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Trends of Goal Scoring Patterns in Soccer: A Retrospective Analysis of Five Successive FIFA World Cup Tournaments

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This study analysed the 795 goals scored during a total of 320 matches played in five successive FIFA World Cup tournaments (1998–2014). Data were obtained through YouTube videos and analysed by means of Longomatch software. The variables analysed included the number of goals scored per half (45‐min period), per 15‐min period, and per 30‐min period of extra time, goal scoring zones, goals scored by substitutes, types of goals scored, and goals scored according to the playing position. With regard to 15‐min period analysis, most goals were scored between the 76th and 90th minutes (24.7%) of the game in all five World Cup competitions. Chi‐square analyses showed no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the frequency of goal scoring patterns per 45‐min and 15‐min periods in the five World Cup tournaments. Most goals were scored from inside the goal (23.8%) and penalty (14.6%) areas. The greatest number of goals was scored by strikers (54.2%), followed by midfielders (33.3%) and defenders (2.3%). These findings provide practical implications for improving goal‐scoring performance in soccer.
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JournalofHumanKineticsvolume69/2019,231238DOI:10.2478/hukin20190015231
SectionIIISportsTraining
1‐DepartmentofSport,RehabilitationandDentalSciences,TshwaneUniversityofTechnology,SouthAfrica.
Authorssubmittedtheircontributiontothearticletotheeditorialboard.
AcceptedforprintingintheJournalofHumanKineticsvol.69/2019inSeptember2019.
TrendsofGoalScoringPatternsinSoccer:ARetrospective
AnalysisofFiveSuccessiveFIFAWorldCupTournaments
by
AllianceKubayi1,AbelToriola1
Thisstudyanalysedthe795goalsscoredduringatotalof320matchesplayedinfivesuccessiveFIFAWorld
Cuptournaments(1998–2014).DatawereobtainedthroughYouTubevideosandanalysedbymeansofLongomatch
software.Thevariablesanalysedincludedthenumberofgoalsscoredperhalf(45minperiod),per15minperiod,andper
30minperiodofextratime,goalscoringzones,goalsscoredbysubstitutes,typesofgoalsscored,andgoalsscored
accordingtotheplayingposition.Withregardto15minperiodanalysis,mostgoalswerescoredbetweenthe76thand
90thminutes(24.7%)ofthegameinallfiveWorldCupcompetitions.Chisquareanalysesshowednosignificant(p>
0.05)differencesinthefrequencyofgoalscoringpatternsper45minand15minperiodsinthefiveWorldCup
tournaments.Mostgoalswerescoredfrominsidethegoal(23.8%)andpenalty(14.6%)areas.Thegreatestnumberof
goalswasscoredbystrikers(54.2%),followedbymidfielders(33.3%)anddefenders(2.3%).Thesefindingsprovide
practicalimplicationsforimprovinggoalscoringperformanceinsoccer.
Keywords:soccer,tactics,videoanalysis,goals,performance.
Introduction
Soccerisundoubtedlytheworld’smost
popularsport,playedbymorethan240million
peopleasmembersof1.4millionteams(Acaretal.,
2009).Itwasreportedthatthe2014FIFAWorld
CupinBrazilattractedaglobaltelevisionaudience
of3.2billionpeople,withmorethanonebillion
peoplewatchingthefinal(FIFA,2015).Ofcourse,
thesoccerWorldCupprovidesanopportunityto
observethebestteamsandplayersintheworld.In
additiontotheanthropometric,psychological,and
physiologicalresearch,performanceanalysis
amongsoccerplayersintermsoftechniquesand
tacticshasbecomepopular(Acaretal.,2009;
Castellanoetal.,2012;Clementeetal.,2015;Moura,
etal.,2015;Smpokosetal.2018).
Regardlessofthepopularityassociated
withthesport,alownumberofgoalsscored
duringamatchisoneofthefeaturesofmodern
soccer(Phukanetal.,2015;Kalinowskietal.,2019).
Thistrendisstrikingconsideringthefactthatgoal
scoringprovidesthemostexcitingandfascinating
positiveexperienceforsoccerfansaswellas
coachesandanalysts.Therefore,itisessentialthat
soccercoachesandtechnicalstaffpaymore
attentiontogoalscoringpatternsassuch
informationcanbehelpfulindevisingstrategies
thatcouldmaximiseteamsuccess.Despitea
plethoraofstudiesontheanalysisofgoalsscored
insoccer(e.g.,Acaretal.,2009;Njororai,2013;
Phukanetal.,2015;YiannakosandArmatas,2006),
mostpreviousresearchhasbeenlimitedtoone
tournament,eitheratthenationalorinternational
level.Indeed,thereisadearthofresearch
concerningthegoalscoringtrendsintheFIFA
WorldCup.
Todate,onlyonestudycouldbefound,
whichwasconductedbyArmatasetal.(2007)and
focussedontherelationshipbetweentimeandgoal
scoringinthe1998,2002,and2006FIFAWorld
Cups.Theresultsindicatedthatmostgoalswere
scoredinthesecondhalfofthegameinallthree
WorldCuptournaments.Withregardto15min
analysis,itwasfoundthatmostgoalswerescored
betweenthe76thand90thminofthegame,andthe
highestnumberofgoalswasrecordedtowardsthe
232 Trendsofgoalscoringpatternsinsoccer
JournalofHumanKinetics‐volume69/2019http://www.johk.pl
endofmatches(Armatasetal.,2007).Althoughthe
studybyArmatasetal.(2007)hasprovided
baselineinformationwithreferencetothegoal
scoringpatternsfromaninternationalperspective,
itisnotwithoutlimitations,withthemostnotable
beingtherestrictiontogoalscoringfrequency(i.e.,
goalsscoredper45minand15minperiods).Asa
result,theirstudydidnotprovideacomplete
pictureofthegoalscoringpatternsatFIFAWorld
Cupcompetitions.
Therefore,thisstudyseeksto
retrospectivelyanalysethegoalscoringpatterns
andtrendsinthelastfivesuccessiveFIFAWorld
Cuptournaments(1998–2014).Specifically,the
objectivesofthestudyweretoexaminethe
frequencyofgoalsscored,goalscoringzones,the
numberofgoalsscoredbysubstitutes,typesof
goalsscored(setplayoropenplay),andgoals
scoredaccordingtotheplayingposition.AsAbtet
al.(2002)argued,analysisofgoalscoringpatterns
couldprovidehelpfulinformationtobothcoaches
andsportsscientists,astherelationshipbetween
goalscoringandtimewouldappeartobelinkedto
thoseaspectsofplaywhichinherentlychangeasa
matchprogresses,suchasphysicalconditioning
andtacticalplay.
Methods
Followinginstitutionalethicsapproval,64
matchesfromeachofthefivesuccessiveFIFA
WorldCups(1998France,2002Korea/Japan,
2006Germany,2010SouthAfrica,and2014
Brazil)werestudied(N=320matches).TheFIFA
WorldCuptournamentwasselectedbecauseit
involvedtheparticipationoftopinternational
teamsfromallovertheworld(Armatasetal.,
2007).DatawereobtainedthroughYouTube
videos,whichwasasimilardatacollection
proceduretothatusedinpreviousresearchon
soccer(Furleyetal.,2017).Thematcheswere
analysedbytheprincipalresearcherusing
Longomatchsoftwareinwhichallactionswere
recordedonanelectronicsheet.
Thevariablesanalysedincludedthe
frequencyofgoalsscoredperhalf(firsthalf,
secondhalf,extratime),15minperiod(1–15,16–
30,31–45,45–60,61–75,76–90),and30minperiod
ofextratime(91–105,105–120),goalscoringzones
(penalties,insidethegoalarea,insidethepenalty
area,outsidethepenaltyarea),thenumberofgoals
scoredbysubstitutes,typesofgoalsscored(open
playorsetplay),andthenumberofgoalsscored
accordingtotheplayingposition(defender,
midfielder,striker).Foreaseofanalysis,allthe
goalsscoredatthefivesuccessiveFIFAWorldCup
tournamentsweretalliedandcombined.
Thereafter,allvariableswereenteredintoa
MicrosoftExcel®spreadsheet,importedinto
StatisticalPackageforSocialSciences(SPSS)
softwareandanalyseddescriptively(frequencies
andpercentages).AChisquaretestwasusedto
examinesignificantdifferencesinthefrequencyof
goalsscored.Thelevelofsignificancewassetatp
≤0.05.
Results
Atotalof795goalswerescoredin320
matchesplayedinthelastfivesuccessiveFIFA
WorldCups.Mostgoalswerescoredatthe1998
(anaverageof2.67permatch)and2014(an
averageof2.67permatch)WorldCup
tournaments,whiletheleastwererecordedduring
the2006(anaverageof2.30permatch)and2010
(anaverageof2.27permatch)competitions(Table
1).
Withregardto15minperiodanalysis,
mostgoalswerescoredduringthe76th–90thmin
(24.7%)periodofthegameinallfiveWorldCups.
Thelowestnumberofgoalswasobservedbetween
the16thand30thminutesofthematchesinthe1998
(11.1%)and2002(11.8%)tournaments,andalsoin
thefirst15minutesofthematchesinthe2006
(15.6%),2010(9.7%),and2014(10.5%)
tournaments.Chisquareanalysesshowedno
significant(p>0.05)differencesinthefrequencyof
goalscoringpatternsper15minperiodinthefive
WorldCups.Despitethisnonsignificant
difference,thefrequencyofgoalscoringwastime
dependent,andgoalswerescoredastime
progressed(Figure1).
Table2showszonesfromwhichgoals
werescoredduringtheWorldCupevents.Overall,
inallthecompetitions,fewgoalswerescoredfrom
penalties(8.0%)andfromoutsidethepenaltyarea
(14.6%),whilemostgoalswerescoredfrominside
thegoal(23.8%)andpenalty(53.6%)areas.
Figure2illustratesthepatternsofgoals
scoredbysubstitutesinthefiveWorldCup
competitions.Theresultsshowedthatsubstitutes
scoredmoregoalsin2006(15.6%)and2014(18.7%)
thanin1998(8.8%)and2002(13.0%).
Figure3illustratesthetypesofgoals
byAllianceKubayiandAbelToriola233
©EditorialCommitteeofJournalofHumanKinetics
scored.Overall,mostgoalswerescoredfromopen
play,withthehighestnumberofgoalsrecordedin
2010(75.9%)and2014(77.8%).The1998(63.7%)
and2006(68.7%)WorldCupcompetitionshadthe
leastgoalsfromopenplay.
Mostsetplaygoalswerescoredin1998(36.3%)
and2006(31.3%),decliningto24.1%and22.2%in
2010and2014,respectively.
Table3presentsthedistributionofgoals
accordingtotheplayerposition.Asexpected,most
goalswerescoredbystrikers(54.2%),followedby
midfielders(33.3%)anddefenders(10.2%),inall
theWorldCups.
Table1
Goalscoringfrequency(FIFAWorldCuptournaments:1998–2014)
Timeinterval19982002 200620102014Total
01–1525±14.625±15.523±15.614±9.718±10.5105±13.2
16–30 19±11.119±11.8 24±16.323±15.925±14.6110±13.8
31–4526±15.225±15.523±15.622±15.222±12.9118±14.8
45–6031±18.128±17.419±12.922±15.224±14.0124±15.6
61–75 24±14.030±18.611±7.527±18.633±19.3125±15.7
76–9045±26.331±19.344±29.935±24.141±24.0196±24.7
Extratime  
91–10500±0.002±1.201±0.701±0.603±1.807±0.9
105–12001±0.601±0.602±1.401±0.605±2.910±1.3
Total 171±100161±100147±100145±100171±100795±100
Numberof
gamesplayed
6464646464320
Average 2.672.522.302.272.672.48
Valuesarereportedasfrequenciesandpercentages
Figure1
Goalscoringdistribution(FIFAWorldCuptournaments:1998–2014)
234 Trendsofgoalscoringpatternsinsoccer
JournalofHumanKinetics‐volume69/2019http://www.johk.pl
Table2
Goalscoringzones(FIFAWorldCuptournaments:1998–2014)
Timeinterval19982002 200620102014Total
Penalties 17±9.913±8.113±8.809±6.212±7.064±8.0
Outsidethepenalty
area
20±11.725±15.526±17.726±17.919±11.1116±14.6
Insidethegoalarea 41±24.039±24.235±23.831±21.443±25.2189±23.8
Insidethepenalty
area
93±54.484±52.273±49.779±54.597±56.7426±53.6
Valuesarereportedasfrequenciesandpercentages
Figure2
Numberofgoalsscoredbysubstitutes(FIFAWorldCuptournaments:1998–2014)
byAllianceKubayiandAbelToriola235
©EditorialCommitteeofJournalofHumanKinetics
Figure3
Typesofgoalsscored(FIFAWorldCuptournaments:1998–2014)
Table3
Analysesofgoalscoringaccordingtotheplayerposition(FIFAWorldCuptournaments:
1998–2014)
19982002 200620102014Total
Strikers93±54.488±54.779±53.777±53.194±55.0431±54.2
Midfielder59±34.553±32.947±32.050±34.556±32.7265±33.3
Defenders15±8.817±10.517±11.616±11.016±9.481±10.2
Owngoal04±2.303±1.904±2.702±1.405±2.918±2.3
Valuesarereportedasfrequenciesandpercentages
236 Trendsofgoalscoringpatternsinsoccer
JournalofHumanKinetics‐volume69/2019http://www.johk.pl
Discussion
Theaimofthisstudywasto
retrospectivelyanalysethetrendsofgoalscoring
patternsinfivesuccessiveFIFAWorldCup
tournaments.Overall,thisstudyfoundthatthe
goalscoringpatternsweretimedependent.Itwas
alsonotedthatthenumberofgoalsscored
increasedasagameprogressed,withthehighest
proportionofgoalsrecordedinthelast15minutes
ofthematch.Giventhatthesampleofthisstudy
comprisedfiveWorldCupcompetitions,the
presentfindingssupportthoseofprevious
research(Abtetal.,2002),whichreportedan
upwardtrendinthegoalscoringfrequencyover
thecourseofthegame.Mostgoalsbeingscoredin
thefinal15minperiodofthegamecouldbe
attributedtofactorssuchasdifferencesin
conditioninglevelsandlapsesofconcentration
amongplayers(Acaretal.,2009).This
phenomenoncouldbeexplainedbyplayerfatigue
towardstheendofthegame.Playerswhohave
betterphysicalconditioningareabletominimise
theeffectsoffatigue,especiallytowardstheendof
thegame,whentheytendtogainanadvantage
overtheiropponentswithinferiorconditioning
(Abtetal.,2002;Carlingetal.,2005).
Similarly,concedinggoalstowardsthe
endofthegamecouldbeassociatedwith‘mental
fatigue’amongplayersasaresultofcontinued
physicaleffort,whichcouldleadtotactical
mistakesandunforcederrorsthatopenupgoal
scoringopportunities(Carlingetal.,2005).Thelate
surgeingoalscoringmayalsobeattributedto
players’timeconsciousnessandurgencyinspiteof
thedeclineinphysicalcapabilities.Carlingetal.
(2005)furtherindicatedthatduetothefactthat
criticalincidentsincontestingballpossession
usuallyoccurredinthefinal15minutesofthe
game,goalscoringchancesweremorelikelyto
increase.Despitetheoccurrenceoffatigue,ateam
thatisphysically,mentally,tactically,and
technicallypreparedtoenduretheentire90
minutesofintensematchplayismorelikelytobe
aneffectiveandcohesiveunit(Carlingetal.,2005).
Strategiessuchasensuringadequate
hydrationpriortoandduringthematch,aswellas
dietarymanipulation,candelaytheeffectsof
fatigue(Abtetal.,2002).Carlingetal.(2005)
reiteratedthatplayerswithsoundnutritional
preparationformatchestendedtoshowamore
stableworkrateprofilethroughoutthegamethan
thosewhopreparedcasually.Additionally,the
mannerinwhichsubstitutesareutilisedbythe
coachplaysanimportantroleinpreventingthe
occurrenceoffatiguetowardstheendofthegame
(Abtetal.,2002).Thepresentstudyshowedthat
substituteplayersscoredmostgoalsduringthe
2014FIFAWorldCup.Theoverallworkrateof
substitutescouldalsoassistfatiguedplayers.For
example,intheirstudy,Mohretal.(2003)found
that13substitutescovered25%moredistance
duringthelastquarterofthegame,engagingin
morehighintensityrunningthantheother
players.
Resultsofthepresentstudyfurther
showedthatmostgoalswerescoredfromopen
play,withanoticeableincreasebetweenthe2006
and2014WorldCupcompetitions.Incontrast,the
numberofsetplaygoalsdecreasedconsiderably
betweenthe2006and2014WorldCups.Mostgoals
werescoredfrominsidethepenaltyarea.A
plausiblereasonforthisfindingcouldbethatitis
easiertoscoregoalsfromthislocation(Yanci,
2015).Anotherpossibleexplanationcouldbethat
theplayersprefertobenearthegoalpost,butnot
inthegoalkeeper’srangesothattheycanshootthe
ballwithlessdistraction(Muhammdetal.,2013).
Thefactthatfewergoalswerescoredfromoutside
thepenaltyareamaybeascribedtohighquality
goalkeepingandcompactdefencestructures.
Similarly,therelativelyfewgoalsscoredfrom
outsidethepenaltyareamaybeareflectionofthe
teams’abilitytodefendefficientlyandeffectively
intheirownareas(UEFA,2016).Itisnotsurprising
inthepresentstudythatmostgoalswerescoredby
strikers.However,theefficiencyofdefendersand
midfieldersinmovingforwardclosetothegoal
areaputspressureontheoppositionteamand
increaseschancesofgoalscoring(Acaretal.,2009).
Conclusion
Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthata
totalof795goalswerescoredduring320games,
withmostgoalsrecordedinthe1998and2014
FIFAWorldCuptournaments.Concerningthe15
minanalysis,mostgoalswererecordedbetween
the76thand90thminutesinallfiveWorldCup
competitions.Itwasfurtherfoundthatthehighest
proportionofgoalsemergedfrominsidethegoal
andpenaltyareas.Theresultsalsoshowedthat
mostgoalswerescoredbystrikers,followedby
midfieldersanddefenders,inalltheWorldCup
byAllianceKubayiandAbelToriola237
©EditorialCommitteeofJournalofHumanKinetics
tournaments.Soccercoachesshouldtakenoteof
thefindingsofthepresentstudyinorderto
increasegoalscoringopportunities.Future
researchshouldfocusoninvestigatingthe
offensivetacticsofgoalscoringpatternsinsoccer.
Practicalimplications
Basedonthefindingsofthisstudy,several
recommendationscanbemade.First,thisstudy
suggeststhatsoccercoachesshouldensurethat
playersaregivensufficientphysicalconditioning
toendurethefull90+minutesofthegame.Players
whoarephysicallypreparedare
likelytohavehigherlevelsofconcentration,which
willminimiseerrorssuchaspoormarking,
committingfouls,andsoforth.Second,strategies
suchasdietarymanipulationandadequate
hydrationbeforeandduringmatchesshouldbe
applied,astheymaydelaytheonsetoffatigue
throughoutthegame.Finally,itshouldbenoted
thatmatchanalysisshouldnotberegardedasan
endinitself,astheoutcomeofasoccermatchis
determinedbymultidimensionalfactorssuchas
fitnessandpsychologicalpreparation,among
others.However,itisimportantforsoccercoaches
toincludetheresultsofmatchanalysesaspartof
theirtrainingprogrammeinordertomaximisethe
overallsuccessoftheirteams.
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Correspondingauthor:
AllianceKubayi
TshwaneUniversityofTechnology
DepartmentofSport,RehabilitationandDentalSciences
RepublicofSouthAfrica
Pretoria0001
Phonenumber:+27123824272
Faxnumber:+27123825801
Email:kubayina@tut.ac.za
... Una ragione plausibile di questa differenza potrebbe essere dovuta al fatto che, verso il termine della partita, soprattutto nel caso di un torneo ad eliminazione diretta di livello internazionale, le squadre che inseguono il pareggio tendono ad avere un maggiore fretta di ottenere un risultato positivo che permetta loro di rimanere nella competizione, e a causa di ciò il portiere potrebbe venire coinvolto maggiormente nella manovra, in maniera non dissimile da quanto accade per altri ruoli coperti dai giocatori di movimento. 30,31 Di conseguenza, quando si sta cercando di raggiungere il pareggio, il portiere ha più probabilità di rappresentare un'opzione addizionale nella fase di costruzione del gioco e di generare eventualmente superiorità numerica allo scopo di aprire degli spazi e farsi largo all'interno della difesa avversaria. Pertanto, mentre la posizione in campo dei portieri non è stata specificamente contemplata da questo studio, le distanze più lunghe coperte durante la fase offensiva potrebbero essere il risultato della tendenza dei portieri a lasciare l'area di rigore e a spostarsi più in alto, verso il centrocampo, nel tentativo di venire coinvolti maggiormente nella manovra offensiva. ...
... A plausible reason for this difference could be that towards the end of a match, especially during an international knockout tournament, trailing teams tend to have a greater sense of urgency to get a positive result and stay in the competition, and therefore the GK may become more actively involved in the game play, similar to outfield players. 30,31 As a result, when trailing in a match the GK may be more likely to provide an additional option in the build-up play and cause an overload to identify space and penetrate the opposition. Therefore, while GKs' pitch location was not specifically measured in this study, the longer distances covered in attacking phases of play may be a result of GKs tending to leave the penalty area and moving further up the pitch in order to become more involved with attacking phases of play. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse match performance of goalkeepers (GKs) during the 2019 COPA America soccer championship. METHODS: A total of 28 match observations were analyzed using the InStat ® tracking system. Descriptive statistics (i.e., means and standard deviations), effect size (ES) and an independent t-test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Results indicated that GKs covered a mean total distance of 4675 m (minimum =3262 m; maximum =6181 m) per match. GKs of teams that won significantly had higher averages than GKs of teams that lost on the following technical variables: shots saved (%) (85.48±21.59; P=0.001; ES=1.42) and hand passes (%) (100±1.00; P=0.04; ES=0.82). In contrast, GKs of teams that lost significantly had higher averages on opponent's shots (11.79±4.00; P=0.03; ES=0.85) and passes (24.71±6.68; P=0.05; ES=0.77) than those of teams that won. CONCLUSIONS: The present observations have practical implications for designing training programs and in-game tactics for GKs.
... Moreover, HSR and sprinting distances were also found to reduce towards the end of the game and temporarily after intense periods [ 1 , 9 ] . In particular, these periods coincide with the last 10-15 min of each half when higher frequency of goals are scored during a match [ 10 ] . On an individual level, the ability to repeatedly cope with the high-intensity demands of the match and to eff ectively execute their tactical role may ultimately represent an asset to gain advantages in attacking and defensive situations over the opponents [ 11 ] . ...
... Playing rules, playing area, number of players, players' density, inclusion or exclusion of goalkeepers and exercise:rest ratios are all key aspects to consider with the aim to induce specifi c locomotor demands and associated physiological responses [ 32 -35 ] . In this context, effi cient development and maintenance of HSR and sprinting capabilities can be attained by implementing the following game formats and associated designs: a) 1 vs. 1 or 2 vs. 2 formats with mini goals (1.5 × 2 m) played in either long-narrow or long-wide pitches with a low player density ranging between 200-300 m 2 per player; b) Repetitive bouts (4-8 games) of relative short duration (30-60") and recovery (60-150") to ensure an exercise:rest ratio ranging between 1:2 and 1:5; c) Medium (7 vs. 7 and 8 vs. 8) and large-sided games (10 vs. 10) of longer duration (> 4 min) played on pitches with a player density around 300 m 2 per player allow to cover similar HSR distanced covered in a match. ...
... Birçok çalışma müsabakalardaki gollerin zamanını farklı açılardan incelemiştir (Gürkan vd., 2017;Njororai, 2014;Çobanoğlu & Terekli, 2018;Armatas vd., 2007;Evangelos vd., 2018;Göral & Saygın, 2012;2014;Kubayi & Toriola, 2019;Muhamad vd., 2013;Göral, 2016;Plummer, 2013;Njororai, 2013;Vergonis vd., 2019;Tousios vd., 2018;Çobanoğlu, 2019;Göral, 2015;Başkaya & Şentürk, 2017;Çebi vd., 2016). Farklı zaman aralıklarında atılan ve yenilen gollerin, takımların lig performansına etkisi farklı açılardan değerlendirilmiştir. ...
... Gürkan vd. (2017: 143) Kubayi & Toriola (2019: 233) 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010 ve 2014 yılında organize edilen FIFA Dünya Kupası organizasyonlarında oynanan müsabakalarda, farklı zaman dilimlerinde atılan golleri analiz ettikleri çalışmalarında, tüm organizasyonlarda en fazla sayıda golün müsabakaların son bölümünde (76-90 dk. aralığında) atıldığını (196 gol, toplam atılan gol sayısının % 24,7'si) ortaya koymuşlardır. ...
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The soccer teams use effectively match analysis for increase match performance. The goal analysis may provide important informations about teams in the context of match analysis. The aim of this study was considered of analysis relationship between league performance and goal time of teams in 2018-2019 soccer season of Turkey Super League. In 2018-2019 soccer season, the time of goals scored and conceded in total 306 matches of 18 team at Turkey Super League was obtained from match records at official web page of Turkish Football Federation. The teams were categorized to three groups according to ranking at end of league (1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 ranking), number of won (16-20, 11-15 and 6-10 match) and lost match (5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 match). The intergroup comparisons of goals scored and conceded at different time intervals of matches were performed by the one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The relationship between number of the total goals scored and conceded in all, home and away matches and the number of goals scored and conceded in different time intervals was analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The results revealed that the number of goals scoring during second half of matches of the teams with better league performance was higher (p<0.05). However, it was seen that the number of goals conceded in second half of matches was lower for the teams with less number of lost match (p<0.05). It was indicated that variance on number of total goal scored and conceded was explained with high rate by number of goal scored and conceded in second half of home and away matches (variance explanation proportions: goal scored in home match: 62,9% ; goal scored in away match: 74,2% ; goal conceded in home match: 52,2% ; goal conceded in away match: 72,9% , p<0.05). The analysis results indicated that the proportion of number of goal scored and conceded in second half of matches inside number of total goal scored and conceded was high in 2018-2019 season of Turkey Super League. Consequently, it may be concluded that the league performance of teams is highly related to the number of goals scored and conceded in the second half of matches. The using the goal time analysis, the coaches may analyze the structure of the league and determine the optimal match tactics.
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The study aimed to analyze the temporal incidence of goals in a state competition and the relationship of the opening goal with final match scores in different age/competitive levels. We analyzed 526 matches from the under-15, under-17, under-20 and professional levels from three state soccer tournaments in 2018, held in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were analyzed. Data was obtained through the website of the Rio de Janeiro State Soccer Federation. Descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation) and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test were performed. The Kruskal Wallis (non-parametric data) and ANOVA (parametric data) tests were performed to compare goals according to time interval. The association between the opening goal and the final match score was verified using the Friedman test. The Wilcoxon test was used for pairwise comparisons. The significance level was set at p <0.05. No significant differences between the time intervals were observed regarding the incidence of goals. With respect to the association between the opening goal and the final match score, significant differences were found (p <0.001) for all age levels in the comparison between wins and losses and in the comparison between wins and draws. It was possible to infer that scoring the opening goal may increase a team’s probability of winning the match.
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The goal is a crucial indicator of performance analysis in football. The aim of our study was to analyze the goal and previous phases since the recovery of the ball. 169 goals from group stage and elimination of the 2018 World Cup were analyzed. The observations were made through the LINCE program and the data were analyzed using the HOISAN and SPSS Statistics 24 program. The data were analyzed using descriptive, graphic statistics, Fisher's exact test, U-Mann Whitney and polar coordinates. It was verified that the recovery of the ball happens preferably due to fault of the opponent, in the areas of offensive midfield. The last pass is recorded very often in the offensive zones, as a result of the positional attack, with the right foot and inside the large area. It was also verified the importance of tactical schemes in obtaining the goal. The polar coordinates show activation relationships between the finalization and the other technical-tactical behaviors, reinforcing and complementing the notational analysis. We conclude that the notational analysis, complemented with statistical analysis and polar coordinate analysis, reveal relevant information to analyze performance in competition and plan the training process. El gol es un indicador crucial del análisis del rendimiento del fútbol. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue analizar el gol y etapas anteriores desde la recuperación del balón. Se analizaron un total de 169 goles en la fase de grupos y eliminación del Mundial 2018. Las observaciones se realizaron con el programa LINCE y los datos se analizaron con el programa HOISAN y SPSS Statistics 24. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas y gráfica, prueba exacta de Fisher, U-Mann Whitney y coordenadas polares. Se verificó que la recuperación del balón ocurre preferentemente por falta del oponente, en las zonas del mediocampo ofensivo. El último pase se registra muy a menudo en las zonas ofensivas, como consecuencia del ataque posicional, con el pie derecho y dentro del área de penalti. También se comprobó la importancia de los esquemas tácticos para obtener el gol. Las coordenadas polares muestran las relaciones de activación entre la finalización y los otros comportamientos técnico-tácticos, reforzando y complementando el análisis notacional. Concluimos que el análisis notacional, complementado con el tratamiento estadístico y análisis de coordenadas polares, descubre información relevante para analizar el desempeño en competición y planificar el proceso de entrenamiento. O golo é um indicador crucial da análise de desempenho no futebol. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi analisar o golo e fases anteriores desde a recuperação da bola. Foram analisados um total de 169 golos da fase de grupos e eliminação do Mundial de 2018. As observações foram feitas através do programa LINCE e os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa HOISAN e SPSS Statistics 24. Os dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva, gráfica, teste exato de Fisher, U-Mann Whitney e coordenadas polares. Foi verificado que a recuperação da bola acontece preferencialmente por falta do adversário, nas zonas de meio campo ofensivo. O último passe é registado com muita frequência nas zonas ofensivas, em resultado do ataque posicional, com o pé-direito e dentro da grande área. Foi ainda verificado a importância dos esquemas táticos na obtenção do golo. As coordenadas polares mostram relações de ativação entre a finalização e os outros comportamentos técnico-táticos, reforçando e complementando a análise notacional. Concluímos que a análise notacional, complementada com tratamento estatístico e análise de coordenadas polares revelam informações relevantes para analisar o desempenho em competição e planear o processo de treino.
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It is generally known that muscle strength depends on morphological dimensions. However, it is not completely defined which morphological dimensions have the largest contribution during single-joint and multi-joint movements. The aim of this study was to examine the predictor role of different morphological characteristics: body height - TV, body mass - TM, body composition (total muscle mass - SMM and regional muscle mass of arms - RSMM and leg - NSMM) and muscle cross-section area (PP) on maximum strength level (one-repetition maximum - 1RM). The sample consisted of 15 subjects (8 men and 7 women, age: 23.8 ± 1.4 years), who do not practice weight training. The 1RM test (kg) included two exercises: preacher curl (BP) and parallel squat (PC). Ultrasound diagnostics assessed the cross-section of the biceps brachii (mm) and quadriceps femoris (mm²) muscles, while SMM (kg), RSMM (kg) and NSMM (kg) were determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between 1RM of both exercises and all morphological variables (r = 0.512-0.939). However, when backward regression analysis was applied, the best model singled out the variable PP biceps brachii as the most significant predictor of strength for precher curl exercise (R² = 0.882, p <0.01), and variables NSMM, TM and TV for parallel squat (R² = 0.838, p <0.01). These findings shows that muscle strength during flexion in the elbow joint is largely determined by the dimensions of the biceps brachii muscle. On the other hand, various morphological factors determine 1RM when performing squats, which indicates the complexity of the exercise. Keywords – muscle strength, ultrasound, bioimpedance, preacher curl, parallel squat
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Purpose:This study aimed to compare the attention performance, by playing position, in elite Brazilian football players. Methods:A total of 66 professional players competing in the first division of the Brazilian Championship were evaluated. They were grouped according to their playing positions into 7 goalkeepers, 8 defenders, 15 fullbacks, 8 defensive midfielders, 13 attacking midfielders, and 15 forwards. The attention was evaluated using the QuotientTM ADHD System equipment. The group performances were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis Test and the post-hoc analysis using the Mann–Whitney Test.Results:Fullbacks showed less attentive behavior than defenders (U = 9.000, p = 0.001), defensive midfielders (U = 12.500, p = 0.002), offensive midfielders (U = 48.000, p = 0.007) and forwards (U = 27.000, p = 0.001). Fullbacks also had impulsive behavior longer than defenders (U = 10.500, p = 0.001) and defensive midfielders (U = 12.000, p = 0.002), as well as offensive midfielders had impulsive behavior longer than defenders (U = 16.0000, p = 0.004) and defensive midfielders (U = 19.500, p = 0.009). Conclusion:Players of defensive positions, as defenders and defensive midfielders, were more attentive and less impulsive than players of hybrid positions, responsible for both defensive and offensive actions, such as fullbacks and attacking midfielders. The present finding indicates that the defenders were the players who maintained the attention level for more time, while the fullbacks maintained for less time. Players in offensive playing positions (fullbacks and attacking midfielders) maintained their impulsive behavior for longer when compared to defensive positions (defenders and defensive midfielders).
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Babic, M. (2021). Vplyv špecializovaného tréningového programu na individuálny herný výkon mládežníckych brankárov vo futbale. [Impact of specialized training program on individual game performance in youth soccer goalkeepers]. Bratislava. Dizertačná práca. Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Fakulta telesnej výchovy a športu, Katedra športových hier. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ This dissertation aimed to gain knowledge on the effectiveness of the impact of a specialized training program on the number and success rate in selected game activities and on the overall level of individual game performance in youth soccer goalkeepers. We assumed that after completing a specialized training program, the selected goalkeepers in matches will achieve a significantly higher number and success rate of offensive game activities. On the other hand, we assumed that after completing a specialized training program, there will be no significant differences in the number and success rate of goalkeepers’ defensive game activities. Besides, we assumed that after completing a specialized training program, the overall level of the individual game performance of goalkeepers will increase significantly. The research group was comprised of elite youth soccer goalkeeper from ŠK Slovan Bratislava U16-U19 (n = 4) and goalkeepers were observed during matches in the autumn part of the 2019/2020 season (n = 20) and matches in the autumn part of the 2020/2021 season (n = 16). At the beginning of this research, the calendar age of observed goalkeepers represented average values of 16.64 ±1.00 years. For our work, we used a one-group non-concurrent experiment. During the pedagogical experiment, we acted on the group of goalkeepers with a control programme (CP) during the summer preparation period of the 2019/2020 season and subsequently with an experimental programme (EP) during the summer preparation period of the 2020/2021 season. The effect of these stimuli was evaluated based on changes in the number, success rate of goalkeepers’ game activities and their overall individual game performance in the matches of the autumn part of the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The content of control programme was a regular training process – a specialized training of goalkeepers in a ratio of the goalkeeper defensive and offensive game activities 80% to 20%, in favour of the defensive game activities (DGA). In the experimental programme, the ratio of the defensive and offensive game activities of the goalkeepers was 60% to 40%, in favour of the offensive game activities (OGA). The difference between the individual stimuli represented 20%. To evaluate the individual game performance of goalkeepers, we used in all matches a deliberate indirect observation with video recording and expertise. We used the Shapiro-Wilk Test, T-Test for two independent means, Mann-Whitney U-test, Z-Test for two population proportions and Kendall's coefficient of concordance to process and evaluate the obtained data. To determine the extent of practical effect (effect size) we used Cohen´s “d”, Cohen´s “r” and Cohen´s ”h”. We chose the level of statistical significant α = 0.05. The number of offensive game activities, which goalkeepers performed in matches, increased, but these changes did not prove to be significant. The success rate of offensive game activities by goalkeepers increased, the difference was almost statistically significant (p = 0.06). Neither the number nor the success rate of defensive game activities has changed significantly, but it increased slightly. The total number of game activities did not change significantly. The overall success rate of game activities increased. This increase was almost statistically significant (p = 0.08). The point evaluation of goalkeepers’ game performance, when doing the expert evaluation, increased significantly (p < 0.01). The training program was implemented in practice and the change in the proportionality of game activities in it has a positive impact on selected indicators of goalkeepers’ game performance in competitions. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cieľom dizertačnej práce bolo získať poznatky o efektívnosti vplyvu špecializovaného tréningového programu na početnosť a úspešnosť vybraných herných činností a celkovú úroveň individuálneho herného výkonu mládežníckych brankárov vo futbale. Predpokladali sme, že po absolvovaní špecializovaného tréningového programu dosiahnu vybraní brankári v zápasoch významne vyššiu početnosť a úspešnosť útočných herných činností. Predpokladali sme, že po absolvovaní špecializovaného tréningového programu nebudú významné rozdiely v početnosti a úspešnosti obranných herných činností brankárov. Predpokladali sme, že po absolvovaní špecializovaného tréningového programu sa významne zvýši celková úroveň individuálneho herného výkonu brankárov. Výskumný súbor tvorili elitní mládežnícki brankári družstva ŠK Slovan Bratislava v kategórii starší dorast a mladší dorast (n = 4) v zápasoch jesennej časti sezóny 2019/2020 (n = 20) a v zápasoch jesennej časti sezóny 2020/2021 (n = 16). Kalendárny vek sledovaných brankárov mal na začiatku výskumu priemerné hodnoty 16,64 ±1,00 roku. Použili sme jednoskupinový časovo nesúbežný experiment. V priebehu pedagogického experimentu sme pôsobili na súbor brankárov kontrolným podnetom (KP) počas letného prípravného obdobia sezóny 2019/2020 a následne experimentálnym podnetom (EP) počas letného prípravného obdobia sezóny 2020/2021. Pôsobenie uvedených podnetov sme hodnotili na základe zmien v početnosti, úspešnosti herných činností brankárov a ich celkového individuálneho herného výkonu v zápasoch jesennej časti sezóny 2019/2020 a 2020/2021. Obsahom kontrolného podnetu bol pravidelný tréningový proces – špecializovaná príprava brankárov s pomerom zastúpenia obranných a útočných herných činnosti brankára 80 % – 20 % v prospech OHČ. V experimentálnom podnete bol pomer zastúpenia obranných a útočných herných činnosti brankárov 60 % – 40 % v prospech OHČ. Rozdiel medzi jednotlivými podnetmi predstavoval 20 %. Na hodnotenie individuálneho herného výkonu brankárov sme použili zámerné nepriame pozorovanie spojené s metódou videozáznamu a expertízne hodnotenie vo všetkých zápasoch. Na spracovanie a vyhodnotenie získaných údajov sme použili Shapiro-Wilkov test, parametrický nepárový t-test, Mann-Whitneyho U-test, test významnosti rozdielov dvoch relatívnych hodnôt a Kendallow koeficient zhody. Na zistenie veľkosti praktického účinku (effect size) sme použili Cohenovo „d“, Cohenovo „r“ a Cohenovo „h“. Zvolili sme si hladinu štatistickej významnosti α = 0,05. Početnosť útočných herných činností, ktoré brankári v zápasoch realizovali sa zvýšila, avšak tieto zmeny sa neprejavili ako významné. Úspešnosť útočných herných činností u brankárov sa zvýšila, rozdiel bol takmer štatisticky významný (p = 0,06). Početnosť ani úspešnosť obranných herných činností sa významne nezmenila, dokonca sa mierne zvýšila. Celková početnosť herných činností sa významne nezmenila. Celková úspešnosť herných činností sa zvýšila, takmer štatisticky významne (p = 0,08). Významne (p < 0,01) sa zvýšilo bodové hodnotenie herného výkonu brankárov pri expertíznom hodnotení. Tréningový program bol realizovateľný v praxi a zmena proporcionality herných činností v ňom mala pozitívny vplyv na vybrané ukazovatele herného výkonu brankárov v súťažných zápasoch.
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Nowadays football is steadily developing around the world. Many sport theorists and practitioners pay a lot of attention to the search for the key factors determining high sports results. Players’ comprehensive preparation seems to be essential in order to succeed in football. Therefore, the focus of this work was on the aspects of fitness and mental preparation. The authors aimed to define the basic motor skills and psychological conditions, designed to serve as predisposition to sports competition in an 11-person football. Among the motor factors, a special attention was drawn to the importance of endurance and speed ability in football. As far as the psychological conditions are concerned, the role of the psychosocial prototype of a high-performance sporting situation and psychological characteristics determining success in football were emphasized. KEYWORDS: predispositions, football, motor skills, psychology.
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In the present study we tested the consequences of attention towards goalkeepers in association football penalty shootouts that have exclusively been derived from laboratory experiments. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all penalty shootouts during FIFA World Cups (1986-2010) and UEFA European Football Championships (1984-2012). We linked key variables of previous laboratory research to observable behaviour in the field that was coded by two independent coders. The following hypotheses were tested: First, attention towards goalkeepers results in more saves/better goalkeeper performance; Second, goalkeepers can deliberately distract penalty takers by drawing attention towards themselves which results in less accurate penalty kicks/better goalkeeper performance. Results were in line with previous laboratory analyses as they showed that attention towards goalkeepers resulted in more saves/better goalkeeping performance. Further, if goalkeepers distracted penalty takers this also resulted in better goal-keeping performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed for both goalkeepers and penalty takers in association football.
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Purpose: To analyze the pattern and trends of the goals scored during the 2010 world cup soccer tournament held in South Africa to derive the latest technical and tactical innovations with the hope of applying them at the lower echelons of the game. Methodology: The study was a retrospective one as data were derived from the FIFA (2010) data base. The analysis centered on number of goals; parts of the body used to score; distance from goal; timing of goals in minutes; nature of play preceding a goal; score at half time and winning of the game; open play and set pieces; and the position of the scorers. Data were analyzed and descriptively presented in form of tables and figures. Results: The scoring rate of the world cup was 2.27 goals per match, which is the second lowest in the history of the world cup which was inaugurated in 1930. There were more goals from open play (75.86%) than from set pieces (24.14%); most goals came via shots (108) rather headers (26); strikers scored majority of the goals (53.10%), followed by midfielders (34.48) and defenders (11.04%); more goals were scored in the second half especially in the last 15 minutes of normal regulation time and more goals were scored from within the penalty box than outside. Conclusions: Coaches have to focus on improving the technical and tactical build up into the penalty area; encourage more goal attempts within the penalty box; emphasize and perfect set piece execution; prudently utilize substitution to impact the game in the second half, perfect crossing and headers and to enhance the physical conditioning of the players to enable them play out the entire game without suffering physical deterioration which causes teams to make defensive errors leading to goals in the last 15 minutes of matches.
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The purpose of the study was to analyse of goal scoring pattern of Dibrugarh University Inter College Football (Men) Tournament. For this study, the following eight quarter final teams were selected as subjects i.e DDR College, Moran College, Margareta College, PG Classes DU, Nazira College, Subansiri College, Furkating College and NLB City College. The collected data were statistically analysed by using chi-squire to find out the significance differences among the teams. In all the cases 0.05 level was fixed as the level of confidence. The result of the analysis revealed that only 20 goals were scored in the quarterfinal matches at the average of 2.85 goals per games. On the basis of percentage of goals showed that Nazira College made more percentage as compared with other teams. It is indicated that scoring of goal in soccer is very difficult. It is totally depends on the number of shots on goal and also the result of the study showed that total number of goals scored by the players of eight teams were 1, 2, 0, 3, 10,0, 1and 3 respectively. It was resulted with a chi-square value of 4.67. The table value required for significant was 14.06. The result indicated that there were no significant differences for the goal scoring pattern among the eight teams during the quarter final matches at Dibrugarh University Inter College (Men) Football tournament 2013-2014. Key words: Goal scoring pattern, inter-college men football teams
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