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Journal of the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Vol. 66, 2019

Authors:
  • Anastasia Mosquito Control District, FLorida, USA

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Journal of the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Vol. 66, 2019 published 11 research articles and submitted abstracts of the 90th annual meeting.
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Article
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Background: Autodissemination of pyriproxyfen (PPF), i.e. co-opting adult female mosquitoes to transfer the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen (PPF) to their aquatic habitats has been demonstrated for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes. This approach, could potentially enable high coverage of aquatic mosquito habitats, including those hard to locate or reach via conventional larviciding. This study demonstrated impacts of autodissemination in crashing a stable and self-sustaining population of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions in Tanzania. Methods: Self-propagating populations of An. arabiensis were established inside large semi-field cages. Larvae fed on naturally occurring food in 20 aquatic habitats in two study chambers (9.6 × 9.6 m each), while emerging adults fed on tethered cattle. The mosquito population was monitored using emergence traps and human landing catches, each time returning captured adults into the chambers. Once the population was stable (after 23 filial generations), PPF dissemination devices (i.e. four clay pots each treated with 0.2-0.3 g PPF) were introduced into one of the chambers (treatment) and their impact monitored in parallel with untreated chamber (control). Results: Daily adult emergence was similar between control and treatment chambers, with average (± SE) of 14.22 ± 0.70 and 12.62 ± 0.74 mosquitoes/trap, respectively, before treatment. Three months post-treatment, mean number of adult An. arabiensis emerging from the habitats was 5.22 ± 0.42 in control and 0.14 ± 0.04 in treatment chambers. This was equivalent to > 97% suppression in treatment chamber without re-treatment of the clay pots. Similarly, the number of mosquitoes attempting to bite volunteers inside the treatment chamber decreased to zero, 6 months post-exposure (i.e. 100% suppression). In contrast, biting rates in control rose to 53.75 ± 3.07 per volunteer over the same period. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate effective suppression of stable populations of malaria vectors using a small number of simple autodissemination devices, from which adult mosquitoes propagated pyriproxyfen to contaminate aquatic habitats in the system. This is the first proof that autodissemination can amplify treatment coverage and deplete malaria vector populations. Field trials are necessary to validate these results, and assess impact of autodissemination as a complementary malaria intervention.
Article
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Pollinators, including honey bees, are responsible for the successful reproduction of more than 87% of flowering plant species: they are thus vital to ecosystem health and agricultural services world-wide. To investigate honey bee exposure to pesticides, 168 pollen samples and 142 wax comb samples were collected from colonies within six stationary apiaries in six U.S. states. These samples were analyzed for evidence of pesticides. Samples were taken bi-weekly when each colony was active. Each apiary included thirty colonies, of which five randomly chosen colonies in each apiary were sampled for pollen. The pollen samples were separately pooled by apiary. There were a total of 714 detections in the collected pollen and 1008 detections in collected wax. A total of 91 different compounds were detected: of these, 79 different pesticides and metabolites were observed in the pollen and 56 were observed in the wax. In all years, insecticides were detected more frequently than were fungicides or herbicides: one third of the detected pesticides were found only in pollen. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) number of detections per pooled pollen sample varied by location from 1.1 (1.1) to 8.7 (2.1). Ten different modes of action were found across all four years and nine additional modes of action occurred in only one year. If synergy in toxicological response is a function of simultaneous occurrence of multiple distinct modes of action, then a high frequency of potential synergies was found in pollen and wax-comb samples. Because only pooled pollen samples were obtained from each apiary, and these from only five colonies per apiary per year, more data are needed to adequately evaluate the differences in pesticide exposure risk to honey bees among colonies in the same apiary and by year and location.
Article
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The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most important managed species for agricultural pollination across the world [...]
Article
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With the progress of time, demand for healthy and hygienic clothing has gone up tremendously. Fabrics and apparels finished with mosquito repellent finishes belong to one of such highly looked out clothing’s. The present study aims at synthesis, characterization and optimization of β-Cyclodextrin citrate (β-CD CA) followed by its complexion with essential oils of cedarwood, clove, eucalyptus, peppermint, lavender and jasmine for the assessment of repellent efficacy against Anopheles Stephensi by means of arm in cage assays on cotton. Protection time, repellency (%), biting (%) and mortality (%) of inclusion complexes encapsulated with oils were evaluated. Two way ANOVA and post hoc analysis had affirmed the significant effect of essential oil type on bio-assay. Lavender and cedarwood had provided the longest protection times (210 and 160 min respectively); jasmine and peppermint were least effective showing protection times of 20 and 60 min whereas oils of eucalyptus and clove behaved as feeding deterrents. Peppermint and lavender were effective as potential repellents and cedarwood had shown supreme mortality against arthropods. Jasmine was the weakest repellent due to its flower-nectar stimulating upshot for Anopheles stephensi.
Article
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Background: Vector control is the only widely utilised method for primary prevention and control of dengue. The use of pyriproxyfen may be promising, and autodissemination approach may reach hard to reach breeding places. It offers a unique mode of action (juvenile hormone mimic) and as an additional tool for the management of insecticide resistance among Aedes vectors. However, evidence of efficacy and community effectiveness (CE) remains limited. Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to compile and analyse the existing literature for evidence on the CE of pyriproxyfen as a vector control method for reducing Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and thereby human dengue transmission. Methods: Systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane library, WHOLIS, Web of Science, Google Scholar as well as reference lists of all identified studies. Removal of duplicates, screening of abstracts and assessment for eligibility of the remaining studies followed. Relevant data were extracted, and a quality assessment conducted. Results were classified into four main categories of how pyriproxyfen was applied: - 1) container treatment, 2) fumigation, 3) auto-dissemination or 4) combination treatments,-and analysed with a view to their public health implication. Results: Out of 745 studies 17 studies were identified that fulfilled all eligibility criteria. The results show that pyriproxyfen can be effective in reducing the numbers of Aedes spp. immatures with different methods of application when targeting their main breeding sites. However, the combination of pyriproxyfen with a second product increases efficacy and/or persistence of the intervention and may also slow down the development of insecticide resistance. Open questions concern concentration and frequency of application in the various treatments. Area-wide ultra-low volume treatment with pyriproxyfen currently lacks evidence and cannot be recommended. Community participation and acceptance has not consistently been successful and needs to be further assessed. While all studies measured entomological endpoints, only two studies measured the reduction in human dengue cases, with inconclusive results. Conclusions: Although pyriproxyfen is highly effective in controlling the immature stages of dengue transmitting mosquitoes, and-to a smaller degree-adult mosquitoes, there is weak evidence for a reduction of human dengue cases. More well designed larger studies with appropriate standardised outcome measures are needed before pyriproxyfen is incorporated in routine vector control programmes. Additionally, resistance to pyriproxyfen has been reported and needs investigation.
Article
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Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB.
Article
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Although insecticide spray droplets will potentially impinge on many exoskeletal body regions, traditional mosquito topical bioassays focus insecticide application to the mesothoracic pleural or dorsal area. Concentrations of permethrin and malathion found in droplets from ultra-low volume and low-volume sprays were evaluated for efficacy against adult Culex quinquefasciatus using a topical application bioassay. Results document nonuniform insecticide sensitivity across body regions, which has not been previously assessed in mosquitoes. Insecticide contact with appendages, such as the leg and the wing, returned much lower mortality from both insecticides than exposure to the primary body (i.e., head, thorax, and abdomen). No difference was observed in percent mortality 24 h after exposure to different insecticides to the same body region. Sublethal behaviors were also observed and discussed for both insecticides. Our findings provide valuable information for those performing topical bioassays, and may help explain insecticide effectiveness wherever droplets impinge upon the mosquito body during laboratory or field applications.
Article
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Background: Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. Methodology: This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Conclusions: Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had <5% mortality. Aerial applications of VectoBac WG caused significant decrease in adult female populations throughout the summer and during the 38th week (last application) the difference in adult female numbers between untreated and treated sites was >50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.
Article
The massive use of synthetic insecticides led to negative effects on the environment and human health. Therefore, researchers looked at natural products as effective alternatives to conventional pesticides. Here, commercially valuable essential oils (EOs) were selected from mint (Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata), basil (Ocimum basilicum), helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum), yarrow (Achillea ligustica), geranium (Pelargonium odoratissimum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and ginger grass (Lippia alba). The chemical composition of these EOs assayed was analyzed by GC-MS. Then, we investigated their insecticidal potential in acute and sub-lethal toxicity assays against mosquito vectors of filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) and house flies (Musca do-mestica). Against C. quinquefasciatus 4th instar larvae, the most toxic EO was C. verum (LC 50 = 40.7 μl L −1), followed by L. alba (LC 50 = 59.6 μl L −1), while against M. domestica adults, the most toxic EOs were C. verum and H. italicum (LD 50 = 42 μg adult −1). The exposure of mosquito larvae to a sub-lethal concentration (LC 30 = 25 mg L −1) led to a reduction of adult emergence and fertility. Besides, adult flies that survived after exposure to a sub-lethal dose of C. verum EO (LD 20 = 10 μg adult −1) showed a marked decrease in male and female longevity, as well as to a reduction in fecundity, fertility, and natality. Overall, C. verum and H. italicum EOs showed a highly promising insecticidal potential on two key insect vectors and pests. The relatively low prices of the selected EOs, their availability on the market and the noteworthy global production of the bulky materials, make them as ideal candidate ingredients to be used in insecticidal formulations.