Conference Paper

# Comparison of a Gamified and Non-Gamified Virtual Reality Training Assembly Task

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## Abstract

By using simulations in virtual reality (VR), people have the chance to train without supervision in a safe and controlled environment. VR simulation training allows users to gain new skills and apply them to real-life situations. However, the learning curve of this technology from a novice level could influence the expected learning results of a training session. A training approach based on the combination of VR and gamification could speed up this overall learning process and not just for a novice. In this paper we evaluate how gamification in a VR training session can improve the efficiency of the training and the accuracy of the task execution in a real-world practical test. In the training scenario of this study, 50 randomly assigned participants were divided into two groups. The groups were assigned to a gamified and a non-gamified version of the same VR training and were then guided through a step-by-step tutorial outlining how to solve an assembly task. Performance differences were evaluated based on time taken and specific errors made during the training session. The results of this study show, in general, that beneficial effects can be attributed to the use of gamification in the conducted VR training simulation, particularly for the VR novice participants.

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... XR is a term that refers to the ever-changing and growing field of human-computer interaction (HCI) [56][57][58][59]. A technology or application that combines several realities, such as virtual worlds (VWs), virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) is referred to as extended reality (XR) or cross reality [64][65][66]. ...
... Users of XR says that they attend events to discover new places. As a result, considering storage as a design aspect is another suggested practise to keep in mind when considering virtual reality [22,56,97]. ...
... The ability to make connections between current behaviour and future action. The XR experience's goal is to change or influence a future encounter [36,56,79]. ...
... VR applications with gamification aspects are often compared to traditional training scenarios (Chen et al., 2020;Pratticò and Lamberti, 2021), without isolating the effectiveness of the gamification approach (Hamari et al., 2014). Feedback elements in VR training were considered (Palmas et al., 2019); however, their correlations to the subject group's motivation levels are unclear. Thus, there is a need for studies exploring the impact of game elements on industrial training outcomes and the motivation of the participants to create guidelines for the industry. ...
... Afterward, they focus on procedural knowledge and decision making (Hou et al., 2017) to train the subject on routines in inaccessible or dangerous environments (Guo et al., 2020), assembly and disassembly steps (Abidi et al., 2019;Xie et al., 2019), calibration and error recovery procedures (Pratticò and Lamberti, 2021), and parameter settings (Chen et al., 2020;Garcia et al., 2019). While VR environments for industrial applications are widely available, studies including industrial assembly tasks are rare (Hoedt et al., 2016) as most case studies apply VR training to non-industrial assemblies such as puzzles (Carlson et al., 2015), building bricks (Borsci et al., 2016;Roldán et al., 2019), and other domestic objects (Abidi et al., 2019;Palmas et al., 2019). ...
... As their VR setup did not include specific game elements, they stated that future research should target game elements such as narratives or difficulty levels. Palmas et al. (2019) conducted a user study on gamified and non-gamified VR assembly training. They selected three feedback elements (progress bar, points, and audiovisua effects) but did not find significant differences in the error rates of the gamified and non-gamified groups. ...
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... Operators should practice independently in a safe controlled environment without trainers [23], because the number of trainers and experts may continuously decrease due to their involvement in the construction of new concepts and systems [22]. ...
... The devices used in VR were Head Mounted Display (HMD. Most used HMD was HTC Vive [23], [12], [11], [24] rather than Oculus Rift [24]. To determine the position and orientation of the headset, Oculus The Rift tracks the user using an LED infrared camera, whereas the HTC Vive uses a photodiode to interpret the signal from the Vive lamp housing [24]. ...
... The study measured the objective and subjective, physiology performance, before, during and after experiment. Almost all studies were evaluate objective differences based on the time taken and specific errors [14], [23], [26]. The study to retrieve a participant's personal entry condition used, the d2-Test of Attention, Visual Fatigue Questionnaire (VFQ) [14], Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) [14], [11], open interview [11], qualitative feedback and suggestions [25]. ...
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... Gamification has shown potential for learning outcomes (Palmas et al., 2019), with multiple studies showing how it can affect on cognitive, motivational, and behavioral learning outcomes (Sailer and Homner, 2020) and on different educational levels, from school to university education, and different contexts, such as learning physics or physical education (Manzano-León et al., 2021). Different theoretical principles from learning theories, motivational and affective theories, and behavioral theories have been linked to elements present in gamification (Krath et al., 2021). ...
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... Serious VR Simulations range from traditional replicas of environments and evaluation scenarios to better understand the behavior of people [3], to skill training facilities for specific tasks [11], to deal with certain phobias [10,12] or to operate complex remote technologies like robots. Over the last years, new user groups for simulated environments, such as users of remote teaching tools during the COVID-19 pandemic or elderly people who want to have an immersive traveling experience, have been emerging because of the progress and affordable nature of VR technology. ...
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In this paper we want to discuss the future potential of Serious Virtual Reality (VR) Simulations and VR Serious Games. This contribution is the foundation of the VENUS workshop presented on ISMAR 2022. We will provide insights into recent VR projects to lay a foundation for in-depth discussions with participants of the workshop. Furthermore, we want to shed light on needed research in the area of VR frameworks, further strengthening the subconscious transfer of knowledge through Serious Games and the involvement of tangible objects to increase immersion and presence.
... Other complex design concepts that lengthen development time include but are not limited to gamification, autonomy and adaptability. Palmas et al. (2019) hypothesized that the use of gamification can enhance the efficiency of VR training. Their findings show that VR users trained through gamification completed training 12.2% faster than the non-gamified group and committed 30.2% less errors. ...
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... In [24], Bertram et al. evaluated 10 assistance systems for assembly operations from 6 aspects relevant for intelligent working stations and concluded that none of the 10 systems fully covers the automated generation of work plans, flexible integration in production, or autonomous learning ability. The benefits of gamification (e.g., faster training, less errors) versus a non-gamified approach were revealed in a study involving 50 participants by Palmas et al. [25]. In [26], several heuristic-based approaches were used in order to optimize picking orders in fulfillment warehouses. ...
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... The immersive setup of VR provides a real environment-like experience to users that enables them to interact with virtual contents by performing certain tasks [32]. Gamified VE attracts the attention of a participant more effectively than a game alone due to the addition of immersion with gamification [33]. Further, the incorporation of challenges, avatars, and feedback in the form of rewards or points as gamification elements into VR-based games facilitates a higher rate of user attraction and motivation [31]. ...
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... Gamified VR environments are typically used for health applications and teaching purposes in educational institutions. [18,19] Only Palmas et al. [20] is comparing VR and Gamification manufacturing applications by analyzing the efficiency of a gamified and non-gamified assembly training tasks. For the gamified training, they use four different game elements (progress bar, points, sound feedback, and visual feedback); all other aspects of the VR environment remain identical for both training tasks. ...
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... A distinction may be drawn between encouraging entire learning activities and encouraging partial activities. Palmas, Labode, Plecher, & Klinker (2019) describe the use of game elements to support a complete MR-based learning activity: Supported by game elements, the efficiency of an MR-based tutorial for assembling drum sets is increased. An example for encouraging partial activities is the study by Zander et al. (2016) introducing a rotation restriction called powerbar as a playful constraint of software-supported mental rotation tasks. ...
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... Gamification is increasingly being integrated into corporate training because it provides new approaches for instructional designers to engage learners [9] and has shown promising potential [10] for motivating the workforce and keeping it engaged with the learning process. Our understanding of gamification goes beyond Deterding et al.'s definition as the application of game elements in non-gaming contexts [11]. ...
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... Performance differences were evaluated based on the time taken and specific errors made during the training session. The study shows that beneficial effects can be credited to the use of gamification in the VRtraining, especially for the VR novice participants in the gamified group [12]. Regarding learning outcomes and attitudes towards game-based training, a study shows that groups that were receiving gamified training were significantly more satisfied with training over the control group. ...
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Virtual reality (VR) can be viewed as an advanced computer interface that allows the user to interact and become immersed within computer-generated simulated environments. Although media hype may have oversold VR's potential at this early stage in the technology's development, a uniquely suited match exists in VR's application to cognitive assessment and rehabilitation. VR offers the potential to develop human testing and training environments that allow for the precise control of complex stimulus presentations in which human cognitive and functional performance can be accurately assessed and rehabilitated. However, basic feasibility issues need to be addressed for this technology to be reasonably and efficiently applied to the cognitive rehabilitation (CR) of persons with acquired brain injury and neurological disorders. This article will present a brief introduction to the concepts of VR, as well as a rationale for the VRCR connection. Basic theoretical and pragmatic issues for this application will be discussed and a review of relevant work that has been done, or is currently in progress, will be presented along with recommendations for future investigation in this area. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1997. All Rights Reserved.
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Performance of laparoscopic surgery requires adequate hand-eye coordination. Video games are an effective way to judge one's hand-eye coordination, and practicing these games may improve one's skills. Our goal was to see if there is a correlation between skill in video games and skill in laparoscopy. Also, we hoped to demonstrate that practicing video games can improve one's laparoscopic skills. Eleven medical students (nine male, two female) volunteered to participate. On day 1, each student played three commercially available video games (Top Spin, XSN Sports; Project Gotham Racing 2, Bizarre Creations; and Amped 2, XSN Sports) for 30 minutes on an X-box (Microsoft, Seattle, WA) and was judged both objectively and subjectively. Next, the students performed four laparoscopic tasks (object transfer, tracing a figure-of-eight, suture placement, and knot-tying) in a swine model and were assessed for time to complete the task, number of errors committed, and hand-eye coordination. The students were then randomized to control (group A) or "training" (i.e., video game practicing; group B) arms. Two weeks later, all students repeated the laparoscopic skills laboratory and were reassessed. Spearman correlation coefficients demonstrated a significant relation between many of the parameters, particularly time to complete each task and hand-eye coordination at the different games. There was a weaker association between video game performance and both laparoscopic errors committed and hand-eye coordination. Group B subjects did not improve significantly over those in group A in any measure (P >0.05 for all). Video game aptitude appears to predict the level of laparoscopic skill in the novice surgeon. In this study, practicing video games did not improve one's laparoscopic skill significantly, but a larger study with more practice time could prove games to be helpful.
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Virtual reality (VR) possesses many qualities that give it rehabilitative potential for people with intellectual disabilities, both as an intervention and an assessment. It can provide a safe setting in which to practice skills that might carry too many risks in the real world. Unlike human tutors, computers are infinitely patient and consistent. Virtual worlds can be manipulated in ways the real world cannot be and can convey concepts without the use of language or other symbol systems. Published applications for this client group have all been as rehabilitative interventions. These are described in three groups: promoting skills for independent living, enhancing cognitive performance, and improving social skills. Five groups of studies are reviewed that utilize virtual technology to promote skills for independent living: grocery shopping, preparing food, orientation, road safety, and manufacturing skills. Fears that skills or habits learnt in a virtual setting would not transfer to the real world setting have not been supported by the available evidence, apart from those studies with people with autistic spectrum disorders. Future directions are in the development of more applications for independent living skills, exploring interventions for promoting motor and cognitive skills, and the developments of ecologically valid forms of assessment.
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The increasing use of virtual reality (VR) simulators in surgical training makes it imperative that definitive studies be performed to assess their training effectiveness. Indeed, in this paper we report the meta-analysis of the efficacy of virtual reality simulators in: 1) the transference of skills from the simulator training environment to the operating room, and 2) their ability to discriminate between the experience levels of their users. The task completion time and the error score were the two study outcomes collated and analyzed in this meta-analysis. Sixteen studies were identified from a computer-based literature search (1996-2004). The meta-analysis of the random effects model (because of the heterogeneity of the data) revealed that training on virtual reality simulators did lessen the time taken to complete a given surgical task as well as clearly differentiate between the experienced and the novice trainees. Meta-analytic studies such as the one reported here would be very helpful in the planning and setting up of surgical training programs and for the establishment of reference 'learning curves' for a specific simulator and surgical task. If any such programs already exist, they can then indicate the improvements to be made in the simulator used, such as providing for more variety in their case scenarios based on the state and/or rate of learning of the trainee.
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