Conference Paper

Comparison of a Gamified and Non-Gamified Virtual Reality Training Assembly Task

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

By using simulations in virtual reality (VR), people have the chance to train without supervision in a safe and controlled environment. VR simulation training allows users to gain new skills and apply them to real-life situations. However, the learning curve of this technology from a novice level could influence the expected learning results of a training session. A training approach based on the combination of VR and gamification could speed up this overall learning process and not just for a novice. In this paper we evaluate how gamification in a VR training session can improve the efficiency of the training and the accuracy of the task execution in a real-world practical test. In the training scenario of this study, 50 randomly assigned participants were divided into two groups. The groups were assigned to a gamified and a non-gamified version of the same VR training and were then guided through a step-by-step tutorial outlining how to solve an assembly task. Performance differences were evaluated based on time taken and specific errors made during the training session. The results of this study show, in general, that beneficial effects can be attributed to the use of gamification in the conducted VR training simulation, particularly for the VR novice participants.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... XR is a term that refers to the ever-changing and growing field of human-computer interaction (HCI) [56][57][58][59]. A technology or application that combines several realities, such as virtual worlds (VWs), virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) is referred to as extended reality (XR) or cross reality [64][65][66]. ...
... Users of XR says that they attend events to discover new places. As a result, considering storage as a design aspect is another suggested practise to keep in mind when considering virtual reality [22,56,97]. ...
... The ability to make connections between current behaviour and future action. The XR experience's goal is to change or influence a future encounter [36,56,79]. ...
... VR applications with gamification aspects are often compared to traditional training scenarios (Chen et al., 2020;Pratticò and Lamberti, 2021), without isolating the effectiveness of the gamification approach (Hamari et al., 2014). Feedback elements in VR training were considered (Palmas et al., 2019); however, their correlations to the subject group's motivation levels are unclear. Thus, there is a need for studies exploring the impact of game elements on industrial training outcomes and the motivation of the participants to create guidelines for the industry. ...
... Afterward, they focus on procedural knowledge and decision making (Hou et al., 2017) to train the subject on routines in inaccessible or dangerous environments (Guo et al., 2020), assembly and disassembly steps (Abidi et al., 2019;Xie et al., 2019), calibration and error recovery procedures (Pratticò and Lamberti, 2021), and parameter settings (Chen et al., 2020;Garcia et al., 2019). While VR environments for industrial applications are widely available, studies including industrial assembly tasks are rare (Hoedt et al., 2016) as most case studies apply VR training to non-industrial assemblies such as puzzles (Carlson et al., 2015), building bricks (Borsci et al., 2016;Roldán et al., 2019), and other domestic objects (Abidi et al., 2019;Palmas et al., 2019). ...
... As their VR setup did not include specific game elements, they stated that future research should target game elements such as narratives or difficulty levels. Palmas et al. (2019) conducted a user study on gamified and non-gamified VR assembly training. They selected three feedback elements (progress bar, points, and audiovisua effects) but did not find significant differences in the error rates of the gamified and non-gamified groups. ...
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) offers novel possibilities for remote training regardless of the availability of the actual equipment, the presence of specialists, and the training locations. Research shows that training environments that adapt to users' preferences and performance can promote more effective learning. However, the observed results can hardly be traced back to specific adaptive measures but the whole new training approach. This study analyzes the effects of a combined point and leveling VR-based gamification system on assembly training targeting specific training outcomes and users' motivations. The Gamified-VR-Group with 26 subjects received the gamified training, and the Non-Gamified-VR-Group with 27 subjects received the alternative without gamified elements. Both groups conducted their VR training at least three times before assembling the actual structure. The study found that a level system that gradually increases the difficulty and error probability in VR can significantly lower real-world error rates, self-corrections, and support usages. According to our study, a high error occurrence at the highest training level reduced the Gamified-VR-Group's feeling of competence compared to the Non-Gamified-VR-Group, but at the same time also led to lower error probabilities in real-life. It is concluded that a level system with a variable task difficulty should be combined with carefully balanced positive and negative feedback messages. This way, better learning results, and an improved self-evaluation can be achieved while not causing significant impacts on the participants' feeling of competence.
... Operators should practice independently in a safe controlled environment without trainers [23], because the number of trainers and experts may continuously decrease due to their involvement in the construction of new concepts and systems [22]. ...
... The devices used in VR were Head Mounted Display (HMD. Most used HMD was HTC Vive [23], [12], [11], [24] rather than Oculus Rift [24]. To determine the position and orientation of the headset, Oculus The Rift tracks the user using an LED infrared camera, whereas the HTC Vive uses a photodiode to interpret the signal from the Vive lamp housing [24]. ...
... The study measured the objective and subjective, physiology performance, before, during and after experiment. Almost all studies were evaluate objective differences based on the time taken and specific errors [14], [23], [26]. The study to retrieve a participant's personal entry condition used, the d2-Test of Attention, Visual Fatigue Questionnaire (VFQ) [14], Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) [14], [11], open interview [11], qualitative feedback and suggestions [25]. ...
... Gamification has shown potential for learning outcomes (Palmas et al., 2019), with multiple studies showing how it can affect on cognitive, motivational, and behavioral learning outcomes (Sailer and Homner, 2020) and on different educational levels, from school to university education, and different contexts, such as learning physics or physical education (Manzano-León et al., 2021). Different theoretical principles from learning theories, motivational and affective theories, and behavioral theories have been linked to elements present in gamification (Krath et al., 2021). ...
Conference Paper
The growth of vehicle electrification is posing an increasing demand for electric batteries in the automotive industry. To respond to this growing demand, the automotive industry is starting to venture into the process of battery assembly. Multiple challenges arise from the complexities and the risks associated with these type of assembly processes. In this paper, the concept for a gamified virtual reality training system for battery assembly operators with the virtual representation of the risks is presented. A manual assembly process with automated assistance is considered. The results highlight the main aspects to consider for modeling a battery assembly process in a virtual environment. These aspects cover the areas of accurate modeling of risks, general user experience factors, and potential applications of the virtual reality training system.
... Serious VR Simulations range from traditional replicas of environments and evaluation scenarios to better understand the behavior of people [3], to skill training facilities for specific tasks [11], to deal with certain phobias [10,12] or to operate complex remote technologies like robots. Over the last years, new user groups for simulated environments, such as users of remote teaching tools during the COVID-19 pandemic or elderly people who want to have an immersive traveling experience, have been emerging because of the progress and affordable nature of VR technology. ...
Full-text available
Technical Report
In this paper we want to discuss the future potential of Serious Virtual Reality (VR) Simulations and VR Serious Games. This contribution is the foundation of the VENUS workshop presented on ISMAR 2022. We will provide insights into recent VR projects to lay a foundation for in-depth discussions with participants of the workshop. Furthermore, we want to shed light on needed research in the area of VR frameworks, further strengthening the subconscious transfer of knowledge through Serious Games and the involvement of tangible objects to increase immersion and presence.
... Other complex design concepts that lengthen development time include but are not limited to gamification, autonomy and adaptability. Palmas et al. (2019) hypothesized that the use of gamification can enhance the efficiency of VR training. Their findings show that VR users trained through gamification completed training 12.2% faster than the non-gamified group and committed 30.2% less errors. ...
Full-text available
Article
Higher Education Institutions are introducing Virtual-Reality (VR) development courses and divisions focussing on the development of Virtual Environments which are in high demand. Students without a programming background are not familiar with the processes of developing Virtual Assembly Training Systems (VATS), consequently, they learn through trial and error. To address this challenge the development of two similar VATS was observed to propose a framework detailing the workflow, roles, tasks and deliverables undertaken during development. Both VATS are based on the assembly of a top bracket, an elementary railcar component rendered via the HTC Vive Pro. The first VATS was developed by expert developers and the other through project-based learning with five engineering students. The case study was conducted at the Railcar Learning Factory wherein SolidWorks, Sketchup, Blender and Unreal Game Engine were used for CAD modelling and visual scripting. The encountered challenges and best practices evolved into the proposed framework. Findings suggest that engineers without a programming background can develop VATS when capacitated with a blend of asynchronous and synchronous learning. Importantly, Learning Factory Managers should consider the lifecycle of VR prototypes to ensure their usage in the industry. This approach can contribute to generating industry-relevant research output.
... In [24], Bertram et al. evaluated 10 assistance systems for assembly operations from 6 aspects relevant for intelligent working stations and concluded that none of the 10 systems fully covers the automated generation of work plans, flexible integration in production, or autonomous learning ability. The benefits of gamification (e.g., faster training, less errors) versus a non-gamified approach were revealed in a study involving 50 participants by Palmas et al. [25]. In [26], several heuristic-based approaches were used in order to optimize picking orders in fulfillment warehouses. ...
Full-text available
Article
Manual work accounts for one of the largest workgroups in the European manufacturing sector, and improving the training capacity, quality, and speed brings significant competitive benefits to companies. In this context, this paper presents an informed tree search on top of a Markov chain that suggests possible next assembly steps as a key component of an innovative assembly training station for manual operations. The goal of the next step suggestions is to provide support to inexperienced workers or to assist experienced workers by providing choices for the next assembly step in an automated manner without the involvement of a human trainer on site. Data stemming from 179 experiment participants, 111 factory workers, and 68 students, were used to evaluate different prediction methods. From our analysis, Markov chains fail in new scenarios and, therefore, by using an informed tree search to predict the possible next assembly step in such situations, the prediction capability of the hybrid algorithm increases significantly while providing robust solutions to unseen scenarios. The proposed method proved to be the most efficient for next assembly step prediction among all the evaluated predictors and, thus, the most suitable method for an adaptive assembly support system such as for manual operations in industry.
... The immersive setup of VR provides a real environment-like experience to users that enables them to interact with virtual contents by performing certain tasks [32]. Gamified VE attracts the attention of a participant more effectively than a game alone due to the addition of immersion with gamification [33]. Further, the incorporation of challenges, avatars, and feedback in the form of rewards or points as gamification elements into VR-based games facilitates a higher rate of user attraction and motivation [31]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Virtual reality (VR) has been widely used as a tool to assist people by letting them learn and simulate situations that are too dangerous and risky to practice in real life, and one of these is road safety training for children. Traditional video- and presentation-based road safety training has average output results as it lacks physical practice and the involvement of children during training, without any practical testing examination to check the learned abilities of a child before their exposure to real-world environments. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a 3D realistic open-ended VR and Kinect sensor-based training setup using the Unity game engine, wherein children are educated and involved in road safety exercises. The proposed system applies the concepts of VR in a game-like setting to let the children learn about traffic rules and practice them in their homes without any risk of being exposed to the outside environment. Thus, with our interactive and immersive training environment, we aim to minimize road accidents involving children and contribute to the generic domain of healthcare. Furthermore, the proposed framework evaluates the overall performance of the students in a virtual environment (VE) to develop their road-awareness skills. To ensure safety, the proposed system has an extra examination layer for children’s abilities evaluation, whereby a child is considered fit for real-world practice in cases where they fulfil certain criteria by achieving set scores. To show the robustness and stability of the proposed system, we conduct four types of subjective activities by involving a group of ten students with average grades in their classes. The experimental results show the positive effect of the proposed system in improving the road crossing behavior of the children.
... Gamified VR environments are typically used for health applications and teaching purposes in educational institutions. [18,19] Only Palmas et al. [20] is comparing VR and Gamification manufacturing applications by analyzing the efficiency of a gamified and non-gamified assembly training tasks. For the gamified training, they use four different game elements (progress bar, points, sound feedback, and visual feedback); all other aspects of the VR environment remain identical for both training tasks. ...
Conference Paper
Industry 4.0 imposes many challenges for manufacturing companies and their employees. Innovative and effective training strategies are required to cope with fast-changing production environments and new manufacturing technologies. Virtual Reality (VR) offers new ways of on-the-job, on-demand, and off-premise training. A novel concept and evaluation system combining Gamification and VR practice for flexible assembly tasks is proposed in this paper and compared to existing works. It is based on directed acyclic graphs and a leveling system. The concept enables a learning speed which is adjustable to the users’ pace and dynamics, while the evaluation system facilitates adaptive work sequences and allows employee-specific task fulfillment. The concept was implemented and analyzed in the Industry 4.0 model factory at FH Aachen for mechanical assembly jobs.
... A distinction may be drawn between encouraging entire learning activities and encouraging partial activities. Palmas, Labode, Plecher, & Klinker (2019) describe the use of game elements to support a complete MR-based learning activity: Supported by game elements, the efficiency of an MR-based tutorial for assembling drum sets is increased. An example for encouraging partial activities is the study by Zander et al. (2016) introducing a rotation restriction called powerbar as a playful constraint of software-supported mental rotation tasks. ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Mixed Reality (MR) applications are widely considered to be effective educational tools. Yet, the use of MR alone cannot ensure learning and studies even suggest that the affordances of this technology could decrease the mental processes required for the acquisition of new knowledge. As any other technological innovation, the educational possibilities of MR are closely related to the design of its contents. Despite, there are no design recommendations for MR focused on learning. Educational psychology presents a range of empirically proven design guidelines for multimedia learning environments. This chapter reviews existing guidelines, categorizes those into principles related with the perception of information and the related essential information processing (Design Principles) and principles aiming at promoting generative learning (Activating Principles). These principles finally are translated to MR-learning environments.
... Gamification is increasingly being integrated into corporate training because it provides new approaches for instructional designers to engage learners [9] and has shown promising potential [10] for motivating the workforce and keeping it engaged with the learning process. Our understanding of gamification goes beyond Deterding et al.'s definition as the application of game elements in non-gaming contexts [11]. ...
Conference Paper
In order to keep up with technological developments and to be able to work efficiently, the training methodology must be kept up to date. A typical approach when innovating corporate training is to adopt new technologies. We attempt to deliver a common set of characterisations and concepts that allow us to classify and define extended reality training.
... Performance differences were evaluated based on the time taken and specific errors made during the training session. The study shows that beneficial effects can be credited to the use of gamification in the VRtraining, especially for the VR novice participants in the gamified group [12]. Regarding learning outcomes and attitudes towards game-based training, a study shows that groups that were receiving gamified training were significantly more satisfied with training over the control group. ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Accelerating workplace digitalization and increasing automation in society calls for swift retraining of the existing workforce. Existing research on gamification has investigated how to improve the outcomes of different learning contexts. However, the field of gamified employee training has been sparsely investigated. By participating in different gamification design workshops with a gamification studio and its clients, this study takes into perspective the challenges of designing a gamified solution for adult retraining situations. The findings of the study propose that designing gamified employee training involves complexities relating to the client's preconceived notion of gamification.
Chapter
The importance of the e-technologies available to support teaching and learning in e-learning systems is becoming increasingly evident to educators and system developers. In this chapter, the authors review some of the e-technologies and e-learning that are used to support the individual requirements of teachers, allowing them to provide the best opportunities to students, considering that the current situation, in which educational systems have new immediate claims, derived in part from the COVID-19 pandemic, motivated face-to-face educational practices to give way to remote activities mediated by technological resources. The new contemporary trends in e-learning and e-technologies development and applications utilize a wide range of available technologies, which are framed in web and virtual reality environments among other emerging technologies; therefore, the decision to use a particular technology must be based on solid research and evidence. This chapter reviews many of these e-technologies and provides information on their use, opportunities, and trends in development and applications.
Article
Gamification’s role to support usability and innovation in the manufacturing industry is in its infancy. The present study displays a multi-cited ethnographical approach of a design science research project conducted between a start-up gamification firm and a manufacturing company. The case shows how different gamification design methods are used when gamifying a novel human modelling system. Furthermore, the interference from method to the design is presented and compared with conceptual views of gamification design. The findings show the need for early technical due diligence in collaborations between newer and older firms as well as the need for more comprehensive gamification frameworks to support industry design of gamification in different contexts.
Conference Paper
Virtual Reality Speech Training (VR-ST) helps trainees develop presentation skills and practice their application in the real world. Another benefit is direct feedback based on gamification principles. It is not yet clear if direct feedback is accepted by participants. We investigated how direct feedback in a VR-ST affects the participants' technology acceptance based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Our study compares a VR-ST with direct feedback (n=100) with a simulation-based VR-ST (n=100). The results show that direct feedback offers benefits to trainees by improving technology acceptance. Further results show that VR-ST is generally more accepted by participants without public speaking anxiety.
Chapter
Motivation - According to WHO about 41 million people per year die from the consequences of Noncommunicable Diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Physical inactivity and poor dietary behavior like expressive sugar consumption have been observed to promote the emergence of such a disease significantly. Objective - As part of this paper, a native iOS application called “TrackSugAR” shall be developed, which is capable of visualizing sugar amounts in foods with Augmented Reality (AR) to support users in continuously diminishing their daily sugar consumption. Methods - For this purpose the Design Science Research Methodology by Peffers et al. [31] is used. This method provides guidance through the entire process of developing a functional software prototype. To evaluate the usability of the application, approved questionnaires such as SUS and HARUS are applied in a first evaluation stage with 14 participants. Results - Based on the data from these questionnaires, the TrackSugAR app scored \(89\pm 8\) in the SUS and \(91\pm 7\) in the HARUS. Likewise, the results from the first evaluation phase admit the conclusion that AR increases the ability of users to quantify the sugar amounts present in food products.
Full-text available
Article
Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted. In all, 285 studies were identified, with 86 concerning assessment, 45 theory development, and 154 treatment. The main disorders researched were anxiety ( n = 192), schizophrenia ( n = 44), substance-related disorders ( n = 22) and eating disorders ( n = 18). There are pioneering early studies, but the methodological quality of studies was generally low. The gaps in meaningful applications to mental health are extensive. The most established finding is that VR exposure-based treatments can reduce anxiety disorders, but there are numerous research and treatment avenues of promise. VR was found to be a much-misused term, often applied to non-interactive and non-immersive technologies. We conclude that VR has the potential to transform the assessment, understanding and treatment of mental health problems. The treatment possibilities will only be realized if – with the user experience at the heart of design – the best immersive VR technology is combined with targeted translational interventions. The capability of VR to simulate reality could greatly increase access to psychological therapies, while treatment outcomes could be enhanced by the technology's ability to create new realities. VR may merit the level of attention given to neuroimaging.
Full-text available
Article
The main aim of gamification, i.e. the implementation of game design elements in real-world contexts for non-gaming purposes, is to foster human motivation and performance in regard to a given activity. Previous research, although not entirely conclusive, generally supports the hypothesis underlying this aim. However, previous studies have often treated gamification as a generic construct, neglecting the fact that there are many different game design elements which can result in very diverse applications. Based on a self-determination theory framework, we present the results of a randomized controlled study that used an online simulation environment. We deliberately varied different configurations of game design elements, and analysed them in regard to their effect on the fulfilment of basic psychological needs. Our results show that badges, leaderboards, and performance graphs positively affect competence need satisfaction, as well as perceived task meaningfulness, while avatars, meaningful stories, and teammates affect experiences of social relatedness. Perceived decision freedom, however, could not be affected as intended. We interpret these findings as general support for our main hypothesis that gamification is not effective per se, but that specific game design elements have specific psychological effects. Consequences for further research, in particular the importance of treatment checks, are discussed.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
During recent years, gamification has become a popular method of enriching information technologies. Popular business analysts have made promising predictions about penetration of gamification, however, it has also been estimated that most gamifica-tion efforts will fail due to poor understanding of how gamification should be designed and implemented. Therefore, in this paper we seek to advance the understanding of best practices related to the gamifica-tion design process. We approach this research problem via a design science research approach; firstly, by synthesizing the current body of literature on gamification design methods and interviewing 25 gamification experts. Secondly, we develop a method for gamification design, based on the gathered knowledge. Finally, we conduct an evaluation of the method via interviews of 10 gamification experts. The results indicate that the developed method is comprehensive , complete and provides practical utility. We deliver a comprehensive overview of gamification guidelines and shed novel insights into the overall nature of the gamification development and design discourse.
Full-text available
Article
In 1999, Fred Brooks, virtual reality pioneer and Professor of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, published a seminal paper describing the current state of virtual reality (VR) technologies and applications (Brooks in IEEE Comput Graph Appl 19(6):16, 1999). Through his extensive survey of industry, Brooks concluded that virtual reality had finally arrived and “barely works”. His report included a variety of industries which leveraged these technologies to support industry-level innovation. Virtual reality was being employed to empower decision making in design, evaluation, and training processes across multiple disciplines. Over the past two decades, both industrial and academic communities have contributed to a large knowledge base on numerous virtual reality topics. Technical advances have enabled designers and engineers to explore and interact with data in increasingly natural ways. Sixteen years have passed since Brooks original survey. Where are we now? The research presented here seeks to describe the current state of the art of virtual reality as it is used as a decision-making tool in product design, particularly in engineering-focused businesses. To this end, a survey of industry was conducted over several months spanning fall 2014 and spring 2015. Data on virtual reality applications across a variety of industries was gathered through a series of on-site visits. In total, on-site visits with 18 companies using virtual reality were conducted as well as remote conference calls with two others. The authors interviewed 62 people across numerous companies from varying disciplines and perspectives. Success stories and existing challenges were highlighted. While virtual reality hardware has made considerable strides, unique attention was given to applications and the associated decisions that they support. Results suggest that virtual reality has arrived: it works! It is mature, stable, and, most importantly, usable. VR is actively being used in a number of industries to support decision making and enable innovation. Insights from this survey can be leveraged to help guide future research directions in virtual reality technology and applications.
Full-text available
Article
“Gamification” has gained considerable scholarly and practitioner attention; however, the discussion in academia has been largely confined to the human–computer interaction and game studies domains. Since gamification is often used in service design, it is important that the concept be brought in line with the service literature. So far, though, there has been a dearth of such literature. This article is an attempt to tie in gamification with service marketing theory, which conceptualizes the consumer as a co-producer of the service. It presents games as service systems composed of operant and operand resources. It proposes a definition for gamification, one that emphasizes its experiential nature. The definition highlights four important aspects of gamification: affordances, psychological mediators, goals of gamification and the context of gamification. Using the definition the article identifies four possible gamifying actors and examines gamification as communicative staging of the service environment.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Several research studies have shown that training using simulations is a good strategy to promote the performance of students and work teams [1]. The effectiveness of the training, in terms of transfer, using simulations, has been proved for pilots (flight simulators) and surgeons (virtual reality systems) [2]. These simulations, based in expensive technology solutions, are very difficult to be implemented in companies, for training workers for emergency fire evacuation. In everyday situations, particularly in the emergency associated with rapid evacuation of people in buildings, is required by law, the development of fire drills. The main objective of these methods is to train the workers to peacefully follow a previously taught routine. However, in a real emergency, workers can be under a high stress situation and may not follow the previously trained behavior. This article will reflect on emergency evacuation in buildings and how the effectiveness of the training process can be increased. Thus, a theoretical approach of emergency evacuation will be presented and a discussion of VR as the usage for training in these situations.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Since the first time the term "Virtual Reality" (VR) has been used back in the 60s, VR has evolved in different manners becoming more and more similar to the real world. Two different kinds of VR can be identified: non-immersive and immersive. The former is a computer-based environment that can simulate places in the real or imagined worlds; the latter takes the idea even further by giving the perception of being physically present in the non-physical world. While non-immersive VR can be based on a standard computer, immersive VR is still evolving as the needed devices are becoming more user friendly and economically accessible. In the past, there was a major difficulty about using equipment such as a helmet with goggles, while now new devices are being developed to make usability better for the user. VR, which is based on three basic principles: Immersion, Interaction, and User involvement with the environment and narrative, offers a very high potential in education by making learning more motivating and engaging. Up to now, the use of immersive-VR in educational games has been limited due to high prices of the devices and their limited usability. Now new tools like the commercial "Oculus Rift", make it possible to access immersive-VR in lots of educational situations. This paper reports a survey on the scientific literature on the advantages and potentials in the use of Immersive Virtual Reality in Education in the last two years (2013-14). It shows how VR in general, and immersive VR in particular, has been used mostly for adult training in special situations or for university students. It then focuses on the possible advantages and drawbacks of its use in education with reference to different classes of users like children and some kinds of cognitive disabilities (with particular reference to the Down syndrome). It concludes outlining strategies that could be carried out to verify these ideas.
Full-text available
Article
There is growing interest in how gamification—defined as the application of game design principles in non-gaming contexts—can be used in business. However, academic research and management practice have paid little attention to the challenges of how best to design, implement, manage, and optimize gamification strategies. To advance understanding of gamification, this article defines what it is and explains how it prompts managers to think about business practice in new and innovative ways. Drawing upon the game design literature, we present a framework of three gamification principles—mechanics, dynamics, and emotions (MDE)—to explain how gamified experiences can be created. We then provide an extended illustration of gamification and conclude with ideas for future research and application opportunities.
Full-text available
Article
Gamification is about understanding and influencing human behaviours that organizations want to encourage amongst their workforce or customers. Gamification seeks to take enjoyable aspects of games – fun, play and challenge – and apply them to real-world business processes. Analysts are predicting massive growth of gamification over the next few years, but is there any substance to the benefits being touted? This article takes a critical look at the potential of gamification as a business change agent that can deliver a more motivated and engaged workforce.
Full-text available
Article
Gamification has drawn the attention of academics, practitioners and business professionals in domains as diverse as education, information studies, human-computer interaction, and health. As yet, the term remains mired in diverse meanings and contradictory uses, while the concept faces division on its academic worth, underdeveloped theoretical foundations, and a dearth of standardized guidelines for application. Despite widespread commentary on its merits and shortcomings, little empirical work has sought to validate gamification as a meaningful concept and provide evidence of its effectiveness as a tool for motivating and engaging users in non-entertainment contexts. Moreover, no work to date has surveyed gamification as a field of study from a human-computer studies perspective. In this paper, we present a systematic survey on the use of gamification in published theoretical reviews and research papers involving interactive systems and human participants. We outline current theoretical understandings of gamification and draw comparisons to related approaches, including alternate reality games (ARGs), games with a purpose (GWAPs), and gameful design. We present a multidisciplinary review of gamification in action, focusing on empirical findings related to purpose and context, design of systems, approaches and techniques, and user impact. Findings from the survey show that a standard conceptualization of gamification is emerging against a growing backdrop of empirical participants-based research. However, definitional subjectivity, diverse or unstated theoretical foundations, incongruities among empirical findings, and inadequate experimental design remain matters of concern. We discuss how gamification may to be more usefully presented as a subset of a larger effort to improve the user experience of interactive systems through gameful design. We end by suggesting points of departure for continued empirical investigations of gamified practice and its effects.
Full-text available
Article
here is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution against seeking prescriptive neuroscience solutions for TEL and emphasize the need, instead, to conceptualize TEL at several different levels of analysis (brain, mind and behaviour, including social behaviour). Our review emphasizes the possibility of combining TEL and neuroscience concepts in adaptive educational systems, and we consider instances of interdisciplinary technology-based interventions drawing on neuroscience and aimed at remediating developmental disorders. We also consider the potential relevance of findings from neuroscience for the development of artificial agency, creativity, collaborative learning and neural insights into how different types of multimodality may influence learning, which may have implications for the future developments of tangibles. Finally, we identify a range of reasons why dialogue between neuroscience and the communities involved with technology and learning is likely to increase in the future.
Full-text available
Article
Video gaming is a highly pervasive activity, providing a multitude of complex cognitive and motor demands. Gaming can be seen as an intense training of several skills. Associated cerebral structural plasticity induced has not been investigated so far. Comparing a control with a video gaming training group that was trained for 2 months for at least 30 min per day with a platformer game, we found significant gray matter (GM) increase in right hippocampal formation (HC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral cerebellum in the training group. The HC increase correlated with changes from egocentric to allocentric navigation strategy. GM increases in HC and DLPFC correlated with participants' desire for video gaming, evidence suggesting a predictive role of desire in volume change. Video game training augments GM in brain areas crucial for spatial navigation, strategic planning, working memory and motor performance going along with evidence for behavioral changes of navigation strategy. The presented video game training could therefore be used to counteract known risk factors for mental disease such as smaller hippocampus and prefrontal cortex volume in, for example, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative disease.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 October 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.120.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
This paper reviews peer-reviewed empirical studies on gamification. We create a framework for examining the effects of gamification by drawing from the definitions of gamification and the discussion on motivational affordances. The literature review covers results, independent variables (examined motivational affordances), dependent variables (examined psychological/behavioral outcomes from gamification), the contexts of gamification, and types of studies performed on the gamified systems. The paper examines the state of current research on the topic and points out gaps in existing literature. The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, the effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it. The findings of the review provide insight for further studies as well as for the design of gamified systems.
Full-text available
Article
The Virtual Environments Laboratory at the University of Southern California (USC) has ini- tiated a research program aimed at developing virtual reality (VR) technology applications for the study, assessment, and rehabilitation of cognitive/functional processes. This technol- ogy is seen to offer many advantages for these aims and an introductory section of this arti- cle will discuss the specific rationale for VR applications in the area of clinical neuropsy- chology. A discussion of attention processes will follow and issues for the development of a head-mounted display (HMD) VR system for the study, assessment, and possible rehabilita- tion of attention disorders will then be presented. Our efforts to target this cognitive process are supported by the widespread occurrence and relative significance of attention impair- ments seen in a variety of clinical conditions across the human lifespan. Most notably, at- tention difficulties are seen in persons with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD), Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), and as a feature of various neurodegenerative disor- ders (i.e., Alzheimer' s Disease, Vascular Dementia, etc.). Virtual Environment (VE) technol- ogy appears to provide specific assets for addressing these impairments that are not available using existing methods. VEs delivered via HMDs are well suited for these types of applica- tions as they serve to provide a controlled stimulus environment where cognitive challenges can be presented along with the precise delivery and control of " distracting" auditory and vi- sual stimuli. This level of experimental control allows for the development of attention as- sessment tasks that are more similar to what is found in the real world and could improve on the ecological validity of measurement and treatment in this area. A recent project in our lab has involved the development of a virtual " classroom" specifically aimed at the assess- ment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The system uses a Virtual Re- search V8 HMD, Ascension Systems head, hand, and leg tracking, and is run on an SGI Onyx platform. The scenario consists of a standard rectangular classroom environment containing student desks, a teacher' s desk, a virtual teacher, a blackboard, a large window looking out onto a playground with buildings, vehicles, and people, and a pair of doorways on each end
Full-text available
Article
Virtual reality (VR) can be viewed as an advanced computer interface that allows the user to interact and become immersed within computer-generated simulated environments. Although media hype may have oversold VR's potential at this early stage in the technology's development, a uniquely suited match exists in VR's application to cognitive assessment and rehabilitation. VR offers the potential to develop human testing and training environments that allow for the precise control of complex stimulus presentations in which human cognitive and functional performance can be accurately assessed and rehabilitated. However, basic feasibility issues need to be addressed for this technology to be reasonably and efficiently applied to the cognitive rehabilitation (CR) of persons with acquired brain injury and neurological disorders. This article will present a brief introduction to the concepts of VR, as well as a rationale for the VRCR connection. Basic theoretical and pragmatic issues for this application will be discussed and a review of relevant work that has been done, or is currently in progress, will be presented along with recommendations for future investigation in this area. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1997. All Rights Reserved.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Recent years have seen a rapid proliferation of mass-market consumer software that takes inspiration from video games. Usually summarized as "gamification", this trend connects to a sizeable body of existing concepts and research in human-computer interaction and game studies, such as serious games, pervasive games, alternate reality games, or playful design. However, it is not clear how "gamification" relates to these, whether it denotes a novel phenomenon, and how to define it. Thus, in this paper we investigate "gamification" and the historical origins of the term in relation to precursors and similar concepts. It is suggested that "gamified" applications provide insight into novel, gameful phenomena complementary to playful phenomena. Based on our research, we propose a definition of "gamification" as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.
Full-text available
Article
Computer and video games are a prevalent form of entertainment in which the purpose of the design is to engage players. Game designers incorporate a number of strategies and tactics for engaging players in “gameplay.” These strategies and tactics may provide instructional designers with new methods for engaging learners. This investigation presents a review of game design strategies and the implications of appropriating these strategies for instructional design. Specifically, this study presents an overview of the trajectory of player positioning or point of view, the role of narrative, and methods of interactive design. A comparison of engagement strategies in popular games and characteristics of engaged learning is also presented to examine how strategies of game design might be integrated into the existing framework of engaged learning.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Interactive systems often require calibration to ensure that input and output are optimally configured. Without calibration, user performance can degrade (e.g., if an input device is not adjusted for the user's abilities), errors can increase (e.g., if color spaces are not matched), and some interactions may not be possible (e.g., use of an eye tracker). The value of calibration is often lost, however, because many calibration processes are tedious and unenjoyable, and many users avoid them altogether. To address this problem, we propose calibration games that gather calibration data in an engaging and entertaining manner. To facilitate the creation of calibration games, we present design guidelines that map common types of calibration to core tasks, and then to well-known game mechanics. To evaluate the approach, we developed three calibration games and compared them to standard procedures. Users found the game versions significantly more enjoyable than regular calibration procedures, without compromising the quality of the data. Calibration games are a novel way to motivate users to carry out calibrations, thereby improving the performance and accuracy of many human-computer systems.
Full-text available
Article
Virtual environments (VEs) are extensively used in training but there have been few rigorous scientific investigations of whether and how skills learned in a VE are transferred to the real world. This research aimed to measure and evaluate what is transferring from training a simple sensorimotor task in a VE to real world performance. In experiment 1, real world performances after virtual training, real training and no training were compared. Virtual and real training resulted in equivalent levels of post-training performance, both of which significantly exceeded task performance without training. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated whether virtual and real trained real world performances differed in their susceptibility to cognitive and motor interfering tasks (experiment 2) and in terms of spare attentional capacity to respond to stimuli and instructions which were not directly related to the task (experiment 3). The only significant difference found was that real task performance after training in a VE was less affected by concurrently performed interference tasks than was real task performance after training on the real task. This finding is discussed in terms of the cognitive load characteristics of virtual training. Virtual training therefore resulted in equivalent or even better real world performance than real training in this simple sensorimotor task, but this finding may not apply to other training tasks. Future research should be directed towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge of what is being transferred to real world performance in other tasks currently being trained in VEs and investigating the equivalence of virtual and real trained performances in these situations.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose a solution to ease registrational tasks on users and keep them motivated during long lasting procedures using gamification elements. Augmented Reality (AR) technology appears in many different hardware setups ranging from mobile applications to full scale room tracking constructions. Many of which contain non-rigid sensors that require re-registrational maintenance to preserve satisfactory tracking capabilities. While important for a functioning setup, these tasks can become tiring over time leading to less care spent on a qualitative registration. We report on our preliminary study results, showing that a gami-fied registration routine incites participants to perform these tasks for a longer amount of time with up to four times as many measurements taken as the non-gamified version.
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to overcome natural constraints and present things that would not be visible in the physical world. This makes the medium of VR a powerful tool for learning that allows users to become highly immersed in complex topics. In this paper, we compare a VR learning environment with a traditional 2D learning environment. To investigate the differences between VR and 2D learning environments, we designed two activities that help learners gain an intuitive understanding of concepts from electricity and magnetism. We performed an experiment comparing the learning that took place using these two variant. Although our quantitative learning measures did not reveal a significant difference between 2D and VR, VR was perceived by learners to have advantages. We did find significant quantitative differences in learners’ completion times. We share findings, based on the quantitative and qualitative feedback received, about what makes VR environments beneficial for learning about complex spatial topics, and propose corresponding design guidelines.
Article
Immersive learning environments that use virtual simulation technology are increasingly relevant as medical learners train in an environment of restricted clinical training hours and a heightened focus on patient safety. We conducted a consensus process with a breakout group of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference “Catalyzing System Change Through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes.” This group examined the current uses of virtual simulation in training and assessment, including limitations and challenges in implementing virtual simulation into medical education curricula. We discuss the role of virtual environments in formative and summative assessment. Finally, we offer recommended areas of focus for future research examining virtual simulation technology for assessment, including high stakes assessment in medical education. Specifically, we discuss needs for determination of areas of focus for virtual simulation training and assessment, development and exploration of virtual platforms, automated feedback within such platforms, and evaluation of effectiveness and validity of virtual simulation education.
Article
Games are part of day to day life, entertaining users, but at the same time modelling behaviors. By applying game mechanics and dynamics to tasks and e-learning processes we can increase user engagement with an e-learning application and its specific tasks. While having multiple uses in commercial practices, gamification implies well established techniques similar to those found in games. We will take a closer look at the ones that are appropriate to the learning process and moreover to e-learning and analyze relevant examples.
Article
Gamification, the application of game elements to non-game settings, continues to grow in popularity as a method to increase student engagement in the classroom. We tested students across two courses, measuring their motivation, social comparison, effort, satisfaction, learner empowerment, and academic performance at four points during a 16-week semester. One course received a gamified curriculum, featuring a leaderboard and badges, whereas the other course received the same curriculum without the gamified elements. Our results found that students in the gamified course showed less motivation, satisfaction, and empowerment over time than those in the non-gamified class. The effect of course type on students’ final exam scores was mediated by students’ levels of intrinsic motivation, with students in the gamified course showing less motivation and lower final exam scores than the non-gamified class. This suggests that some care should be taken when applying certain gamification mechanics to educational settings.
Conference Paper
While training participants to assemble a 3D wooden burr puzzle, we compared results of training in a stereoscopic, head tracked virtual assembly environment utilizing haptic devices and data gloves with real world training. While virtual training took participants about three times longer, the group that used the virtual environment was able to assemble the physical test puzzle about three times faster than the group trained with the physical puzzle. We present several possible cognitive explanations for these results and our plans for future exploration of the factors that improve the effectiveness of virtual process training over real world experience.
Article
Bringing joysticks and scoreboards into our daily routine may be the key to making us better people
Article
Cognitive flexibility, which is defined as che ability to generate several categories of possible solutions, is identified as the most critical aspect of creativity training. Word tables, interactive computer games, and riddles are used to develop cognitive flexibility. Preliminary results from analyses with quasi-experimental designs provide promising evidence that these methods are effective in enhancing creative and other forms of critical thought in college students.
Article
This book provides the student with an understanding of theories and research on learning and related processes and demonstrates their application in educational contexts. The text is intended for graduate students in schools of education or related disciplines, as well as for advanced undergraduates interested in education. It is assumed that most students using this text are pursuing educationally relevant careers and that they possess minimal familiarity with psychological concepts and research methods. Important historical theories are initially discussed, followed by accounts of current research. Differing views are presented, as well as criticism when warranted. A chapter is devoted to problem solving and learning in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. The chapters on motivation, self-regulation, and instructional processes address topics relevant to learning theories. These topics traditionally have shown little overlap with learning theories, but fortunately this situation is changing. Researchers are addressing such topics as how motivation can influence quantity and quality of learning, how instructional practices impact information processing, and how learning principles can be applied to develop self-regulated learners. The applications of learning principles focus on school-aged students, both because of personal preference and because most students are interested in working with children and teenagers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
As video-game playing has become a ubiquitous activity in today's society, it is worth considering its potential consequences on perceptual and motor skills. It is well known that exposing an organism to an altered visual environment often results in modification of the visual system of the organism. The field of perceptual learning provides many examples of training-induced increases in performance. But perceptual learning, when it occurs, tends to be specific to the trained task; that is, generalization to new tasks is rarely found. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills. Four experiments establish changes in different aspects of visual attention in habitual video-game players as compared with non-video-game players. In a fifth experiment, non-players trained on an action video game show marked improvement from their pre-training abilities, thereby establishing the role of playing in this effect.
Article
This study examined the impact of virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation on improvement of psychomotor skills relevant to the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Sixteen surgical trainees performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on patients in the operating room (OR). The participants were then randomized to receive VR training (ten repetitions of all six tasks on the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR)) or no training. Subsequently, all subjects performed a further laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the OR. Both operative procedures were recorded on videotape, and assessed by two independent and blinded observers using predefined objective criteria. Time to complete the procedure, error score and economy of movement score were assessed during the laparoscopic procedure in the OR. No differences in baseline variables were found between the two groups. Surgeons who received VR training performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy significantly faster than the control group (P=0.021). Furthermore, those who had VR training showed significantly greater improvement in error (P=0.003) and economy of movement (P=0.003) scores. Surgeons who received VR simulator training showed significantly greater improvement in performance in the OR than those in the control group. VR surgical simulation is therefore a valid tool for training of laparoscopic psychomotor skills and could be incorporated into surgical training programmes.
Article
Performance of laparoscopic surgery requires adequate hand-eye coordination. Video games are an effective way to judge one's hand-eye coordination, and practicing these games may improve one's skills. Our goal was to see if there is a correlation between skill in video games and skill in laparoscopy. Also, we hoped to demonstrate that practicing video games can improve one's laparoscopic skills. Eleven medical students (nine male, two female) volunteered to participate. On day 1, each student played three commercially available video games (Top Spin, XSN Sports; Project Gotham Racing 2, Bizarre Creations; and Amped 2, XSN Sports) for 30 minutes on an X-box (Microsoft, Seattle, WA) and was judged both objectively and subjectively. Next, the students performed four laparoscopic tasks (object transfer, tracing a figure-of-eight, suture placement, and knot-tying) in a swine model and were assessed for time to complete the task, number of errors committed, and hand-eye coordination. The students were then randomized to control (group A) or "training" (i.e., video game practicing; group B) arms. Two weeks later, all students repeated the laparoscopic skills laboratory and were reassessed. Spearman correlation coefficients demonstrated a significant relation between many of the parameters, particularly time to complete each task and hand-eye coordination at the different games. There was a weaker association between video game performance and both laparoscopic errors committed and hand-eye coordination. Group B subjects did not improve significantly over those in group A in any measure (P >0.05 for all). Video game aptitude appears to predict the level of laparoscopic skill in the novice surgeon. In this study, practicing video games did not improve one's laparoscopic skill significantly, but a larger study with more practice time could prove games to be helpful.
Article
Virtual reality (VR) possesses many qualities that give it rehabilitative potential for people with intellectual disabilities, both as an intervention and an assessment. It can provide a safe setting in which to practice skills that might carry too many risks in the real world. Unlike human tutors, computers are infinitely patient and consistent. Virtual worlds can be manipulated in ways the real world cannot be and can convey concepts without the use of language or other symbol systems. Published applications for this client group have all been as rehabilitative interventions. These are described in three groups: promoting skills for independent living, enhancing cognitive performance, and improving social skills. Five groups of studies are reviewed that utilize virtual technology to promote skills for independent living: grocery shopping, preparing food, orientation, road safety, and manufacturing skills. Fears that skills or habits learnt in a virtual setting would not transfer to the real world setting have not been supported by the available evidence, apart from those studies with people with autistic spectrum disorders. Future directions are in the development of more applications for independent living skills, exploring interventions for promoting motor and cognitive skills, and the developments of ecologically valid forms of assessment.
Article
The increasing use of virtual reality (VR) simulators in surgical training makes it imperative that definitive studies be performed to assess their training effectiveness. Indeed, in this paper we report the meta-analysis of the efficacy of virtual reality simulators in: 1) the transference of skills from the simulator training environment to the operating room, and 2) their ability to discriminate between the experience levels of their users. The task completion time and the error score were the two study outcomes collated and analyzed in this meta-analysis. Sixteen studies were identified from a computer-based literature search (1996-2004). The meta-analysis of the random effects model (because of the heterogeneity of the data) revealed that training on virtual reality simulators did lessen the time taken to complete a given surgical task as well as clearly differentiate between the experienced and the novice trainees. Meta-analytic studies such as the one reported here would be very helpful in the planning and setting up of surgical training programs and for the establishment of reference 'learning curves' for a specific simulator and surgical task. If any such programs already exist, they can then indicate the improvements to be made in the simulator used, such as providing for more variety in their case scenarios based on the state and/or rate of learning of the trainee.
Statista - The Statistics Portal: Would you be interested in trying virtual technologies in your company
  • Statista - The
Jesse Schell's I Expect You To Die has earned over lm
  • J Brightman
Panel: Lessons to game developers from IEEE VR
  • A Steed
  • D A Bowman
  • E Suma
  • P Figueroa
Panel: Lessons to game developers from IEEE VR
  • steed