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Studies on the botanical and ecological aspects of a rare species Ophrys caucasica from Azerbaijan (Orchidaceae)

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Ophrys caucasica is a rare species in Azerbaijan flora and has been included in the Red Book of Azerbaijan. The aim of the present research was to study, for the first time, ontogenetic structure, variability of morphological parameters in nature and culture of a rare species O. caucasica in order to identify their vitality structure and to clarify the impact of the environment in the distributing areas. We investigated the ontogenetic and demographic structure of coenopopulations (CP) of O. caucasica in Khizhi, Khachmaz (Azerbaijan) regions. Morphometric analysis of individuals in CPs was performed, variability and plastics were identified and the effects of climate factors on them were studied. The phenology of the individuals O. caucasica was followed, which was introduced in Experiment Station (ES) of Central Botanical Garden of ANAS. As observed, the highest percentage of both CPs was pregenerative, and the coenopopulations were left-sided. The values of morphological parameters in ES were suitable to CP1 and CP2, the highest variation in both CPs is the number of flowers. There was no strong correlation between parametrs in CP1 and ES, but in CP2 there was relationship between the number of flower and the length of flower shoot. Based on coenopopulation quality index (Q-index), both CP and ES were determined as thriving. The results of the regression analysis in CP1, CP2 and ES were positive, but negative relationships were not observed. Based on the phenological observations, the average flowering time of plant during 2 years was 21-29 days. The present study shows that the number and density of individuals in the CP1 is lesser than CP2 and morphoparameter dimensions generally higher in CP2.
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Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants 7(9): 206-217, September 2019
DOI: 10.15413/ajmp.2019.0153
ISSN: 2315-7720
©2019 Academia Publishing
Research Paper
Studies on the botanical and ecological aspects of a rare species Ophrys caucasica
from Azerbaijan (Orchidaceae).
Accepted 25th September, 2019
ABSTRACT
Ophrys caucasica is a rare species in Azerbaijan flora and has been included in the
Red Book of Azerbaijan. The aim of the present research was to study, for the first
time, ontogenetic structure, variability of morphological parameters in nature and
culture of a rare species O. caucasica in order to identify their vitality structure
and to clarify the impact of the environment in the distributing areas. We
investigated the ontogenetic and demographic structure of coenopopulations (CP)
of O. caucasica in Khizhi, Khachmaz (Azerbaijan) regions. Morphometric analysis
of individuals in CPs was performed, variability and plastics were identified and
the effects of climate factors on them were studied. The phenology of the
individuals O. caucasica was followed, which was introduced in Experiment
Station (ES) of Central Botanical Garden of ANAS. As observed, the highest
percentage of both CPs was pregenerative, and the coenopopulations were left-
sided. The values of morphological parameters in ES were suitable to CP1 and CP2,
the highest variation in both CPs is the number of flowers. There was no strong
correlation between parametrs in CP1 and ES, but in CP2 there was relationship
between the number of flower and the length of flower shoot. Based on
coenopopulation quality index (Q-index), both CP and ES were determined as
thriving. The results of the regression analysis in CP1, CP2 and ES were positive,
but negative relationships were not observed. Based on the phenological
observations, the average flowering time of plant during 2 years was 21-29 days.
The present study shows that the number and density of individuals in the CP1 is
lesser than CP2 and morphoparameter dimensions generally higher in CP2.
Key words: Ophrys caucasica, ontogenetic structure, variability, plasticity,
correlation, population vitality structure, phenology.
INTRODUCTION
Monitoring populations of rare and endangered species has
become a priority for most conservation agencies. It
provides the major source of data for updating World
Conservation Union and national red lists (Lamoreux et al.,
2003), the main use of which is setting the long-term goals
of conservation programs, such as helping to identify areas
especially in need of protection (Prendergast et al., 1993).
Plants face many threats, which may act independently
on individual plant populations. The first and most
important causes of decreasing, endangerment and
extinction of plant species are anthropogenic factors’ that
almost always result in reduced population sizes or in the
worst case, in direct destruction of plant populations. Most
important anthropogenic factors include habitat loss,
fragmentation and degradation, introduction of exotic
species, climate change, overexploitation and pollution.
Changes in land use are the basic drivers of habitat loss,
fragmentation and degradation. They directly affect plant
Nigar Mursal* and Naiba
Pirverdi Mehdiyeva
Institute of Botany, Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences,
Badamdar 40, Baku, AZ1004,
Azerbaijan.
*Correspondence author. E-mail:
nigar_mursal@yahoo.com.
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 207
habitats to such an extent that the viability of many
populations is significantly reduced through reduced areas,
increased spatial isolation and increased edge/core ratios
of the remaining habitat fragments (Broennimann, 2008).
Recently, climate change has also been identified as a
major force that may drive plant populations to extinction
as it directly affects growth, flowering and other aspects of
plant performance and indirectly changes plantpollinator
interactions. In the last two decades, current scientific and
popular concern has increasingly emphasized the possible
implications of climate change. Since industrialization in
developed countries and since the middle of 19th century
and further industrialization in developing countries in the
20th century, strong evidence suggests that atmospheric
concentrations of greenhouse gases (particularly carbon
dioxide and methane) are increasing. The global
atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased
from 280 ppm3 to 379 ppm3 in 2005 and today exceeds by
far the natural range over the last 650000 years
(Siegenthaler et al., 2005; Spahni et al., 2005).
The increasing concentration of this chemical compound
in the atmosphere is very likely changing the physical
proprieties and functioning of the climate of the earth. The
Earth’s climate has warmed by approximately 0.61° (+/-
0.18°) over the past 100 years (Root et al., 2003; IPCC,
2007b). This global warming has important consequence
on the physical features of the planet. There is irrefutable
evidence of an increase in widespread melting of snow and
ice and rising global average sea level during the last
century. Observational evidence from all continents and
most oceans shows that many natural systems are being
affected by global climate changes (IPCC, 2007b).
Adapting to this high rate of change is a challenge for
human society as well as for natural ecosystems (MEA,
2005). Evidence from long-term monitoring studies is now
accumulating and suggests recent climatic trends are
already affecting species physiology, distribution and
phenology. Impacts of warming climate have already been
shown to modify the phenology and physiology of species,
or to induce displacements of species distributions that
may ultimately lead to increased extinction rates (eg.
Hughes, 2000; Stenseth et al., 2002a; Root et al., 2003;
Parmesan et al., 2005; Walther et al., 2005).
Yet the most profound effect of climate change is perhaps
that it will change the geographical distributions of species,
which may also lead to extinctions due to the limited
colonization capacity of many plant species.
Overexploitation by picking of flowers or other parts of the
plant for commercial or medicinal use obviously results in
decreased reproductive output, smaller population size or
even in reduced levels of genetic diversity, which may affect
the species potential to adapt to changing environmental
conditions (Broennimann, 2008).
Some orchids species are also at risk of extinction due to
irregular human activities, such as degradation of habitat or
destruction and extraction of wild plants for trade (Batty et
al., 2002). These cases lead to a decrease in the number of
orchids (Hágsater and Dumont, 1996). The impact of the
destruction of changes or habitat on orchid species depends
on geographical distribution, habitat specificity and
population size (Rabinowitz et al., 1986). Rare orchid
species tend to be depleted naturally due to natural
disasters (fires, floods or severe climatic changes).
According to Hágsater and Dumont (1996), world-wide
conservation threats to orchids are: 1. degradation of
habitat (logging, agriculture and plantations, habitat
separation, urbanization, mining); 2. collection:
(horticultural trade, collecting for decorative properties,
utilization orchids for medicinal properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Description of investigated object
Orchidaceae Juss. is one of the family with a large number
of species among flowering plants and has 750 genera with
17,000 to 35,000 species. The orchids are cosmopolitan,
almost spread all over the world. Epiphytic orchids are
widely spread in subtropical and tropical areas. Tropical
America is considered the centre from point of view of
richness species and genera, where 8266 species from 306
genera are distributed (Dressler, 1981; Cherevchenko,
2001; Cribb, 2003). According to the literature «Flora of
Azerbaijan» (1952), the Orchidaceae family has more than
1500 species of more than 460 genera. In Azerbaijan, 48
species from 19 genera are distributed.
One of the lesser studying genus of this family is Ophrys
which 40 species are found in Europe, West Asia and North
Africa, 4 species (O. caucasica, O. taurica (Aggeenko)
Nevski, O.estrifera Marschall a Bieberstein, O. apifera
Hudson) in the Caucasus, and 3 species (O. caucasica,
O.estrifera, O.apifera) are distributed in Azerbaijan (Flora of
Azerbaijan, 1952; Caucasian Flora Conspectus, 2006).
O. caucasica is a perennial plant. The tubers are almost
spherical, 0.81.5 cm in diameter. The stem is 1235 cm
tall. The leaves are concentrated at the base of the stem,
oblonglanceolate, above in the form of pointed sheaths.
Bracts ovatelanceolate, longer than ovaries. Outer tepals
1012 mm long, oblonglanceolate, yellowishgreen,
internal linearlanceolate, with one vessel, greenish
brownish, lip velvety, in outline broadly obovial, dark
brown, with blueviolet pattern in the shape of a letter H,
whole or threelobed, with middle lobe renalcordate, with
small corpus callosum, with lateral short oblongtriangular.
Flowering and fruiting are observed in 4-6th months (Flora
of Azerbaijan, 1952) (Figure 1).
Description of investigation area
The investigations were conducted in the spring-summer
20162018 in Khizi, Khachmaz region and ES (Figure 2).
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 208
Figure 1: Ophrys caucasica in habitat.
Figure 2 The routes of research (
Distribution of Ophrys caucasica records in Azerbaijan;
Distribution of collected samples of Ophrys caucasica).
There are equally distributed rainfall, drywarm summer,
drycold winter climate types in Khizi region. The average
annual temperature of the air is 910C, the temperature in
the cold months is 12C, the maximum air temperature is
3438C. The amount of rainfall varies from 340 to 405
mm. Surface evaporation reaches 400600 mm in a year.
There are mild hot semidesert and dry subtropical
climates of the summer in the territory of Khachmaz. The
mentioned climate types are mild with the temperature 1
2C in winter and the summer dry with temperature is 23
24°C in July. The average annual temperature on the soil
surface is 15C and varies between 2 and 31C for a year.
The first frosts occur in the middle of November and the
spring frosts begin at the beginning of April. The annual
amount of rains is 300450 mm, mostly falling in autumn.
Surface evaporation is 800 mm (Asadov et al., 2008).
ES is located in Baku which covers the main part of the
Absheron Peninsula, as well as the Baku archipelagos and
partly the south-eastern part of Gobustan. The northern,
northeastern, and eastern borders of the city reach the
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 209
Figure 3: Average temperature for Khizi and Khachmaz regions.
for Khizi is +11.06C in 2016, +11.9C in 2017 and for Khacmaz +13.6C in 2016, +14.5C in
2017 (Figure 3).
Climate indicators of both regions show that average annual temperature in Khachmaz region in
2016 was 2, in 2017 3 degrees higher than in Khizi district. There are sharp differences in the
number of frosty and rainy days (Figure 4).
Figure 4: The amount of annual frosty, rainy days in Khizi and Khachmaz regions.
Figure 4: The amount of annual frosty, rainy days in Khizi and Khachmaz regions.
waters of the Caspian Sea. The relief is a waveguard plains
in north-west, west and south. The climate is moderately
warm and dry subtropical, with a monthly average of 3.4C
in January and 2526C in July. The amount of annual
rainfall is between 150300 mm. According to the weather
forecast presented by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural
Resources of Azerbaijan Republic (http://eco.gov.az/az) for
the years 2016 and 2017 is calculated the average monthly
temperature and the amount of rainy and frosty days for
Khizi and Khacmaz regions. The average temperature for
Khizi is +11.06C in 2016, +11.9C in 2017 and for
Khacmaz +13.6C in 2016, +14.5C in 2017 (Figure 3).
Climate indicators of both regions show that average
annual temperature in Khachmaz region in 2016 was 2, in
2017 3 degrees higher than in Khizi district. There are
sharp differences in the number of frosty and rainy days
(Figure 4).
Methods of research
Daily phenology (Primack, 1985) of individuals O. caucasica
introduced in ES has been detected to occur in the first leaf,
the beginning of flowering, the flowering period and the
end of flowering. A rare plant monitoring was carried out
(Tienes et al., 2010), ontogenetic (age) spectrum was
studied as the main demographic parameters of CP. To
study the abundance and ontogenetic structure of O.
caucasica, CPs 78 small transects (1m2) were laid in
general model areas (10 m2). To determine the ontogenetic
spectrum at these sites, the total number of individuals and
the number of individuals of different age groups were
calculated. The type of CP was determined by the delta-
omega (Δ-ω) classification of normal population (Uranov,
1975; Zhivotovsky, 2001).
Morphometric analysis, phytocoenotic plasticity index
(Ip), population vitality structure were conducted
according to Zlobin (2013). To study the morphometric
features, 30 randomly generative individuals were selected
by 10 parameters (plant height, width of stem, number of
leaves, length of leaf, width of leaf, length of flower shoot,
number of flower, length of bud, width of bud, number of
leaf vessels). The mean value, standard deviation and
variation coefficient (CV) of the parameters were
calculated.
To estimate the characteristics of individuals in the
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 210
population, the method of Odum (1952) was used. The
correlation analysis was performed among the parameters:
plant height ~ number of leaves, width of stem ~ plant
height, width of leaf ~ number of leaf vessels, length of
flower shoot ~ plant height, number of flower ~ length of
flower shoot, length of bud ~ width of bud, length of leaf ~
width of leaf, length of flower shoot ~ length of bud.
To study the vitality structure of the coenopopulation in
the first stage, the morphometric parameters of 30 middle
aged individuals were evaluated in each coenopopulation.
The parameters to determine the complex of symptoms
characterizing vitality were used in the correlation and
factor analysis, which indicates the key parameters of the
generative and vegetative spheres. In the second stage, the
evaluation of the vitality status of O. caucasica individuals
was performed on 3 parametres: In CP1 number of flowers,
length and width of bud; in CP 2 length of flower shoot and
number of flowers; in ES number of leaves, length of plant,
length of flower shoot. Selected individuals were classified
into 3 vitality classes:
X ± t0,05 x Sx
Interval was used to select determinant signs. X - mean, Sx -
standard error, t - Student's T- critera.
If the elements of the plant are greater than X ± t0,05 x Sx
interval - higher-grade vitality (a), if they are in X ± t0,05 x Sx
interval - middle-class vitality (b), if they are less than X ±
t0,05 x Sx range - lower class vitality (c), the student's T-
criteria is 2,045 according to the number of measurements
(p = 0.05). Based on the quality index Q = 1/2 (a+b),
coenopopulation includes one of the vitalities: thriving,
equilibrium, depressive.
IQ index is used to assess the degree of thriving or
depression of coenopopulation (Ishbirdin et al., 2005):
IQ = (a+b)/2c
Regression analysis was performed on individuals O.
caucasica in CP1, CP2 and ES to determine the relationship
between the height of the plant and the number of flowers.
The Latin names of the plants, found in various coenosis
with O. caucasica, have been determined according to "The
flora of Azerbaijan" (1952), "Caucasian Flora Conspectus"
(2006) and The Plant list (http://www.theplantlist.org).
The abundance of plants in the coenopopulation was based
on the Braun-Blanquet Scale (Braun-Blanquet and
Pavillard, 1925). GIS map of species distribution was
compiled by program ArcMap 10.5 version. All statistical
analyses were carried out in programs Microsoft Excel
2010 and GraphPad Prism 7.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Phenology
Phenological study is important in plant management and
combating afforestation, honey analysis, floral biology,
estimation of reproductivity and regeneration (Mulik and
Bhosale, 1989). The flowering phenology differs from
species to species in accordance with the ecosystems they
associates and this suggest that specific patterns of
flowering phenology may be a characteristic of specific
ecosystem types (Pojar, 1974; Heinrich, 1976).
Phenological studies reflect the daily occurrence of plants
and animals in total response to environment. For plants,
this includes both vegetative and reproductive such as bud
formation, flowering, fruiting, and seed germination, along
with vegetative phase such as leaf flushing and shedding.
Most phenological studies are based on observation of
periodic phenomena occurring at a given location over a
period of several years. The microclimatic study with
reference to phenological research gains a tremendous
attention because it represents the actual conditions that
influence plant response. The external factors modify the
internal factors. Among these factors may be listed rainfall,
temperature, humidity, soil moisture at different depth,
light intensity, and etc. (Lokho and Kumar, 2012). The
timing of flowering is one of the most widely investigated
aspects of the phenology of plant life-cycles, and has been
studied on every scale, from the level of the community
(Murali and Sukumar, 1994) to that of the individual flower
(Herrera, 1995). In most plant communities, although at
least some species will be in flower throughout the growing
season, there is a tendency for peaks of flowering to occur.
In our investigations has been followed phenology of O.
caucasica in ES and it shows that the appearance of the first
green leaves of this species in the early September. The first
flowering took place on 27.03. in 2018 and 2019. Flowering
period took totally 2129 days in 2018, 2228 days in
2019. The last flower was released on 29.04. in 2018, on
21.04. in 2019 (Figures 5 and 6).
The time of wilting each flower separately was different.
So, it changed for different individuals such as 313; 414;
613; 215 in 2018, 314; 513; 612; 614 in 2019. The
time of wilting of all the flowers in one plant also was
different. Thus, in 2018 flowering in first plant was 27 days,
in second 29 days, in the third plant 21 days and in the
fourth was 26 days, in 2019 flowering in first plant was 25
days, in second 23 days, in the third plant 28 days and in
the fourth was 22 days. No fruiting and seedling phase was
observed in any plant (Figure 7).
Phytocoenotic characteristic of habitat
CP1 have investigated on grassy slopes in the direction of
KhiziYarimca (a.s.l. 760 m). In this area, the individuals of
the O. caucasica are found in small groups (3-5 individuals).
The surface distribution of the plant is in the form of a
diffuse group and is located at a distance of 46 m from
each other. The soil is black and humid. The average density
of individuals is 10.9 individuals /m2. The distribution
characteristics of the individuals in coenopopulation are
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 211
1 2
1 2
Figure 5: Phenology of Ophrys caucasica (12018; 22019).
1 2
Figure 5 Phenology of Ophrys caucasica (12018; 22019)
2018 2019
Figure 6 Phenological progression in Ophrys caucasica during the periods of observation. Green
circle: bud, red circle: fresh flower, black flower: withered flower.
The time of wilting each flower separately was different. So, it changed for different individuals
such as 313; 414; 613; 215 in 2018, 314; 513; 612; 614 in 2019. The time of wilting of all
Figure 6: Phenological progression in Ophrys caucasica during the periods of observation. Green circle:
bud, red circle: fresh flower, black flower: withered flower.
plant was 25 days, in second 23 days, in the third plant 28 days and in the fourth was 22 days. No
fruiting and seedling phase was observed in any plant (Figure 7).
Figure 7: The total flowering time of Ophrys caucasica.
Figure 7: The total flowering time of Ophrys caucasica.
equally distributed (Iod= 0,36). In the investigated areas of
O. caucasica are widely spread trees: Quercus iberica Stev.
ex M.B. (3 point) and another rare species Pyrus salicifolia
Pall. (2 point). There was a strong self-restoration of the
oak species. From shrubs Rubus caesius L. (3 point),
Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. (2 point) and
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 212
Table 1: The number of individuals in different ontogenetic states of Ophrys caucasica.
N
j
im
v
g1
g2
g3
ss
s
CP1
15
18
24
17
7
4
2
-
CP2
98
112
125
86
64
37
18
9
Figure 8: Individuals of Ophrys caucasica in different
ontogenetic states.
Figure 9: The ontogenetic spectr of species Ophrys caucasica.
from herbaceous plants Dianthus ruprechtii Schischk. ex
Grossh. (2 point), Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. (2
point), Orchis purpurea Huds. (2 point), Muscari
szovitsianum Baker (1 point) took part in coenosis.
CP2 have investigated in the glade of beech-hornbeam
forest (Faguseto-Carpinusetum) in Nabran of Khachmaz
region (a.s.l. 1m). Here, the distribution of the plant is in the
form of groups. The soil is brown and humid. The average
density of individuals is 68,625 individuals/m2. The
characteristic of individuals in coenopopulation is the
contagious type (Iod= 2,31). In the investigated areas of O.
caucasica are widely spread trees: Acer campestre L. and A.
laetum C.A. Mey. (2 point); shrubs Сornus mas L. (3 point),
Crataegus curvicepala Lindm,. Mespilus germanica L. and
Rubus caesius L. (2 point); shrub-liana Hedera helix L. and
Smilax excelsa L. (2 point); herbaceous plants Euphorbia
amygdaloides L., Ranunculus villosus DC. and Geum urbanum
L. (3 point), Allium paradoxum (M. Bieb.) G.Don,
Ornithogalum sintenisii Freyn, Rumex conglomerates Murray
and Viola sieheana W. Becker (2 point), Orobanche hederae
Duby and Galium rubioides L. (1 point) took part in
coenosis. The number of individuals in different
ontogenetic states of O. caucasica Woronow ex Grossh. in
CPs is described in Table 1 and Figure 8.
Table 1 and Figures 9 and 10 show that the highest ratios
in both coenopopulations are pregenerative individuals,
and these coenopopulations are leftsided. Pregenerative
individuals are 65%, generative33%, postgenerative
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 213
Figure 10: Ratio of pregenerative, vegetative and generative individuals in coenopopulations of Ophrys caucasica (%).
Table 2: Characteristics of coenopopulations of Ophrys caucasica.
No
n
Xa
Xpre
Xg
Xpost
Ir
Ia
Irep
Δ
ω
CP1
87
10.87
7.12
3.5
0.25
2.03
0.023
1.9
0.229
0.445
CP2
549
68.82
41.87
23.37
3.37
1.79
0.049
1.56
0.282
0.456
Table 3: Morphological characteristics of Ophrys caucasica.
S/N
Parameter
CP 1
CP 2
ES
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
1.
Plant height
30.72
7.66
49.45
3.89
17.18
8.48
2.
Width of stem
0.42
0.07
0.4
0.074
0.44
0.09
3.
Number of leaves
5.09
0.89
5.45
0.89
6.82
2.75
4.
Length of leaf
8.19
1.58
8.19
1.58
6.86
1.21
5.
Width of leaf
1.42
0.24
1.42
0.24
1.93
0.39
6.
Length of flower shoot
14.64
4.97
14.64
4.97
7.51
3.54
7.
Number of flower
5.36
2.14
5.36
2.14
6.45
2.25
8.
Length of bud
0.8
0.23
0.91
0.21
1.1
0.26
9.
Width of bud
0.35
0.08
0.64
0.22
0.47
0.09
10.
Number of leaf vessels
19.36
2.78
13.82
2.55
14
2.48
2% in CP1 and respectively, 61, 35 and 4% in CP2 (Figure
10).
The age indexs of O. caucasica were calculated in CP1 and
CP2 and it was determined that their values varies
considerably in some cases: aging (Ia) (0.0230.049);
recovery (Irec) (2.0361.79); replacement (Irep) (1.9
1.565); delta (Δ) – (0.2220.282); omega (ω) – (0.445
0.456) (table 2).
As shown in Table 2, the highest number of individuals
(n) and density (Хa) are observed in CP2, thus density of
pregenerative (Хpre), generative (Хg) and postgenerative
(Xpost) individuals in 1 m2 is higher. In CP1, indexes of
recovery, aging and replacement are high. According to the
value of delta (Δ) and omega (ω), it is seen that both
coenopopulations are “young” type.
Morphometric characteristics
Measurements were conducted on individuals under 10
selected parameters. Morphograms were compiled for CP1,
CP2 and ES based on calculated values (Table 3 and Figure
11).
A significant difference in the number of temperature
degrees, frosty and rainy days of Khizi and Khachmaz
districts in 20162017 affected their values of
morphometric parameters. In CP1 and CP2, the
morphometric dimensions of O. caucasica show that the
highest value of individuals in CP1 is the height of the plant,
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 214
Figure 11: Morphograms of CP1 (A), CP2 (B) and ES (C) of Ophrys caucasica.
Table 4: Variability and plasticity of the morphoparameters of individuals Ophrys caucasica.
S/N
Parameter
CP 1
CP 2
ES
(Cv), %
Ip
(Cv), %
Ip
(Cv), %
Ip
1.
Plant height
8
0.2
25
0.55
47
0.76
2.
Width of stem
18
0.4
18
0.45
20
0.5
3.
Number of leaves
16
0.43
18
0.43
38
0.75
4.
Length of leaf
16
0.39
19
0.49
17
0.45
5.
Width of leaf
17
0.42
25
0.52
20
0.47
6.
Length of flower shoot
11
0.33
34
0.81
45
0.75
7.
Number of flower
35
0.67
40
0.67
33
0.72
8.
Length of bud
23
0.54
29
0.61
25
0.6
9.
Width of bud
34
0.73
22
0.6
18
0.5
10.
Number of leaf vessels
18
0.47
14
0.37
17
0.47
CV coefficient of variation, Ip index of placticity.
the number of leaf vessels and in CP2 the width of leaf. In
ES, the lowest price shows the length of flower shoot.
The structure of morphological variability
The value of the variation coefficients of the selected
parameters for the analysis shows that the lowest variation
in CP1 is the height of the plant (8%), the highest - the
number of flowers (35%) and the width of bud (34%). In
CP2, the lowest is number of leaf vessels (14%), the
highest number of flowers (40%). Totally, the percentage of
variation of parametrs is higher than CP1. In ES, the highest
indicator is recorded in the height of plant (47%), the
length of the flower shoot (45%) and the lowest leaf length
and number of leaf vessels (17%) (Table 4).
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 215
Table 5: Correlation relations of morphometric parametres of individuals Ophrys caucasica.
S/N
Parameter
CP 1
CP 2
ES
1.
Plant height ~ number of leaves
r= 0.019
r= 0.46
r= 0.018
2.
Width of stem ~ plant height
r= 0.32
r= -0.344
r= -0.04
3.
Width of leaf ~ number of leaf vessels
r= 0.036
r= 0.48
r= -0.11
4.
Length of flower shoot ~ plant height
r= 0.039
r= 0.18
r= 0.63
5.
Number of flower ~ length of flower shoot
r= 0.54
r= 0.73
r= -0.33
6.
Length of bud ~ width of bud
r= 0.44
r= 0.096
r= 0.34
7.
Length of leaf ~ width of leaf
r= -0.234
r= 0.085
r= -0.49
8.
Length of flower shoot ~ length of bud
r= 0.24
r= -0.125
r= -0.58
Table 6: Characteristics of vitality of coenopopulations Ophrys caucasica.
CP
The proportion of individuals in the classes of vitality
Q
Iq
Type coenopopulation
a
b
c
CP 1
0.31
0.45
0.24
0.38
1.58
Thriving
CP 2
0.31
0.42
0.27
0.36
1.35
Thriving
ES
0.18
0.51
0.31
0.34
1.11
Thriving
Ip values are calculated and found that the highest value
for CP1 is the number of flowers (0.67) and width of bud
(0.73), and the lowest is the height of plant (0.2). In CP2, the
highest value is length of flower shoot (0.81), and the
lowest value is the number of leaf vessels (0.37). In ES, the
highest value is number leaves (0.75), length flower shoot
(0.75), height of plant (0.76), number of flowers (0.72), and
the lowest value is the length of leaf (0.45), the width of
leaf (0.47) and the number of leaf vessels (0.47).
Correlation analysis
Correlation analysis was carried out to determine the
relationships between different part of plant (Table 5). It
was determined that there is no strong correlation between
parameters in CP1. There is a negative relationship
between leaf length and leaf width. In CP2, a strong
correlation is between the number of flower and the length
of flower shoot, weak correlation between the other
parameters, and negative correlation is recorded between
the length of flower shoot and the length of the bud.
There is no strong correlation between parametrs in ES
and medium correlation is between the length of flower
shoot and plant height. Negative correlation between leaf
width ~ number of leaf vessels, number of flowers ~ length
of flower shoot, leaf length ~ leaf width, length of flower
shoot ~ length of bud.
Population vitality structure
The vitality structure of O. caucasica both in nature and in
ES has been researched. Both CP1 and CP2, as well as
individuals in ES because of dominating upper and middle
class vitality, they are including the thriving category. The
value of quality index is closely in all three
coenopopulations. Iq index value shows that the price of
this index is positive in all three coenopopulation, and their
type is thriving (Table 6).
The condition of the area where the coenopopulations
located, the difference of sea level altitudes and weather
conditions affect the number of individuals in CP1 and CP2.
Thus, the number of individuals in CP1 is lesser than CP2.
But in total, the vitality of O. caucasica individuals in both
coenopopulations is at a high level (Figure 12).
Regression analysis of individuals in CP1, CP2 and ES
shows that in all three areas, the relationship between the
plant height and the number of flowers is straight and
proportionate. As shown in the graphs, there is no negative
correlation in any analysis (Figure 13).
To develop methods for the conservation of species from
Orchidaceae Juss. family, it is necessary to have a fairly
complete description of their ontogenesis, methods and
intensity of reproduction, population dynamics and age
structure of the populations. One of the criteria for
including species in the list in need of protection is a
reduction in their numbers (Vakhrameeva, 2006).
Therefore, the parameters that we have discovered in each
CP during our current research can provide information
about the individuals plant and can be used as a way of its
future development and protection. Since the weather in
Khizi region is frosty and the area is dry, the number and
density of individuals in the CP1 is lesser than CP2. When
looking at the morphological paramaters, it can be seen that
morphoparameter dimensions are generally higher in CP2.
Our observations show that the number of O. caucasica in
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 216
individuals in CP1 is lesser than CP2. But in total, the vitality of O. caucasica individuals in both
coenopopulations is at a high level (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Vitality structure coenopopulations of Ophrys caucasica: a, b, c classes of vitality.
Figure 12: Vitality structure coenopopulations of Ophrys
caucasica: a, b, c classes of vitality.
y = 0.094x + 2.388
R² = 0.169
0
2
4
6
8
10
010 20 30 40 50
Number of flowers
Plant height
CP 1
y = 0.081x + 2.878
R² = 0.101
0
2
4
6
8
10
010 20 30 40 50
Number of flowers
Plant height
CP 2
y = 0.162x + 2.050
R² = 0.417
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Numer of flowers
Plant height
Experiment station
Figure 13: Regression analysis of individuals Ophrys
caucasica in CP1, CP2 and ES.
the investigated areas is influenced by anthropogenic
(removal of its tubers by humans for the medicinal features,
collecting for decorative properties, cattle grazing), natural
(soil slope, drought) factors. Also, self restoration process
of this plant is going late due to weak seedling.
In this research, the botanical and ecological aspects of a
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Mursal and Mehdiyeva. 217
rare species O. caucasica were studied for the first time in
Azerbaijan. It can be said that the ontogenetic,
morphological and ecological informations about this
species will be helpful in further orchid studies.
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Cite this article as:
Mursal N, Mehdiyeva NP (2019). Studies on the botanical and
ecological aspects of a rare species Ophrys caucasica from
Azerbaijan (Orchidaceae). Acad. J. Med. Plants. 7(9): 206-217.
Submit your manuscript at:
http://www.academiapublishing.org/ajmp
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