in an involuntary and unplanned nature); 2) homeworkers are today ''all in the same boat''; and 3) WFH drawbacks may have become more acute, given the precariousness that characterizes current times and the psychological suffering associated with them. 7 Therefore, novel problems are likely to be emerging, which call for new solutions capable of re-establishing the psychosocial boundaries between work and private life domains that COVID-19 teleworkers have lost at the expenses of their own physical and mental health. ...
... Although remote working has been linked to better worklife balance and job satisfaction, it is often viewed as a lack of dedication to an individual's career. However, a study by Golden & Eddleston (2020) shows that there is no difference in promotions between telecommuters and nontelecommuters, but the first still receives lower salaries. ...
Article
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During the last several months, jobs have become less secure and more demanding. In light of these changes, it is appropriate to ask what is known about the implications of Covid-19 on human resource management. The paper investigates challenges HRM has faced regarding alterations in jobs, tasks and duties, flextime working schedules and work-related travel. It examines how HR managers are satisfied with workplace management during the pandemic and with communication arrangements. The paper also analyses the recruiting and selection process, as well as personnel development and training issues. Quantitative data was gathered with questionnaires distributed to Georgian HR managers. Although the crisis has negatively affected organizations, managers supported employees with pieces of training, meetings, adequate communication, and overall, HR managers are content with organizational actions. The paper contributes to the knowledge in the impact of the pandemic on organizations and HRM, paving the way for further comprehensive research in this area. It contributes to the knowledge in this field paving the way for further comprehensive research in this area. WEB: http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org/IJEMS/paper-details?Id=737
... Additionally, when telecommuting was highly normative in a given work context, extensive telecommuters received more promotions, though the best career benefits were reaped by the occasional telecommuter (Golden and Eddleston 2020). ...
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Circuit Breaker measures were implemented in Singapore on 7 April 2020, and work from home arrangements were officially made compulsory for most due to COVID-19. This study assessed the effects of prolonged telecommuting within the Singapore Police. Items on productivity, satisfaction with telecommuting, work-life effectiveness, feelings of safety, stress levels, connectedness to and support by colleagues, and supervisors were included. The study found that while prolonged telecommuting did not have any impact on levels of satisfaction with telecommuting, individuals with caregiving duties were significantly less satisfied with telecommuting than non-caregivers. Implications of the findings were discussed with respect to the necessary support required by officers while telecommuting. Recommendations on how individuals can practice self-care while telecommuting for prolonged periods were also proposed.
... Importantly, the review also suggested that those approaches can have differential importance for predicting objective versus subjective career success. Studies, for example, linked various organizational career management approaches via different explaining mechanisms with objective career success (Bagdadli & Gianecchini, 2019), showing that organizational embeddedness predicts promotions and career satisfaction (Kiazad et al., 2020) and that the relationship between telecommuting and objective career success is rather complex (Golden & Eddleston, 2020). ...
Article
The field of career studies primarily focuses on understanding people’s lifelong succession of work experiences, the structure of opportunity to work, and the relationship between careers and work and other aspects of life. Career research is conducted by scholars in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, management, and sociology. As such, it covers multiple levels of analysis and is informed by different theoretical frameworks, ranging from micro (i.e., individual) to macro (e.g., organizational, institutional, cultural). The most dominant theoretical perspectives that have been mobilized in career research are boundaryless and protean career theory, career construction theory, and social cognitive career theory. Other perspectives that have increasingly been adopted include sustainable careers, kaleidoscope careers, psychology of working theory, and theories from related disciplines, such as conservation of resources theory and social exchange theory. Key topics in the field of career studies include career self-management, career outcomes (e.g., career success, employability), career transitions and shocks, calling, and organizational career management. Research at the micro level with outcomes on the individual level has been dominant in the early 21st century, predominantly focusing on understanding individual career paths and outcomes. Thereby, however, contextual factors as either further important predictors or boundary conditions for career development are also considered as important research topics.
... When the work from home policy was applied during the pandemic due to it being perceived to be the best option for Indonesian workers, workers who were could not access good IT infrastructure needed to evaluate this new working style, especially for the type of work that requires full support of ICTs. This finding is similar to that of previous studies (Golden and Eddleston 2020;Novianti and Roz 2020;Gajendran and Harrison 2007;Virick et al. 2010). ...
Article
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Coronavirus (COVID-19), which hit in early 2020, changed the way people live and work, and affected industries and organizations all over the world. Many organizations have begun to deliver a new way of working to adapt to these shifts effectively using teleworking or a work from home policy. The purpose of this study was to fill the gaps by investigating several potential predictors of job satisfaction during working from home from the impact of COVID-19 such as work–life balance and work stress. Using a quantitative approach, 472 workers who were forced to work from home all over Indonesia participated, and the responses were analyzed using Smart-PLS software. The study revealed that working from home, work–life balance, and work stress have a significant effect, both directly and indirectly, on job satisfaction. Working from home as a new pace of work can sustain job satisfaction as the current working atmosphere for Indonesian workers. In response to the collectivist setting, working from home can be a positive sign that needs to be paid attention to for the organization.
... However, they may also be exacerbated by the lack of informal chats or face-to-face connection typical at work, as well as reduced ability to nurture social connections outside work hours due to social distancing. Loneliness is associated with a myriad of health concerns (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020b), and teleworking can result in professional isolation consequences such as reduced wage growth, interpersonal networking, informal learning, and mentoring (e.g., Golden & Eddleston, 2020). Moreover, a study of over 500 remote workers found that these employees often reported feeling mistreated and ostracized, with little ability to handle workplace politics and resolve conflicts in a timely manner (Grenny & Maxfield, 2017). ...
... It has been proposed that telecommuting increases organisational commitment because commitment is exchanged in reciprocity for the ability to gain greater work control and flexibility (e.g. Golden 2006). Indeed, meta-analytical research showed that telecommuting is associated with higher levels of organisational commitment (r = .10, ...
Chapter
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The Sars-CoV-2 pandemic puts an extreme strain on health care professionals, who are at a high risk of psychological distress and other mental health problems. Contributing factors include facing uncertainty, the often unbearable workload, shortages in personal protective equipment and treatments, an overwhelming flow of information, and changes in habitual roles and tasks. Existing studies show that in similar situations, they also experience stigmatization, as well as fear of infection for themselves and their families. This article summarizes the existing research on the mental health issues in health care professionals in this context, including risk factors, and interventions that can be implemented to promote mental well-being in front line professionals.
... It has been proposed that telecommuting increases organisational commitment because commitment is exchanged in reciprocity for the ability to gain greater work control and flexibility (e.g. Golden 2006). Indeed, meta-analytical research showed that telecommuting is associated with higher levels of organisational commitment (r = .10, ...
Chapter
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According to WHO, violence against women tend to increase during any type of emergency, such as the COVID19 outbreak, impacting not just women but also children and their families health . Although data on family violence during crisis is scarce, existing reports from China, UK and USA already suggest an increase of intimate partner violence. As social distancing measures are taken and people forced or encourage to stay at home, we could expect that the increase of tension at many homes will unfortunately end up in new cases of family violence or exacerbations of existing ones. Such context of an overloaded health system facing the crisis may imply in extra challenges for victims to seek help. This article aims to summarize the existing evidence regarding family violence during crisis and the resources available that can help to mitigate the impact of violence.
... Telework is a polysemic term on which there is abundant literature [79][80][81][82]. It has evolved since its initial use by Nilles [83] in the 1970s, with the practice of working at home to avoid gasoline consumption in the United States due to the oil crisis of those years [83,84]. ...
Article
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If there is any field that has experienced changes as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is work, primarily due to the implementation of teleworking and the effort made by workers and families to face new responsibilities. In this context, the study aims to analyze the impact of work–family conflict on burnout, considering work overload, in teleworkers during the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate the hypotheses, we used data collected during the last week of July 2020 using an online survey. Work–family conflict and burnout were measured using the Gutek et al. (1991) and Shirom (1989) scales. We tested the hypotheses using a structural equation model (SEM). The results indicated, between other findings, that there was a positive relationship between work–family conflict and family–work conflict and all the dimensions of burnout. However, there was no effect of teleworking overload in the work–family conflict and burnout relationship. This article is innovative because it highlights the importance of the economic and regulatory conditions that have surrounded the modality of teleworking during the pandemic, and their influence on wellbeing and psychosocial risks in workers.
... During the lockdown, employees are working from their homes for a continued period, and thus, better work-life balance may be a result of increased telecommuting extent. As suggested by previous studies, it could also be postulated that availability of job autonomy and FSSBs, when clubbed with the absence of hectic commute, may have allowed employees to spend more time with the family and engage in other non-work activities and thus help them in achieving better work-life balance, which, in turn, may have made them more satisfied with their jobs [6,[85][86][87][88]. Lastly, and more relevantly for telecommuting during these critical times, just having the option of telecommuting could also be a result of increased job satisfaction. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has led to sudden and significant changes in the work and family roles of the employees. Due to the unprecedentedness of the situation, academicians and practitioners have limited knowledge of the effect permanently working from home during this crisis can have on employees. Developing the role and work–life balance theories and using the job demands and resources model, the authors study the role of availability of job autonomy and family supportive supervisory behaviors (FSSBs) directly on work–life balance and indirectly on job satisfaction through work–life balance for Industry 4.0 based employees. Using work-to-family positive spillover (WFPS) as a first-level moderator and prior telecommuting experience (PTE) as a second-level moderator, the authors also check for the moderating effect on work–life balance and job satisfaction, respectively. The data were analyzed using CFA and SEM in AMOS v21.0 and model 21 in PROCESS Macro for SPSS. The study found that job autonomy and FSSBs have significant positive direct and indirect effects on work–life balance and job satisfaction, respectively, and these relationships are positively moderated by WFPS and PTE, respectively. The study focuses on the human factor of Industry 4.0, adds empirical insights to the work–family interface literature, and has implications that will help both employees and organizations during such critical times.
... Some authors show greater commitment, work effort and performance associated with the practice [29,30] when some others highlight the lack of contact and reduced collaboration opportunities, social problems and isolation [12,20,31,32]. Another disadvantage is lower salary growth and professional advancement of teleworkers [17,33,34]. ...
Article
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In these times of successive lockdown periods due to the health crisis induced by COVID-19, this paper investigates how the usages of collaborative and communication digital tools (groupware, workflow, instant messaging and web conference) are related to the evolution of teleworkers’ subjective well-being (job satisfaction, job stress) and job productivity comparing during and before the first lockdown in spring 2020. Using a sample of 438 employees working for firms located in Luxembourg, this analysis enables, first, to highlight different profiles of teleworkers regarding the evolution of usages of these tools during the lockdown compared to before and the frequency of use during. Second, the analysis highlights that these profiles are linked to the evolution of job satisfaction, job stress and job productivity. Our main results show that (1) the profile that generates an increase in job productivity is the one with a combined mastered daily or weekly use of all of the four studied digital tools but at the expense of job satisfaction. On the contrary, (2) the use of the four digital tools both before and during the lockdown, associated with an increase in the frequency of use, appears to generate too much information flow to deal with and teleworkers may suffer from information overload that increases their stress and reduces their job satisfaction and job productivity. (3) The habit of using the four tools on a daily basis before the lockdown appears to protect teleworkers from most of the adverse effects, except for an increase in their job stress. Our results have theoretical and managerial implications for the future of the digitally transformed home office.
... Esto conlleva a que surjan nuevas formas de interacción y de hacer las cosas. Las plataformas digitales dan vida a otras modalidades de trabajo, basadas en nuevas estrategias, métodos y alternativas que se desenvuelven y desarrollan en espacios intangibles pero que afectan y alteran directamente las relaciones económicas del mercado [4]- [7], [21], [22]. ...
Article
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El documento discute las diferentes modalidades de empleo que se originan con la aparición de las plataformas digitales. En estas, existe la tendencia hacia la flexibilidad laboral, tanto para el contratado como para el contrante que podría dinamizar los empleos al permitir que la gente pueda acceder a mayor número de trabajos. Sin embargo, con esta flexibilidad y con estas modalidades se puede generar un resultado indeseado, especialmente para la fuerza de trabajo. Se trata de la precarización laboral. En tal sentido, para la elaboración del documento se efectuó una revisión documental de los temas de tendencia sobre este tema. Se concluyó que existe una necesidad para legislar o reglamentar tanto las plataformas como la interacción que generar y así evitar estas problemáticas.
... Literature in telecommuting dwells on two related logics for demonstrating its influence on relevant outcomes, entire arrangement and intensity of such arrangement (Gajendran, et al., 2015). Concerning the former, previous studies (DuBrin, 1991;Crossan & Burton, 1993;Fritz, et al., 1998;Igbaria & Guimaraes, 1999;Ory & Mokhtarian, 2006;Lautsch, et al., 2009;Golden & Eddleston, 2020) have considered the arrangement as a whole, comparing the outcomes of two groups, telecommuters versus non-telecommuters. Whereas concerning the latter, beyond treating telecommuting as a dichotomous variable (users vs. non-users), researchers have investigated the consequences of telecommuting intensity, operationalized in terms of hours or days per week telecommuted (Allen, et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
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The gradual shift of mandatory work from home to a discretional decision concerning remote working demands investigation of factors that facilitate or obstruct remote working and their impact on individual outcomes of the full-time employees. Based on the job demands and resources model (JD-R), the present study examines the impact of remote working intensity (RWI) on job performance and well-being through the mediating role of certain job demands (social isolation, technostress, monitoring) and resources (resilience, supervisor support, work engagement). A total of 323 questionnaires from employees in different industries in Italy were collected. The proposed hypotheses of the study were tested using the bootstrap mediation technique. According to the results, the proposed job demands and resources didn’t mediate the relationship between RWI and individual outcomes. However, RWI was positively related to job performance and negatively to well-being. RWI had a negative impact on job resources which were positively related to job performance and well-being. Concerning job demands, RWI was negatively related to social isolation and technostress and positively related to monitoring. Social isolation was negatively related to job performance and well-being whereas monitoring was positively related to both individual outcomes. Technostress was negatively related to job performance and to positively well-being. The present study provides both practical and theoretical implications. Managers should understand the level of employees’ maturity concerning remote working challenges. The post-pandemic remote working is evolving therefore the treatment of employees should be adjusted as well. Organizations should focus on the positive aspects to create a positive environment, as the impact of job resources was clear. Leveraging on the job resources will enable faster adjustment of remote workers which will be beneficial in the form of increased job performance and well-being. The present study is among the first attempts to analyze the role of remote working intensity on individual outcomes during mandatory full-time remote working in a pandemic context. This research, by employing carefully chosen job demands and resources, provides empirical insights on the soundness of the inclusion of the JD-R model in remote working research.
... Remote work has many benefits for both employees and companies, including a better work-life balance for employees (Ferreira et al., 2021), increased productivity (Bloom et al., 2014;Hill et al., 2006;Ferreira et al., 2021), higher employee retention, greater commitment to employing organizations (Golden, 2006;Golden and Eddleston, 2020), a wider talent pool (Kurkland and Bailey, 1999), and prevention of the spread of infectious diseases (Ferreira et al., 2021). In particular, location-based businesses such as retail, which may be restricted by government regulations and authorities from communicating with customers in their facilities to prevent the spread of COVID-19, have recently been exploring methods and practices of remote work (Kim, 2020). ...
Article
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In recent years, the demand for remote services has increased with concerns regarding the spread of infectious diseases and employees’ quality of life. Many attempts have been made to enable store staff to provide various services remotely via avatars displayed to on-site customers. However, the workload required on the part of service staff by the emerging new work style of operating avatar robots remains a concern. No study has compared the performance and perceived workload of the same staff working locally versus remotely via an avatar. In this study, we conducted an experiment to identify differences between the performance of in-person services and remote work through an avatar robot in an actual public space. The results showed that there were significant differences in the partial performance between working via an avatar and working locally, and we could not find significant difference in the overall performance. On the other hand, the perceived workload was significantly lower when the avatar robot was used. We also found that customers reacted differently to the robots and to the in-person participants. In addition, the workload perceived by operators in the robotic task was correlated with their personality and experience. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of both performance and workload in remote customer service through robotic avatars, and it has important implications for the implementation of avatar robots in service settings.
... Above that, supervisors may perceive that employees with flexibility i-deals make fewer contributions to the organization because they are out of the supervisors' sight . Hence, in the long term, flexibility i-deals may negatively affect employees' career success (Golden & Eddleston, 2020;McDonald et al., 2008). ...
Article
Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) are widespread in organizations, but their relationship to employees’ work stress has been unclear. Based on the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), our study investigates this relationship and takes into account the role of social comparisons and denied i-deals. Two types of i-deals, flexibility i-deals and development i-deals, have been studied. We applied a time-lagged research design for which we collected data from 120 employees at two points in time to test our hypotheses. The results show that development i-deals significantly reduce employees’ ERI, whereas flexibility i-deals do not relate to employees’ ERI. Above that, the denial of i-deals increases ERI. Our results also show that social comparisons with co-workers’ i-deals can influence the relationship between an employee’s i-deals and his or her ERI. Hence, this study demonstrates that i-deals can affect employees’ ERI, which may have diverse health-related and job-related consequences.
... This literature has shown that managers have a tendency to view employees who take advantage of flexible working hours as less productive or committed to the organization (Chung, 2020;Kaplan et al., 2018). Given this perception, employees in virtual teams tend to work longer hours to overcome this "flexibility stigma" and to signal progress on certain assignments by communicating more regularly with managers (Chung, 2020;Golden and Eddleston, 2020). Another worrying possibility is that workers who would rather not work remotely consider having an office away from their home as essential to keeping their work and personal lives separate. ...
Article
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We explore the impact of COVID-19 on employees’ digital communication patterns through an event study of lockdowns in 16 large metropolitan areas in North America, Europe, and the Middle East. Using de-identified, aggregated meeting and email meta-data from 3,143,270 users, we find, compared to pre-pandemic levels, increases in the number of meetings per person (+12.9 percent) and the number of attendees per meeting (+13.5 percent), but decreases in the average length of meetings (−20.1 percent). Collectively, the net effect is that people spent less time in meetings per day (−11.5 percent) in the post-lockdown period. We also find significant and durable increases in length of the average workday (+8.2 percent, or +48.5 min), along with short-term increases in email activity. These findings provide insight into how formal communication patterns have changed for a large sample of knowledge workers in major cities. We discuss these changes in light of the ongoing challenges faced by organizations and workers struggling to adapt and perform in the face of a global pandemic.
... For example, those working from home may experience increased stress and work-life conflict as the line between work and home becomes more blurred. Alternative work practices may limit the career prospects of certain populations, such as working mothers (Golden and Eddleston, 2020). ...
Article
Purpose The field of careers studies is complex and fragmented. The aim of this paper is to detail why it is important to study careers, what we study and how we study key issues in this evolving field. Design/methodology/approach Key theories, concepts and models are briefly reviewed to lay the groundwork for offering an agenda for future research. Findings The authors recommend ten key directions for future research and offer specific questions for further study. Research limitations/implications This paper contributes to the development of the theoretical underpinning of career studies. Practical implications The authors hope that the proposed agenda for future research will help advance the field and encourage more research on understudied, but important, topics. Originality/value This paper presents a comprehensive view of research on contemporary careers.
... Because most societies continue to associate mothering with unpaid work, flexible work policies that help workers accommodate household labor are deemed more acceptable for women than for men (Padavic, Ely, and Reid 2020). Bias toward remote work is steeped in gendered workplace cultures, and the social context of work groups matters for the extent to which employees are buffered from negative consequences (Blair-Loy and Wharton 2002;Berg, Bosch, and Charest 2014;Golden and Eddleston 2020). ...
... Because most societies continue to associate mothering with unpaid work, flexible work policies that help workers accommodate household labor are deemed more acceptable for women than for men (Padavic, Ely, and Reid 2020). Bias toward remote work is steeped in gendered workplace cultures, and the social context of work groups matters for the extent to which employees are buffered from negative consequences (Blair-Loy and Wharton 2002;Berg, Bosch, and Charest 2014;Golden and Eddleston 2020). ...
Article
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In-depth interviews with IT employees ( N = 84) working under two types of work design—a post-bureaucratic work design labeled “agile,” and a bureaucratic work design labeled “waterfall”—are used to examine gendered patterns in the adoption of remote work. Interviews reveal an unintended consequence of the agile model: It promotes a physical orientation that induces on-site work. Agile is gender-inegalitarian, with more women than men working remotely despite its perceived unacceptability, and low numbers of employees working remotely overall. By contrast, workers within a waterfall work design express a digital orientation to work and feel empowered to work remotely. The waterfall model is associated with gender egalitarianism; most employees opt to work remotely, and men and women do so in even numbers. Findings suggest that when compared to the post-bureaucratic work design, the bureaucratic work design provides more flexibility. This article refines our understanding of barriers to remote work and provides a lens on the gender dynamics underlying work design.
... Concerns about productivity and ability to communicate with a team have led many companies to reject the idea of working from home (Abbott, 2020;Cirruzzo, 2020;Herbst, 2020). However, working from home is in many cases equally effective and can promote diversity and inclusion by allowing more people to engage in work in a way that works for them (Allen et al., 2015;Golden & Eddleston, 2020;Golden & Gajendran, 2019). In a systematic review and series of interviews examining the advantages and disadvantages of remote work, Ferreira et al. (2021) developed a set of recommendations for its adoption. ...
Article
The challenges observed in health-service-psychology (HSP) training during COVID-19 revealed systemic and philosophical issues that preexisted the pandemic but became more visible during the global health crisis. In a position article written by 23 trainees across different sites and training specializations, we use lessons learned from COVID-19 as a touchstone for a call to action in HSP training. Historically, trainee voices have been conspicuously absent from literature about clinical training. We describe long-standing dilemmas in HSP training that were exacerbated by the pandemic and will continue to require resolution after the pandemic has subsided. We make recommendations for systems-level changes that would advance equity and sustainability in HSP training. This article advances the conversation about HSP training by including the perspective of trainees as essential stakeholders.
... This arose from their perception of not being able to effectively work remotely or manage the overlap between professional and personal roles, as well as not being effectively supported by their organization (e.g., Bentley et al., 2016;Errichiello & Pianese, 2021). The fear of career penalties induced remote workers to strive for achieving their own interests at the expense of supporting and helping their peers, jeopardizing their role in their team and their overall contribution to their organization (Golden & Eddleston, 2020). ...
Article
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The increasing diffusion of remote working puts organizational control in the foreground. As employees work at a distance from traditional offices and/or are geographically dispersed, companies are called upon to influence their willingness to act in accordance with a company's vision, values, and objectives. To date, a comprehensive understanding of how organizational control is implied in remote work arrangements (RWAs) is still lacking. To fill this gap, a research synthesis—that is, a systematic review of 131 studies that empirically investigated this issue—is carried on. The analysis is not limited to direct forms of control (e.g., output control) but also includes managerial practices as well as actions enacted by employees that influence the dynamics of control, acting as indirect levers of control. Findings were presented and discussed in relation to five “control domains”: control systems, supervisory management styles, trusting relationships, organizational identification, and work identity in RWAs.
Article
The Problem An increasing number of organizations are experiencing concerns from employees regarding work-life balance. Organizations that have chosen to implement formal flexible work arrangements (FWAs) have experienced reluctance from their employees to participate. COVID-19 has forced the hand further toward FWAs, and created additional work life balance concerns. The Solution FWAs present an opportunity for organizations to address work-life balance concerns, especially amid the black swan event of COVID-19. Implementing FWAs provides opportunity for organizations to reduce turnover and facilitate employee development through work life balance programs. The Stakeholders The informal processes of FWAs should receive due attention by HRD practitioners and scholars alike.
Article
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Introduction. – The COVID-19 health crisis considerably accelerated the use of telework. Objective. – The present study focuses on the impact of telework frequency on workers’ work-life satisfaction and affective organi- zational commitment. This study also evaluates the mediating role of satisfaction with work-family balance in these two relationships. Finally, it investigates the moderator role of telework adjustment (i.e., adaptation to changes resulting from the transition to a vir- tual environment) in the relationship between telework frequency and work-family balance satisfaction, as well as the drivers of this adjustment. Method. – In all, 377 teleworkers replied to an online questionnaire measuring the above-mentioned variables. Results. – The increase in telework frequency is directly associa- ted with a decrease in workers’ work-life satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, due to the degradation of their work- family balance satisfaction. Yet, once workers have made significant adjustments to telework, direct and indirect negative impacts of telework frequency are reduced. Finally, telework adjustment is largely predicted by whether telework resulted from choice or obligation, by the telework environment at home, and by the orga- nizational support provided to workers. Conclusion. – Theoretical and practical implications of these results will be discussed, with potential avenues to best support the deployment of remote work.
Conference Paper
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Introdução/Problematização: Diante da eclosão da pandemia da Covid-19 as organizações precisaram rever suas dinâmicas e rotinas de trabalho para compatibilizar a manutenção de suas atividades e o isolamento e distanciamento social. Nesse contexto, em que o teletrabalho compulsório foi implementado nas instituições, sem planejamento prévio, um foco de atenção importante recai sobre os níveis de Qualidade de Vida (QV) no Trabalho e suas implicações no bem-estar e saúde mental dos teletrabalhadores. Objetivo/proposta: Identificar os níveis de QV no teletrabalho compulsório de trabalhadores de instituições públicas brasileiras submetidos à essa modalidade de trabalho em decorrência da pandemia. Fundamentação teórica: Utiliza-se neste estudo, o conceito de teletrabalho compulsório e as cinco dimensões de QV no teletrabalho compulsório de Pantoja, Andrade e Oliveira (2020) e a definição de qualidade de vida no teletrabalho de Andrade (2020). Discussão dos Resultados: Os resultados foram satisfatórios na maior parte das dimensões, ressalvando os sinais de alerta, sobretudo, quanto à sobrecarga decorrente do teletrabalho compulsório, à melhoria das relações de trabalho, ao feedback e o cansaço mental. Ademais, algumas diferenças foram encontradas entre os grupos de trabalhadores que tinham experiência com o teletrabalho e aqueles que iniciaram suas atividades de forma remota durante a pandemia; bem como entre os teletrabalhadores com e sem filhos residindo na mesma casa. Considerações Finais/Conclusão: Com base nos resultados encontrados, percebe-se a necessidade de desenvolvimento de competências socioemocionais, gerenciais e de e-liderança, com foco na pactuação de metas e desenvolvimento de indicadores. Além disso, merece destaque a necessidade de desconexão do trabalho, a melhoria nas formas de comunicação e a formulação de políticas para implementação e formalização do trabalho remoto. Contribuições do trabalho: Espera-se que os dados discutidos possam subsidiar a formulação de políticas e práticas bem definidas de QV no teletrabalho, a partir das percepções dos trabalhadores acerca dos aspectos positivos e negativos relativos ao trabalho remoto compulsório, além de contribuir com a escassa literatura sobre o tema, sobretudo no cenário brasileiro.
Article
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This study aims at better understanding how the massive shift to telework following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020 affected workers’ jobs and lives. In particular, we shed light on how this exogenous change had an impact on tasks content and work organisation dimensions like teamwork, routine, workers’ autonomy and types and extent of supervisory control methods. Moreover, we explored both subjective and objective dimensions of job quality such as job satisfaction, motivation, changes in working time and pay, together with issues related to physical and mental health and more generally to work-life balance. In each of selected countries, 25 teleworking employees with different job profiles, family compositions, and personal characteristics were interviewed during the lockdown of spring 2020. The picture that emerges is quite multifaceted largely depending on workers’ occupation and family composition, although some general patterns can be observed. After an initial period in which workers could gain more autonomy and decisional power at almost of levels of the hierarchy, during a stabilization period new forms of remote supervisory control have been put in place and contributed to a standardization of working routines. For some, working from home increased satisfaction and productivity, and allowed to better reconcile work-family duties. In contrast, others felt teleworking, and the ensuing communication through digital platforms, challenged the possibility to receive meaningful feedback and exchange ideas with co-workers and supervisors. At times, for workers with children in school age, the negative impact was aggravated by school closure and the general lockdown. Yet, and despite the many challenges of adapting to the sudden, obligatory and highintensity telework, most of the respondents agreed that teleworking has upsides, and would be willing to continue to work remotely in the future, at least occasionally. Before that, however, workers would like to seek greater clarity around their working conditions as teleworkers.
Article
The practice and popularity of telework has expanded significantly in the past few years, mostly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a critical factor contributing to business resilience, the new work model challenged companies to figure out innovative ways to address contemporary organizational and employee needs. To address this gap, this study approaches the telework concept from a broader perspective, integrating inputs, outputs and outcomes in an analytical framework. Drawing from data collected based on interviews and questionnaires addressed to professionals in the business service industry who experienced telework, frequency analysis, discourse analysis and chi-square test were used to synthesize the findings. Results show that resource availability and professional relationships represent the basic factors, while technology may be more than a facilitator. Moreover, knowledge exchange, work–life balance and professional isolation are critical factors emerging from the virtual environment that influence work goals achievement. This study contributes to research by proposing a Telework Systematic Model (TSM), which addresses the interaction of various organizational dynamics factors as a result of mixed working patterns. The discussions address the future of work by including the hybrid work model, platform innovation and new business opportunities to enhance organizational resilience for sustainable innovation and change through digital technology.
Article
Purpose Telecommuting can reduce traffic congestion, energy consumption, prevalence and a death toll of COVID-19 among employees due to less transportation and fewer physical contacts among employees, on the one hand, and efficiently develop their use of information and communications technology, on the other hand. In this regard, the present study aims to explore antecedents and consequences of telecommuting in public organizations. Design/methodology/approach The study used a descriptive survey method to collect data. The statistical population includes all employees of government organizations in West Azerbaijan province in 2020, which according to the collected information, their number is equal to 63,079 employees. Based on Cochran's formula, a sample size of 686 people was obtained; stratified random sampling was used to select sampling. The process of calculating the sample volume was such that after referring to the preliminary sample and processing the collected data, the variance of the given answers was approximately 0.446. After obtaining the variance of the data, assuming a maximum acceptable error of 5% and a significance level of 0.05, the Cochran's formula calculated the sample size to be 686 people. In order to collect and measure data for the study, a standard questionnaire and the collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings Findings indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between the employees' physical job conditions or the quality of their life with telecommuting and that telecommuting does not have a significant effect on their life. However, job burnout, training and telecommuting experience have a significant positive effect on telecommuting, which in turn has a positive and significant effect on job security, job flexibility, organizational performance and overall productivity of employees. Research limitations/implications This research is a cross-sectional study, and its data have been collected in a certain period of time, while longitudinal research can provide a richer result. Future research can benefit from the impact of employee isolation and telecommuter organizational commitment. Originality/value This study hopes to contribute to the increase of the scientific knowledge in the telecommuting field and to allow organizations to rethink the telecommuting strategies to optimize resources and costs and to improve the organization's productivity without harming the quality of life and well-being of their workers.
Article
The COVID pandemic has allowed transformative change that has otherwise faced resistance, and counseling psychology can use the pandemic as a time of reflection and change. Counseling psychology needs to incorporate insights from the disability justice community to create a more liberated world. The manuscript begins with a brief overview of disability justice principles and the relative lack of attention to disability in counseling psychology. An overview of three areas for change is presented: 1) expanding pathways to connection and recognizing humanity’s interdependence, 2) redefining resilience and ensuring that we add ongoing transformative justice to our resilience practice, and 3) persistent access. Finally, the manuscript ends with a conclusion that discusses the importance of fully practicing disability justice, which includes understanding that it will be messy, imperfect, and takes practice. This manuscript is a roadmap to create a more just set of practitioners, teachers, researchers, and social justice advocates, among the many other roles that counseling psychologists take on.
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Purpose The question of responsibility for career development is critical for virtual employees who work remotely. The purpose of this paper is to (1) compare the perceptions of virtual and on-location employees in the high-tech industry about where responsibility lies for career management, as reflected in their psychological contract (PC) and (2) evaluate the ability of virtual employees to exercise behaviors capable of enhancing their career development. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-methods approach was used for this study. Study 1 consisted of semi-structured interviews ( N = 40) with virtual and on-location employees working for the same high-tech organization, exploring perceptions responsibility for career self-management as captured by their PCs. Study 2, a quantitative survey of virtual and on-location employees ( N = 146) working for various organizations in the high-tech sector, examined perceptions of career self-management through the perceived PC, as well as the perceived ability to exercise behaviors that would enhance career development. Findings Both categories of employees assumed that they, together with their direct manager, had responsibility for managing their career development. Nevertheless, virtual employees had lower expectations of support from their managers in this respect (Study 1) and felt that they actually received less support from their managers (Study 2). The results of both studies show, however, that virtuality does not have any significant effect on employees’ self-reported proactive career-influencing behaviors. Originality/value The study contributes to existing research by highlighting the perceived joint responsibility for career management and the critical role played by line management in this regard and by showing that virtuality does not have a significant effect on employees’ self-reported proactive career-influencing behaviors.
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Covid-19 pandemisi döneminden uzaktan çalışma uygulamaları yaygın olarak deneyimlenmiştir. Mevcut çalışmanın amacı, uzaktan çalışma tutumu üzerinde etkisi olan sosyal ve demografik belirleyicileri ortaya koymak ve uzaktan çalışmanın geleceği ile ilgili bazı öneriler getirmektir. Araştırma kapsamında, Türkiye'nin farklı bölgelerindeki 415 beyaz yakalı ve uzaktan çalışma deneyimi bulunan kişiden anket tekniğiyle veri toplanmış, nicel yöntemsel yaklaşım benimsenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler SPSS 22 paket programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, eğitim seviyesi daha yüksek olan beyaz yakalı çalışanların uzaktan çalışmaya karşı daha olumlu tutum geliştirdikleri görülmüştür. Öte yandan, uzaktan çalışma ile çalışanlarının iş yükünün arttığı durumlarda, çalışanların uzaktan çalışmaya karşı daha olumsuz bir yaklaşım geliştirdikleri görülmüştür. Organizasyonların iş yükünü kontrol altında tutup dengelemeden uzaktan çalışmaya geçmelerinin onlar açısından negatif sonuçlar doğurabileceği anlaşılmaktadır.
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Research has shown worker loneliness to be associated with a lower level of job performance and other undesirable outcomes. Recently, researchers have called for studies of the possible causes of feelings of isolation (i.e., workplace loneliness). Our study addresses these calls for research. Building upon the theoretical framework of Wright and Silard (2021), we examined seven theory-based predictors of feelings of isolation (six of which had not been examined in previous research). Using data from a sample of 244 telecommuters and their supervisors, we found support for five of the seven relationships we hypothesized. Specifically, we found feelings of isolation to be negatively related to whether individuals had a choice whether to telecommute and the length of the supervisor-telecommuter relationship. We found reports of feeling isolated to be positively associated with a telecommuter's need for affiliation, the extent of telecommuting, and the distance a telecommuter lived from the central workplace. As hypothesized, we also found telecommuter feelings of isolation were negatively related to telecommuter performance and job satisfaction. The results of our study suggest several factors employers should consider in making decisions about telecommuting arrangements.
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Imposed home teleworking has experienced an exceptional boom during the Covid‐19 pandemic that hit the world in early 2020. The way telework is perceived and judged by others, with a risk of creating a divide between those who do and those who do less, and those who work and those who work less, can weaken social cohesion. In the face of the organizational and psychosocial mechanisms at work, the strategies deployed by teleworkers are likely to lead them to close themselves off in a negative spiral that is harmful to their physical and mental health. Another well‐known advantage of teleworking concerns flexibility, autonomy, control over working time and organization of activities. Several studies suggest that gender modulates the effects of telework on the organization of activities and their delimitation. Alizadeh thus looked at the activities carried out by teleworkers, and more precisely during their break periods.
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[Sarah Bourdeau and Ariane Ollier-Malaterre contributed equally to this article and share first authorship.] Many employees hesitate to use work-life policies (e.g., flexible work arrangements, leaves, on-site services) for fear of career consequences. However, findings on the actual career consequences of such use are mixed. We de-bundle work-life policies, which we view as control mechanisms that may operate in an enabling way, giving employees some latitude over when, where and how much they work, or in an enclosing way, promoting longer hours on work premises. Drawing on signaling and attributional theories, we construe the nature of the policies used as a work devotion signal; specifically, we argue that supervisors attribute lower work devotion to employees who use more enabling policies than to employees who use more enclosing policies. However, this relationship is moderated by the employee’s work ethic prior to the use, by the supervisor’s expectations of the employee, and by the family-supportiveness of organizational norms. In turn, the work devotion attributions made by the supervisor lead to positive and negative career consequences for work-life policies users, depending on organizational norms. Our model opens up new research avenues on work-life policies’ implementation gap by differentiating between the policies and by teasing out the roles played by policies, organizational norms, supervisors, and employees.
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Despite telecommuting’s growing popularity, its implication for telecommuter job performance is a matter of on-going public debate. Moreover, empirical evidence that could address this issue is scarce and conflicting. This study therefore not only examines whether telecommuting impacts job performance, but also investigates characteristics of the telecommuter’s work that might help or hinder their ability to perform their job. Integrating work design research with theorizing about telecommuting, our theoretical framework proposes that two knowledge characteristics, namely job complexity and problem solving, and two social characteristics, specifically interdependence and social support, moderate the extent of telecommuting–job performance relationship. We test our framework using matched data from telecommuters and their supervisors (N = 273) in an organization with a voluntary telecommuting program. Findings indicate that for telecommuters who held complex jobs, for those in jobs involving low levels of interdependence and for those in jobs with low levels of social support, the extent of telecommuting had a positive association with job performance. Across all moderators considered, the extent of telecommuting’s association with job performance ranged from benign to positive; findings did not support negative associations between the extent of telecommuting and job performance regardless of the level of each moderator examined. These results suggest the need to investigate the extent of telecommuting as well as the nature of the telecommuter’s job when studying work outcomes such as job performance, and that more research is needed.
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This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work–life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009–2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work–life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals’ work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers’ careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market.
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Purpose We developed and tested an integrative model centering on the significance of trust as a basis for managers’ decisions about allowing versus prohibiting their employees to telework. We examined the importance of trust in relation to several other factors managers may consider in making telework decisions including coordination and communication, equity, and a desire to accommodate employees. Design/Methodology/Approach Study 1 was a policy capturing investigation of 71 respondents intended to document the relative importance and interactions among trust and these other theoretically based factors. Study 2 was a test of the full theoretical model based on the responses of 85 managers who reported on these considerations for the 191 employees about whom they make telework decisions. Findings Results from the two studies were largely consistent. Managers’ assessments of employees’ conscientiousness and trustworthiness were paramount in predicting telework allowance, with the other theoretically based considerations generally failing to attenuate the importance of those personal assessments. Implications Organizations wishing to increase the use of telework (e.g., by implementing manager telework training) must directly address managers’ mistrust as a factor underlying this resistance. Job-related and technological changes may not dampen the effects of mistrust. Originality To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive and theoretically grounded assessment of the various considerations factoring into managers’ telework decisions.
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We define work-life flexibility as employment scheduling practices that are designed to give employees greater control over when, where, how much or how continuously work is done. Research has under-examined how work-life flexibility is stratified across occupations. We review how occupational status and flexibility experiences vary and shape work-life inequality, which we identify as a form of job inequality. We investigate the range of definitions, measurement approaches and theorizing regarding work-life flexibility. We find that employees across occupational groups experience different work-life flexibility outcomes from different flexibility types. Providing employee control over scheduling variation (flextime) may benefit lower-level workers the most, yet many are unable to access this flexibility form. Part-time work permitting control over work volume/workload hurts lower-level employees the most (due to involuntary income and benefits loss). Yet these same part-time practices enhance recruitment and retention for upper-level jobs, but harm promotion and pay. Work continuity control (leaves) benefits upper and middle-level employees, but is largely unavailable to lower-level workers. Flexibility to control work location is rarely available for lower-level jobs; but benefits middle and upper-level employees, provided that are able to control separation from work when desired and self-regulate complexity. We offer implications for research and practice.
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Purpose In line with conservation of resources theory and signaling theory, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and test a multiple mediation model in which telecommuting affects engagement via perceived supervisor goal support and goal progress. Design/methodology/approach A three-phase longitudinal study carried out over ten months was used to test the hypotheses. Findings Individuals who worked in organizations that offer telecommuting were more engaged than those who worked in organizations that did not offer telecommuting. Furthermore, telecommuting availability was not only directly but also indirectly related to engagement via perceived supervisor goal support and goal progress. Engagement in general decreased over time. However, individuals who attained their personal work goals were able to maintain high levels of engagement. Research limitations/implications Giving employees the option to telecommute could increase employee engagement. This study is correlational in nature and relied on self-report data. Originality/value This is the first study examining the effects of telecommuting on engagement over a period of ten months. It is also the first study to use perceived supervisor goal support and goal progress as explanatory variables to the teleworking and engagement relationship.
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While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989–2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but “taking work home” or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet, most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the workday and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time.
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This article identifies three types of traps that can emerge when implementing workplace flexibility-altered work-life dynamics, reduced fairness perceptions, and weakened organizational culture-and provides core lessons for managers seeking a balanced flexibility approach. First managers must become flex savvy to understand the variation that exists in flexibility practices to align implementation with the workforce and organizational context. Second, implementing flexibility must not be treated as an accommodation but as a broader systemic organizational change empowering individuals and teams. The article provides a Work-smartcase to highlight how to avoid traps and implement balanced workplace flexibility across multiple stakeholder interests.
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Research on the work-family interface began in the 1960s and has grown exponentially ever since. This vast amount of research, however, has had relatively little impact on workplace practice, and work-family conflict is at an all-time high. We review the work-family research to date and propose that a shift of attention is required, away from the individual experience of work and family and toward understanding how identity and status are defined at work. Several factors enshrine cherished identities around current workplace norms. The work devotion schema demands that those who are truly committed to their work will make it the central or sole focus of their lives, without family demands to distract them. Importantly, the work devotion schema underwrites valued class and gender identities: Work devotion is a key way of enacting elite class status and functions as the measure of a man-the longer the work hours and higher the demand for his attention, the better. Advocating change in the way work is done and life is lived meets resistance because it places these cherished identities at risk. Resistance to these identity threats keeps current workplace norms in place. This is why even the business case-which shows that current practices are not economically efficient-fails to persuade organizations to enact change. What is needed now is sustained attention to the implicit psychological infrastructure that cements the mismatch between today's workplace and today's workforce. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 67 is January 03, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Telecommuting has become an increasingly popular work mode that has generated significant interest from scholars and practitioners alike. With recent advances in technology that enable mobile connections at ever-affordable rates, working away from the office as a telecommuter has become increasingly available to many workers around the world. Since the term telecommuting was first coined in the 1970s, scholars and practitioners have debated the merits of working away from the office, as it represents a fundamental shift in how organizations have historically done business. Complicating efforts to truly understand the implications of telecommuting have been the widely varying definitions and conceptualizations of telecommuting and the diverse fields in which research has taken place. Our objective in this article is to review existing research on telecommuting in an effort to better understand what we as a scientific community know about telecommuting and its implications. In so doing, we aim to bring to the surface some of the intricacies associated with telecommuting research so that we may shed insights into the debate regarding telecommuting’s benefits and drawbacks. We attempt to sift through the divergent and at times conflicting literature to develop an overall sense of the status of our scientific findings, in an effort to identify not only what we know and what we think we know about telecommuting, but also what we must yet learn to fully understand this increasingly important work mode. After a brief review of the history of telecommuting and its prevalence, we begin by discussing the definitional challenges inherent within existing literature and offer a comprehensive definition of telecommuting rooted in existing research. Our review starts by highlighting the need to interpret existing findings with an understanding of how the extent of telecommuting practiced by participants in a study is likely to alter conclusions that may be drawn. We then review telecommuting’s implications for employees’ work-family issues, attitudes, and work outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment and identification, stress, performance, wages, withdrawal behaviors, and firm-level metrics. Our article continues by discussing research findings concerning salient contextual issues that might influence or alter the impact of telecommuting, including the nature of the work performed while telecommuting, interpersonal processes such as knowledge sharing and innovation, and additional considerations that include motives for telecommuting such as family responsibilities. We also cover organizational culture and support that may shape the telecommuting experience, after which we discuss the community and societal effects of telecommuting, including its effects on traffic and emissions, business continuity, and work opportunities, as well as the potential impact on societal ties. Selected examples of telecommuting legislation and policies are also provided in an effort to inform readers regarding the status of the national debate and its legislative implications. Our synthesis concludes by offering recommendations for telecommuting research and practice that aim to improve the quality of data on telecommuting as well as identify areas of research in need of development.
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Workers who request flexibility are routinely stigmatized. The authors experimentally tested and confirmed the hypothesis that individuals believe others view flexworkers less positively than they do. This suggests flexibility bias stems, in part, from pluralistic ignorance. The authors also found that flexplace requesters were stigmatized significantly more than flextime requesters. Given this finding, they recommend research distinguish between different types of flexwork. In a second study, they assessed whether exposure to information suggesting organizational leaders engage in flexible work reduced bias. They found that when the majority of high-status employees work flexibly, bias against flextime (but not flexplace) workers was attenuated. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
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Both scholarly literature and popular accounts suggest that modern organizational practices have moved toward encouraging employees to “integrate” or blur the boundary between their personal and professional domains, for example, through self-disclosure at work, company-sponsored social activities or providing onsite child care. Concurrently, an ideology underlying U.S. professional norms discourages integration practices such as referencing non-work roles during workplace interactions, expressing emotions in the workplace, and/or displaying non-work-related items in workspaces. In this review, we posit that these two norms firmly coexist because they differentially serve two objectives corresponding to the parallel bodies of research we examine: one addressing boundary management as a tool for handling role responsibilities, and the other considering boundary management as a tool for shaping workplace identity and relationships. Specifically, we posit that segmenting personal and professional domains facilitates the management of role responsibilities, whereas integration is more beneficial for managing workplace identity and relationships. Further, both objectives serve the “ideal worker” imperative of work primacy. We identify key contingencies that help us to further understand existing research findings, and prompt future research directions informing theories for understanding the attractiveness and efficacy of different personal-professional boundary management strategies for both organizations and individuals.
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Signaling theory is useful for describing behavior when two parties (individuals or organizations) have access to different information. Typically, one party, the sender, must choose whether and how to communicate (or signal) that information, and the other party, the receiver, must choose how to interpret the signal. Accordingly, signaling theory holds a prominent position in a variety of management literatures, including strategic management, entrepreneurship, and human resource management. While the use of signaling theory has gained momentum in recent years, its central tenets have become blurred as it has been applied to organizational concerns. The authors, therefore, provide a concise synthesis of the theory and its key concepts, review its use in the management literature, and put forward directions for future research that will encourage scholars to use signaling theory in new ways and to develop more complex formulations and nuanced variations of the theory.
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Although many employers have adopted policies to support the integration of work with personal and family life, expected positive gains due to enhanced workplace inclusion are not always realized. One reason for this gap is that practitioners and researchers often overlook how variation in how policies are implemented and used by different employee stakeholder groups fosters a culture of inclusiveness. We discuss four ways in which work-life policies are implemented differently across and within organizations that can affect the degree to which policies are seen as promoting inclusion or exclusion. They are: the level of supervisor support for use, universality of availability, negotiability, and quality of communication. These implementation attributes affect whether an adopted policy is seen as leading to fulfilling work- life needs and signaling the organization's support for individual differences in work identities and life circumstances, thus affecting levels of inclusiveness. Implications for HR practitioners are discussed.
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As downsizing continues to be part of corporate life, this study seeks to determine the long-term impact of career interruptions on income and career satisfaction. Longitudinal data were collected from men and women MBAs who were surveyed three times over a 13-year period. Traditionally, the model of a successful managerial career involved a steady climb up a corporate ladder, and interruptions resulted in penalties. As employment gaps have become fairly commonfor managers, the negative career stigma may be diminishing. However, the findings from the study suggest that the penalties persist. MBAswith career interruptions earned less than those continuously employed, even 25 years after the interruption. Career interruptions were detrimental to career satisfaction only for men. The findings have implications for managers and organizations.
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We examine how passive ‘face time’ (i.e. the amount of time one is passively observed, without interaction) affects how one is perceived at work. Findings from a qualitative study of professional office workers suggest that passive face time exists in two forms: 1) being seen at work during normal business hours — or expected face time, and 2) being seen at work outside of normal business hours — or extracurricular face time. These two forms of passive face time appear to lead observers to make trait inferences (i.e. they lead observers to perceive employees as either ‘dependable’ or ‘committed’, depending on the form of passive face time). Findings from an experimental study confirm our qualitative findings and suggest that trait inferences are made spontaneously (i.e. without intent or knowledge of doing so).We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of person perception and the practice of performance appraisal.
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The present research builds theory regarding how use of flexible work practices (FWPs) affects employees' career success. We integrate theory on signaling and attributions and propose that managers interpret employees' use of FWPs as a signal of high or low organizational commitment, depending on whether managers make productivity or personal life attributions, respectively, for employees' FWP use. Managers' perceptions of employees' commitment, in turn, shape employees' career success. Field- and laboratory-based studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that FWP use results in career premiums when managers make productivity attributions and some support for the hypothesis that FWP use results in career penalties when managers make personal life attributions.
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Virtual offices are a growing trend in today's work environment and are expected to influence marketing roles dramatically, especially selling. These conditions may lead to perceptions of isolation, both socially and organizationally. Workplace isolation is a twodimensional construct that represents individuals' perceptions of isolation from others at work and includes perceived isolation from both colleagues and from the company's support network. This article reports the results of a four-sample study to develop and validate a selfreport scale for measuring the two facets of workplace isolation. The scale's usefulness for future research and management applications are discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Although popular management wisdom has suggested that telecommuting enhances job satisfaction, research has found both positive and negative relationships. In this study, the authors attempt to resolve these inconsistent findings by hypothesizing a curvilinear, inverted U-shaped relationship between the extent of telecommuting and job satisfaction. Using hierarchical regression analysis on a sample of 321 professional-level employees, their findings suggest a curvilinear link between extent of telecommuting and job satisfaction, with satisfaction appearing to plateau at more extensive levels of telecommuting. In addition, task interdependence and job discretion moderated this link, suggesting that some job attributes play an important, contingent role.
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Within the vast literature on the antecedents of career success, the success criterion has generally been operationalized in a rather deficient manner. Several avenues for improving the conceptualization and measurement of both objective and subjective career success are identified. Paramount among these is the need for greater sensitivity to the criteria that study participants, in different contexts, use to construe and judge their career success. This paper illustrates that contextual and individual factors are likely to be associated with the relative salience of objective and subjective criteria of career success. Drawing on social comparison theory, propositions are also offered about when self- and other-referent success criteria are likely to be most salient. A broader research agenda addresses career success referent choice, organizational interventions, and potential cultural differences. This article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how people actually do conceptualize and evaluate their own career success. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate. Notably, work-related factors like managers' willingness are most predictive of which employees will telework. Employees' motivations for teleworking are also unclear, as commonly perceived reasons such as commute reduction and family obligations do not appear instrumental. On the firms' side, managers' reluctance, forged by concerns about cost and control and bolstered by little perceived need, inhibits the creation of telework programmes. As for outcomes, little clear evidence exists that telework increases job satisfaction and productivity, as it is often asserted to do. We suggest three steps for future research may provide richer insights: consider group and organizational level impacts to understand who telework affects, reconsider why people telework, and emphasize theory-building and links to existing organizational theories. We conclude with lessons learned from the telework literature that may be relevant to research on new work forms and workplaces. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and ‘boundaryless career’ issues of inter-organizational mobility and extra-organizational support. The paper offers new guidelines for bringing about a rapprochement between career theory and career success research. These guidelines cover adequacy of research designs, further dimensions of career success, broader peer group comparisons, deeper investigation of the subjectively driven person, and seeing new connections between boundaryless career theory and career success research. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Although continuing to capture the attention of scholars, the study of “work–family backlash” remains plagued by a lack of conceptual clarity. As a result, there is growing evidence to suggest that there is a dark side to work–life balance (WLB) policies, but these findings remain scattered and unorganized. We provide a synthesis of this literature, defining work–family backlash as a phenomenon characterized by negative attitudes, negative emotions, and negative behaviors—either individual or collective—associated with WLB policies [i.e., on-site provisions, leave policies, and flexible work arrangements (FWAs)] within organizations. We conceptualize and define four primary mechanisms involving multiple levels of analysis through which the phenomenon operates. More micro levels of analysis within organizations are characterized by (1) an inequity mechanism, (2) a stigma mechanism, and (3) a spillover mechanism. Although less developed in the literature to date, more macro levels of analysis—including the organization and societal levels—are characterized by (4) a strategic mechanism. We explain these four primary mechanisms—including the theories and literatures on which they are grounded—and develop an original conceptual model to catalyze future research.
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In this chapter, we examine work → nonwork conflict, its causes, and its consequences. We also address in detail two alternative work arrangements (i.e., telecommuting and flextime) that can reduce the incidence of work → nonwork conflict. Our coverage of telecommuting and flextime makes apparent that these arrangements are not quick fixes. Rather, there are several contingency factors (e.g., supervisor support) that need to be considered by an employer given they influence the likely success of these nontraditional work arrangements. If implemented effectively (e.g., participation is voluntary, employees have a voice in program design), telecommuting and flextime can help an employee balance the sometimes competing demands of their work and nonwork lives. Facilitating such a balance not only has tangible benefits for employers (e.g., lower turnover), it is the ethical thing for employers to do.
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We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004–2011), controlling for career stage. Results support a strong influence of past promotions, and less so for salary changes, on subjective career success. These effects were stronger for men and during the economic contraction, with managers being affected in their assessments based on the employees' past promotions. In contrast, past job mobility did not relate to subjective career success for either gender in periods of economic expansion or contraction. Evidence for an interactive perspective of career success whereby past objective success affects current subjective success is presented, as well as potential implications of the findings.
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Women face an earnings penalty associated with motherhood but researchers have paid scant attention to how fatherhood might influence men's long-term earnings. Using multiple waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and employing ordinary least squares regression and fixed effects models we investigate what happens to men who modify their employment for family reasons. Previous research shows that men work longer hours and earn more after becoming fathers, but if men are unemployed or reduce work hours for family reasons, they could experience a “flexibility stigma” depressing earnings and limiting future career opportunities. We find strong support for the flexibility stigma hypothesis. Controlling for the effects of age, race, education, intelligence, occupation, job tenure, work hours, health limitations, marital status, and number of children, we find that men who ever quit work or are unemployed for family reasons earn significantly less than others in the future. Theoretical reasons for observed findings are discussed.
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Despite their widespread adoption, concerns remain that virtual work arrangements can harm employee job performance and citizenship behavior. Does telecommuting really hamper these critical dimensions of employee effectiveness? To answer this question, we develop a theoretical framework linking telecommuting to task and contextual performance via a dual set of mechanisms – reflecting proposed effects of i-deals and job resources. Further, we propose that the meaning of and outcomes from these paths depend on the social context surrounding telecommuting. We test the framework with field data from 323 employees and 143 matched supervisors across a variety of organizations. As predicted, we find that telecommuting is positively associated with task and contextual performance, directly and indirectly via perceived autonomy. These beneficial effects are contingent upon two aspects of the social context: leader-member exchange and signals of its normative appropriateness amongst coworkers and one's supervisor.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This paper investigates the effects of telework and flexible work schedules on the performance of teams in new product development projects. Organizations increasingly introduce workplace flexibility practices that provide flexibility with regard to where or when the employee works. The findings of NPD teams in five cases, situated in two telecommunication firms, show that telework has a positive effect on NPD performance through enabling knowledge sharing, cross-functional cooperation and inter-organizational involvement. This improves the speed and quality of product development, provided that face-to-face contact is not completely replaced by virtual contact. A basic level of face-to face contact is necessary to offset the negative effects of telework on the quality of the shared knowledge, which are larger when the knowledge is sticky. Flexible work schedules and unexpectedly hot-desking were found to increase telework usage. This implies for managers that workplace flexibility needs enablers and cannot do without a sufficient level of face-to-face contact.
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This research investigates the relationship between virtual employees' degree of physical isolation and their perceived respect in the organization. Respect is an identity-based status perception that reflects the extent to which one is included and valued as a member of the organization. We hypothesize that the degree of physical isolation is negatively associated with virtual employees' perceived respect and that this relationship explains the lower organizational identification among more physically isolated virtual employees. In two field studies using survey methods, we find that perceived respect is negatively associated with the degree of physical isolation, and respect mediates the relationship between physical isolation and organizational identification. These effects hold for shorter- and longer-tenured employees alike. Our research contributes to the virtual work literature by drawing attention to physical isolation and the important but neglected role of status perceptions in shaping virtual employees' organizational identification. We also contribute to the literature on perceived respect by demonstrating how respect is affected by the physical context of work.
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Purpose The current study investigates the impact of time and strain-based work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) on exhaustion, by considering the moderating effect of telework conducted during traditional and non-traditional work hours. Design/Methodology/Approach Data were obtained from professionals in a large computer company using survey methodology (N = 316). Findings Results from this study suggest that time and strain-based WFC and FWC were associated with more exhaustion, and that exhaustion associated with high WFC was worse for individuals with more extensive telework during traditional and non-traditional work hours. Implications This study provides managers with findings to more carefully design telework programs, showing evidence that the adverse impact of WFC/FWC on exhaustion may depend on the type of telework and level of conflict experienced. This suggests that managers may need to be more aware of the full range of characteristics which encapsulate the teleworker’s work practices before making decisions about how telework is implemented. Originality/Value By differentiating the timing of telework and its role on the WFC/FWC—exhaustion relationship, this study delves deeper into the contingent nature of telework and suggests that the extent of telework conducted during traditional and nontraditional work hours may play an influential role. In addition, these considerations are investigated in light of the bi-directional time-based and strain-based nature of WFC and FWC, helping to unravel some of telework’s complexities.
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The current study examines the relationship between external job mobility and salary for employees in different career stages. Based on career stage and career timetable theories, we predict that external job mobility would generate the greatest salary benefits for early-career employees whereas external job mobility would generate fewer salary benefits for employees in mid- and late career stages. Data collected from multiple industries in Hong Kong and the United States consistently show that, as expected, highly mobile early-career employees earn significantly greater salaries than their less mobile peers do. The positive effects of external job mobility on salary were stronger for early-career workers than for mid-and late-career workers.
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Promotions and demotions are important events in most people's work lives. This study analyzes the career mobility of a cohort of employees in a large corporation over a 13-year period using official personnel records. Derived from the status-attainment, Markov, and organization-career literatures, two conflicting models of mobility are described: an ahistorical (path independence) model and a historical (tournament) model. The empirical analysis supports the tournament model, finding that mobility in the earliest period of one's career has an unequivocal relationship with many of the most important parameters of one's later career: career ceilings, career floors, and probabilities of promotion and demotion in each successive period. Some speculations are presented about Bowles and Gintis's correspondence principle, about functional and dysfunctional consequences of this selection system, and about the implications of organizational opportunity structures on employees' career behaviors.