The planetary boundary layer is crucial for the turbulence mixing and exchange of heat flux, momentum, and atmospheric pollutants between the atmosphere and Earth’s surface. Nevertheless, the estimated boundary layer height (BLH) varies greatly by data sources and algorithms. This paper seeks to characterize the convective BLHs from 1-s radiosonde measurements of China Radiosonde Network (CRN) ... [Show full abstract] for the 2012–2020 period at 1400 Beijing time, by using eight well-known algorithms, wherein the newly established Thorpe method is theoretically fundamental on turbulence analysis and is in remarkable agreement with the parcel and bulk Richardson number methods. BLHs obtained by eight methods, ranging from 1.2 to 2.5 km, strongly vary with methods based on different kinetic or thermodynamic theories. The significant offsets among methods motivate the present study to propose a merged algorithm, to minimize the spread of BLH estimate. The merged BLH contains more physical information than that retrieved from a single method and can significantly lower the uncertainty. The BLH climatology exhibits a spatial pattern of “Southwest-High Southeast-Low”, ascending from 0.6 km over southeastern China to 2.3 km over southwestern China, which could be largely attributed to the variations in the integrated surface sensible heat flux, soil moisture, total cloud cover, land cover, synoptic forcing, and terrain-induced flow. Of interest is that land surface properties could be the major driver for the development of CBL. Also noteworthy is that the smallest BLH is expected under the strongest synoptic forcing condition.