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Nutraceutical and functional food market are one of the fastest-growing food segments in the newer food product development category. In the recent past, focus of beverage industry has shifted towards making food more nutritious and functionally enriched. To load the food with nutraceutical functionality, herbal sources having target functional compounds are either directly used as food or for separation of target compounds. Among beverages, milk is considered as a wholesome complete food providing macro (fat, proteins, and carbohydrates) and micronutrients (calcium, selenium, riboflavin, vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid vitamin B5) in balanced proportions. However, limited access to milk in some regions of globe, low availability of certain minerals (iron), vitamins (folate), and other biomolecules (amino acids) compounded with issues like milk allergy, lactose intolerance, and hypercholesterolemia have forced some specific population groups to search for better milk alternatives which are more or at least equi-nutritional to conventional milk. Plant-based wholesome or blended milk analogs are better studied as inexpensive alternates to conventional milk for people who are in search of better alternates for one or other reason. The market of milk analogs is currently dominated by soya bean milk, oat milk, coconut milk, hemp milk, cocoa milk, multigrain milk etc. most of which are produced by controlled fermentation which owes to their functional bioactive composition. Such analogs are appreciated for their functionally active components which are often correlated to their health-promoting and disease-preventing properties. One major advantage of analogs over conventional milk is that the energy input per unit of milk produced is much less compared to animal milk while there is always an opportunity to manipulate their composition based on demand. However, the major limiting factor in the acceptance of such non-conventional beverages is their challenging production technology and poor sensory profile which is true particularly for beverages derived from legumes. These challenges provide an opportunity for both industries and research personals to put in major concerted efforts in the field of functional bioactive food segment to produce tailor-made novel beverages which are nutritional, economic and have improved functionality. Keeping in view the potential of plant-based milk alternates and associated challenges the aim of the present review is to give a scientifically comparative and conclusive overview of the present status, market potential, and health concerns of plant-based nondairy milk beverages.
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Milk Analog: Plant based alternatives to
conventional milk, production, potential and
health concerns
Anna Aleena Paul, Satish Kumar, Vikas Kumar & Rakesh Sharma
To cite this article: Anna Aleena Paul, Satish Kumar, Vikas Kumar & Rakesh Sharma (2019): Milk
Analog: Plant based alternatives to conventional milk, production, potential and health concerns,
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1674243
Published online: 16 Oct 2019.
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REVIEW
Milk Analog: Plant based alternatives to conventional milk, production, potential
and health concerns
Anna Aleena Paul
a
, Satish Kumar
a
, Vikas Kumar
a
, and Rakesh Sharma
b
a
Food Technology and Nutrition, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India;
b
Department of Food
Science and Technology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Himachal Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Nutraceutical and functional food market are one of the fastest-growing food segments in the
newer food product development category. In the recent past, focus of beverage industry has
shifted towards making food more nutritious and functionally enriched. To load the food with
nutraceutical functionality, herbal sources having target functional compounds are either directly
used as food or for separation of target compounds. Among beverages, milk is considered as a
wholesome complete food providing macro (fat, proteins, and carbohydrates) and micronutrients
(calcium, selenium, riboflavin, vitamin B
12
, and pantothenic acid vitamin B
5
) in balanced propor-
tions. However, limited access to milk in some regions of globe, low availability of certain minerals
(iron), vitamins (folate), and other biomolecules (amino acids) compounded with issues like milk
allergy, lactose intolerance, and hypercholesterolemia have forced some specific population
groups to search for better milk alternatives which are more or at least equi-nutritional to conven-
tional milk. Plant-based wholesome or blended milk analogs are better studied as inexpensive
alternates to conventional milk for people who are in search of better alternates for one or other
reason. The market of milk analogs is currently dominated by soya bean milk, oat milk, coconut
milk, hemp milk, cocoa milk, multigrain milk etc. most of which are produced by controlled
fermentation which owes to their functional bioactive composition. Such analogs are appreciated
for their functionally active components which are often correlated to their health-promoting and
disease-preventing properties. One major advantage of analogs over conventional milk is that the
energy input per unit of milk produced is much less compared to animal milk while there is
always an opportunity to manipulate their composition based on demand. However, the major
limiting factor in the acceptance of such non-conventional beverages is their challenging produc-
tion technology and poor sensory profile which is true particularly for beverages derived
from legumes. These challenges provide an opportunity for both industries and research personals
to put in major concerted efforts in the field of functional bioactive food segment to produce
tailor-made novel beverages which are nutritional, economic and have improved functionality.
Keeping in view the potential of plant-based milk alternates and associated challenges the aim
of the present review is to give a scientifically comparative and conclusive overview of the present
status, market potential, and health concerns of plant-based nondairy milk beverages.
KEYWORDS
Conventional milk;
uneconomic production;
lactose intolerance; milk
analog; production
technology; functional
compounds;
future potential
Introduction
There is a rapid increase in the consumption pattern of milk
and milk products around the globe with an expected future
shift in the same direction as in indicated by the underlying
forces driving this shift. Cows milk is usually consumed by
the majority of the population and is well thought as a
wholesome complete food providing major nutrients like fat,
proteins, and carbohydrates (Plant Based Foods Association
2016). Besides these macronutrients, milk also contains
numerous nutrients (micro & macro) such as calcium, selen-
ium, riboflavin, vitamin B
12
and pantothenic acid (vitamin
B
5
) which significantly contributes towards the overall
growth and maintenance of the body system (M
akinen et al.
2016). Though milk is considered to be a complete food yet
limited availability or near absence of certain minerals
such as iron, and vitamins like folate and some other
biomolecules (amino acids) restricts its recommendation as
a complete food for infants older than 12 months (Vanga,
Singh, and Raghavan 2015;Tables 1 and 2). Further, lactose
intolerance is a continuously growing disease throughout the
developed world especially in the old age population groups
restricting the use of milk and milk products, especially by
the elder population. Additionally, limited availability of
milk in some specific geographic locations (arid regions),
high price and presence of some potent pathogens
(Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7) which can
cause disease outbreaks and some specific health problems
(Vanga and Raghavan 2018) like cholesterol, cows milk
allergy mainly seen among some infants and children, anti-
biotic residues, vegetarianism and vegan diets may be
CONTACT Satish Kumar satishsharma1666@gmail.com Food Technology and Nutrition, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara,
Punjab 144411, India.
ß2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION
https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1674243
Table 1. Comparative overview of amino acid profile of bovine milk with commercially available nondairy plant-based milk substitutes.
Type of milk
Amino acid (mg/100g)
ReferencesHistidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine
Bovine milk15.0026.00 25.0062.00 90.00108.0 49.096.0 17.027.0 38.056.0 23.041.00 Not reported 33.053.0 Rafiq et al. 2015
Soy bean 0.551.49
(3.665.73)
1.412.47
(5.643.98)
2.944.24
(3.263.92)
0.883.92
(1.794.08)
0.310.85
(1.823.15)
1.862.79
(4.894.98)
0.872.09
(3.785.09)
0.300.80 1.322.59
(4.04.87)
Carrera
et al. 2011
Almond 21.8025.70
(145.3398.85)
29.839.0
(119.1262.90)
83.2083.00
(92.4476.85)
36.2057.4
(73.8859.79)
27.1027.95
(159.41103.51)
50.9050.55
(133.9490.27)
30.2043.40
(131.30105.85)
13.9013.98 38.3073.60
(116.06138.87)
e Silva et al.
2014; Freitas
et al. 2012
Oat 2.853.68
(19.014.15)
4.154.41
(16.67.11)
7.899.17
(7.768.49)
3.793.91
(7.734.07)
1.731.93
(10.177.15)
5.465.48
(14.379.78)
3.254.30
(14.1310.49)
3.614.09 5.346.01
(16.1811.34)
Mickowska et al.
2016; Sterna,
Zute, and
Brunava 2016
Rice 186.6206.6
(1244.0794.61)
232.1275.8
(928.40444.83)
496.9585.2
(552.11541.85)
118.4179.4
(241.63186.87)
155.6168.9
(915.29625.55)
393.3448.5
(1035.0800.89)
194.0226.6
(843.48552.69)
Not reported 306.2375.2
(927.88707.92)
Mota et al. 2016
Cocoa nibs 20.0024.00
(133.3392.31)
21.4221.46
(85.6834.61)
72.5072.20
(80.5566.85)
42.0242.20
(85.7543.96)
9.9010.00
(58.2337.04)
28.6128.80
(75.2951.43)
29.93
30.00
(130.1373.17)
6.398.49 32.1032.40
(97.2761.13)
Bertazzo et al.
2011;
Adeyeye
et al. 2010
Kidney bean 2.002.10
(13.338.07)
9.639.80
(38.5215.81)
19.1619.06
(21.2817.65)
15.3015.43
(31.2216.07)
2.802.88
(16.4710.66)
13.1313.23
(34.5523.62)
9.339.40
(40.5622.93)
Not reported 11.5311.67
(34.9422.02)
Singh et al.
2017; Arija
et al. 2006
Peanut 27.7327.20
(184.86104.61)
25.41
25.50
(101.6441.12)
64.5064.30
(71.6659.53)
36.7536.70
(75.038.23)
Not reported Not reported 30.0230.30
(130.5273.90)
14.0314.50 32.6332.79
(98.8761.13)
Freitas
et al. 2012
Coconut 1.801.90
(12.07.31)
2.804.10
(11.26.61)
3.906.50
(4.336.02)
3.505.10
(7.145.31)
1.202.90
(7.0610.74)
2.705.90
(7.1010.53)
3.203.30
(13.918.05)
Not reported 3.507.50
(10.6114.15)
Patil and
Benjakul 2018
Hemp 2.803.10
(18.6611.92)
3.904.40
(15.67.09)
6.507.10
(7.226.57)
4.004.60
(8.164.79)
2.102.80
(12.3510.37)
4.64.90
(12.108.75)
2.603.90
(11.309.51)
0.700.90 5.005.70
(15.1510.75)
Russo and
Reggiani 2015
Figures presented in the parenthesis (in the same row) are standard amino acid values considered as 100% for bovine milk.
Figures presented in the parenthesis are percentage values of amino acid in comparison to bovine milk the values for which are considered as 100%.
2 A. A. PAUL ET AL.
Table 2. Comparison of nutritive potential of bovine milk with commercially available nondairy plant-based milk substitutes.
Type of milk
Carbohydrate
(g/100g) Protein (g/100g) Fat (g/100g) Fiber(g/100g) Energy (K Cal)
Minerals (mg/100g)
Literature citedFe Ca K Na P
Bovine milk3.205.40 2.906.00 3.406.40 Not reported 69.0118.0 0.070.08 122.0134.0 152.0181.0 41.058.0 119.0121.0 Park 2017; Guetouache
et al. 2014; Wijesinha-
Bettoni and
Burlingame 2013
Soy milk 4.644.92
(144.9991.11)
3.823.98
(131.7266.33)
3.14.3
(91.1767.19)
0.640.74 51.552.5
(74.6444.49)
0.500.66
(714.28825.0)
4.05.4 (3.284.03) 141.0215.0
(107.80118.78)
2.2012.0
(5.3620.69)
49.062.60
(41.1751.73)
Alozie and Udofia 2015;
Nti et al. 2016;
Mazumder and
Begum 2016
Almond milk 4.304.70
(134.3787.04)
2.501.90
(86.2131.66)
3.203.60
(94.1156.25)
1.151.35 55.0055.90
(79.7147.37)
1.351.45
(1928.571812.5)
13.0513.15
(10.699.81)
65.0365.00
(46.135.91)
6.386.60
(15.6511.38)
75.0375.33
(63.0562.25)
Alozie and Udofia 2015
Oat milk (fresh) 27.3050.01
(853.12926.11)
9.7017.30
(334.48288.33)
5.2012.40
(152.94193.75)
11.5320.07 576.56607.10
(835.59514.49)
6.407.40
(9142.859250.0)
84.3085.60
(69.0963.88)
669.20671.60
(474.61371.05)
3.113.21
(7.585.53)
672.30816.32
(564.95674.64)
Sterna, Zute, and
Brunava 2016
Rice milk 9.4112.70
(294.06235.18)
0.281.26 (9.6521.0) 0.971.11
(28.5317.34)
0.300.65 47.00112.0
(68.12118.0)
0.200.96
(285.711200.0)
118.0121.35
(96.7290.56)
26.3427.00
(18.6814.92)
39.2040.59
(95.6169.98)
55.9156.86
(46.9846.99)
Chalupa-Krebzdak et al.
2018; Pineli et al 2015;
Sousa and Kopf-
Bolanz 2017
Cocoa milk
drink (fresh)
44.0055.00
(1375.01018.52)
12.0019.00
(413.79316.66)
20.0025.00
(588.23390.62)
25.0035.00 225.0325.0
(326.09275.42)
10.0015.00
(14285.718570.0)
100.0180.0
(81.97134.32)
1500.02000.0
(1063.821104.97)
Not reported 750.01000.0
(630.25826.45)
Rucker 2009
Kidney bean milk 53.2059.65
(1662.51104.63)
17.9526.80
(618.96446.66)
0.662.49
(19.4138.91)
6.407.20 127.10132.0
(184.20111.86)
1.501.80
(2142.82250.0)
31.3036.20
(25.6527.01)
344.0356.2
(243.97196.79)
11.011.8
(26.8320.34)
68.1072.01
(57.2359.51)
Hayat et al. 2014
Peanut milk (fresh) 21.5116.10
(672.19298.15)
25.8026.37
(889.65439.50)
47.2249.20
(1388.82768.75)
8.008.50 462.78567.0
(670.69480.51)
2.264.58
(3228.575725.0)
54.0092.00
(44.2668.66)
501.00658.0
(355.32363.53)
6.0064.23
(14.63110.74)
76.00358.0
(63.86295.87)
Sandefur et al. 2017;
Settaluri et al. 2012;
Mustapha et al. 2015
Coconut milk 3.759.41
(117.19174.26)
0.592.00
(20.3433.33)
4.126.00
(121.1793.75)
5.305.98 50.0092.00
(72.4677.96)
3.904.01
(5571.435012.5)
176.0178.1
(144.26132.9)
631.0639.02
(447.52353.05)
36.0038.36
(87.8066.14)
240.0256.35
(201.68211.86)
Chalupa-Krebzdak et al.
2018; Patil and
Benjakul 2018
Hemp milk 2.5020.00
(78.12370.37)
0.834.00
(28.6266.66)
1.253.00
(36.7646.87)
Not reported 19.0021.06
(27.5417.84)
4.896.58
(6985.718225.0)
12.0320.25
(9.8615.11)
110.00126.58
(78.0169.93)
85.69140.01
(209.0241.39)
54.8463.98
(46.0852.88)
Chalupa-Krebzdak et al.
2018; Russo and
Reggiani 2015;
Vahanvaty 2009
Figures presented in the parenthesis (in the same row) are standard amino acid values considered as 100% for bovine milk.
Figures presented in the parenthesis are percentage values of amino acid in comparison to bovine milk the values for which are considered as 100%.
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 3
assumed as the possible reasons for conceptualization
and development of milk alternatives/milk substitutes/
milk analogs.
Expectations of present consumers for more healthy and
palatable food choices have driven the dairy industry to
expand their knowledge beyond conventional milk products
for the production of various plant-based non-conventional
beverages with health benefits equating milk with consump-
tion at recommended levels (Grant and Hicks 2018).
However, questions arise regarding the category to which
these substitutes belong for the reason that they dont meet
the traditional definition and nutritional content of the
milk. Nevertheless, recent studies have well established vital
role of these plant-based beverages in improving or manage-
ment of immune system, have potential antimicrobial effects,
helps in reducing risk of cardiovascular and gastro-intestinal
diseases with improved physiological functions, decreased
risk of low bone mass and very high levels of antioxidants
with free radical scavenging properties which have been dis-
cussed in Table 3. Since plant-derived milk or extracts
mostly undergo fermentation (natural/controlled) which
stimulates the activity of bioactive compounds. Besides,
incorporation of certain valuable and nutritionally signifi-
cant components also enhances the quality of the product
by mainly enriching protein quality, the bioavailability of
minerals and some important elements (Akin and Ozcan
2017). Legumes (the poor mans meat), cereals and oilseeds
due to their rich nutritional profile are the major target for
the production of different milk substitutes, improvising
milk quality with specific bioactive components when com-
pared to usual animal milk.
World market of the dairy industry has always main-
tained the top position due to high demand. However, pro-
duction of milk through the use of animals puts far more
strain on the environment than other kinds of food produc-
tion. Due to the fact that most feed for livestock is used up
by the animals metabolic processes as well as for bone
growth and so on, only a small proportion of the feed is
transformed into muscle tissue i.e. meat, eggs or milk. This
leads to a much higher demand for land to produce the
same amount of e.g. milk when compared to e.g. plant-
based milk alternatives for direct human consumption. This
has just given a way to nondairy analogs in the market and
recently, nondairy beverage industry (mainly based on soy,
almond, and other vegan sources) is trying to mark its fin-
gerprints and as a result, it is rapidly gaining market share
both in the refrigerated dairy sector and in shelf-stable ver-
sions of these products. Studies showed that milk substitutes
have an appropriate 6% rise than conventional milk and
milk products, capturing the attention of startups as well as
the food companies (White Wave Foods, Blue Diamond
Growers, Native Forest, etc.), where Western and European
market is ruling currently, followed by North America. The
optimistic approach of consumers and government policies
to improve the agriculture sector are likely to increase raw
material availability and initiative steps by the manufacturers
offering novel food products with better quality, attractive
packaging and a positive impact on market growth. Soy
milk accounts for the largest share by-product in 2017 with
58.0% of global production while, almond, rice, coconut
milk, etc. are also significant contributors and are utilized as
plain, flavored (mainly vanilla and chocolate) and sweetened
or unsweetened nondairy milk beverages.
Fermentation is an old method adopted throughout the
ancestral period till present in order to prepare and preserve
and make different foods and beverages (Sharma, Joshi, and
Abrol 2012). Fermentation of food is understood as conver-
sion of complex carbohydrates such as starch and sugars to
simple products like alcohols and acids with concurrent pro-
duction of carbon dioxide by using yeast and/or bacteria,
under anaerobic conditions, where the microbial biomass
used in process determines the process of fermentation and
production of various molecules from pilot plant methods
to large-scale industry (Worku and Sahu 2017). Though
such nondairy based milk beverages are not always fer-
mented yet fermentation is given more emphasis as it leads
to the production of secondary metabolites of our interest.
Further, some other treatments like ultrasonication are also
helpful in extraction of the biomolecules and improving the
phytochemical profile of the products as monoculture of
Lactobacillus acidophilus is observed to have more stability
regardless of the varying conditions in ultrasonic treatment
applied than the mixed culture of Streptococcus thermophiles
and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Ojha et al. 2018). This review
has been compiled keeping in mind the primary health con-
cerns related to various dairy products and the potential,
production technology and applications of non-conventional
dairy substitutes of plant origin along with their present sta-
tus and future prospectus.
Types of milk analogs and their
production technology
Soy bean milk
Increased responsiveness of health-conscious masses towards
health potentials of herbal milk substitutes have significantly
contributed to their better consumption and people have
been showing their interest in such functional beverages to
exploit specific health benefits. Soy and soy products suc-
ceeded to take up its position among vegetarians due to its
high protein content (36.49 mg/100g) according to USDA
(United States Department of Agriculture) Food
Composition Databases. Soy milk contains 7 g of protein per
8 ounces (236.6 ml) which is comparable with dairy milk
(Krans 2017). Soy milk contains essential monounsaturated
and polyunsaturated fatty acids in very high amount which
are sometimes correlated with cardiovascular health. Soya
milk is an inexpensive, refreshing and nutritional beverage
with different functionally active component responsible for
its beneficial interactions inside the body. Isoflavones prehis-
torically are well recognized for their protective effect
against some most important health conditions like cancer,
cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. Additionally, it
contains isoflavones (genistein, daidzein and glycitein) in
great quantity and good amount of fiber, minerals (mainly
iron, calcium and zinc), B vitamins and unsaturated fatty
4 A. A. PAUL ET AL.
Table 3. Some major milk analogs, their production methodology, bioactive components, associated health potential and shelf life.
Product Method of production Bioactive Components
Health Potential
Shelf life ReferencesAdvantages Limitations
Bovine milk Obtained from healthy
lactating animals
IgG, IgA
Casein
Lactoferricin
Casoxins
Casocidin
Casokinins
- Considered as wholesome complete
food
- Antimicrobial activity
- Helps in overall growth and
maintenance of the body system
- Antiappetizing property
- Helps in decrease blood cholesterol
level due to the presence of
hypocholesterolemic peptides.
- Lactose- intolerance
- Cows milk allergy in infants
- Near absence of minerals like
iron and vitamins like folate and
some amino acids
- Limited availability
- Presence of pathogens
(Salmonella spp. and Escherichia
coli O157:H7)
- High price
Ambient condition: 24 hrs
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): 24120 hrs
Vanga and Raghavan
2018;M
akinen et al.
2016; Vanga, Singh,
and Raghavan 2015;
Plant Based Foods
Association 2016;
Ziyaina et al. 2018;
Millogo et al. 2015;
Park 2009
Soy milk Controlled Fermentation:
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Lactobacillus
acidophilus
Enterococcus faecium
LAB Bacillus
subtilis (SSF)
Genistein
Daidzein
Glycitein
- Decrease blood pressure level
- Hypolipidemic effects
- Effective against chronic disease
- Recommended against osteoporosis
- Higher bone density and lower rates
of fracture
-a-Galactosidase activity
- Formation of hormone-responsive
tissues
- Eating soya foods upset
hormonal balance or reduce
testosterone concentrations in
men
- Activation effects in the central
nervous system
- Beany flavor due to action of
lipoxygenase
Ambient condition: 90
days Refrigerated
condition (4 C):
170 days
Marazza et al. 2012;do
Amaral Santos, da Silva
Libeck, and Schwan
2014; Sanjukta et al.
2015; Dai et al. 2017;
Singh and Vij 2018;
Sidhu and Singh 2016;
Katz 2018
Almond milk Mostly mechanical
extraction
Controlled Fermentation:
Lactobacillus reuteri
Streptococcus thermophilus
Beta-sitosterol, campesterol
and stigmasterol folate,
vitamin E (mainly
a-tocopherol), niacin (B3)
Arabinose
- Powerful antioxidant
- Low-calorie
- high in vitamin E
- Prebiotic properties
- Limited cariogenic properties in
presence of sucrose
- Very low-protein
- Supports growth of pathogenic
micro-organisms
- Almond allergy
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): 170 days
Bernat et al. 2015; Gorji
et al. 2018; Sethi et al.
2016; Lee al. 2018;
Iorio et al. 2019;
Chhabra et al. 2017;
Alozie and Udofia 2015
Oat milk Controlled Fermentation:
Lactobacillus reuteri
Streptococcus
thermophilus LAB
Lactobacillus plantarum
Bifidobacterium
animalis
b-glucan
Phytochemicals:
Avenanthramides (AVAs)
Avenacosides A and B
- Hypocholesterolaemic
- Reduce blood glucose level
- Increases solution viscosity and
can delay gastric emptying time
- Anti-pathogenic effect
- Lacks calcium content
- Poor emulsion stability
- Contain potential allergens
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): 28 days
Bernat et al. 2015; Zhang
et al. 2017; Sang and
Chu 2017; Sethi
et al. 2016
Rice milk Controlled Fermentation:
Lactobacillus
acidophilus
Bifidobacterium
animalis Lactobacillus
plantarum Lactobacillus
fermentum Natural
Fermentation: LAB
a-tocopherol
c-oryzano
b-sitosterol
Thiamin
Niacin
Pyridoxine
- Lowers cholesterol and hypertension
- Best choice for people with multiple
allergies
- Anti-inflammatory
- Lacks b-carotene
- Least protein quality
- Unstable emulsion due to high
starch content
- May contain large amount of
added sugar
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): 12 days
Sethi et al. 2016; Lau and
Latif 2019; Amini
et al. 2019
Cocoa milk drink Controlled Fermentation:
Lactobacillus
acidophilus
Lactobacillus bulgaricus
Streptococcus.
Thermophiles
Theobromine and caffeine - Anti-aging
- Alertness and provide good mood
- High in caffeine and not
suitable for pregnant and
lactating women
Ambient condition
(2537 C): 21 days
Refrigerated condition
(510 C): 3 months
Yuliana and Rangga 2010;
Fonseca Maciel, Fel
ıcio,
and Hirooka 2017
(continued)
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 5
Table 3. Continued.
Product Method of production Bioactive Components
Health Potential
Shelf life ReferencesAdvantages Limitations
Kidney bean Mechanical Extraction
Controlled
Fermentation: Bacillus
subtilis (solid-state
fermentation)
Lactobacillus plantarum
(liquid-state
fermentation)
Dietary fibers c-aminobutyric
acid (GABA)
- Anti-oxidant property
-b-glucosidase activity
- Beany flavor owing to activity
of lipoxygenase
- Presence of inhibitors
- Nasobronchial allergy
- Allergic Rhinitis
Limon 2015; Kumar
et al. 2013
Peanut milk Mechanical Extraction
Controlled
Fermentation: LAB
Resveratrol
Niacin
Vitamin E
Arginine
- Protects from diseases like coronary
heart disease, stroke, etc.
- Functioning of the digestive systems,
skin, nerves
- Helps in conversion of food to
energy
- Arginine stimulates the immune
system by increasing the output
of T-lymphocytes
- Peanut allergy
- Dietary restrictions
during pregnancy
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): 30 days
Sethi et al. 2016; Arya
et al. 2016; Fleischer
et al. 2019; Arya et al.
2015; Zaaboul
et al. 2019
Coconut milk Aqueous Enzymatic
Extraction Process
(AEEP) Viscozyme
- L enzyme method
Lauric acid
Vitamin E
- Promotes brain development
- Boosts immune system
- Maintains the elasticity of the blood
vessels-medium
- Chain triglycerides, are linked with
weight loss
- Anti- ageing property by providing
skin nourishment
- Heart disease due to LDL
content (high fat and low
protein)
- Frail and weak bones
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): 30 days
Sethi et al. 2016; Katz
2018; Agarwal and
Bosco 2014; Mauro and
Garcia 2019
Hemp milk Ultrasonic treatment
High-pressure
homogenization
(HPH) extraction
Linolenic acid Linoleic acid
c-tocopherol Cannabidiolic
acid Lignanamides
- reduce both motion- and toxin-
induced vomiting
- anti-thrombotic -anti-vasoconstrictive
-anti-inflammatory -anti-neuro-
inflammatory activity
- High dosage can induce toxicity
and act against inhibiting
inflammatory
cytokines production
Refrigerated condition
(4 C): Stable up to
3 days
Teh and Birch 2014;
Crescente et al. 2018;
Zhou et al. 2018; Wang
et al. 2018
6 A. A. PAUL ET AL.
acids (Rizzo and Baroni 2018). Phytochemicals such as
phytic acid (1.02.2%), sterols (0.230.46%) and saponins
(0.176.16%) increases its potential health benefits (Kang
et al. 2010). On fermentation, isoflavones glucosides in the
presence of glucosidases get hydrolyze to form aglycones in
the small intestine and are then metabolized into other
metabolites (equol and O-desmethylangolensin) in the large
intestine by microflora (Yu et al. 2016).
Conversely, isoflavones or phytoestrogens resembled as
weak estrogens can negatively affect gestation and infancy
(ovary, uterus, mammary gland and prostate, early puberty,
reduced fertility, disrupted brain organization, and repro-
ductive tract cancers) (Katz 2018). Additionally, the absence
of a-galactosidase in human intestinal tract makes oligosac-
charides like stachyose and raffinose indigestible and thus
leading to gas production due to the interaction between the
sugars and GI-resident bacterial communities (Janpaeng
et al. 2018). Thereby more systematic again studies are
required regarding the health aspects of soy bean particu-
larly the effects of its bioactive components on wellbeing
(Canadian Paediatric Society 2009). Also, the study shows
that about 14% of people who consumes cows milk are
allergic to soy milk also (Jeske et al. 2017).
Fermentation helps to reduce antinutritional factors (protein-
ase-inhibitors, phytic acid, urease, oxalic acids) and increase the
bioavailability of bioactive components as the micro-organisms
break down complex organic substances to simpler molecules,
increasing the number of free isoflavones and peptides in soy
fermented products (Sanjukta et al. 2015). The efficiency of fer-
mentation regarding the functionality of the hydrolyzed product
solely depends on the cultures used for the process (Rai et al.
2017). Soybean fermented with B. subtilis MTCC5480 resulted
in a higher degree of protein hydrolysis and free amino acids,
whereas using Rhizopus oligosporus and B. subtilis increases Glu
and Asp and also smaller peptides content without effecting the
essential amino acids (Sanjukta and Rai 2016). Additionally, the
same B.subtilis increase the free radical scavenging property
to an appreciable level and inhibits angiotensin I-converting
enzyme (ACE) resulting in decreasing blood pressure level.
However, total isoflavones concentration increases with further
fermentation of the soymilk with L. rhamnosus CRL981 produc-
ing approximately 40 times more b-glucosidase than using
Streptococcus thermophilus strain (Marazza et al. 2012).
Almond milk
Almonds are considered as one of the brain-foods(while
others are hazelnut and walnut) as they ensure a healthy
brain by promoting mental alertness, concentration, recall
skills, memory and helps to get good sleep when taken at
night (Gorji et al. 2018). This is a good source of vitamin E
(25.87 mg/100 g a-tocopherol), vitamins B complex compris-
ing B
1
(0.24 mg/100 g), B
2
(0.8 mg/100 g), B
3
(4 mg/100 g), B
5
(0.3 mg/100 g) and B
6
(0.13 mg/100g) (
Ozdemir, Y
ucel, and
Okay 2016), protein (1623 g/100g), monounsaturated fats
(3135 g/100g) pre-dominating oleic acid, total dietary fibers
(1114 g/100g), total phenolic compounds (260350 mg/
100g) and good amount of minerals (Ca, Mg, P, and K)
(Grundy et al. 2016). They are used as a key ingredient in
baked food products, confectionery items, granola bars,
breakfast cereals, etc. Almonds are a well-recognized source
of anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-tumoral and
antioxidant substances (Barreira et al. 2008).
Almond is very rich in fatty acids and has a major in the
growth of pathogenic microbes (E. coli O157: H7 and L.
monocytogenes) (Iorio et al. 2019). Even though thermal
processing methods can minimize the pathogens but both
can cause a considerable reduction in nutritional value (Van
Impe et al. 2018). Further, almonds allergy is a common
tree nut allergy (ranked as fourth among other tree nuts by
the United States) and the effects can be as mild as simple
oral allergy and can be as complex as fatal anaphylaxis.
Amandin, an almond major protein, legumin (11S), prunin,
and prunin (Pru du 6) are recognized as major seed storage
protein (approximately 65%) which are also the important
allergen in almond (Chhabra et al. 2017).
Commercially, almond undergoes processing by roasting,
blanching, crushing reduction and oil extraction (Grundy et al.
2016). The allergen Pru du 6 (amandin) is highly resistant to
heat treatments but sensitive to pepsin enzyme (Mandalari and
Mackie 2018). Using mechanical treatments and fermentation
treatments they can be removed easily and almond milk is
making its position among other plant-based milk substitutes
in the market. Moreover, patients who are suffering from lac-
tose-intolerance are advised to consume almond milk instead
of soy milk, except sweetened with sucrose especially for people
who are concerned with cariogenic problems (Lee et al. 2018).
Oat milk
In a continuously expanding market of conventional and
non-conventional milk and milk products oat milk occupies
an important position and is competing really hard among
various substitute and with dairy milk. Nutritional compo-
nents including the presence of phenolic compounds,
avenanthramides (2289 mg/Kg), saponins (avenacoside A-
290 mg/Kg and avenacoside B-110 mg/Kg) (Sang and Chu
2017), phytic acid, sterols, and many others make oats and
its products a good antioxidant. According to American
Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), dietary fiber is
defined as the edible part of a plant or analogous carbohy-
drates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the
human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation
in the large intestine. It includes polysaccharides, oligosac-
charides, lignin, and associated plant substances. Dietary
fibers promote beneficial physiological effects including
laxation and/or blood cholesterol attenuation and/or blood
glucose attenuation(American Association of Cereal
Chemists (AACC) 2001). Oats are rich in antioxidants and
polyphenols with macromolecules in different proportions
i.e. highest proportion of starch (60%) with a relatively
balanced protein content (1115%) and lipids (59%)
besides, oats are also a good source of dietary fibers
(2.38.5) and calcium content (0.54%) (Rasane et al. 2015).
Oat b-glucan are anti-cancerous, as they are reported to
reduce compounds which are the causative agents of colon
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 7
cancer with a significant reduction in blood cholesterol level
blood pressure. The recommended dose of b-glucan for a
single food is 0.75 g/serving (Rasane et al. 2015) in general
while, the Presence of essential amino acids oleic acid
(45.60 g/kg), linoleic acid (36.240.4%) and linolenic acid
(38.4-41.6%) (Sterna, Zute, and Brunava 2016) also increases
the importance of oats in daily diet.
Fermentation with Monascus anka on oats also helps to
increase the phenolic compounds (free, conjugated and
bound) significantly along with the rise in glucosamine con-
tent, resulting in the enhancement of free radical scavenging
property of oats (Bei et al. 2017). Despite many potential
health benefits, oat milk is a poor source of calcium an
essential nutrient for the growth and development, which is
commercially fortified in oat milk before its consumption
(Sethi et al. 2016). Fermentation serves as an important tool
in oat milk production however, it is not always beneficial
as some important phytochemical may get utilized as
a substrate for the process while there may be a concurrent
production of some important secondary metabolites i.e.
phenolic compounds like chlorogenic acid and quercetin
which were detected in oats after fermentation by Monascus
anka. On the other hand, some compounds may be lost
in the process e.g. sinapic acid a major component of
unfermented seeds was not detected in fermented oats (Bei
et al. 2017). This again signifies the importance of standard
fermentation procedures which can affect the product both
ways i.e. benefit the process or can adversely affect it.
Rice milk
According to the Global Rice Science Partnership (Global
Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP) 2013), about half of the
worlds population have been using rice as their staple food
and mainly by the South-East Asian countries. However,
more recently western countries have also observed an
increase in the consumption of rice and hence an escalation
in production is found (Kelly 2016). Rice is highly rich in
starch (nearly 90%), whereas protein (about 10%) content is
least, lacking threonine and lysine (Jiang et al. 2016) with
significantly appreciable amount of ferulic acid, sinapic acid
and p-coumaric acid (Shao and Bao 2015), where sinapic
acid with carbon dioxide gets reduced along with p-hydrox-
ybenzoic acid (Goufo et al. 2014).
Rice is deficient of vitamin A precursor (b-carotene),
which is synthesized with the help of plant enzymes
(phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase, b-carotene
desaturase, and lycopene b-cyclase) to convert geranylgeranyl
diphosphate to b-carotene (Lau and Latif 2019). Though these
enzyme systems are fully functional in stalk leaves but are
lacking in the grains. Furthermore, rice is suggested to take
along with the bran as it contains the beneficial polyphenols
(phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins consisting
of catechin and epicatechin) (Shao et al. 2018). However, this
is rarely possible, especially for products like rice milk, to
achieve a good sensory profile.
Iron, an essential element, present in rice, where more
than 85% is seen in the bran (Ishimaru et al. 2010), which is
removed during the processing of rice into milk. Hence
fortification of rice milk with iron is required. But industries
are now focusing on the production of Rice Bran Milk
(RBM) due to their underutilization and high nutrient pro-
file. Studies found that rice bran milk is having lower TSS
value and viscosity than soy milk (Issara and Rawdkuen
2014). Also, soaking is effective in increasing the minerals
and vitamins (B
6
and B
12
), insoluble fiber and bioactive
components. This is kept for natural fermentation, where
lactic acid bacteria will break down the anti-nutritional fac-
tors and enhance the calcium, magnesium, iron content,
which increases the beneficiary bacteria that helps in diges-
tion and immunity of other internal organs (Sharma and
Gayathri 2018).
Cocoa milk
Cocoa is rich in polyphenols (1218%), mainly flavonoids
(flavan-3-ols, epicatechin, and catechin) has a potential to
act as cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity,
anti-carcinogenic and neuro-protective actions (Rodr
ıguez-
Lagunas et al. 2019). Cocoa is thought to have first been
used by the Maya civilization of Central America and its
consumption began from the mid-16
th
century in America,
and then it started to spread further. The western diet
included high energy chocolate, where dental caries, obesity,
high BP, and diabetes were the most common diseases.
While, lactose intolerance, a much serious problem surged
the search of a suitable alternate which was halted after the
establishment of cocoa milk as the most suitable analog to
conventional milk. Suppressive effect of cocoa on lactose
intolerance has been demonstrated and is well established
now. Cocoa consumption can reduce risk of CVD, with
improved cardiovascular health by an effective reduction in
blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function,
modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and reduction
of platelet aggregation. Major potential mechanisms respon-
sible for the health benefits of cocoa are activation of nitric
oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well
as antioxidant properties (Ludovici et al. 2017). Recently,
it has been reported that cocoa flavanols can slow down
carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut with a sig-
nificant improvement in insulin secretion. It also stimulates
sugar uptake from the blood into the muscle thus, can be an
effective tool for the management of diabetes (Ramos et al.
2017). Native Indians consumed cocoa as the unsweetened
drink of raw or powdered form providing antioxidant prop-
erties by polyphenols (flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, flavonols,
phenolic acids, stilbenes, and N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino
acids (NPAs) (Oracz et al. 2019).
Kidney bean milk
Kidney bean is considered as rich source of complex
carbohydrates (5060%), dietary proteins (2030%), vitamins
and minerals (vitamin K1, folate, molybdenum, iron, copper,
manganese, potassium and phosphorus) (Jayamanohar et al.
2019), phenolics (45.7 mg/g DW), polyphenols (cyanidin
8 A. A. PAUL ET AL.
3,5-diglucoside (00.04 mg/g DW), cyanidin 3-glucoside
(00.12 mg/g DW), delphinidin 3-glucoside (0-2.61 mg/g
DW), petunidin 3-glucoside (00.17 mg/g DW), pelargonidin
3-glucoside (00.59 mg/g DW) in seed coats of kidney
beans), phytosterols (134 mg/100 g DW) (Singh et al. 2017).
Among various starchy foods, kidney bean provides a low
glycaemic index which is not more than 27, thus usually
recommended for diabetic patients (Leterme 2002).
The allergens in kidney bean are reported to cause naso-
bronchial and allergic rhinitis and are classified into four:
lectin (phytohemagglutinin), phaseolin, a-amylase inhibitor
precursor, and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant pro-
teins. Also, 20-kDa polypeptide, a basic subunit of legumin,
are found which are thermally stable along with other five
pepsin-resistant proteins (approximate molecular weight 45,
29, 24, 20, and 6.5 kDa) (Kumar et al. 2013). Raffinose,
stachyose, and verbascose act as a prebiotic for bifidobacte-
rial and lactobacilli in the colon and presence of soluble and
insoluble dietary fibers make kidney bean an important
part of the diet. However, anti-nutritional factors (phytic
acid, trypsin inhibitor, lectins, and some oligosaccharides)
are major health concerns due to their adverse effect on
digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients (Los et al. 2018).
Bean milk is prepared primarily by rinsing and then
soaking until it swells completely, followed by soaked bean
processes like grinding and boiling. Supernatant as a result
of centrifugation is taken as the milk (Chen et al. 2019). To
reduce the anti-nutritional factors and allergenicity, solid
and liquid state fermentation is adopted with Bacillus subtilis
usually as a starter strain that can improvise antioxidant
activity by enhancing the production of isoflavone aglycones,
whereas LAB is naturally present (Lim
on et al. 2015).
Various enzyme, gaseous treatment (CO
2
) and fermentation
(with lactic acid bacteria) helps to boost c-aminobutyric
acid (GABA), a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which has
a significant role in prevention of cancer cell proliferation,
alcohol-related chronic diseases and reduction of hyperten-
sion and blood cholesterol level (Nikmaram et al. 2017).
Consumption of 10 mg GABA daily (from fermented milk)
for 12 weeks has been reported to decrease blood pressure
by approximately 17.4 mm Hg in hypertensive patients
(Inoue et al. 2003).
Peanut milk
Peanut products like peanut milk and butter have a nutri-
tional significance as they are rich in protein, minerals and
essential fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids, valuable
components in human nutrition (Abou-Dobara et al. 2016).
Among total fat (49.24 g/100g), presence of monounsatu-
rated fatty acids (MUFAs-50%) has a vital role in cholesterol
level as the amount of LDL consumed is comparatively less.
The concentrations of campesterol and stigmasterol are very
high in peanuts (198.3 and 163.3 mg/g) (Maguire et al.
2004). Peanuts contain almost all 20 amino acids and are
significant source of arginine (USDA 2014). Peanut proteins
(25.80 g/100g) have superior functional properties and when
incorporated in food presents good emulsification with
stability, high foaming, water retention, and solubility, and
thus can also provide a new high protein food ingredient
product formulation and protein formulation in the food
industry (Wu et al. 2009). All these properties make peanut
protein a good ingredient for its incorporation into noodles,
infant formulas (Arya et al. 2016).
In contrast, peanut allergy is an inevitable issue that has
to be faced even in the peanut milk industry. Till date, no
prevention methods have been effective regarding the allergy
and was suggested in 2015 by a study conducted that early
consumption of peanut protein can reduce the effect to a
certain extent (Fleischer et al. 2019). Eight peanut allergens
are Arachis hypogaea (Ara) h 1 to h 8 (Burks 2008). Among
these peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are the potent
allergens (Chen et al. 2016). Moreover, peanut being a leg-
ume contains phytic acid that lowers the bioavailability of
other nutrients and has insoluble fibers (Arya et al. 2016).
Extraction methods include defatting, roasting, alkali
soaking, steaming, grinding, sometimes heating or ferment-
ing, followed by filtration with have been found effective to
various extents to reduce the anti-nutritional factors and the
content of different food allergens to some extent (Adegoke
and Falade 2016). The peanut milk produced by the grind-
ing method is used either by removing fat to obtain a yellow
liquid (closely fat-free and rich in protein) or can be fer-
mented by LAB (Arya et al. 2016). One major problem
encountered during production of peanut milk is its poor
stability due to high-fat content and to improve the stability
emulsifying agents (alginates, gelatin, or vegetable gums 1%
(w/w) may be added to stabilize the emulsion during proc-
essing, transportation, and storage.
Coconut milk
Coconut is considered as a nutritious fruit and every part is
used for different purposes and is grown in 92 countries
mainly Indonesia, Philippines, South Asia, East Africa and
the Caribbean, etc. (FAO & APCC 2013). Milk obtained
from coconut is used world-wide for confectionaries, bak-
eries, biscuits, ice-creams, etc. Countries like India, Sri
Lanka, and other Asian countries widely use coconut cream
and milk for cooking purpose. Presence of medium-chain
triglycerides makes coconut milk an easily digestible non-
dairy substitute. Unlike other milk analogs containing long-
chain fatty acids, coconut contains medium-chain fatty acids
(MCFAs) that can be easily absorbed and metabolized by
the liver to convert into ketone compounds, which are use-
ful in brain functioning and to relief from memory impair-
ment like Alzheimer. Along with MCFAs, soluble and
insoluble fiber content increases the nutritional value of
coconut with various anti-oxidant properties (Fernando
et al. 2015). The milk also contains a fairly good amount of
minerals and vitamins.
According to Environmental Nutrition magazine, coconut
milk contains the highest amount of fat and the least
amount of protein among the nondairy milk. Furthermore,
approximately 87% of this fat is saturated with lauric acid
(44%) followed by caprylic and capric acids (13%), which
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 9
can conversely increase the bad cholesterol levels (LDL)
while calcium level in coconut milk is comparatively very
low (4% of the total recommended level) making it a cal-
cium deficit nondairy milk beverage (Katz 2018). Coconut
milk is usually prepared by mechanical method starting with
shelling the nut and separating the meat, which is cleaned
and grated. Mixing with water (warm) is done to extract the
oil, milk, and aromatic components (Belewu and Belewu
2007). Factors, for instance, grinding time, incubation period
and Viscozyme-L enzyme have a major effect on the yield of
coconut milk production. To be precise, effect of grinding
time is indirectly proportional to the yield; slightly effective
due to the interaction between the enzyme and incubation
period (Agarwal and Bosco 2014).
Hemp milk
Hemp seeds are considered to be as one of the richest sour-
ces of poly-unsaturated-fatty acids such as a-linolenic acid
and linoleic acid and are advisable in many health condi-
tions while, various products like oil, meal, flour, protein
powder derived from hemp seeds are commercially available
in the market (Andre et al. 2016). Along with all essential
amino acids and fatty acids, it contains lipids (2535%),
proteins (2025%), carbohydrates (2030%), insoluble
fibers (1015%), vitamin E (90 mg/100 gm) and minerals
(phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfur,
calcium, iron, and zinc) (Frassinetti et al. 2018). Its low
allergenicity and high nutritional value makes it a good
alternative over dairy and also soy and other nuts milk.
Linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid (ALA) are the predom-
inant fatty acids (8090 g/100g of their total fatty acids)
provide prostanoids and leukotriene with anti-thrombotic,
anti-vasoconstrictive and anti-inflammatory properties.
Moreover, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the most predomin-
ant bioactive constituent present (Crescente et al. 2018). It
provides health benefits against chronic diseases such as
obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis,
and Alzheimers disease. Among various antinutritional fac-
tors, phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) and trypsin
inhibitors have a major contribution. Hemp seeds show
anti-neuroinflammatory activity due to presence of lignana-
mides by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-
enhancer of activated B cells (NF-jB) signaling pathway.
Nevertheless, phenylpropionamides plays a vital role anti-
neuroinflammatory activity however, very high dosage of
total phenylpropanamides (TPA) have been reported to
cause toxicity to counteract its effect on inhibiting inflam-
matory cytokines production (Zhou et al. 2018).
Hemp milk is an oil-in-water emulsion and hence is
highly unstable and have a tendency to flocculate, coalesce,
and generate cream which is a challenge in industry as it
leads to losses in the quality and shelf-life. Emulsifiers or
stabilizers are often used to counter this situation; however,
usage of these chemical substances is not economical as it
increases the cost of production and also some health con-
cerns such as chronic inflammatory diseases, obesity-associ-
ated diseases, and metabolic disorders do not permit the use
of these chemicals. To overcome this issue, high-pressure
homogenization method is performed in which protein is
adsorbed on the lipid droplet surface, and can thus reduce
rancidity. Homogenization pressure determines the mechan-
ical energy provided to disrupt the oil droplets and create
new interfaces (Wang et al. 2018). Ultrasonic treatment can
be used for the optimization of the polyphenols, where the
technique helps industries economically and environmentally
to reduce the usage of chemicals and extraction time and
enhance shelf-life. Alternatively, longer extraction can give
a similar effect of increased DPPH activity and total
phenolics approximately 17.18% and 123.70% respectively
with comparatively less yield (The and Birch 2014).
Recent innovations and trends in the production
and quality improvement of milk analogs
Continuous research efforts are underway to improve the
organoleptic, nutritional and functional properties of the
plant-based milk alternates. Four major focus areas viz.
stability, removal of off-flavor, inactivation/removal of
inhibitors and shelf-life improvement of plant-based milk
beverages have been identified crucial in the production and
improvement of milk analogs. Stability of such beverages
is a function of the size of the dispersed phase particles
(fat globules, solid material particles, proteins, etc.) which
lead to a sandy, gritty or chalky body of the beverages on
fresh consumption and results in phase separation during
storage to form sedimentation at the bottom of the pack-
ages. The off flavor may develop with the course of time
during storage or may be inherent due to the presence of
unsaturated fatty acids and lipoxygenases (Maestri et al.
2000). Inactivation of enzymes by physical and chemical
treatments have been in use since long while, some recent
interventions like high pressure processing, pulse electric
field, ohmic heating, cold plasma, supercritical fluid extrac-
tion and solid-phase microextraction have been used as
effective tools to remove off-flavors from different beverages
(Sidhu and Singh 2016; Varghese and Pare 2019; Han et al.
2019 and Chang et al. 2019). Trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid,
lectins, tannins, protease inhibitors, saponins etc are major
antinutritional factors present in most of the plant-based
milk beverages. Different physical treatments (boiling, soak-
ing, sprouting, steam injection), chemical methods (b-cyclo-
dextrin entrapment) and bioprocessing and biotechnological
interventions (fermentation, enzyme processing) have been
employed to remove antinutritional factors (Obadina et al.
2013; Vagadia et al. 2018; and Yuan and Chang 2010).
Overall stability and shelf life of plant-based milk beverages
is mainly dependent on the production process and various
process parameters involved. All important aspects of the
production process with some recent innovative technologies
have been summarized in Table 4.
The success story of milk analogs
Medical complications (lactose intolerance, allergens,
negative association of bovine milk fat with cardiovascular
10 A. A. PAUL ET AL.
Table 4. Challenges in production of milk analogs along with their specific reasons and innovations to overcome these challenges.
Potential
concerns Specific reasons Innovations in production process Supportive findings
Poor Stability Stability is affected by, size of
the particle (fat globules),
formation of an emulsion,
undistracted starch granules
and solubility of proteins
Milling (colloid mill) Pistachio kernel ground into a fine paste using a colloid mill
which crushed all fibrous materials and facilitated easy release
of reduced particle size of protein and fat components
(Shakerardekani, Karim, and Vaseli 2013)
Heating (pasteurization and
sterilization)
Higher extraction temperature increased extractability of fat,
denaturation of proteins with reduced solubility and yield of the
proteins (Chauhan, Yadav, and Agrawal 2003)
At a temperature of 143 C/60 s, single-step ultra-high
temperature process can produce a commercially sterile soy milk
with trypsin inhibitor activity inactivation, highly acceptable colour
and flavor, and thiamin retention between 90 and 93% (Kwok
et al. 2002)
Emulsifiers and novel food-based
stabilizers (Oleosins, food-based
particles and microgels)
lecithin, xanthan gum and propylene glycol alginate stabilized
colloidal suspension of peanut beverage with improved
physicochemical/rheological properties (Gama et al. 2019)
Many studies on responsive-microgels have used synthetic
polymers such as poly N-isopropylacrlyamide (NIPAM) having
a well-known temperature response, particle bridging, depletion
flocculation and/or droplet coalescence,
Ultra high-pressure
homogenization (UHPH)
UHPH (350 MPa and 85 C) treatment inactivated microorganisms
and enzymes with fragmentation of particles of dispersions into
Nano emulsion and resulted in stabilization of almond milk
(Briviba et al. 2016)
Mildest conditions of UHPH (200 MPa with 55 C) reported no
bacterial growth after incubation of samples at 30 C during
20 day (Valencia-Flores et al. 2013)
High pressure homogenization treated lupin-based beverage
(175 MPa and pass number 2, 4 and 6) had better flavor, texture,
colour, taste, and longer shelf life (Xia et al. 2019)
Lentil based drink treated with high-pressure homogenization
(900 bar at 85 C) resulted in highly stable nano-emulsion with
great colloidal stability, appearance and viscosity similar to cows
milk (Jeske et al. 2019)
Ultrasonic homogenization High-
Intensity ultrasound irradiation
High shear homogenization at 2,000 g for 30 min followed by
sonication with 13 mm sonication probe (20 kHz and input power
500 W) resulted in particles of sub-micron range with reduced
creaming index and free fat content of coconut milk (Abdullah
et al. 2018)
High-intensity ultrasound irradiation (power 5055 W cm
2
,
frequency, amplitude and pulse duration set as 20 kHz, 40 % and
on time 2 sec þoff time 2 sec, respectively) resulted in shear
thinning of the coconut milk exhibiting strong pseudoplasticity,
increased dynamic viscoelasticity with excellent liquid fluidity (Lu
et al. 2019).
High-intensity ultrasound processing of chocolate milk beverage
(0.33.0 kJ/cm
3
), compared to HTST pasteurization (72 C/15 s)
resulted in superior microbiological and physicochemical
characteristics of the beverage (Monteiro et al. 2018)
Removal of
off-flavor
Presence of unsaturated fatty
acids and lipoxygenases
Inactivation of enzymes
(lipoxygenases, aldehyde,
dehydrogenase) by Rapid-
hydration grinding process, high
pressure processing, pulse
electric field, ohmic heating,
cold plasma.
High pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and
145 C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates)
inhibited lipoxygenase activity in soy milk (Sidhu and Singh 2016)
The activity of soybean lipoxygenase was reduced with inhibition
of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with PEF treatment
having electric strength 40 kV/cm for 1,036 μs ( Li et al. 2013)
Ohmic heating (220 V, 50 Hz for 3 min efficiently inactivates
trypsin inhibitor activity to 13% compared to 19% in induction
cooker and electric stove. (Lu et al. 2015).
Microwave treatment of power 675W, target temperature 80 C
and stirring speed 160 RPM was optimized with desirability
(Varghese and Pare 2019)
Cold plasma has been extensively studied for the inactivation of
various enzymes, including peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase,
lysozyme, a chymotrypsin, alkaline phosphatase, and pectin
methylesterase (Han et al. 2019)
Deodourization A brominated polystyrene adsorbent (SEPABEADS SP207) and a
zeolite (HSZ-360HUD) adsorbent removed about 6070% hexanal
from soy protein isolate (Inouye et al. 2002)
Masking of off-flavor by addition
of artificial or natural flavorings
Addition of artificial or natural flavorings (diacetyl, isoamyl
acetate, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, methyl anthranilate,
limonene, allyl hexanoate etc)
Modification of traditional
processing steps like steam
distillation, roasting, blanching
Blanching is required to inactivate trypsin inhibitors and
lipoxygenase that would produce off-flavours in soy milk and
peanut milk (Jain et al. 2013)
(continued)
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 11
Table 4. Continued.
Potential
concerns Specific reasons Innovations in production process Supportive findings
and soaking in
alkaline conditions
Roasting of the raw material enhances the aroma and flavor of
the final product, but heating decreases the protein solubility and
extraction yield (Chauhan, Yadav, and Agrawal 2003)
In lentil protein isolate ethanol and isopropanol treatments
(at 75% v/v) effectively removed off-flavours with increased
commercial viability (Chang et al. 2019).
Supercritical fluid extraction Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO
2
) containing 5% ethanol in
was found most effective in removal of off-flavors from soybean
protein isolate (Maheshwari et al. 1995)
Solid-phase microextraction The most common off-flavor compounds that cause musty, earthy
off-flavors (haloanisoles, halophenols, geosmin and
methylisoborneol) and medicinal off-flavors (phenolic compounds,
sulfur-containing compounds, carbonyl compounds, alcohols, fatty
acids, esters and amines which are removed by solid-phase
microextraction (Jelen 2006).
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas
chromatographic technique successfully employed for quantitative
analysis of thermally derived off-flavor compounds (Vazquez-
Landaverde et al. 2005)
Inactivation/
removal
of inhibitors
Trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid,
lectins, tannins, Protease
inhibitors, saponins etc
Physical treatments (boiling,
soaking, sprouting, steam
injection, blanching, UHT
treatment, microwave treatment
ultrafiltration, autoclaving etc)
Microwave processing (2.45 GHz at 70 C, 85 C and 100 C for 2,
5 and 8 min for 10, 20 and 30 min) reduced trypsin inhibitor
activity to 1% compared to 10% in raw soybean (Vagadia
et al. 2018)
Roasting in rotary drum dryer, saltbed roasting and conventional
grain dryer at temperatures varying between 110170 C,
inactivates trypsin inhibitors at least by 85% (Vagadia et al. 2017)
Thermal treatment in the oven at 200C for 20 min, reduced
trypsin inhibitors activity in whole soybean flour (Andrade
et al. 2016)
96% reduction in trypsin inhibitor activity was reported in
autoclaved soybeans at 121C for 60 min (Osman et al. 2002)
Soymilk processed by steam injection at 100C for 20 min,
blanching at 70-85C for 30 sec and UHT at 135 C150 C for
1050 sec reduced trypsin inhibitory levels of 13%, 50% and 10%
respectively (Yuan and Chang 2010)
b-Cyclodextrin-based methods Use of b-cyclodextrin (bCD) to extract flavor precursors and flavor
compounds form different foods is an recent approach as it forms
complexes with organic compounds, including carbonyl
compounds (Reineccius et al. 2002), fatty acids (Alahverdjieva
et al. 2005), and phospholipids (Funasaki et al. 2002; Nishijo
et al. 2000).
Bioprocessing and biotechnology
(fermentation, germination,
enzyme processing,
selective breeding)
Fermentation of soybean milk using using Lactobacillus bulgaricus
and Streptococcus thermophilus reduced the beany and soapy
flavor (Obadina et al. 2013)
Enzymatic treatment with a-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 13h
effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut by up to 100%
and 98% (Yu et al. 2011)
Conventional breeding involves crossing of hypoallergenic
varieties to produce a variety that is more hypoallergenic. Perkins
et al. (2006) crossbred peanuts that were missing either an Ara h
2 or Ara h 3 isoform and produced a variety lacking
both isoforms
Germination of 28 h affected three classes of bioactive
components responsible for off flavor development in soy milk,
namely, trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and total phenolics, and
resulted in significant decrease in their concentration (Jiang
et al. 2013)
Shelf life
improvement
High nutritional status
particularly sugars and
fatty acids
Thermal treatment Combination of a mild thermal treatment (55 C, 15 min) with the
presence citral and linalool (40 or 60 mL/L) inhibited or delayed
microbial growth (wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae) probability
(spoilage probability (P ¼0.58 and P ¼0.93, respectively) and
resulted in more stability (Belletti et al. 2010)
Ultra high-pressure
homogenization
UHPH-treated tiger nutsmilk beverages (at 200 and 300 MPa,
with inlet temperature of 40 C) had a microbiological stability
against psychrotrophic bacteria, lactobacilli, enterobacteria and
molds during storage at 4 C with the shelf-life extended from
3 to 25, 30 and 57 days by applying UHPH treatment (Codina-
Torrella et al. 2018)
Hemp milk (4% protein, 5% fat) without pH shift, at
homogenization pressure (up to 60 MPa) resulted in a more
uniform distribution of emulsion droplets (2.22.7 μm) which were
stable, showing negligible phase separation within 3-day storage
at 4 C (Wang et al. 2018)
(continued)
12 A. A. PAUL ET AL.
diseases) with conventional milk or some lifestyle-related
issues (High protein requirement, balanced amino acid pro-
file, probiotic beverages) have resulted in, consumers more
interested in vegan diets over normal mammalian milk.
Though the market for milk analogs is governed by specific
choices and influenced by various opinions developed over
time yet the preference for milk analogs is not out of neces-
sity, but is out of search for cheaper and more efficient food
sources. The consumption of plant-based nondairy beverages
have been reported in early civilizations all over the world
with limited availability to the local market, preparation at a
traditional gathering or home scale (Jeske et al. 2018). The
presence of plant-based milk beverages is highly diverse
around the globe including some famous formulations like
rice-based beverages (Asia); Sikhye (Korea); Amazake
(Japan); Atole (Mexico); Chicha (Andes); Bushera (Uganda);
Boza (Bulgaria); Albania (Turkey and Romania); tiger-nut
milk Horchata (Spain) etc. (Cort
es et al. 2005; Blandino
et al. 2003). With continuous efforts of the research person-
als and industrial experts to put these plant proteins under
direct food use the concepts of nutritional needs are trans-
formed from survival and hunger satisfaction to overall state
of well-being by healthy food choices (Jeske et al. 2018).
Such concerns have significantly resulted in increased con-
sumption of plant-based milk beverages due to associated
health claims e.g. high number of vitamins, fiber, and virtu-
ally free from cholesterol which alongside the negative per-
ceptions associated with bovine milk is pushing the market.
The global nondairy plant milk-based market is projected
to reach revenues of more than $38 billion by 2024 and is
expected to grow at a current annual growth rate (CAGR)
of over 14% during 20182024 (Non-dairy milk market -
global outlook and forecast 20192024). Among various
forms of milk analogs available, soya milk is still the most
preferable choice with dominance in the market and a global
market size of USD 7.30 billion which is still predicted to
increase further in years to come (Global market insights
2019). In a research report published by Mordor intelligence
(2019) the global rice milk market is expected to register a
CAGR of above 15%, during the forecast period between
2018 and 2023. While, grand view research, Inc. (2019)
recorded global almond milk market size worth USD 5.2 bil-
lion in 2018 with a projected growth of USD 13.3 billion by
2025 at an expected annual growth rate of 14.3%. Further,
Table 4. Continued.
Potential
concerns Specific reasons Innovations in production process Supportive findings
High pressure homogenization (172 MPa) of almond and hazelnut
milks combined with low heat treatments (85 C/30 min) resulted
in greatest stability of the beverages (Bernat et al. 2015)
Homogenization pressure (210 MPa), protein concentration and
phase fraction resulted in modification of the secondary structures
of soy protein isolate in nanoemulsions (<200 nm) and enhanced
the stability of such system (Atalar 2019)
Pulsed electric field processing PEF treatment of apple juice with 400 pulses allows storage of
juice for 72 h under refrigeration, while 300 pulses ensures
microbiological stability for 48 h with inhibition of all mesophilic
bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts (Dziadek et al. 2019)
Microchip-pulsed electric field (350 V, 0.15 ms, 7 mL/min) resulted
in better microbiological, physicochemical properties, flavor and
shelf life of freshly squeezed blueberry juice for at least 30 days
at 4 C (Zhu et al. 2019).
PEF (34 kV/cm, 60 μs) affected the microbiological and
physiological shelf life of smoothie stored at 4 C and extended it
over mildly pasteurized (72 C, 15 s) by 21 vs. 14 days (Walkling-
Ribeiro et al. 2010)
Ultrasound processing Almond milk treated with ultrasound at 20 kHz (frequency) 130 W
acoustic energy (higher power: 80%, 8 min and pulse at 6 sec)
inhibited Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes
improved storability up to 2 weeks at 4 C (Iorio et al. 2019)
Physical properties which affects the stability and shelf life (Brix,
physical stability, lightness, yellowness, viscosity and particle size)
of almond milk were improved by ultrasonic treatment for 4.9 min
up to 14 days at 5 C (Maghsoudlou et al. 2016).
Ultra-sonication (US) treatment (400 W) of freshly extracted
peanut milk resulted in extended shelf life and retained quality
during storage (Salve et al. 2019)
Ultra-sonication (20 KHz for 15 min.) resulted in better stability,
rheological and physicochemical properties of coconut milk with
improved emulsion stability index (Indu et al. 2019).
Hurdle technology Tiger nut milk was subjected to hurdles like thermal treatment at
60 C for 30 min, HHP at 500 MPa for 120 s, and UV-C at 45.2 mJ
cm
2
to achieve the target 5-log reduction in Salmonella
Typhimurium with improved stability (Zhu et al. 2019)
Tiger nut drinks were prepared using three spices namely, ginger
(Zingiber officinale Rosc), galic (Allium sativa) and ehuru (Monodor
amyristica) followed by pasteurization at 72 C for 15 mins and
subsequent stored at room (28 C) and refrigerated temperature
(4C) retained storability at least for a period of three weeks
(Joy and Rosline 2018)
CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 13
hemp milk is another delight significantly growing in milk
analog category with about 50 countries across the globe
producing and exporting significant volumes of hemp milk.
In a recent report published by Zion market research (2019)
global hemp milk market was valued at USD 185 million in
2018 with an expected revenue generation of USD 527 mil-
lion by 2026, at a CAGR of around 15.5% between 2019 and
2026. Whereas, coconut milk represents another important
sector of milk analogs with the global market expected to
grow at CAGR of 14.61% and reach USD 2,350.8 million till
2023. The liquid coconut milk is expected to reach a worth
of USD 1,550.5 million while, powdered coconut milk seg-
ment is expected to witness the fastest CAGR of 14.78%
owing to its increased shelf-life by the end of 2023 (Market
research future 2019). These figures provide an insight of
the commercial market potential of nondairy based milk
beverages which has attracted a lot of attention of some
commercial multinational players to invest in this sector.
Some of the major market competitors in the soy milk
industry are Eden Foods, Pureharvest, Vitasoy international
holdings Ltd., Organic valley, Pacific foods of oregon, Inc.,
etc. Rice milk market is dominated by Vitasoy Australia
products Pvt Ltd, Campbell soup company, The Hain celes-
tial group, Pureharvest, Panos brands, LLC), White wave
foods. Major world producers of almond milk include Daiya
foods Inc., Hain celestial group, Whitewave foods; sunopta
Inc., Blue diamond growers; Galaxy nutritional foods, Inc.
Some key players operating in the global hemp milk market
are Healthy brands collective, Drink daily greens, Pacific
foods of oregon, Waska farms, Wild harvest organics, and
Braham & Murray. Coconut milk market is highly frag-
mented with cottage scale manufacturers in every region
though some multinationals like McCormick & Company,
Inc., Goya Foods, Inc., Dabur India Ltd, Vita coco, Celebes
coconut corp., Thai agri-foods public Co., Ltd and Thai
coconut public company are now well-established names in
the coconut milk market.
Conclusion
Milk ubiquitously is a complete food which is non-replace-
able, though we have come across the benefits of plant sub-
stitutes over the dairy industry. Presence of different
bioactive phytochemicals, absence of cholesterol, high energy
input given for the production, limited availability of milk
in some region, emergence of vegan diet and limited resour-
ces like landmass, feed, etc. are acting as the driving force of
nondairy industry with an enormous expansion prospective
making them more intriguing in present market. Extraction
method varies with plant or part of the plant used for the
extraction i.e. almond, coconut, hemp, etc are usually mech-
anically produced, whereas, soy, oat, rice, etc are allowed to
undergo a fermentation process before extraction. Extraction
procedures are often assisted with the addition of the
enzymes for better yield. Presence of some anti-nutritional
factors which may be naturally occurring or might develop
during processing as a part of food is one of the major
issues faced by food processing industries in the
commercialization of these products. However, simple proc-
essing methods like cleaning, roasting, soaking, sprouting,
germination, fermentation various thermal and non-thermal
treatments have been standardized in order to reduce anti-
nutritional factors. For improvement of sensory profile forti-
fication using appropriate technology, different additives,
stabilizers or emulsifiers are added and to improve the sus-
pension, microbial stability and shelf-life, they are pasteur-
ized or given ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment. The
nondairy industry holds a great potential especially due to
complications faced by the dairy industry such as lactose-
intolerance, milk allergy in infants, presence of pathogens
and lack of some essential nutrients. However, conclusive
research trials should be conducted on the direct involve-
ment of various bioactive phytochemicals in management or
improvement of various health-related issues and the role of
different plants for the development of novel products which
are economic and nutritionally equivalent to bovine milk.
Also, to meet consumers acceptability with a continuously
changing behavior towards novel food products, progressive
efforts towards improvement in the product quality through
research and development activities and technological inter-
ventions is indeed expected from the scientific community.
Conclusively, it seems that plant-based milk alternatives will
continue to be a major research area in the newer product
development category of food science and technology.
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