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Health benefits of black rice – A review

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  • Aarupadai Veedu Medical College & Hospital, Pondy – Cuddalore Main Road Kirumampakkam, Bahour Commune, Puducherry- 607403.

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Rice has been a staple food across the globe since time immemorial. Generally, different types of rice, such as white, purple, red, brown, and black rice, are named following the physical appearance of the rice bran. The color of the rice bran differs due to the presence of pigments in the rice varieties. Apart from general uses like cooking and fodder for cattle, rice has also been extensively involved in the field of medicine, some of which have been scientifically addressed. Although pigmented rice varieties have a history of heritage and are admired all over the world, awareness concerning the benefits of consuming these types of rice is limited. The main theme of this research article is to define the scientifically proven medicinal properties of black rice. The health properties of black rice are experimentally renowned, and gathered empirical data regarding the physiological and pharmacological activity of black rice remarkably supports the use of black rice in nutritional therapy. Keywords: Black rice, Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, Diabetes, Dragon eyeball 100, Insulin resistance, Oryza sativa
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Health benets of black rice Areview
Balasubramaniam Jaya Prasad
a,
, Pazhaniyandi Subramania Sharavanan
b
, Rengaraj Sivaraj
c
a
Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002, India
b
Department of Botany, Govt Arts College, Mannargudi 614001, India
c
Department of Pharmacology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002, India
ABSTRACTARTICLE INFO
Article history:
Received 12 May 2019
Received in revised form 21 September 2019
Accepted 29 September 2019
Rice has been a staple food across the globe since time immemorial. Generally, different types of rice, such as white,
purple, red, brown, and black rice, are named following the physical appearance of the rice bran. The color of the
rice bran differs due to the presence of pigments in the rice varieties. Apart from general uses like cooking and fodder
for cattle, rice has also been extensively involved in the eld of medicine, some of which have been scientically ad-
dressed. Although pigmented rice varieties have a history of heritage and are admired all over the world, awareness
concerning the benets of consuming these types of rice is limited. The main theme of this research article is to dene
the scientically proven medicinal properties of black rice. The health properties of black rice are experimentally re-
nowned, and gathered empirical data regarding the physiological and pharmacological activity of black rice remark-
ably supports the use of black rice in nutritional therapy.
Keywords:
Black rice
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside
Diabetes
Dragon eyeball 100
Insulin resistance
Oryza sativa
1. Introduction
Before the green revolution, pigmented rice varieties were in use as a
potential food source by the common people of India and in almost all
rice eating parts of the world. These rice varieties contain more amounts
of micro-, macro- nutrients and secondary metabolites. They are named
after the pigments present in the rice bran. Many pigmented gluey rice va-
rieties were used in the manufacture of commercial healthy food supple-
ments, due to its high secondary metabolite contents and high
antioxidant activity [1]. Owing to h igher nutritive con tent and metabolite s,
dieticians strongly advise pigmented rice for peoples with metabolic disor-
ders including diabetics [2]. Black rice comprises numerous rice varieties
with an extensive historical background on cultivation in Southeast Asian
countries such as China, India, and Thailand [3]. China and India are the
major producers of black rice, followed by Thailand, Bangladesh, Vietnam,
and Indonesia (Table 1). Anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) turns the
color of the rice to black color and, hence it is called black rice [4,5]. The
rice kernel bran layer has a towering intensity of pharmacological com-
pounds such as γ-oryzanol, anthocyanins, phenolic, and avonoid com-
pounds. Many studies have shown that these compounds are able to
improve the lipid proles, are anti-inammatory, anticancerous [6]andre-
duce oxidative stress [7], may help to ght heart disease, and prevent dia-
betes [8]. Black rice is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of
various diseases such as diabetes, cancer, lipid disorders, and gastrointesti-
nal diseases according to the folklore medicine of India.
2. Amino acids in black rice and their role in physiological action
Nitrogen contributes the necessary safeguards for life and this is
donated by amino acids [9]. A deciency of amino acids in the diet
Grain & Oil Science and Technology 2 (2019) 109113
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: jaya.prasad46@yahoo.in. (B.J. Prasad).
Table 1
Top ten rice producing countries in the world according to the Economic Research
Service, United States Department of Agriculture 2017/2018.
S. No. Country Rice production (in million metric tons)
1 China 148.87
2 India 112.91
3 Indonesia 37.01
4 Bangladesh 32.65
5 Vietnam 28.47
6 Thailand 20.37
7 Burma 13.21
8 Philippines 12.24
9 Brazil 8.21
10 Japan 7.79
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaost.2019.09.005
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results in decreased production of protein and then leads to nutritional
imbalance. It is necessary to nd the amino acids content of food for bet-
ter health [10]. Moreover, rapamycin complex 1 pathway is directly re-
lated to the growth of bone, muscles, internal organs, immune factors,
and the energy balance of a person and it is gracefully responsive to
amino acid accessibility. An imbalance of amino acid results in stunted
growth [11]. Amino acids have a chief responsibility of adapting numer-
ous functions connected to gene expression, which includes modulation
of the physiology of the proteins that intervene and messenger RNA
(mRNA) conversion [12].
Black rice contains superior protein and essential amino acids com-
pared with ordinary rice [13]. Amino acid and the mineral content of
black rice (Dragon eyeball 100, Heukjinjubyeo, Heukgwangbyeo,
Heuknambyeo, and Josaengheukchal) and white rice (Hwayoungbyeo).
Comparatively, high amino acid contents (ng /mg of rice) were
found in Heuknambyeo (black rice variety), in which alanine (53.45
± 0.34), arginine (55.76 ± 0.30), asparagine (242.89 ± 0.16),
aspartic acid (107.53 ± 0.14), glutamine (14.90 ± 0.09), glutamic
acid (193.81 ± 0.09), glycine (21.72 ± 0.03), histidine (16.29 ±
0.01), isoleucine (5.27 ± 0.01), leucine (5.72 ± 0.01), lysine (10.39
± 0.03), methionine (6.70 ± 0.00), phenylalanine (6.97 ± 0.00),
proline (28.57 ± 0.07), serine (29.27 ± 0.07), threonine (11.61 ±
0.07), tyrosine (11.72 ± 0.01), and valine content was found to
be (15.79 ± 0.02), whereas cysteine and tryptophan were found
to be absent. Among these asparagines, aspartic acid and glutamic
acid were found to be high when compared with other amino
acids [14].
Amino acids play a vital role in body development via protein
metabolism. Excess amino acids are converted into ammonia by the re-
movaloftheaminegroupintheliver.Theyplayakeyroleinanindivid-
ual's diet in modifying risk to pre-diabetes [15]. The organic acids are
changed to glucose (gluconeogenesis) or are used directly in metabolism.
However, glutamate is deaminated in the kidneys [16]. Asparagine syn-
thetase makes the amino acid asparagine, which is needed to make pro-
teins in the cells. Drugs that alter the availability of asparagine in the
body might also be useful to treat sarcomas with mutant forms of Ras
[17]. By silencing the activity of asparagine synthetase, amidotransferase
suppress the tumor growth in a molecular genomic sequencing screen of
rat tumor cells generated by oncogenic Kras and interruption of Cdkn2a
[18]. Asparagine-linked glycosylation has appeared to be indispensable in
controlling the enzymatic modication of protein to the channels con-
nected to the plasma membrane functioning properties [19]. Aspartic
acid stimulates the production of Streptomyces platensis, which in turn pro-
duces antibiotics [20].
3. Phyto-chemical proles of black rice
Phytochemical proling of methanolic crude extract of black rice
bran powder consists of glycoside, steroid, phenol, protein, carbohy-
drate, tannin, phlobatannin, terpenoid, alkaloid, and avonoid [21].
Anthocyanin pigment is the major content of black rice [22]. Previ-
ously,manyresearchershavefoundthefreeradicalquenchingability
of black rice using in vitro and in vivo models [23,24]. Fig. 1 illustrates
that phenolic and avonoid compounds such as cyanidin-3-glucoside,
which is responsible for the black color of the rice, malvidin 3 gluco-
side, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, γ-aminobutyric acid, peonidin 3 gluco-
side, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, and petunidin-3-glucoside were
found to be higher in black rice than in the normal rice varieties
[2528]. Moreover, cyanidin-3-glucoside constitutes 80% of the
total anthocyanin content of black rice [29].
4. Scientically proven health benets of black rice
There are many other terrestrial and marine medicinal plants
pharmacological activities are also reported previously by many re-
searchers [3034]. But this article is in the review of black rice, we
havefocusedonlyonthescientically proven pharmacological activ-
ities of black rice. Black rice has been proven scientically for its var-
ious pharmacological activities. Research has also conrmed the
antioxidant activity [3541], antitumor [42], anti-inammatory
[43], antiproliferative [44], anticancer [44,45], anti-diabetes and
hyperlipidemia [4648], and anti-atherosclerosis activity [49,50]
of black rice, the cholesterol and lipid metabolism [51], and the ty-
rosinase inhibitor activity [52]. All this may be due to the presence
of the secondary metabolites present in it. α-Glucosidase and α-amy-
lase are the key enzymes directly linked to the postprandial glucose
level and the anthocynanin isolated from the black rice inhibits the
aforesaid enzyme levels; thus, it could be used in the management
of diabetes [53,54]. Germinated black rice possesses stronger antidi-
abetic and antioxidant activity than the normal black rice extract
[55].
Black rice extract reduces the glycemic index more than wheat
our, and reduces the level of α-glucosidase more than the standard
drug acarbase [56]. Cyanidin-3-glucoside content present in the
Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract also possessed strong antioxidant and
antidiabetic activity [57]. Fig. 2 represents mechanism of action of
cyanidin-3-O-glucoside ameliorates palmitate-induced insulin resis-
tance. Cyanidin-3-glucoside prociently ameliorates oxidative dam-
age, inammation, metabolic dysfunctions, apoptosis pathways,
and controls diabetic cardiomyopathy. From these, it can be con-
cluded that cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin compound, is ca-
pable of controlling diabetes [58]. Intestinal epithelium actively
contributes to the mucosal immune system. TNF-αand interferon
are the inammatory causing agents in the intestine [59]. The
movement of leukocytes in the inamed region of the intestine cre-
ates an unbalanced response to the microorganisms and causes
chronic inammatory bowel disease [60]. Anthocyanins present in
the natural form can reach the colon of the intestine and it could
be the appropriate candidates for nutritional therapy for the gastro-
intestinal tract disorders [61]. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside modulates
the inammation that appears in the intestinal cell lines and, thus,
itcouldbeeffectiveinthemanagement of chronic gut inammatory
diseases [62].
Skin cancer is found to be more common in the developed coun-
tries; ultraviolet radiation (UV) disrupts the immune mechanism and
promotes skin carcinogenesis. UV radiation causes inammation to
the surface, which in turn mediates the phosphorylation of protein ki-
nases [63] and damages the DNA level [64] by the increased produc-
tion of reactive oxygen species in the form of cyclobutane
pyrimidine dimmers [65]. External application of cyanidin-3-O-glu-
coside inhibits the UV-caused epidermal thickening and decreases
the mRNA and protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen
andcyclinbyregulatingUV-inducedinammation-mediated signal-
ing pathways such as phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-related
protein kinases, stress-activated protein kinases [66]. Anthocyanins
immersed in the intestine might be distorted as phenolic acids via
gut microbial ring cleavage, dehydroxylation, and methylation reac-
tions [67]. These phenolic acids have been proven to motivate the
growth of beneciary bacteria and restrain the production of harmful
bacteria [68]. Bidobacteria and lactobacilli are the intestinal bacte-
ria that are beneciary to humans and animals; they are proven
probiotics [69].Anthocyaninisolatedfrompurplesweetpotatoin-
duces the growth of the beneciary bacteria present in the human in-
testine [70]. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside connects with β-glucoside and
provides energy to the bacteria and results in the enhanced growth-
like prebiotic activity [71]. Anthocyanins are the chemical com-
pounds that can reach the brain [72] within 10 min as soon as it
reaches the stomach [73] and gets accumulated in the cerebellum,
cortex, hippocampus, and striatum [74]andintheratbrain[75].
Cyanidin-3-glucoside enhances exercise performance by up-regulat-
ing the skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-
gamma co-activator [76].
B.J. Prasad et al. Grain & Oil Science and Technology 2 (2019) 109113
110
5. Conclusion
Black rice is one of the traditional rice varieties which have been used in
most of the Southeast Asian countries. It consists of a variety of micro and
macro nutrients, amino acids, phytochemicals, and secondary metabolites.
A number of scientic studies have discussed about the anthocyanin con-
tent and its derivatives cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Black rice possesses various
pharmacological properties and, moreover, the amino acid in it gives com-
plete nourishment. Awareness among the public toward consuming black
rice will give way for a healthier life.
Declaration of competing interest
Authors declare that they do not have any conict of interest.
Acknowledgement
Author Balasubramaniam Jaya Prasad would like to thank Department
of Science and Technology, Government of India, for providing INSPIRE
Fellowship and authorities of Annamalai University for providing necessary
support.
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside Malvidin-3-glucoside
Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside Peonidin-3-glucoside
Cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside Petunidin-3-glucoside
-Amino butyric acid
Fig. 1. Major bioactive compounds in black rich which are have number of health benets to humans.
B.J. Prasad et al. Grain & Oil Science and Technology 2 (2019) 109113
111
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... Black rice contains essential amino acids like lysine, tryptophan, functional lipids, dietary fibre, vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin E, folic acid and phenolic compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols). Prasad et al. (2019) reported that the health properties of black rice are scientifically proven and the use of black rice in nutritional therapy is supported by the empirical data in respect of its physiological and pharmacological activity. One-fourth cup uncooked black rice contains approximately (in daily recommended values) 160 kcal energy, 1.5 g of fat, 34 g of carbohydrate, 2 g of fiber, 7.5 g of protein, no saturated fat and cholesterol (Kushwaha, 2016). ...
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Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) contain bioactive compounds i.e. anthocyanins and flavonoids which have potential to fortify ice cream as a functional food. The main objective of this study was to develop sugar free and antioxidant rich ice cream by addition of black rice flour. Based on the preliminary trials, black rice flour (BRF) was incorporated at 8, 10, 12 and 14 per cent during homogenization. Addition of more than 14 per cent black rice flour in ice-cream imparts increased hardness and viscosity. Based on sensory evaluation, ice cream prepared with 12 per cent black rice flour was accepted as optimized with highest values of acceptance for colour, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The physico-chemical composition of optimized ice cream observed were 10.52 ± 0.02 % fat, 3.90 ± 0.12 % protein, 36.70 ± 0.02 % total solids, 72.56 ± 0.49 % overrun, 68.43 ± 4.21 (mg/GAE) total phenolic content and 40.21 ± 2.23 % DPPH.
... Oxidative stress has been involved in the pathology of a wide range of chronic diseases. Regular consumption of black rice can significantly decrease the risk of chronic diseases for the possession of many natural antioxidants, such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids (Prasad, Sharavanan, & Sivaraj, 2019). A single method for measuring antioxidant activity cannot adequately reflect all antioxidant activities in a complex redox system. ...
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Phytochemicals are unevenly distributed in grain kernels and concentrated in bran fractions. However, their specific distribution in the grain bran, especially colored grains, is not clarified. This study divided rice bran from black rice into five fractions by stepwise milling to obtain BF1(outermost layer) to BF5 (the innermost layer). Each fraction accounted for approximately 2% of the whole kernel. The total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), and anthocyanins (TAC) of five fractions significantly decreased from BF1 to BF5. The TPC, TFC and TAC of BF1 contribute 25.7%, 28.2%, 28.4% to the total of five fractions, respectively. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of most anthocyanin and phenolic acids compounds decreased from BF1 to BF5. Together with α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of BF1, the antioxidant activity was higher than those of other fractions. These results can guide the moderate processing of black rice and the utilization of its bran.
... Black rice has enormous uses as dietary supplement and is reported to treat or prevent many diseases such as diabetes, lipid disorders, cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. The health properties of black rice are scientifically proven, and the use of black rice in nutritional therapy is supported by the empirical data in respect of its physiological and pharmacological activity (Prasad et al., 2019). In addition, cultivation of black rice creates good employment opportunities to the farmers or producers. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the nutritional composition, phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of black rice such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds and their health benefits. Black rice has also been used in medicine and for curing diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Green technologies such as microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and pulse electric field assisted extraction are very useful for the extraction of bioactive compounds as these reduce the use of energy and are environmental friendly. Black rice in different forms can be incorporated in various food products such as bakery, dairy and meat products. Design/methodology/approach Information and data were collected from different sources such as Google Scholar, Research Gate, online journals available at Banaras Hindu University library, Web of Science and Scopus. A database of more than 80 scientific sources from different sources was made as per the headings and subheadings of the paper. Findings Black rice is a type of rice species (Oryza sativa L.) and very good source of various nutrients and one of the nutritious varieties of rice. It is a good reservoir of essential amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, minerals including iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc and selenium; vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and folic acid. Various recent methods of extraction of bioactive compounds from black rice are suggested. Originality/value Researchers and scientists have considered black rice as a “Super Food” because of its nutritional profile. Black rice has antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anticancer activity, antihyperlipidemia and antihyperglycemia and anti-allergic activity. There is a need to create awareness among the consumers about its nutritional profile and therapeutic properties.
... Although pigmented rice varieties, such as black rice, have a history of heritage and are admired all over the world, awareness concerning the benefits of consuming these types of rice is limited ( Prasad et al., 2019 ). Owing to its limited consumption compared to normal rice, black rice can be categorised as an underutilized crop ( Jha et al., 2017 ). ...
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Chakhao, the Geographical Indication (GI) tagged aromatic black rice of Manipur, India, is a rich source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. However, there is limited work available on Chakhao and research has focused on its grain. No reports on the anthocyanin, antioxidant properties or in vitro bioactivities of its straw are available. Anthocyanins content of its different fractions displayed a positive correlation with their antioxidant potentials (r = 0.90). In this study, microwave-assisted sub-critical water extraction, at 90°C for 5 min, from the straw gave an anthocyanins extraction efficiency of 85.8%. Furthermore, this microwave extract displayed higher antioxidant activity than an equivalent conventional methanol extract. In vitro studies on the microwave extracts of both straw and bran showed no apparent cytotoxicity on Jurkat cells and dose-dependent inhibition of colony growth in colorectal cancer cells. Black rice bran and straw are valuable by-products of the food industry that are rich in phytochemicals. This study reports the extraction of anthocyanins from black rice straw and presents evidence that the straw, in addition to the bran, contains important bioactive compounds; the extracts of which could further be explored as a natural antioxidant and/or functional ingredients.
... Pigmented rice contains Philippine rice wine (Tapuy) made from Ballatinao black rice and traditional starter culture (Bubod) showed high alcohol content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins which have antioxidant (Rattanachitthawat et al., 2010), anti-inflammatory (Wang et al., 2007), cardioprotective and antiatherogenic activities (Ling et al., 2001). Pigmented rice was historically cultivated in Southeast Asian countries, however, China and India, including Thailand, are now the major producers of pigmented rice (Kong et al., 2008;Prasad et al., 2019). In the Philippines, Ballatinao is a glutinous black rice variety found in the northern regions of the country. ...
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... Black rice contains higher levels of protein and essential amino acids than regular rice. Cyanidin-3-glucoside accounts for 80% of the total anthocyanin content in black rice [3]. The nutritional, physico-chemical and culinary properties of four varieties of basmati rice: red basmati, white basmati, black basmati and pokhareli basmati from Nepal were studied. ...
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... Black rice has been proven scientifically for its various pharmacological activities. Research has also confirmed the antioxidant activity, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anticancer, anti-diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and anti-atherosclerosis activity of black rice, the cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and the tyrosinase inhibitor activity (Prasad et al., 2019;Liu et al. 2020). Moreover, the US Food and Drug Administration has recognized black rice as a healthy whole grain capable of decreasing the risk of certain diseases. ...
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Hom Nil (Oryza sativa), a Thai black rice, contains polyphenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of Hom Nil rice flour (HN) and its application in gluten free bread by using Hom Mali 105 rice flour (HM) as the reference. The results demonstrated that HN flour had significantly higher average particle sizes (150 ± 0.58 μm), whereas the content of amylose (17.6 ± 0.2%) was lower than HM flour (particle sizes = 140 ± 0.58 μm; amylose content = 21.3 ± 0.6%). Furthermore, HN contained higher total phenolic compounds (TPC) (2.68 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g flour), total anthocyanins (293 ± 30 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g flour), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (73.5 ± 1.5 mM FeSO4/g) than HM flour (TPC = 0.15 mg GAE/g flour and FRAP = 2.24 mM FeSO4/g flour). In thermal properties, the onset temperature (To), the peak temperature (Tp) and the conclusion (Tc) temperature of HN flour were similar to the values of HM flour. However, HN flour had lower enthalpy change (ΔH) than HM flour. The results showed that HN flour had lower swelling power and higher solubility than HM flour at the temperature between 55 °C and 95 °C. In pasting properties, HN flour also showed lower peak, trough and breakdown viscosity than HM flour. In addition, the bread samples prepared by HN flour had higher value of hardness and lower value of cohesiveness than the bread prepared from HM flour. Taken together, the findings suggest that HN flour could be used as an alternative gluten-free ingredient for bread product.
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Diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is a systemic, metabolic bone disease, characterized by bone mineral density (BMD) reduction and bone microarchitectural deterioration. Although anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (AEBR) was reported having benefit effect on diabetic rats, no studies on the effect of AEBR administration on diabetic bone loss have been performed. So in this study, we established a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model to investigate the protective effects of AEBR on diabetes-induced osteoporosis and its possible mechanism. AEBR at three doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/d) were administered by oral gavage to diabetic rats for 8 weeks. The blood glucose, BMD, bone histomorphometry parameters, serum bone turnover biomarkers, bone marrow adipogenesis, as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX 2) protein expression were detected. Results indicated that AEBR dose-dependently decreased blood glucose, increased BMD, decreased serum bone turnover markers. Meanwhile, the bone histomorphometry parameters, the number of osteoclasts per bone perimeter were turned to be normal in hige AEBR dosage group, at the same time, the AEBR dose-dependently suppressed bone marrow adipogenesis. The RUNX 2, as well as the OPG/RANKL ratio in serum and bone tissues were increased significantly after AEBR treatment. All of the above indicating that oral administration of AEBR can prevent osteoporosis caused by diabetes, it is mainly related to its inhibition of bone turnover, inhibition of bone marrow adipogenesis, up-regulation of bone RUNX-2 and OPG/RANKL expression ratio.
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This study aimed to examine the anti-diabetic effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, GWBR supplementation for 8 weeks reduced plasma blood glucose concentrations, improved glucose clearance and prevented diabetes-induced weight loss. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes who received GWBR supplementation exhibited decreased expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 genes and proteins in the small intestine via decreases in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, HNF-1β, and HNF-4α, transcriptional factors that are involved in the regulation of SGLT1 and GLUT2, compared with the rats with STZ-induced diabetes that did not receive GWBR supplements. GWBR supplementation also enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and the genes and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, such as insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and increased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) proteins in skeletal muscle. GWBR further increased glycogen synthase (GS) 1 by decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, GWBR recovered STZ-impaired pancreatic β-cells, resulting in increased insulin synthesis and secretion. In addition, GWBR reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate transferase and alanine transferase concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Taken together, these findings suggest that GWBR could be a candidate for improving the diabetic condition by regulating glucose uptake in the intestine and muscle and regulating the secretion of insulin from the pancreas.
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