Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Global Food Security
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/gfs
Animal source foods: Sustainability problem or malnutrition and
sustainability solution? Perspective matters
Adegbola T. Adesogan
, Arie H. Havelaar
, Sarah L. McKune
, Marjatta Eilittä
Geoﬀrey E. Dahl
Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems, Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL,
Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems, Department of Animal Sciences, Institute for Sustainable Food Systems, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems, Department of Environmental and Global Health, The Center for African Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems, Department of Agronomy, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, The Center for African Studies, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Animal source foods
Globally, two billion people suﬀer from micronutrient deﬁciencies, 151 million children under ﬁve suﬀer from
stunting, and millions more have impaired cognitive development related to poor nutrition. This is partly due to
insuﬃcient consumption of animal-sourced foods (ASF), which supply multiple bioavailable nutrients that are
lacking in the cereal-based diets of the poor. Yet, reports like the one recently published by the EAT-Lancet
Commission, solely focus on the threat of ASF consumption on sustainability and human health, overestimate
and ignore the tremendous variability in the environmental impact of livestock production, and fail to ade-
quately include the experience of marginalized women and children in low- and middle-income countries whose
diets regularly lack the necessary nutrients. Yet animal-source foods have been described by the World Health
Organization as the best source of high-quality nutrient-rich food for children aged 6–23 months. Livestock and
ASF are vital to sustainability as they play a critical role in improving nutrition, reducing poverty, improving
gender equity, improving livelihoods, increasing food security, and improving health. The nutritional needs of
the world's poor, particularly women and children, must be considered in sustainability debates.
The notion that raising livestock and consuming animal-source food
(ASF; milk and dairy products, meat, ﬁsh, and eggs) is fundamentally
incompatible with sustainable development is ﬂawed. Negative per-
ceptions of the role of livestock in many sustainability debates arise
from overestimation of the environmental footprint of livestock pro-
duction (Steinfeld et al., 2006), a focus mainly on overconsumption of
ASF in middle-to high-income countries (MHIC) and, as demonstrated
recently by Poore and Nemeck (Poore and Nemecek, 2018), a narrow
interpretation of sustainability that focuses on one, albeit important,
indicator –climate change (Steinfeld et al., 2006;Gerber et al., 2013;
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2019).
Even the recent widely discussed EAT-Lancet Commission report
(Willet et al., 2019), which focusses on “healthy diets”as well as cli-
mate change, uses a narrow interpretation that inadequately represents
the urgent dietary situation of many people living in low- and middle-
income (LMIC) countries. Both of these reports advocated substantial
reductions in consumption of ASF on the basis that existing diets
threaten sustainability because of their environmental footprint and/or
human health impacts. While the objectives of developing dietary
guidelines that safeguard human and planetary health are laudable, the
narrative of the EAT-Lancet Commission inadequately accounts for the
existing needs of many people and it has been criticized for various
reasons including unaﬀordability (Hirvonen et al., 2019;Gupta and
Bharti, 2019), misleading environmental estimates (American Society
of Animal Science, 2019), nutritional inadequacies (Teicholz, 2019)
and overall omissions, including in areas relating to equity and liveli-
hoods (Hadaad, 2019). The EAT-Lancet Commission report re-
commendations can have a major negative impact on global apprecia-
tion of the importance of ASF in diets, even though it mainly considers
MHIC perspectives. There is a danger that it could be adopted without
further deliberations on the impacts in LMICs, endangering the health
and livelihoods of large sections of the populace.
Received 29 May 2019; Received in revised form 4 October 2019; Accepted 6 October 2019
E-mail address: smckune@uﬂ.edu (S.L. McKune).
Global Food Security xxx (xxxx) xxxx
2211-9124/ © 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Please cite this article as: Adegbola T. Adesogan, et al., Global Food Security, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2019.100325
For the almost 800 million extremely poor people who live on less
than $1.90/day and subsist on a diet heavily based on starchy foods, as
well as for millions more who are slightly better oﬀ, more –not less –
ASF will be required for sustainable development, as ASF provide not
only calories but, more importantly, the nutrients required for
achievement of human development potential. Indeed, in many cases,
ASF are the only accessible source of such nutrients for the poor.
Though the EAT-Lancet Commission report brieﬂy states that more
meat and other major protein sources should be consumed by low in-
come populations that subsist on starch diets to mitigate malnutrition,
this critically important fact is contradicted in the key messages and
executive summary, which advocate low or less ASF consumption. If the
recommendations in the key messages of the EAT-Lancet commission
report to eat less ASF are adopted by poor pregnant and lactating
women in LMIC, they could maintain the current high stunting rates,
and the associated physical and cognitive development problems.
Furthermore, livestock and ﬁsh production meaningfully contribute to
the ability of these very vulnerable populations to achieve other equally
important targets of sustainable development, including income growth
and gender equality. Thus, eﬀorts to achieve sustainable development
must include a more nuanced understanding of livestock and consider
their important implications on the lives of the poor.
Undernutrition causes almost half of child deaths globally and un-
dermines the long-term health of populations and the physical and
cognitive development of children (Black et al., 2008,2013;
Development Initiatives, 2018). According to WHO, stunting (low-
height-for-age), an important indicator of chronic undernutrition, af-
fected approximately 150.8 million (22.2%) of children under ﬁve in
2017, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where stunting rates
exceeding 30% still occur (UNICEF/WHO/World Bank, 2018). Stunting
begins in utero and is greatest during the ﬁrst 1000 days of life, from
conception to age 2 years (De Onis and Branca, 2016), though the ad-
verse eﬀects persist for many more years later. This means that the ﬁrst
one thousand days post conception is a critical time for proper nutrition
for the mother and child (Victora et al., 2010). In the long term, chronic
malnutrition reduces cognitive and physical development, increases
rates of sickness and death from common illnesses, and reduces edu-
cational outcomes and lifelong productive capacity (Black et al., 2013).
Nutrient deﬁciencies in infancy may trigger permanent epigenetic
changes in metabolism, which lead to poorer health later in life, when
stunted children go on to consume high-calorie, low-nutrient diets
common in developing countries. This combination of metabolic
changes and inadequate diets result in adults being at increased risk of
non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular dis-
ease, and Type 2 diabetes, compared to those who were not stunted
(Prendergast and Humphrey, 2014). Stunting also has intergenerational
eﬀects: low birthweight is more common among infants whose mothers
and even grandmothers were stunted during early childhood (De Onis
and Branca, 2016). In addition, childhood stunting is estimated to de-
liver a per capita income penalty of 9–10% of gross domestic product
(GDP) in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (Galasso et al., 2016).
Key determinants of stunting include poor maternal health and
nutrition before and during pregnancy and lactation, inadequate
breastfeeding, inadequate maternal diets that compromise breastmilk
quality, poor feeding practices for infants and young children, and
unhealthy environments for children (Black et al., 2008;De Onis and
Branca, 2016;Sinha et al., 2018). Deﬁciencies of vitamin A, iron, io-
dine, zinc, B
, and folic acid –the most deﬁcient micronutrients
globally and particularly in diets of children and pregnant women –
contribute to poor growth, intellectual impairment, perinatal compli-
cations, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality (Bailey et al.,
Animal-source foods are the best available sources of high-quality
nutrient-rich food for children aged 6–23 months (WHO, 2014). Com-
pared to plant foods, ASF supply greater quantities of higher quality
protein and more bioavailable vitamin A, vitamin D
, iron, iodine, zinc,
calcium, folic acid and key essential fatty acids. Animal source foods
(ASF) generally contain more bioavailable iron than plant foods, and
consuming ASF with plant-based foods increases the absorption of iron
in the latter (Englemann et al., 1998;Neumann et al., 2002;Navas-
Carretero et al., 2008). Similarly, consuming ﬁsh with vegetables in-
creases the absorption of vitamin A and some ﬁsh species contain twice
as high vitamin A concentration of vegetables as carrots or spinach
(Kawarazuka and Béné, 2010;Vilain et al., 2016). In addition, ASF are
the only natural source of vitamin B
, the deﬁciency of which –pre-
valent in individuals consuming low amounts of ASF in the developing
world –is associated with developmental disorders, anemia, poorer
cognitive function, and lower motor development (Stabler and Allen,
2004). Based on their composition of micro- and macronutrients, as
well as essential amino acids, increasing ASF consumption is likely to be
more eﬀective at reducing stunting than single nutrient supplementa-
tion, a strategy which is further complicated by the irregular and often
unsustained availability of nutrient supplements outside the main cities
of LMIC. A recent randomized controlled trial in Ecuador found that
providing one egg a day to children 6–9 months old for a year reduced
stunting and underweight (indicators of chronic and acute malnutrition
in infants) by 47 and 74%, respectively, and caused no allergies
(Iannotti et al., 2017). These nutritional beneﬁts are much greater than
those achieved by interventions not including ASF (Panjwani and
Heidkamp, 2017). Importantly, a recent attempt to validate the
Ecuador study in rural Malawi (Stewart et al., 2019) with 660 similarly-
aged infants failed to aﬀect stunting. As indicated by authors, this may
have occurred because of the low stunting rates among the target po-
pulation and their frequent consumption of ﬁsh, another important
ASF, which would have supplied critical nutrients lacking in the basal
diet. A recent analysis of 130,432 children aged 6–23 months from 49
countries documented strong associations between stunting and a
generic ASF consumption indicator, as well as dairy, meat/ﬁsh, and egg
consumption indicators, and showed that consuming ASF was strongly
negatively associated with child stunting (Headey et al., 2018). In
particular, stunting levels were notably higher in regions where ASF
consumption was low such as South Central and SE Asia and West,
Central Eastern, and Southern Africa. Other research underscores the
importance of meat and milk in improving the growth outcomes of
children (Neumann et al., 2007;De Beer, 2012). A recent meta-analysis
involving 62 trials and 30,000 participants in 61 countries from ﬁve
continents reported that ASF supplementation to pregnant mothers,
infants or children improved birth weight, children's weight and re-
duced stunting (Pimpin et al., 2019), though improvements in weight
were more pronounced than those in height. Interestingly, another re-
cent meta-analysis (Shapiro et al., 2019) with fewer (21) studies across
14 countries, found no consistent relationship between ASF consump-
tion and stunting, length/height, weight, head circumference, and an-
emia, and the authors attributed this to inconsistencies in the design of
Deﬁciencies of nutrients that are critical for neurological develop-
ment and present in ASF (vitamin B
, vitamin A, iron, zinc, doc-
osahexanoic acid, and iodine) have been associated with brain-related
disorders, including low intelligence quotient, autism, depression, and
dementia (Gupta, 2016). Supplementation of basal diets of Kenyan
school children with small amounts of meat or milk increased their test
scores by 45 and 28%, respectively, and an earlier studies by the same
group (Neumann et al., 2007) showed that meat supplementation was
associated with increased cognitive skills, leadership behavior, physical
activity, and initiative (Hulett et al., 2014). Maternal ﬁsh consumption
during pregnancy was associated with greater cognitive development in
infants postnatally (Daniels et al., 2004). Also, a recent review of the
evidence from eight intervention and 10 observational studies with data
from 61,066 adults and 26,299 children (age range:1–16 years) across
eleven countries, revealed that ASF supplementation or ASF based-diets
increased cognitive functions (test and exam scores) and ﬂuid in-
telligence and verbal skills by at least two-fold (Balehegn et al., 2019).
A.T. Adesogan, et al. Global Food Security xxx (xxxx) xxxx
Clearly, ASF can be vital for meeting the ﬁrst global target of the WHO
Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant, and Young
Child Nutrition, which calls for a 40% reduction in the number of
stunted children under ﬁve by 2025 (WHO, 2014).
While there is evidence that some individuals should decrease
consumption of certain types of ASF to improve their health (USHHS &
USDA, 2015), achieving and maintaining recommended daily allow-
ances of diﬀerent food groups including ASF should be the target
(USHHS & USDA, 2015;Buttriss, 2016). To this end, increasing access to
and consumption of moderate amounts of ASF should simultaneously
be a global priority for people in areas where undernutrition remains a
persistent problem, particularly for infants and women of child bearing
age. Unfortunately, recent attention to and focus on the negative impact
of livestock production skews this discussion. By focusing on produc-
tion systems that service the ASF demand of high income countries and
the negative impact of overconsumption there, global attention and
dialogue neglects the perspective and needs of the large number of
people living in LMIC, among whom increasing ASF consumption could
prevent stunting and improve overall health and development out-
comes. Sustainability of the planet must consider nutritionally vulner-
able populations, women, and children, and the impact that low con-
sumption of ASF has on their lives and futures –a perspective mostly
missing or underrepresented in scientiﬁc analyses or heated discussions
on the impacts of ASF production on climate change. What is also
missing is an understanding of how low the consumption of ASF is
among the poor, particularly in LMIC, where starch-based diets are
typical. For example, mean annual per capita meat consumption in the
bottom four meat-consuming countries (Sudan, India, Bangladesh, and
Ethiopia) is less than one-thirtieth of that in the top four (Brazil, Ur-
uguay, Australia, and USA; Fig. 1). There is a decreasing trend in the
proportion of stunted children in various countries across the world
with increasing per capita consumption of meat, based on the data in
Fig. 1. While this association at country level cannot be interpreted as
evidence of a causal relationship, and while it may reﬂect the income
elasticity of certain ASF like meat, it further supports the study of
Heady et al. (Headey et al., 2018), the meta analysis of Pimpin et al.
(2019) and the hypothesis that ASF has beneﬁcial eﬀects on child
growth, which requires further evaluation at the individual level in
In 2015, the United Nations adopted a resolution to transform the
world by 2030 by achieving 17 ambitious Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs). These include no poverty; zero hunger; good health and
wellbeing; good-quality education; gender equality; decent work and
economic growth; aﬀordable clean energy; and climate action, among
others (UN, 2018). Though the goals build on the historical Millennium
Development Goals, they have been expanded explicitly to include
goals and metrics to which developing countries need to strive. The new
goals illustrate clearly that all countries have important work ahead if
global sustainability is to be achieved, and that there are inherent and
important diﬀerences in what work remains. It is important to note that
livestock are indispensable for the achievement of the SDGs, partly
because they play an essential role in the lives of the poor (Smith,
2017). Detailed descriptions of the role of livestock in achieving the
SDGs were given by LGA (2016) and FAO (2018a).Some of the main
highlights are as follows: Poverty elimination is highly unlikely without
attention to the livestock sector, the world's fastest growing agricultural
sub-sector, making up ﬁve of the ten highest value commodities in the
world (LGA, 2016) and accounting for 40%, on average, of the global
agricultural GDP in developing countries (Steinfeld et al., 2006;LD4D,
2018;GLAD, 2018). Increasing food security and eliminating hunger
without livestock would be an even greater challenge than it already is
for over half of the world's poor people who rely on the sector for
subsistence, as well as income, insurance, and food (LGA, 2016;FAO,
2012;FAO, 2018a). Furthermore, livestock production allows food
production on 57% of the earth's land that cannot be used for crop
production (Mottet et al., 2017); and livestock production supplied 25%
of protein and 18% of calories consumed globally in 2016, both of
which are required for nutritional security (FAOSTAT, 2016-2018 cited
by Mottet et al., 2017). Livestock provided draught power.or traction
for about a third of farmers in developing countries (Bruinsma, 2003),
though a more recent estimate is 50% of the world's farmers (World
Bank, 2009). Livestock manure provides organic fertilizer for over 50%
most of the world's croplands, converting waste products into inputs for
production of high-value food (Bruinsma, 2003;FAO, 2018b). The
manure plays an important role in replenishing soil organic matter,
which is critical for maintaining soil health and quality and hence
sustaining crop productivity and restoring degraded soils (FAO, 2018b).
For millions, manure also serves as an important building material and
Fig. 1. Meat consumption per capita and stunting rate estimates in diﬀerent countries (Adapted from OECD (2018) and UNICEF-WHO-World Bank (2017).
A.T. Adesogan, et al. Global Food Security xxx (xxxx) xxxx
an income source when sold for fuel. Achieving the SDG target for
gender equality without attention to livestock production would be
diﬃcult, as nearly half of the world's farmers are women (Raney et al.,
2011), and livestock is especially important for those female small-
holder farmers who do not own land (Bravo-Baumann, 2000). Animal
source food production contributes meaningfully to goals for a sus-
tainable food system, by converting millions of tons of agroindustrial
by-products that cannot be consumed by humans into livestock feeds,
concomitantly reducing waste and environmental pollution and in-
creasing human-consumable food. It is critical to note also that globally,
only about 14% of the feed dry matter ingested by livestock is edible to
humans, based on recent FAO data (Mottet et al., 2017,Fig. 2), and the
ﬁgure is likely even lower in several developing countries where ru-
minant livestock subsist mainly on pastures or crop residues. These
aspects are often overlooked in discussions about livestock and sus-
tainability, such as in the recent Science article (Poore and Nemecek,
2018) that received global attention and unfortunately catalyzed
widely-circulated non-scientiﬁc media calling for less ASF consumption
in order to save the planet (Monbiot, 2018).
Though less pronounced in developed countries, the current in-
creasing global demand for ASF is widespread in LMICs (WHO, 2013;
Livestock Dialogue, 2014;Turk, 2016;LGA, 2016). With increasing
urbanisation, education levels, and aﬄuence in LMICs, the demand for
ASF rises and this is likely to continue (Bruinsma, 2003;WHO, 2013;
Zhang et al., 2017). This partly because as populations develop eco-
nomically, they and their families become more food and nutritionally
secure, including having increased dietary diversity from fruits and
vegetable consumption (Mayen et al., 2014), as well as ASF (Agrawal
et al., 2019). Sustainable intensiﬁcation of livestock production, which
involves improved resource use eﬃciency with environmental stew-
ardship, can foster a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while
meeting this growing global demand for livestock products, which is
expected to increase by 70% by 2050 (FAO, 2019). Several reviews
have described how adverse environmental impacts of livestock
production can be signiﬁcantly curtailed using strategies such as im-
proving herd eﬃciency and health and genetics; improving feed pro-
duction and feeding practices including grazing management; heat
abatement, fertility management, and facility design; reducing herd
sizes to retain only productive and eﬃcient animals; ensuring attaine-
ment of market size or weight earlier, and manure management to re-
cover and recycle nutrients and energy, etc. (Hristov et al., 2013a,b,c;
Knapp et al., 2014;FAO, 2018b). These approaches can reduce green-
house gas emissions by up to 30% (FAO, 2013;Knapp et al., 2014;LGA,
2016)and they have reduced greenhouse gas emissions in intensive
dairy farms to as low as 1 kg of CO
equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-
corrected milk (ECM), compared with > 7 kg of CO
e/kg of ECM in
extensive systems. Further, strategic integration of other operations into
livestock production can severely curtail greenhouse gas emissions, and
even result in net sequestration of carbon. For instance, a recent meta-
analysis of 86 studies concluded that silvo-pastoral systems, which in-
volve livestock production in forests, resulted in the greatest net ac-
cumulation of soil carbon or net sink of greenhouse gases among
agroforestry systems studied (Feliciano et al., 2018). In addition,
widespread adoption of anaerobic digestion of manure to produce
biogas in the US and the resultant reductions in coal and manure
greenhouse gas emissions, could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by
99 + 59 metric tons and produce 0.6% of the annual electricity con-
sumption (D’Cuéllar and Webber, 2008).
Like other agricultural systems, all livestock systems contribute to
environmental pollution in diﬀerent ways and to varying degrees. Each
livestock system should critically examine which of the above practices
it should adopt to improve environmental stewardship.
The current low productivity of livestock relative to their green-
house gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia results in
higher greenhouse gas emission intensities. For example, to produce as
much milk as the average US dairy cow in a year (10,000 L), about 8
Indian dairy cows (producing an average of 1200 L annually) would be
required, generating nine times as much methane from gastrointestinal
Fig. 2. Global livestock feed dry matter intake [Adapted from FAO, 2017 (Adpated from Mottet et al., 2017)].
A.T. Adesogan, et al. Global Food Security xxx (xxxx) xxxx
sources (Mitloehner, 2016). In LMICs, where emissions of greenhouse
gases per unit of food produced, are generally higher, sustainable in-
tensiﬁcation will require practices such as feeding energy dense, nu-
tritionally balanced rations, culling unproductive animals, fertility
management, improving genetics, decreasing herd size to retain only
productive animals, using appropriate mechanization, heat abatement
and improving herd health.
Sustainable intensiﬁcation of livestock production contributes to
achievement of the SDG goals of responsible consumption and pro-
duction; sustainable cities and communities; and climate action.
Indeed, among agricultural strategies to achieve the climate action goal
of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, sustainably intensifying livestock
production may be the strategy with the greatest potential (FAO,
2018a). This emphasizes the need for signiﬁcant additional investments
in research and development to curtail greenhouse gas emissions from
livestock systems, particularly from the ruminant production systems
that contribute the most emissions. Such investments are greatly
needed to increase sustainably productivity and production eﬃciency
and thereby reduce emissions per unit of food produced from such
In addition to consideration of agricultural strategies to minimize
negative environmental impacts of livestock production, attempts to
increase ASF consumption must also reduce the risks from acute and
chronic human diseases associated with their production and con-
sumption, especially in smallholder livestock systems in developing
countries. Infectious diseases at the animal-human interface are highly
dynamic and livestock are an important reservoir of zoonotic diseases.
To date, control of these infectious diseases has had limited success in
low- and middle-income countries, resulting in a high burden of human
gastrointestinal disease (Havelaar et al., 2015). Environmental enteric
dysfunction (EED) –an important risk factor for stunting –is associated
with chronic inﬂammation in the intestines of young children and
asymptomatic infections by diverse enteric pathogens including those
present in livestock manure (Platts-Mills et al., 2017). In developed and
developing countries alike, antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, often
associated with intensiﬁcation of production systems, are commonly
found in animals, animal food products, and agro-food environments
(Schwarz et al., 2018). These risks highlight the need for improved
management practices to increase food safety and mitigate disease risks
from livestock. Finally, overconsumption of certain ASF may increase
the risk of developing of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes
(Battaglia et al., 2015). Thus, while eﬀorts should be made to increase
consumption of ASF among the poorest, the general goal needs to
emphasize moderation in ASF consumption and adherence to re-
commended daily intakes (Buttriss, 2016;USHHS & USDA, 2015).
Sustainable development strives to meet “the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs”(Bruntland Commission, 1987). The current rate of ASF
consumption among the world's poorest people meets neither their
nutritional needs—present or future—nor those of their children and
children's children; rather it results in poor nutrition and health, poor
educational achievements, and lifelong restrictions of economic pro-
ductivity, with all the attendant intergenerational harms these can
cause. Conversely, evidence suggests that well-timed, modest increases
in the amounts of milk, ﬁsh, meat, and egg consumption among the
poorest people could signiﬁcantly improve their nutritional status, as
well as their educational and economic successes. This highlights the
fundamental problem of advocating dietary change towards less ASF
consumption (Willet et al., 2019): it is an unbalanced view of sustain-
ability that does not adequately address the needs of the most vulner-
able. While vegetarianism or veganism may be nutritionally feasible in
the very places where ASF is overconsumed, the recommendation
overlooks the risk of a vegetarian or vegan diet to those on whom it is
unwillingly imposed and where micronutrient supplements are un-
available. Without doubt, increases in ASF consumption among the
global poor needs to be achieved while safeguarding the health and
wellbeing of people, animals, and the environment. This will require
smart, intentional, and enduring collaborations among livestock and
human nutrition and health practitioners, as well as policymakers and
environmentalists. It will also necessitate a nuanced understanding of
and attention to the disparate needs and perspectives of a global po-
pulation. Only with eﬀective multidisciplinary partnerships will we
improve the accessibility and aﬀordability of nutrient-dense ASF in low-
income countries while maximizing the beneﬁts and minimizing the
adverse eﬀects –environmental and otherwise –of ASF production
Declaration of competing interest
Authors acknowledge no conﬂict of interest to report.
This work was funded in whole or part by the United States Agency
for International Development (USAID) Bureau for Food Security under
Agreement # AID-OAA-L-15-00003 as part of Feed the Future
Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems. Any opinions, ﬁndings, conclu-
sions, or recommendations expressed here are those of the authors
The contents are the responsibility of the authors and do not ne-
cessarily reﬂect the views of [REMOVED FOR BLIND REVIEW]. We
thank those who provided comments on the manuscript including
[REMOVED FOR BLIND REVIEW] for assistance with the data collation.
Authors contributed equally to this paper.
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