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SUPERHUB: Integrating behaviour change theories into a sustainable urban-mobility platform

SUPERHUB: Integrating behaviour
change theories into a sustainable
urban-mobility platform
Paula J. Forbes
Simon Wells
Judith Masthoff
Hien Nguyen
Computing Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE
The SUPERHUB project (SUstainable and PERsuasive Human Users moBility in future cities)"
promotes the creation of a new urban mobility services ecosystem to facilitate the take-up of
environmentally sustainable behaviours. It will design and test an open platform able to combine in
real time all mobility offers from the relevant stakeholders together with a set of enabling mobility
services able to address usersmobility needs and to foster behavioural change. This paper
explores how SUPERHUB plans to integrate behaviour change theories.
Keywords. Behaviour Change, Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Sustainable Travel, Persuasion, Transport, Urban Mobility.
World population is increasingly city based with
51% or 3.5 billion people living in urban areas.
Existing mobility systems are under strain and are
using increasing amounts of resources. The
transport sector represents 30% of the final energy
consumption of the EU and is a major source of
greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants. If we are
to ensure sustainable development for Europe as
well as meet EU targets for greenhouse gas
emissions and energy efficiency it is vital that we
have an efficient and usable mobility system that
has as little impact on the environment as possible.
SUPERHUB aims to provide an integrated,
multimodal system that supports transport needs
and encourages environmentally sustainable
choices to help limit the environmental impact of
transport. It is a collaboration of 20 European
partners, including academic institutions, transport
companies, environmental agencies and city
councils. (See for a full list and
more detail). Another aim is to investigate what are
the most effective methods to persuade people to
adopt environmentally sustainable behaviour. To
achieve behaviour change, one option is to lower
the barrier for uptake of a behaviour, so a system
that makes it easier for people to find mobility
information, book public transport and share lifts
may encourage sustainable behaviour. Therefore,
SUPERHUB aims to empower people with
information, providing accurate, real time data on
travel options and any disruptions to services, and
providing support for car pooling and taxi sharing.
Crowd sourcing will be used to provide up-to-date
information (e.g., on transport delays and the
crowdedness of busses), whilst care will be taken
to ensure the reliability of information. Additionally,
behaviour change can be achieved by employing
more direct behaviour change techniques.
SUPERHUB will therefore support the setting of
individual mobility related goals (e.g. use public
transport or provide a lift at least once a week), and
provide feedback on mobility behaviour and
encouragement to do better. SUPERHUB will also
exploit the potential of serious games and social
networks to sensitize people and make them reflect
about their environmental behaviour. This paper is
mainly concerned with the second way of achieving
behaviour change, and explores how to integrate
behaviour change theories into SUPERHUB.
There is a section of society that is committed to
the environment and will do what they can to
reduce their carbon footprint. Others may take
more persuading to make more sustainable travel
choices. Anable (2005) states that travel research
methodology and policy interventions often
overlook how the combination of instrumental,
situational and psychological factors affect travel
choice and how these differ for distinct groups of
people. Understanding what will motivate people to
change their behaviour is a key element of
successful persuasion. For example, visualising the
amount of CO2 produced over a year may work for
some whereas for others finding out the amount of
money they could save by taking the bus rather
than driving may be more motivating (as found in
our focus groups). Different people will respond
more or less to different cues and we aim to
investigate what the most effective methods for
persuasion are and how they can be implemented.
We want to provide a personalized system that
optimally persuades people to make more
environmentally aware transport choices.
© The Authors. Published by BISL.
Proceedings of BCS HCI 2012 Workshops
Using Technology to Facilitate Behaviour Change
and Support Healthy, Sustainable Living
SUPERHUB: Integrating behaviour change theories into a sustainable urban-mobility platform
Paula Forbes, Simon Wells, Judith Masthoff, Hien Nguyen
Persuasive technology is technology specifically
designed to change people’s attitudes and/or
behaviours (Fogg, 2003). Persuasion implies a
voluntary change, without using coercion.
Persuasive systems aimed at changing behaviour
are often called “Digital behaviour interventions”.
3.1 Theories of behaviour change
There is growing evidence that using behaviour
change theory leads to more effective
interventions. For example, a systematic review of
85 studies involving 43,236 participants found that
“the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions is
associated with more extensive use of theory (in
particular the use of the theory of planned
behaviour)” (Webb, 2010). Many theories exist; see
Jackson (2005) for an overview. These theories
help to identify the key behavioural determinants
(Michie et al, 2005). These determinants are then
targeted by behaviour-change techniques.
Advantages of the theory-based approach include:
(1) interventions are likely to be more effective if
they target causal determinants of behaviour and
behaviour change; this requires understanding
these causal determinants, i.e. theoretical
mechanisms of change; (2) theory-based
interventions facilitate an understanding of what
works and thus a basis for developing better theory
across different contexts, population and
behaviours; (3) vice versa, theories can be tested
and developed by evaluations of interventions only
if those interventions and evaluations are
theoretically informed. Fogg (2003) proposed an
integrated model within the field of persuasive
technology. Aiming at intervention designers who
need an easy-to-use practical framework, Fogg’s
behaviour model is deliberately simple: it states
that three elements -namely motivation, ability and
a trigger- must occur at the same time for
behaviour to happen. The lack of any of these three
elements will cause non-compliance. The Fogg
model says that if you get the motivators right, and
if the behaviour is made easier for people to do,
and if you trigger it - then the behaviour is more
likely to occur. Considering the many theories,
some attempts, based on expert consensus, have
been carried out to identify a set of common
behaviour determinants. Fishbein et al (2001)
analysed behaviour change theories to change
people from risky to healthy HIV preventive
behaviours. They identified eights factors that
enable predicting and understanding behaviour.
Michie et al (2005) analysed 33 theories with 128
constructs (including the 5 used by Fishbein et al)
from a wide variety of fields, and identified 12
factors that are most likely to influence behaviour.
3.2 Behaviour change techniques
Behaviour change techniques are strategies used
to promote behaviour change (Webb, 2010). For
example, an intervention designed to encourage
people to walk more can ask them to monitor their
daily step count to raise their awareness of their
current behaviour the ‘self-monitoring’ technique.
Each theory of behaviour change is associated with
a number of techniques, each of which can be
further mapped to a specific behavioural predictor
defined in the theory. Many researchers have
attempted to create a taxonomy of behaviour
change techniques. For example, the taxonomy
developed by Michie et al. (2008) has defined and
mapped 137 techniques to 11 behavioural
predictors with the indication of where they can be
used effectively. Behaviour change theories can be
used to predict which combinations of techniques
are likely to be most effective. For instance, Control
Theory suggests how feedback may interact with
other techniques to change behaviour. In the
domain of healthy eating and physical activity
interventions, Michie et al’s (2009) meta-analysis of
122 studies found that interventions that combined
self-monitoring with at least one other “self-
regulatory” technique were twice as effective when
compared with other interventions. Based on their
analysis, they suggested the inclusion of five
techniques: prompting intention formation,
prompting specific goal setting, providing feedback
on performance, prompting self-monitoring of
behaviour, and prompting review of goals.
3.3 Personalising the intervention
Theories of behaviour change agree that any
voluntary change of behaviour is not an event, but
a process (e.g. Prochaska & Norcross, 2001). This
process can go from not wanting to change, to
considering change, to making and maintaining
permanent change. Such a process develops over
a long time. This is particularly true when the
problematic behaviour is an everyday habit (e.g.
travelling by car). People neither go through the
process of change in the same order nor at the
same speed. Additionally, behavioural
determinants, the most appropriate behaviour
change techniques and optimal mode of delivery
may depend on the user. Any behaviour
intervention, therefore, must be tailored to the
beliefs, preferences, and circumstances of each
individual. Empirical evidence supports this view; a
meta-analysis by Noar et al. (2007) showed tailored
messages outperformed comparison messages in
affecting health behaviour change.
Although the majority of research into persuasive
technology has been in the health domain, there
are examples of persuasive technology research in
the transport domain. A particular focus has been
SUPERHUB: Integrating behaviour change theories into a sustainable urban-mobility platform
Paula Forbes, Simon Wells, Judith Masthoff, Hien Nguyen
on 'mobility management' systems that motivate
people to use more sustainable forms of transport
by providing detailed travel information, incentives
for selecting more sustainable modes of transport,
and applying marketing techniques which focus on
individual travel behaviours (Jones, 2003;
Taniguchi et. al. 2007). For EU countries, the
European Platform on Mobility Management
(EPOMM) and the European Local Transport
Information Service (ELTIS) provide a large
number of case studies about implementing
mobility management measures. In the transport
domain, the dominant form of digital behaviour
intervention is the 'travel feedback program' which
gives feedback on CO2 emissions estimates,
advice on car use reduction, information on public
transport, etc. Examples include Travel Blending
(Rose & Ampt, 2001), TravelSmart (Ampt &
Rooney, 1999), Wise Ways to Use Cars (Taniguchi
et al 2003), and the UK personalized travel
planning systems reported in the Smarter Choices
document (Cairns et al, 2004). To give an
indication of the effectiveness of these approaches,
a meta-analysis in Japan by Taniguchi et. al.
(2007) of travel feedback programs found a mean
reduction in car use of 19%, while the Cairns et al.
(2004) analysis in the UK reported a 7-15%
reduction in car use in urban areas.
To ensure that SUPERHUB provides an effective
tool, it will be developed in a User-Centric way,
putting the user at the heart of the design process.
Our target users will be anyone who travels and
could use more environmentally sustainable modes
of transport than they currently do, even for some
of the journeys that are made. We also aim to
support those already using sustainable transport.
Requirements gathering research has already
taken place in SUPERHUB’s three trial cities:
Barcelona, Helsinki and Milan. Quantitative data
was obtained by questionnaire (about 200
responses per city) and qualitative data by running
Focus Groups (about 10 focus groups in each city,
using different kinds of transport users). Scenarios
were developed to showcase the core SUPERHUB
functionalities, relevant scenarios were then
discussed in the Focus Groups. This initial
research provided a large amount of data on
demographics, current transport usage, problems
experienced, mobility preferences as well as
feedback and inspiration for new scenarios. The
wide range of attitudinal data will ensure that we
are as well informed of the needs of the target
users as possible. Full details of this preliminary
work can be found in the Superhub deliverable
D1.1 ( Data is still
undergoing analysis but we intend to carry out
factor analysis and then segmentation analysis to
identify homogenous groups or clusters of cases.
We are currently running a series of Participatory
Design workshops with a variety of end-users who
will play a key role in the development of the
system. In each city, the SUPERHUB
functionalities will then be tested in a realistic
environment with more than 200 users,
investigating the impact of SUPERHUB solutions in
different contextual backgrounds. We are also
developing Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) to
measure how successful aspects of the system
are. KPI’s would include measurements of long
term user adoption, user satisfaction, attitude
change and knowledge of environmental issues.
SUPERHUB plans to go beyond the state of the art
for persuasive systems within the sustainable
transport domain in two main ways. Firstly, it will
work with users through participatory design and
user-centred development to build a system in
which the functionality focuses on the real-world
transport needs of the user. Secondly, it will
develop a system that is able to facilitate desirable
behavioural shifts by utilising much more of the
potential of persuasive technologies. SUPERHUB
will facilitate behavioural shifts using a subset of
the techniques identified by Michie et al (2008).
The following techniques (which include the five
found most effective by Michie et al., 2009) will
form the core of SUPERHUB’s intervention:
Prompting intention formation, specific goal
setting and goal review. Users set specific
mobility related goals which are reviewed
regularly to determine to what extent the goal
has been met and whether to adjust it.
Monitoring, feedback, and rewards.
Participants’ travel behaviour is monitored,
feedback on behaviour is provided, and
rewards are provided if appropriate. The
rewards to use (e.g. reduced bus fares, social
recognition) will be determined during
participatory design.
(Social) Comparison. Comparative data
shows participants how their behaviour
compares with their past behaviour, and that of
others in the community or support group.
Prompts and personalisation. Participants
are prompted at appropriate times to change
their behaviour, e.g., to provide a lift or use
public transport. Prompts are personalised to
participants characteristics and contextual
circumstances. For example, the focus groups
showed that adaptation is needed to the
weather and travel company.
Aiding decision-making. Users will be
provided with sufficient appropriate information
to enable them to make informed decisions
about their travel behaviour.
SUPERHUB: Integrating behaviour change theories into a sustainable urban-mobility platform
Paula Forbes, Simon Wells, Judith Masthoff, Hien Nguyen
SUPERHUB will use information push via mobile
devices to prompt users about their transport
decisions and to make suggestions about
alternatives. For example, when a user has
indicated that they are willing, in principle, to take
part in car-pooling, SMS can be used to organise
an impromptu car-pool in real-time rather than
relying on pre-arranged, longer-term planning.
Decisions about how and when to make these
kinds of interventions will be based upon data-
mining of users’ profiles and travel-behaviour
metrics and use contextual information such as
adverse weather. Furthermore, data mining
enables alternative behaviours to be suggested.
For example, when the system has learnt about a
user's regular travel habits, suggestions can be
made such as to try public transport for a given leg
of their journey. In this way the persuasive
elements of the systems seamlessly integrate into
the travel planning functionality. Data-mining will
also be used to inform the persuasive functionality
in profile matching, users whose profiles suggest
compatibility may be matched up for a car-pooling
or taxi sharing offer if their travel plans coincide.
We aim to create a synthesis of automated digital
interventions based on intelligent analysis of
tracked user behaviour together with explicit goal
setting, adjustment, achievement-tracking,
feedback and incentive mechanisms. Automated
interventions will cover un-prompted, opportunistic
contextual interventions, such as suggesting
alternatives , like renting a bike when a scheduled
bus is late, or utilising social compatibility matching
to formulate persuasive messages encouraging a
user to join a car pool with someone with whom
they have similar hobbies, as well as the supportive
role found in conscious goal-setting based
approaches to behaviour management.
We are currently running participatory design
workshops to inspire the user interface and the
persuasive component.! We! will! perform
foundational research into mobility behaviour and
expectations, with special attention to sustainability
and motivational aspects; create mock-ups and
prototypes to be used in formative and summative
evaluations. Testing will be scaled up later to
include around 1000 people per trial city. Further
details can be found at:!
Ampt, E., and Rooney, A. (1999) Reducing the
Impact of the car: A sustainable approach.
Travel Smart Adelaide, Perth, Australia
Anable, J. (2005) Complacent Car Addicts or
Aspiring Environmentalists? Identifying travel
behaviour segments using attitude theory.
Transport Policy 12, 65-78.
Cairns, S. et al. (2004) Smarter choices: Changing
the way we travel, Department for Transport, UK.
European Local Transport Information Service
(2012). (retrieved 14.06.2012)
European Platform On Mobility Management
(2012) (retrieved 14.06.2012)
Fishbein, M. et al. (2001). Factors influencing
behaviour & behaviour change. Handbook of
health psychology. Mahwah,NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum, 317.
Fogg, B.J. (2003). Persuasive technology: using
computers to change what we think and do,
Morgan Kaufmann
Jackson, T. (2005). Motivating sustainable
consumption: A review of models of consumer
behaviour and behavioural change. London:
Policy Studies Institute.
Jones, P. (2003). Encouraging behavioural change
through marketing and management: What can
be achieved? Conf. Travel Behaviour Research.
Michie, S. et al. (2005). Making psychological
theory useful for implementing evidence based
practice: a consensus approach. Quality and
Safety in Health Care, 14, 26-33.
Michie, S. et al. (2008). From theory to intervention:
mapping theoretically derived behavioural
determinants to behaviour change techniques.
Applied Psychology, 57 (4). 660-680
Michie S. et al. (2009). Effective techniques in
healthy eating and physical activity interventions:
a meta-regression. Health Psych., 28(6), 690-701
Noar, S.M., Benac, C.N. and Harris, M.S. (2007).
Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of
tailored print health behaviour change
interventions. Psych. Bulletin, 133(4), 673693
Prochaska, J. O, Norcross, J. C. (2001). Stages of
change. Psychotherapy, 38, 443-448
Rose, G., and Ampt, E. (2001) Travel blending: an
Australian travel awareness initiative.
Transportation Research, 6, 95-110.
Taniguchi, A. et al. (2003) Psychological and
behavioural effects of Travel Feedback Program
for travel behaviour modification, Transportation
Research Record, 1839, 182-190.
Taniguchi, A., Suzuki, H., Fujii, S.(2007). Mobility
management in Japan: Its development and
meta-analysis of travel feedback programs.
Transportation research record, 2021, 100-109.
Webb, T.L., et al. (2010). Using the internet to
promote health behaviour change: A systematic
review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical
Internet Research 12(1)
... The study proved a positive influence of gamification on the users' transport decisions. Alrefaie et al., 2014, Carreras et al., 2012, Forbes et al., 2012Gabrielli & Maimone, 2013 Tripzoom (Netherlands, Sweden, UK) ...
In this paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are developed to predict traffic volumes using traffic sensor data from the city of Darmstadt as a basis for future smart mobility solutions. After processing the acquired sensor data, information about the current traffic situation can be derived and events such as rush hour, weekends or holidays can be identified. Based on current research findings in the field of traffic forecasting using neural networks, our work shows the first best practices for modeling the traffic volume and an associated traffic forecast. A Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network is shown to be superior to a Deep Neural Network (DNN) in terms of prediction quality and prediction horizon. Furthermore, it is discussed whether the enrichment of the training data with additional time and weather data enables an increase of the forecast accuracy. In the sense of a design-theoretical approach, design requirements and design principles for the development of an ANN in a traffic-specific context are derived.
... The study proved a positive influence of gamification on the users' transport decisions. Alrefaie et al., 2014, Carreras et al., 2012, Forbes et al., 2012Gabrielli & Maimone, 2013 Tripzoom (Netherlands, Sweden, UK) ...
Conference Paper
A large proportion of traffic congestion can be attributed to commuters and their travelling behavior. While smart mobility systems (SMSs) intend to address related challenges by actively changing com-muters' behavior, many SMSs lack commuters' meaningful engagement. Research and practice have started examining engagement factors that increase meaningful engagement with SMSs. The existing approaches, however, often neglect individual commuting-related needs and personal traits-two crucial facets to sustain these systems' long-term engagement. This paper identifies relevant traffic-related needs and personal traits suitable to improve meaningful engagement. We developed a theoretically sound instrument to categorize commuters in the context of smart mobility and derive first clusters from a pilot study. In the process, we synthesize existing commuter categorizations from psychology and traffic research. This synthesis centers around individual commuting-related needs, personal traits, and objective commuting characteristics. The instrument and pilot study represent a first step toward designing sustainable SMSs with meaningful engagement.
... Interventions developed as preventive models and proactive responses can promote general wellbeing and help individuals avoid and reduce the negative impacts of risk factors. Some of the targeted behaviours include motivating physical activity (Nguyen and Masthoff, 2010;Kato et al., 2008), nutrition and healthy eating (Grasso et al., 2001;Orji, 2014;Thompson et al., 2010;Thomas et al., 2017), encouraging safe driving habits (Braun et al., 2018), or promoting sustainable travel behaviours (Forbes et al., 2012;Anagnostopoulou et al., 2018). Technology for wellbeing can promote initiative and self-care, empower individuals and improve self-management skills. ...
People have been intrigued by happiness and what it means to live a good and meaningful life for millennia. Researchers have become increasingly interested in studying the sources of happiness and which strategies are effective in leading to long-lasting and increased subjective wellbeing. Growing evidence shows that intentional engagement in kind activities and behaviours, such as performing acts of kindness, showing generosity or expressing gratitude, can have a significant effect on increasing and sustaining happiness. The rapid adoption and integration of technology in everyday life has provided a unique potential for developing persuasive interventions and digital behaviour change systems as tools for stimulating and enhancing pro-social behaviours and attitudes. Persuasive technologies have been shown to be effective in motivating people to adopt and maintain healthy behaviours and could play a key role in designing effective interventions that increase subjective wellbeing. This thesis investigates how persuasive technology can encourage engagement in meaningful, achievable and enjoyable kind activities that prevent mental health problems and improve subjective wellbeing. The primary research contribution of this thesis is studying the design of an adaptive behaviour change intervention and evaluating its effectiveness in encouraging people to participate in kind activities and behaviours. We developed "Be Kind", an online intervention that personalises persuasive messages to motivate engagement in meaningful, achievable and enjoyable activities, which improve subjective wellbeing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in motivating behaviour change, influencing behavioural intention and improving subjective wellbeing. The results suggest that the intervention has a positive effect on people’s behaviour and leads to increased happiness. We investigated the actual persuasiveness of Cialdini’s persuasion principles, which formed the foundation for personalising the intervention. Our findings differ from work investigating perceived persuasiveness, indicating that what people perceive to be more persuasive is not necessarily what will persuade them to engage in a certain behaviour. Moreover, we explored how people’s susceptibility to different persuasive principles varies over a longer period of time. Exploring personalisation of persuasive technologies and understanding actual persuasiveness is relevant to a wide variety of other domains. Our research will provide new insights and contribute as a foundation for the development of technology supporting people’s wellbeing, having implications for future work on personalising persuasive strategies and designing digital behaviour change interventions.
... We are currently refining our motivational features to better target behavior change at collective level within our user community, also pursuing integration of the system with social media to expose the functionalities to a broader audience. From additional requirements collected (Forbes, Wells, Masthoff, & Nguyen, 2012;Gabrielli et al., 2013), we also realized that social influence strategies to induce behavior change, such as comparing scores with other users, are perceived as more meaningful and acceptable if relevant to one's social network. Participants were somewhat unwilling to share data and scores with unknown users, but felt more motivated about sharing with personal contacts. ...
... optimise accessibility to people with diverse impairments and across diverse platforms, the SUPERHUB user interface will be designed to follow the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and the guidance set out in the W3C Mobile Applications Best Practices: [11] We are currently working on the second iteration of design features for SUPERHUB's Second Integrated Prototype (SIP) and intend to implement some of the user requests in Table 1 to provide a useful and accessible tool. If SUPERHUB can provide the most important information that our participants requested in combination with it's other functionalities such as journey planning, car & taxi sharing, disruptive event reporting [12] and motivational features [13], it is hoped that it will enable people who could not access or avoided public transport before to make better use of more sustainable transport modes and to become more empowered in both their choices and in their mobility. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
SUPERHUB is an European Mobility project that aims to implement measures to improve urban mobility and encourage environmentally friendly travel behavior by providing an Advanced Transport Information Service (ATIS) to users where real-time mobility options can be ranked according to their profile and preferences. Users will be able to make informed decisions on the mode of transport they use in urban situations as well as highlighting any accessibility issues by reporting them to the transport providers and to others with a similar profile. The primary aim of SUPERHUB is not as a specialized accessibility system, however, a User Centred Design (UCD) Approach was adopted to ensure the system will be useful to everyone. A series of Focus Groups and interviews with people with physical and sensory impairments was held as part of this process. This paper describes some of the issues people with a visual, hearing or mobility impairment face when accessing and using public transport and some possible technical solutions that an ATIS such as SUPERHUB may be able to provide for those with disabilities. We describe here some preliminary findings of the Focus Groups and interviews we carried out in the UK, Milan, Barcelona and Helsinki and suggest some functionality that could be implemented by applications such as SUPERHUB to provide better information and support to increase the accessibility of Public Transport.
In public urban spaces different generations meet and eventually end up by sharing the same kind of activities. Nowadays, more occasions of encounter are generated by a widespread push to the re-appropriation of urban spaces for green, social and inclusive aims, so creating sustainable urban ecosystems. Information and Communication Technologies scattered in the urban environment boost these processes by supporting the user experience in different kinds of services. For example, in the transport sector several digital technologies allow the use of shared mobility services and sustain other kinds of more sustainable behaviors for travelers both improving their mobility experience and motivating them towards a common green goal. According to this scenario, the paper examines the physical and digital media and services that might support the user experience during a scattered cultural urban event. Indeed, events that concern different urban spaces at the same times require different kinds of efforts by the attendants, from retrieving information about the available sites, to getting the indication on how to reach them. However, different habits and needs emerge according to the different age of the attendants. The paper shows the results of a survey administered to a group of people from different ages attending a cultural event in Rome. The study analyzes the kind of media and services people used and suggested to retrieve information about the event. Then it envisions some opportunities that emerge in creating services supporting the communication and the user experience of the event, and of the city as well.
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In this research, a real-Time positioning method, which utilises crowdsourced positioning data obtained from smartphone GPS is developed. Such vehicle location information obtained from crowdsourcing and smartphones in public transport could replace traditional automatic vehicle location systems. However, the location information from smartphone GPS is more erroneous. The proposed methodology serves as an alternative to existing positioning methods to improve the vehicle positioning accuracy. The developed enhanced particle filter algorithm takes smartphone GPS positioning data [from multiple passengers in a single transit vehicle (e.g. bus)] as input data. This 'crowdsourced' data can then be utilised to calculate the vehicles' positioning information with better accuracy using the developed enhanced particle filter algorithm. The developed algorithm was tested using data collected on 14 different bus routes in urban and suburban areas of Mumbai, India, and it was identified that the algorithm is effective in reducing the average error up to 21.3% from a regular smartphone GPS and 10% from extended Kalman filter algorithm and was able to curtail positioning error within 8.672 m (average over 14 routes).
Der Forschungsbereich der Mobilität und des Verkehrs fokussierte sich bis zum Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts fast ausschließlich auf die Bereitstellung und Weiterentwicklung von Verkehrsmitteln und Infrastruktur. Mit dem Aufkommen von Überlastungsphänomenen erweiterte sich der Forschungsbereich hinsichtlich Möglichkeiten zur Beeinflussung der Nachfrage nach Verkehrsmitteln. Das Mobilitätsverhalten soll nicht mehr ausschließlich durch rein instrumentelle Methoden beeinflusst werden, sondern auch durch das Bereitstellen von Informationen.
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Consumer behaviour is key to the impact that societ y has on the environment. The actions that people take and choices they make – to consume certain products and services or to live in certain ways rather than others – all have direct and indirect impacts on the environment, as well as on personal (and collective) well-being. This is why the topic of ‘sustainable consumption’ has become a central focus for national and international policy. Why do we consume in the ways that we do? What fact ors shape and constrain our choices and actions? Why (and when) do people behave in pro-environmental or pro-social ways? And how can we encourage, motivate and facilitate more sustainable attitudes, behaviours and lifestyles? Motivating Sustainable Consumption sets out to address these questions. It reviews the literature on consumer behaviour and behavioura l change. It discusses the evidence base for different models of change. It al so highlights the dilemmas and opportunities that policy-makers face in addressing unsustainable consumption patterns and encouraging more sustainable lifestyle s. Changing behaviours – and in particular motivating more sustainable behaviours – is far from straightforward. Individual behaviours are deeply embedded in social and institutional contexts. We are guided as much by what others around us say and do, and by the ‘rules of the game’ as we are by persona l choice. We often find ourselves ‘locked in’ to unsustainable behaviours in spite of our own best intentions. In these circumstances, the rhetoric of ‘consumer s overeignty’ and ‘hands-off’ governance is inaccurate and unhelpful. Policy-make rs are not innocent bystanders in the negotiation of consumer choice. Policy interven es continually in consumer behaviour both directly (through regulation and taxes eg) and more importantly through its extensive influence over the social con text within which people act. This insight offers a far more creative vista for policy innovation than has hitherto been recognised. A concerted strategy is needed to make it easy to behave more sustainably: ensuring that incentive structures and institutional rules favour sustainable behaviour, enabling access to pro-environmental choice, engaging people in initiatives to help themselves, and exemplifying the desired changes within Government’s own policies and practices.
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This paper outlines a new approach to reducing car use in order to address environmental concerns. The individual action program, known as Travel Blending®, involves participating households being sent a series of four kits, containing information booklets and travel diaries, over a nine-week period. The travel diaries are analysed and a summary of the household’s travel patterns, and the emissions produced by their vehicles, is sent back in a subsequent kit along with suggestions explaining how they could reduce vehicle use. Households complete another set of travel diaries after four weeks and these are analysed so that a comparative summary can be returned to the household with the final kit. The paper describes results from two Australian studies. The first, a pilot study, involving about 50 individuals, was undertaken in Sydney, Australia. The second study involved about 100 households from Adelaide, Australia. Quantitative results from the Adelaide study indicate about a 10% reduction in car driver kilometres with a slightly higher percentage reductions in car driver trips and total hours spent in the car. These results, while very encouraging, must be interpreted cautiously. Further research will be required to explore the generalisability and magnitude of the effect of the Travel Blending® Program on travel behaviour.
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The Internet is increasingly used as a medium for the delivery of interventions designed to promote health behavior change. However, reviews of these interventions to date have not systematically identified intervention characteristics and linked these to effectiveness. The present review sought to capitalize on recently published coding frames for assessing use of theory and behavior change techniques to investigate which characteristics of Internet-based interventions best promote health behavior change. In addition, we wanted to develop a novel coding scheme for assessing mode of delivery in Internet-based interventions and also to link different modes to effect sizes. We conducted a computerized search of the databases indexed by ISI Web of Knowledge (including BIOSIS Previews and Medline) between 2000 and 2008. Studies were included if (1) the primary components of the intervention were delivered via the Internet, (2) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (3) a measure of behavior related to health was taken after the intervention. We found 85 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria, providing a total sample size of 43,236 participants. On average, interventions had a statistically small but significant effect on health-related behavior (d(+) = 0.16, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.23). More extensive use of theory was associated with increases in effect size (P = .049), and, in particular, interventions based on the theory of planned behavior tended to have substantial effects on behavior (d(+) = 0.36, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.56). Interventions that incorporated more behavior change techniques also tended to have larger effects compared to interventions that incorporated fewer techniques (P < .001). Finally, the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions was enhanced by the use of additional methods of communicating with participants, especially the use of short message service (SMS), or text, messages. The review provides a framework for the development of a science of Internet-based interventions, and our findings provide a rationale for investing in more intensive theory-based interventions that incorporate multiple behavior change techniques and modes of delivery.
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Meta-analyses of behavior change (BC) interventions typically find large heterogeneity in effectiveness and small effects. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of active BC interventions designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating and investigate whether theoretically specified BC techniques improve outcome. Interventions, evaluated in experimental or quasi-experimental studies, using behavioral and/or cognitive techniques to increase physical activity and healthy eating in adults, were systematically reviewed. Intervention content was reliably classified into 26 BC techniques and the effects of individual techniques, and of a theoretically derived combination of self-regulation techniques, were assessed using meta-regression. Valid outcomes of physical activity and healthy eating. The 122 evaluations (N = 44,747) produced an overall pooled effect size of 0.31 (95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.36, I(2) = 69%). The technique, "self-monitoring," explained the greatest amount of among-study heterogeneity (13%). Interventions that combined self-monitoring with at least one other technique derived from control theory were significantly more effective than the other interventions (0.42 vs. 0.26). Classifying interventions according to component techniques and theoretically derived technique combinations and conducting meta-regression enabled identification of effective components of interventions designed to increase physical activity and healthy eating.
Marketing and management measures - often colloquially know as 'soft' measures - can en- courage a shift from car travel to more sustainable transport modes, and may also increase pub- lic support for direct actions to limit car use. These measures are often effective because many people lack information about alternatives to the car, even for journeys where good alternatives already exist. Other people may have a general negative image of non-car modes. Better infor- mation and persuasive marketing can help shift both attitudes and behaviour. Use of such meas- ures is comparatively new, and transport models to predict their impacts in different circum- stances are not well developed. However, empirical evidence suggests that these measures may have significant impact. The potential impacts of workplace and school travel plans, persona l- ised travel planning, bus information and marketing, and car clubs, if applied intensively and together, are such that 24 hour car travel demand in an urban conurbation could be cut by 9% - 22% under different scenarios. Synergistic effects could increase the impact. However, induced traffic could erode some of the benefit, if soft measures were implemented without comple- mentary traffic restraint or road capacity re-allocation. Marketing and management measures should be attractive to policy makers and transport planners, because: they are politically less contentious than some other measures; offer high benefit-cost ratios; and increase the benefit of investment in new sustainable transport infrastructure.
Empirical research on the stages of change has taken a number of tacks over the past 20 years. In this article, we review those published research studies that have directly examined the stages (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and, termination) as they relate to treatment outcome, broadly defined. The cumulative evidence indicates that tailoring the therapy relationship and treatment intervention to the stage of change can enhance outcome, specifically in the percentage of patients completing therapy and in the ultimate success of treatment. Several limitations of this body of research are noted. We conclude by advancing therapeutic practices both for conventional psychotherapy with individual patients and for proactive recruitment of entire populations.
Can computers change what you think and do? Can they motivate you to stop smoking, persuade you to buy insurance, or convince you to join the Army? "Yes, they can," says Dr. B.J. Fogg, director of the Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford University. Fogg has coined the phrase "Captology"(an acronym for computers as persuasive technologies) to capture the domain of research, design, and applications of persuasive computers.In this thought-provoking book, based on nine years of research in captology, Dr. Fogg reveals how Web sites, software applications, and mobile devices can be used to change peoples attitudes and behavior. Technology designers, marketers, researchers, consumers-anyone who wants to leverage or simply understand the persuasive power of interactive technology-will appreciate the compelling insights and illuminating examples found inside. Persuasive technology can be controversial-and it should be. Who will wield this power of digital influence? And to what end? Now is the time to survey the issues and explore the principles of persuasive technology, and B.J. Fogg has written this book to be your guide.
The effects of the Travel Feedback Program (TFP) on travel behaviors and psychological factors that may influence automobile use were investigated. TFP was proposed as a method of modifying travel behavior with automobile use into travel behavior without automobile use. In TFP, participants were asked to report their travel activity behavior, after which they received feedback on that behavior, including information about the amount of carbon dioxide emission resulting from the behavior, and comments or suggestions from the program coordinators on how to reduce automobile use. The behavioral and psychological effects produced by TFP were theoretically investigated on the basis of norm activation theory, which describes the psychological process of altruistic behavior proposed in social psychology. From the theory that automobile-use reduction or pro-environmental behavior is influenced by behavioral intention to reduce automobile use, it was hypothesized that behavioral intention is in turn influenced by moral obligation, and moral obligation is in turn influenced by awareness of the negative environmental consequences of automobile use. The psychological and behavioral data confirmed the set of hypotheses of causal relations, and the data indicated that TFP has a significant positive effect on pro-environmental behavior even 1 year after participation in TFP.
Using an expanded version of a psychological theory of attitude-behaviour relations, namely the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), scores on factor analysed multi-dimensional attitude statements were used to segment a population of day trip travellers into potential ‘mode switchers’ using cluster analysis. Six distinct psychographic groups were extracted, each with varying degrees of mode switching potential. Each group represents a unique combination of preferences, worldviews and attitudes, indicating that different groups need to be serviced in different ways to optimise the chance of influencing mode choice behaviour. Socio-demographic factors had little bearing on the travel profiles of the segments, suggesting that attitudes largely cut across personal characteristics. The evidence clearly shows that the same behaviour can take place for different reasons and that the same attitudes can lead to different behaviours. The paper asserts that commonly used a priori classifications used to segment populations based on demographic variables or simple behavioural measures may oversimplify the structure of the market. Cluster analysis is rarely used in studies of travel behaviour but this study demonstrates its utility in providing a way of extracting naturally occurring, relatively homogenous and meaningful groups to be used in designing targeted hard and ‘soft’ transport policies.