Evaluating the viability of obtaining DNA profiles from DNA encapsulated between the layers of composite counterfeit banknotes

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Banknote counterfeiting can potentially undermine the integrity of a currency, by eroding both public and retailer confidence in cash as a method of payment. To thwart such criminal counterfeiting activity, banknote issuing authorities employ a range of overt and covert technologies, most in the form of banknote security features. The development, selection and deployment of such features, is an ongoing process undertaken jointly between the manufacturers of security features, banknote printers and banknote issuing authorities, i.e. Central Banks. This ongoing process helps maintain the integrity of banknotes as a recognised, safe and secure means of payment. While some counterfeit banknotes are seized by police at the point of production or whilst in storage, others are removed from circulation during banknote sorting operations, as part of the ‘cash cycle’. Counterfeit banknotes which are removed from circulation are inevitably contaminated, in terms of finger marks and DNA acquired during handling by both criminals and non-criminals alike. However, encapsulated DNA recovered from between the layers of a composite banknote, is highly likely to belong to a person involved in the manufacturing process and is therefore of far greater evidential value. Such evidence has the potential to identify the criminals involved in counterfeit note production. This research evaluates the investigative potential of recovering and profiling of such encapsulated DNA, primarily regarding specific counterfeit types. Accordingly, the objective of the research is to establish an innovative and reliable method of extracting and profiling encapsulated DNA from counterfeit banknotes.

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We have prepared waste curry leaves extract derived carbon dots (CL-C dots) by microwave assisted method. The synthesized CL-C dots were well characterized by many techniques. Using HR-TEM images, the size of the synthesized CL-C dots were determined to be 3.55 nm. CL-C dots exhibits green fluorescence and obtained emission maximum at 425 nm upon the excitation at 340 nm. The green emissive CL-C dots quantum yield (QY) was determined to be 27.13%. The intensity ratio of ID/IG was, as calculated as 1.1 from the Raman spectrum. Moreover, CL-C dots were successfully applied for the preparation of the White Light Emitting Diode (WLED) device. The developed WLED has a colour coordinate value of (0.307, 0.354) and a colour correlated temperature of 6617 K. Finally, we have been used CL-C dots for anti-counterfeiting fluorescent ink application, it is a low-cost, simple-to-use substance that will eventually replace commercially available fluorescent inks. This research work offers a vision in the fields of materials science, WLED, energy, anti-counterfeiting and forensic science.
We are reporting the synthesis of mannitol derived carbon dots (MCDs) and their application as silver ion and thiamine sensors. The synthesized MCDs were characterized by HR-TEM, FT-IR, UV–visible, fluorescence, XRD and Raman methods. The synthesized MCDs exhibit a blue emission at 444 nm and the quantum yield of the MCDs is 43.8%. The MCDs particle size was determined to be 3.09 nm with a mono-dispersed nature, using HR-TEM images. Next, we have used MCDs as a probe for the detection of silver ions and thiamine. Interestingly, the highly blue emitting MCDs fluorescence was quenched (ON–OFF) upon the addition of silver ions. On addition of thiamine into the same solution, the fluorescence was enhanced (OFF–ON) . Based on the emission intensity changes, we determined the concentrations of silver ions and thiamine. The limit of detection of silver ions and thiamine were calculated to be 0.5 nM and 0.57 nM (LOD = 3 S/m), individually. The MCDs show high selectively towards the detection silver ions and thiamine. To this end, we have applied this sensor method for the sensing of silver ions in water, silver antibiotic sulfadiazine cream and also thiamine in drugs and biological samples. Notably, we have developed a wax pencil, designed for on-site monitoring of silver ions and thiamine with a wax coated paper based kit. Further, we have successfully prepared an anti-counterfeiting fluorescent ink using mannitol derived carbon dots and a PEG solution. Our anti-counterfeiting fluorescent ink is a low cost material, easy to use and it can replace the commercially available fluorescent inks.
Amongst the various techniques that have been developed to combat counterfeits, security printing using advanced luminescent materials has been extensively used for a wide range of applications not only due to facile design, high-throughput production and simple operation, but also due to superior-level security features. Fluorescent carbon-based nanodots are a widely accepted emerging class of luminophores, which own exceptional optical properties. The initial section of the article presents the various synthetic and sustainable techniques that are adopted for the synthesis of luminescent carbon dots. Further, the recent advancements reported on the security inks formulated from various carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanodots, carbon quantum dots, graphene quantum dots and carbonized polymer dots for realizing advanced anti-counterfeiting are highlighted. Moreover, based on the present critical challenges in using these carbon dots in fluorescent security ink formulations, the scope for future research developments to improve the existing security features are also discussed.
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Estimates from the U.S. Secret Service suggest that $40 million worth of counterfeit currency are confiscated each year in the United States. Despite measures to guard against the crime, modern technology has made reproducing fraudulent bills relatively easy. Over 90 percent of counterfeiting reported in the United States results from the use of readily available digital technology. Yet, little is known about the characteristics of the crime or those who engage in it. The current article presents a descriptive analysis of counterfeiting using data from closed case files from the Secret Service in a southern jurisdiction. Results suggest advances in consumer digital technologies have democratized the crime. That is, this form of offending is committed by a diverse group in terms of age, gender, race, and criminal history. The majority of counterfeiting cases involved multiple offenders, particularly among female counterfeiters. Sample limitations are discussed, as are recommendations for future research.
Perhaps the most basic of all procedures in molecular cloning is the purification of nucleic acids. The key step, the removal of proteins, can often be performed simply by extracting aqueous solutions of nucleic acids with phenol:chloroform and chloroform.
Conference Paper
Counterfeit currency varies from low quality color scanner/printer-based notes to high quality counterfeits whose production is sponsored by hostile states. Due to their harmful effect on the economy, detecting counterfeit currency notes is a task of national importance. However, automated approaches for counterfeit currency detection are effective only for low quality counterfeits; manual examination is required to detect high quality counterfeits. Furthermore, no automatic method exists for the more complex - and important - problem of identifying the source of counterfeit notes. This paper describes an efficient automatic framework for detecting counterfeit currency notes. Also, it presents a classification framework for linking genuine notes to their source printing presses. Experimental results demonstrate that the detection and classification frameworks have a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, the approach can be used to link high quality fake Indian currency notes to their unauthorized sources. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013.
The PowerPlex(®) ESX 17 and ESI 17 Systems for short tandem repeat (STR) amplification were developed by the Promega Corporation to meet the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) and the European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group recommendations for increasing the number of STR loci included in the European Standard Set (ESS). The PowerPlex ESX 17 and ESI 17 Systems utilize different PCR primer combinations to co-amplify the following 17 loci: D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D22S1045, FGA, TH01, vWA, SE33, and the sex-typing locus amelogenin. A total of 1443 U.S. population samples were evaluated with pre-commercialization versions of both kits. Stutter and heterozygote peak height ratios have been used to characterize kit performance. Typing results have been used to estimate the match probabilities provided by the chosen loci as well as in concordance studies. Full concordance between the typing results for the two kits was observed in 99.994% (49,055 out of 49,062) STR allele calls compared. All genotyping discrepancies were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. As a result of these comparisons, a second forward primer for the D22S1045 locus has been added to the PowerPlex ESX 17 System to address a primer binding site mutation and the D1S1656 locus reverse primer in the PowerPlex ESI 17 System was modified to eliminate an amplification-efficiency reducing primer dimer.
Low copy number (LCN) typing, particularly for current short tandem repeat (STR) typing, refers to the analysis of any sample that contains less than 200 pg of template DNA. Generally, LCN typing simply can be defined as the analysis of any DNA sample where the results are below the stochastic threshold for reliable interpretation. There are a number of methodologies to increase sensitivity of detection to enable LCN typing. These approaches encompass modifications during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or post-PCR manipulations. Regardless of the manipulations, when processing a small number of starting templates during the PCR exaggerated stochastic sampling effects will occur. The result is that several phenomena can occur: a substantial imbalance of 2 alleles at a given heterozygous locus, allelic dropout, or increased stutter. With increased sensitivity of detection there is a concomitant increased risk of contamination. Recently, a commission reviewed LCN typing and found it to be "robust" and "fit for purpose." Because LCN analysis by its nature is not reproducible, it cannot be considered as robust as that associated with conventional DNA typing. The findings of the commission seem inconsistent with the nature of LCN typing. While LCN typing is appropriate for identification of missing persons and human remains and for developing investigative leads, caution should be taken with its use in other endeavors until developments are made that overcome the vagaries of LCN typing. A more in-depth evaluation by the greater scientific community is warranted. The issues to consider include: training and education, evidence handling and collection procedures, the application or purpose for which the LCN result will be used, the reliability of current LCN methods, replicate analyses, interpretation and uncertainty, report writing, validation requirements, and alternate methodologies for better performance.
During duplicate analysis of buccal swabs from 1,377 individuals with 2 commercial short tandem repeat (STR) kits, we observed 8 discordant phenotypes with SGM Plus (SGM, second generation multiplex) for the STRs THO1 (2), vWA (4) and D18S51 (2), and 1 discrepancy with PowerPlex 16 for D18S51. One individual even showed two discrepancies (vWA and THO1) for SGM Plus. In each case, the difference observed was due to the non-amplification or allele dropout of the second allele in a heterozygous genotype. Sequence analysis revealed each time the presence of a mutation that probably coincided with the primer-binding site. Primer-binding site mutations for vWA and D18S51 have been reported previously, while the mutation for THO1 (C-to-T substitution at position 1286 of GenBank sequence D00269) is reported here for the first time. While the frequency of these silent alleles remains low (0.58% in our study), it is suggested that appropriate measures should be taken for database comparisons and that allelic dropout should be further investigated by sequence analysis and be reported to the forensic community.
Chelex ® -100 and Chelex 20 Chelating Ion Exchange Resin Instruction Manual
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Bio-Rad Laboratories, Chelex ® -100 and Chelex 20 Chelating Ion Exchange Resin Instruction Manual, Bio-Rad Laboratories, (2000).
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R. Kwok, et al. Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series 7 (2019) 438-440