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Although there are many ways to sterilize drinking water such as chemical and physical methods, many countries still use chlorine to sterilize drinking water. Several researches have shown a strong correlation between chlorine used in water sterilization and the emergence of a large number of diseases when it reacts naturally with organic matter found in water such as decaying tree residues and animal material, producing substances known as chlorinated hydrocarbons which has adverse effects on health, so this article review aimed to investigate the influences of chlorine on health in general.
Pak. J. Biotechnol. Vol. 16 (3) 163-167 (2019) pISSN: 1812-1837 eISSN 2312-7791
Israa Harjan Mohsen1, Athraa Harjan Mohsen2 and Haider Kamil Zaidan3
1Collage of Nursing, University of Babylon, 2Collage of sciences, University of Kufa, Iraq, 3Iraqi cultural
attaché in Jordan. E. mail:
Article received 29.6.2019, Revised 28.8.2019, Accepted 14.9.2019
Although there are many ways to sterilize drinking water such as chemical and physical methods, many countries still
use chlorine to sterilize drinking water. Several researches have shown a strong correlation between chlorine used in
water sterilization and the emergence of a large number of diseases when it reacts naturally with organic matter found
in water such as decaying tree residues and animal material, producing substances known as chlorinated hydrocarbons
which has adverse effects on health, so this article review aimed to investigate the influences of chlorine on health in
KeywordsChlorine, by-products, disinfection, water, carcinogenic, health effects
The problem of water contamination is an unend-
ing difficult. Thousands of people were dying
because of many disease cholera, typhoid fever and
amebic dysentery, during the 20s and 30s which are
transmitted through polluted drinking water. When
chlorine was used to sterilize drinking water, this
was reflecting one of the most crucial progresses in
water management in the 20th century. Water chlo-
rination started in 1890 to eliminate the causes of
these diseases. Thanks to this discovery, these dise-
ases have been eradicated and humanity has reac-
hed remarkable expansions in the value of drinking
water and the preservation of the environment. In
the current time about 98% of drinking water is ste-
rile by chlorine around the world. Despite the
importance of chlorine in the sterilization of drin-
king water, sewage and industrial waste, drinking
chlorinated water and direct exposure to chlorine
gas has significant adverse effects. Several studies
have confirmed that chlorine is directly related to
liver, bladder, intestinal cancers, Arteriosclerosis,
high blood pressure and allergies.
Structure of chlorine and its properties: Chlo-
rine word means the pale green, it is chemical
element has the Atomic number 17 and the symbol
(Cl). Chlorine represents a member of halogens
where it presents in the group 17 of the periodic
table of the elements. It is yellow-green gas in the
room temperature, its melting point at -101°C while
the Degree of assimilation is -34.6°C. It smells irri-
tating and pungent like the smell of bleached
detergents. The density of chlorine gas is more than
the density of the air as it is dense (3.21*10-3g\cm3),
for this reason chlorine accumulates at points at low
levels on the surface of the earth slowly rising into
the air, causing an increased exposure time (Sander
1999).Chlorine is characterized by its weak degra-
dation in water. Liquid chlorides, as well as organic
solvents, increase chlorine solubility due to chlor-
ine, whether wet or liquid, of high ability to destroy
and destroy most of the known metals no matter
how different its resistance, such as gold, silver,
platinum and tantalum, For wet and dry chlorine
(Keil and Shepson, 2006). Chlorine is non-flamm-
able but is associated with other substances invol-
ved in the manufacture of explosives. It also lacks
power and interacts strongly with many organic
compounds (Kercher et al., 2009). The chlorine
evaporates rapidly if it is exposed and its viscosity
equals one-third of the viscosity of water and its
volume in its gaseous state is greater than its liquid
state by 450 times. This means that a cubic meter
of liquid chlorine can produce about 450 of gas.
Chlorine is used in its liquid state (sodium hypo-
chlorite) or solid in powdered form in water steri-
lization and the chlorine solubility in the water and
its interaction lead to the formation of derivative
causing biological damage (Baker et al., 2016).
These reactions are including:
1- CL2+H2O= HCL+HOCL (Hypochlorus acid).
2- CL2+H2O= 2HCL+ [ O-]
3- HOCL= HCL+[ O-]
History of chlorine: The chlorine was discovered
by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774 AD, which he
thought contained oxygen but was corrected by Sir
Humphry Davy, who insisted that he was a chemi-
cal element, which he named chlorine in 1810 AD.
In 1810 AD chlorine was first used in water steri-
lization in limited areas and after obtaining amaz-
ing results in eliminating the pathogens of many
diseases, it was widely used for sterilizing drinking
water in Chicago, USA in 1908 AD (Wisniak,
2002). Chlorine is one of the first toxic gases used
as a weapon in wars during the First World War.
Mohsin I.H. et al., Pakistan J. Biotechnol.
On April 22, 1915, in a battle near the Belgian city
of Ibery, the German army fired large quantities of
this gas into cylinders stored in trenches which led
to the retreat of French troops (Fitzgerald, 2008).
Chlorine sources and its using: Chlorine is natu-
rally associated with other elements, especially
sodium as NaCl, as well as carnallite and sylvite.
Chlorine forms many soluble salts in ocean waters.
Chloride ions represent 1.9% of the sea water mass.
The amount of chlorine in the soil varies depending
on the distance from the sea. The chlorine rate in
the upper layers of the soil is about 10 ppm. The
plants also contain different levels of chlorine, as it
is one of the main nutrients of the upper plants. It
is concentrated in green plastids (Chen et al.,
2010). The human body contains chlorine in the
form of chloride and rarely cause deficiency in this
element in humans except in cases of vomiting and
diarrhea, severe and persistent sweating and waste,
where the chlorine enters the synthesis of intestinal
acids and participate in the process of digestion of
food and share with potassium and sodium in redu-
cing the balance of water and fluids and helps to
secure Function of muscles and nervous system
(Rolfes et al., 2012).
Chlorine has multiple uses as it is used in the
purification of drinking water as a disinfectant and
is also used as bleach .chlorine enters the industry
directly or indirectly, which is used in the paper,
paints, pesticides, paint, plastics production petro-
latum and tissue industry and solvent industry
(Sioris and Shuller, 2007). Chlorine is used in the
pulp of wood pulp used in the manufacture of paper
and helps to remove ink from recycled paper in
addition to it is used as an alternative to hydrogen
in the industrial rubber industry. It also enters into
the manufacture of organic materials such as chlor-
ite, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, as well as
contributes to the extraction of bromine (Perez and
Mckay, 2007).
Methods of exposure to chlorine: There are many
faces for the use of chlorine in the industrial and
commercial fields, so exposure to it is accidental
by freeing or draining it from storage containers or
dealing directly with it in factories and water puri-
fication plants. The most harmful methods of
exposure are inhalation of chlorine gas or by direct
contact with the skin and the eye or through inges-
tion of food and chlorine-containing water.
Health damage of chlorine: The benefits of chlor-
ine use in the sterilization areas are very clear, but
despite its usefulness, it has adverse effects. While
it was thought to prevent the spread of epidemics,
it has been helpful in the development of other dis-
eases. When chlorine is added to sterilize drinking
water, it reacts naturally with organic matter found
in water such as decaying tree residues and animal
material, producing substances known as chlorine-
ted hydrocarbons, Trihalomethanes which are chl-
oroform, benzene, bromoform, dibromo-chlorome-
thane, bromo-dichloromethane ( CIS ,2014). These
substances are found in the most common water
supply. The EPA in 2014 has classified these com-
pounds as the main causes of cancer, especially
liver, kidney and colon cancer, where the concen-
tration of chloroform in drinking water has increa-
sed over time as the normal proportions of its pre-
sence in water are 2-68ppb.
The exposure to chlorine increases when swimm-
ing with chlorinated water as the temperature of the
water to 300C increase the proportion of chloro-
form to 0.2mg, but if it rose to 400C, the concen-
tration of up to 7mg, resulting in a lack of blood
flow in the capillaries near the skin, To spread acr-
oss large distances through which it reaches the
bloodstream (Michaud et al., 2007). The inhalation
of chlorine vapor during bathing increases the pro-
blems of asthma, allergies and sinuses. Short-term
exposure to these conditions can cause eyes, cough,
sputum, chest and nose pain.
Exposure to it further causes fluid accumulation
in the lung, pneumonia, bronchitis and dyspnea. It
was found that exposure to fumes during shower
use was 100 times more frequent than drinking the
same water. The body was found to absorb the vol-
atile chemicals during bathing. The effects can be
summarized in the body's organs as follows:
Respiratory system: It is the occurrence of irritat-
ion and inflammation of the nose and throat memb-
ranes and inflammation of the respiratory tract,
where exposure to a high concentration of chlorine
can lead to the accumulation of fluid in the lung and
swelling, and lead to bronchitis and can lead to
death due to suffocation, Chronic symptoms due to
exposure to low levels of chlorine are continuous,
especially by workers who work in institutions pro-
ducing chlorine-containing bleach, drinking water
purification and sewage, and they may have symp-
toms of bronchitis and asthma. They may become
more susceptible to Tuberculosis (Patil et al., 2002).
Though, chlorine-based sterilizers, which include
chlorine, hypochlorite, yet chloroisocyanurates are
the nearly frequent water sterilizers because of the
obstruction concerning lotus borne illnesses. When
disinfectants arouse together with natural amino
complexes, sterilization byproducts (DBP’s), regu-
larly denoted according to like trihalomethanes, are
wrought. Organic compounds, for instance, hypo-
chlorous acid yet chloramines, cause oxidation for
muscles, which damage epithelial tissue junctions
16(3) 2019 Health Effect of chlorinated….
and cause rise the permeability of lung epithelium.
Frequent exposure over it marketers triggers the
improvement about bronchial asthma or potentially
permits the passage on allergens. Exposure of chlo-
rination then natural count or decreased ventilation
beyond indoor swimming pools may hold hazar-
dous acid and persistent consequences concerning
the respiratory law (Nemery et al., 2002; Bernard
et al., 2006). Kids, lifesavers, tank attendants, and
the best bathers are at an amplified jeopardy beca-
use of arising top or decrease respiratory issues
(Lourencetti et al., 2008).
Epithelial or mucosal destruction triggered by
way of incur in conformity with chlorine products
into kids under the age five years, pond followers
then competitive swimmers motives a before long
onset concerning allergies (Bernard et al., 2006).
Kids yet youth are nearly prone according to thri-
ving health consequences due to the fact on the
expanding usage in childhood for bodily undertak-
ing (Bougault et al., 2009) or it is tending to stand
swimming among water as is hotter and have grea-
ter ranks about sterilizer (Weisel et al., 2009). Chl-
orine tiers are commonly in 1.0 3.0ppm among
unrestricted swimming pools, each indoors yet out-
doors, then is extended upon water than surface
pollution. The encouraged chlorine ranges are dire-
cted via governance groups in accordance with
avoiding recurrent of illnesses because of water
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).
The study of (Bougault et al., 2012) found that the
swimming for a long time in chlorinated swimming
pools leads to changes in airways like that happe-
ned in asthma with the more expression of mucin.
Eyes: The chlorine reaction with the mucous mem-
brane of the cornea is highly acidic, but the proteins
present in the tears work to reduce the damage of
these acids, which cause burns in the membranes
of the corneal epithelium, that can heal with time.
Burns that occur in the center of the cornea may
lead to an ulcer and then leave a scar inside
(Bernard, 2007).
Skin and hair: Bathing and ablution with chlorina-
ted water which is cause scalp and skin redness,
mainly in people who are most susceptible to aller-
gies. Chlorine is found to be associated with hair
proteins, destroying it, causing it dryness and frag-
ile, losing color, it also increases the problems of
dandruff. Studies have shown that swimming in the
swimming pool with chlorinated water lead to
absorption of chlorine by the skin within 10 minu-
tes, which go over eight cups of water of chlorine,
making the skin dry and itchy (Cmest, 2002). Swi-
mming in a chlorinated pool can dry out the skin
and make it tight and irritated on the grounds that
the chlorine strips the skin of its normal oils. Indi-
viduals with delicate skin may even get aggrava-
tion or a rash from the pool's drying impacts. Chlo-
rine likewise can worsen skin conditions like
Chlorine really advances the age of free radicals
inside the body, and particularly the skin. Free radi-
cals have been appeared to cause malignancy, as
has chlorine. Drinking faucet water most has been
connected to bladder, breast and bowel cancer and
long-term impacts of drinking, washing and swim-
ming in chlorinated water has been appeared to
cause dangerous melanoma, also called skin can-
cer. Chlorinated water to advance the process of
aging, like the impacts of stretched out presentation
to the sun.
Teeth: The continued contact to chlorinated water,
whether by drinking water or swimming, can cause
tooth decay and weakness. It has been found that
workers who work in institutions and factories that
use chlorine appear on their teeth to corrode due to
hydrochloric acid formed as a result of the chlorine
reaction with the moisture in their mouth besides
inflammation of the lining of the mouth (Pereira et
al., 2006).
In a case report depicts the relatively total loss of
enamel by corrosive disintegration, especially from
the front teeth, in a lady who swam day by day for
about fourteen days in an inappropriately chlorina-
ted swimming pool in Cuba. It accentuates the
requirement for the two swimmers and swimming
pool team to guarantee that water has been appro-
priately chlorinated and that the pH has been chan-
ged in accordance with 7.5 (Dawes and Boroditsky,
Digestive system: Exposure to chlorine by swallo-
wing and dealing with chlorine-containing deterge-
nts at home leads to vomiting and chest pain. Pro-
longed exposure leads to irritation of the pharynx,
esophagus, and liver and intestinal tissue. Several
studies found that the drinking of water contain
chlorine derivatives (trichloromethanes) such as
chloroform is a carcinogenic agent for rats and
mice. Inhalation of chlorine can lead to cancer risk
(IARC, 2006). There is an increase of 15-35% in
cancer among people who use chlorinated water
compared with other non-chlorinated water where
noticed the presence of correlation between bladder
and rectum cancer with consumption of chlorinated
water. Several studies indicated the presence of
positive correlation between colon, stomach, pan-
creas, liver, bladder and anal cancer and the expo-
sure to chlorinated byproducts in drinking water
(Weiderpass et al., 2003; Slattery et al., 2006;
Villanueva et al., 2007).
Mohsin I.H. et al., Pakistan J. Biotechnol.
Heart: Chlorine is one of the oxidizing substances
that reduce the level of oxygen in the cells, increas-
ing the risk of heart disease. It has been shown that
chlorinated water has an effect on the heart and cir-
culation device, which leads to poor circulation and
low growth in birds treated with chlorinated water
compared to the group that took chlorine free water
(Price, 1987).
Abortion: Chlorine reacts with a naturally occur-
ing organic matter, during the production of drink-
ing water and lead to the formation of Disinfection
by-products (DBPs) which is causes adverse repro-
ductive effect, such as, intrauterine growth retarda-
tion, low birth weight and spontaneous abortion
(Richardson et al.,2002). In a cross-sectional study
carried out by (Nieuwenhuijsen, et al., 2008) indi-
cate an increase in the birth defect such as cleft
palate anencephalus and ventricular septal defects
risk, from prenatal exposure to disinfection by-
products in drinking water(Mohsen et al., 2016).
It is found that women who drink chlorinated water
increase their miscarriages and birth of dead fetu-
ses and also increase the number of birth defects
that suffer from heart problems, cleft palate and
brain abnormalities, where chlorine is one of the
important factors that contribute to the increase of
breast cancer across the world (Jaakkola, 2007;
Barrie, 2009).
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fection and decrease the pathogens in the water,
chlorine gas is fatal even if it is at concentrations as
low and has important role in the occurrence of
several diseases through its participant in the defi-
ciency of immunity, cancer and Abnormalities.
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decrease these effects that has become so wide-
spread, As some countries still use this substance
in water sterilization, it is necessary to look for less
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... Aside from being smelly Mohsen, et al. [6] noted that chlorinated water can cause a few other problems around the house like with laundry. Residual chlorine in water however little it can be, reacts to form a weak hypochlorite (active component in bleach) therefore making the water to be a slightly bleaching agent. ...
... The RC if used in instant showers will vaporize to form gaseous, elemental chlorine which is inhaled. This gas is highly poisonous and a continuous exposure to it is deadly Botlagunta, et al. and Mohsen, et al. [6,17]. ...
The knowledge of residual chlorine (RC) is important at final check to the quality of water supplied to consumers. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a standard at 0.2 - 0.3 mg/L of RC allowable. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020), RC is important for it shows that a significant amount chlorine was initially added to the water to inactivate bacteria and also that the water is safe from recontamination. Given the current discussion on the global effects of chlorine to health, it would be of great importance to determine the levels of RC on the water that is consumed by households in Uasin Gishu County. This research work was set to evaluate the concentration of RC within the water supply of Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. Ten points were chosen at strategic points where tap drinking water were to be sampled for tests between the month of January and March 2021. The samples were tested using a comparator which showed exactly how much chlorine (in mg/L) is in the water if present. Several factors may affect the amount of residual chlorine in water which include pH, temperature and chlorine decay. These factors greatly dictates the results depending on the time and conditions in which the sample is kept before the testing. This shows why water tests differently at different distance points from the treatment plant. The results were tabulated in excel spreadsheets while graphs and charts were used to show comparison of residual chlorine at different sampling points.
... Furthermore, it can cause asthma, irritation of the esophagus, burning sensations in the mouth and throat, and spontaneous vomiting [36]. It also leads to liver and bladder damage, as well as colon cancer, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and allergies [37]. ...
One of the indicators of water pollution is the presence of coliform bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). The development of resistance properties to several antibiotics by this pathogen is a serious health problem. Therefore, this study aims to isolate and identify antibiotic-resistant E. coli using the 16S rRNA gene. Samples were taken along the Kedukan, PU, and Buah rivers in Palembang City, South Sumatra, Indonesia, using the purposive sampling method. Each river consists of 9 sampling points, namely, the lower, middle and the upstream regions. The water quality result for the three rivers show that several water quality parameters do not meet the water quality standards: namely, BOD levels in the Kedukan and Buah rivers, Fe levels in the Kedukan and PU rivers, and chlorine in the three rivers. The results showed that E. coli isolates from the Kedukan, PU and Buah rivers were sensitive to 9 antibiotics. The highest resistance (100%) of E. coli isolates to tobramycin was in the Kedukan and PU rivers, while those from the Buah river were resistant to ampicillin. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed genetic diversity. Two main groups were formed from E. coli, namely, A and B, which consist of 17 and 4 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, the water quality analysis results of the Kedukan, PU, and Buah rivers in Palembang City, South Sumatra, revealed that they are polluted.
... v) High concentration of Chlorine added in the municipal drinking water consumed by us regularly for years may have adverse effects on our health (Mohsen et al. 2019). ...
Full-text available
In contemporary research, funding is generally targeted toward assured and high business returns. In this business approach, studies for possible negative or side effects, especially the long-term use effects of the technologies and products are neglected or overlooked. Ample evidence related to the development of serious detrimental outcomes of many such improperly studied technologies before their widespread use is available in different aspects of the life of animals and plants, and on the overall environment of our planet. A few such examples of serious impacts on human health and the environment are cited in the article along with a brief discussion of the potentially risky application of such one-eyed research-derived technologies.
... Health problems due to eating foods containing chlorine (Cl2) make the stomach prone to ulcer disease. In the long run, it will cause kidney disease and cancer (14). This is not in line with Yunica's (2014) research with a p-value of 0.001, which means a relationship between knowledge and participation in immunizing tetanus toxoid in pregnant women (15). ...
Tetanus toxoid immunization is a process to build immunity to prevent tetanus infection. Tetanus toxoid immunization in pregnant women provides immunity to the fetus against tetanus infection (Tetanus neonaturum) during labor and postnatally. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors for the low coverage of tetanus toksoidimmunization consisting of knowledge, the role of health workers, and Distance. This type of research is analytical survey research with a cross-sectional approach. This research was conducted in the Pinembani Community Health Center's work area in June 2020, with a sample of 41 respondents. The results showed no relationship between knowledge and coverage of Tetanus toxoid immunization, as evidenced by statistical tests with a p-value of 0.178> 0.05. The results showed a connection between health workers' role and Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage, as evidenced by statistical tests with a p-value of 0.003 <0.05. The results showed no relationship between distance and tetanus toxoid immunization coverage, as evidenced by statistical tests with a p-value of 0.073> 0.05. This research is expected for health workers in the working area of Puskesmas Pinembani always to survey the Tetanus Toxic Immunization service and provide more counseling or information about health at the posyandu to increase the knowledge of pregnant women.
... Although most of the reagents used in water disinfection are effective and have residual effect benefit; there are health challenges with usage of the reagents for water disinfection including forming of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Various research works had established the link between human consumption of chlorinated water and diseases such as cancer, birth defects, arteriosclerosis, immunity deficiency, among others [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. Chemical disinfection of water using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has some challenges with the formation of harmful disinfection by-products from its reaction with organic materials in water. ...
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The need to find alternative water disinfectants without negative consequential health effects is imperative in view of the link that had been established between human consumption of chlorinated water and diseases such as cancer. Therefore, this study was set out to evaluate and compare the water disinfection potential of aloe vera and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in order to determine the suitability of using aloe vera as sodium hypochlorite substitute. The coliform count of the faecal thermo-tolerant coliform (non-Ecoli) isolated from well water sample was 49 cfu/100ml. Disinfectant efficacies of the NaOCl and Aloe Vera, stored under various conditions, were evaluated and compared using disc diffusion method to determine disinfection susceptibility of the isolated coliform. The two disinfectants showed increase in level of zone of inhibition of the isolated coliforms with increase in disinfectants storage concentration and sun exposure period. As a disinfectant, aloe vera seemed to be more stable when compared with NaOCl at the storage temperatures of 0, 25 and 35oC. The p-values for using aloe vera and NaOCl as disinfectants under various conditions of concentration, temperature and sun exposure period ranged between 0.247 and 1.000 indicating non-significant difference when aloe vera was used as sodium hypochlorite substitute.
... Health problems that can be caused by consuming chlorine-containing drinks in the long term can cause lung diseases such as pneumonitis, shortness of breath, emphysema, and bronchitis [11]. Furthermore, it can be caused directly to liver, bladder, intestinal cancers, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, bronchitis, dyspnea, and allergies [12]. ...
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One of the manual brewing techniques is the pour-over V60 method. It uses a filter paper, which is suspected of containing chlorine as a paper bleaching agent that will dissolve in coffee. Health problems that can be caused by consuming chlorine-containing beverages in the long term can cause directly disease related to liver, bladder, intestinal cancers, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, pneumonia, bronchitis, dyspnea, and allergies. This study aims to determine the chlorine content of brewed robusta coffee using the brew V60 method. The chlorine test with the colour reaction method and the precipitation test as qualitative analysis to determine chlorine levels is an argentometric titration with the Mohr method. This research shows that all three samples of filter paper and coffee with V60 brewing method contain chlorine. The titration result shows that chlorine levels in filter paper brand A are 81.9 mg/L, brand B 49.9 mg/L, and brand C 69.9 mg/L. Levels of chlorine in V60 brewed coffee brand A are 44.6 mg/L, brand B 21.9 mg/L, and brand C 28.6 mg/L. This research concludes that the chlorine content in filter paper and V60 coffee brewing beverages on brand A, brand B, and brand C is unqualified according to WHO regulation about chlorine qualification for clean drinking water, which is 5 mg/L.
The polluted wastewater treatment is one of the main issues in agro-industrial complex. This article is devoted to the primary water purification research for its further treatment with ferrate technology. The technology implies the wastewater treatment from household and industrial waste resulting from agricultural enterprises. The ferrate technology provides a high efficiency of pretreated water purification, in comparison with other existing methods. The article substantiates such an advantage accordingly. The waste generated as a result of wastewater treatment is non-toxic and disposal. The article proposes a new method of preliminary water purification based on its treatment between a galvanic couple in the presence of the calcium hydroxide. This method can be used at water treatment plants and at enterprises carrying out industrial activities in agriculture. The method is applicable only after mechanical filtration at the stage of primary water treatment. The proposed method provides water treatment from a wide range of various origins contaminants. The article also describes an experimental equipment specially designed for the proposed method’s implementation and further research. The equipment provides continuous water treatment consuming electricity, quicklime and compressed air. To maintain the lime particles in suspension condition the airflow is supplied through an aerator. The article applies the turbidimetric analysis method to conduct an in-depth analysis of the water treatment processes and determine the relative reagent concentration in the working area. The article also proves the absence of interface formation between water and milk of lime when subjected to air flow.
The viability of sporogenic bacteria under the conditions of bubbling inert gases (argon and helium) through the water system was investigated and the action of each studied gases on the process of its destruction in water was compared. Bacillus cereus bacteria type were as the investigated microobjects and, as the predominant microflora of different natural waters, with an initial microbial load of 104 per 1 cm3 of investigated water. According with the first-order kinetic equation were calculated the values of the effective rate constants of the bacteria destruction. The effective gas nature in the process of water purification from microorganisms is noted. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor with constant cooling of tap water. The growth of the investigated bacteria were carried out by the deep method, followed by storage in a thermostat at T = 30 °C for 48 h. The number of microorganisms per unit volume of investigated water was determined by the total number of bacteria grown on the culture medium on Petri dishes and expressed in colony-forming units. The total flow rate of the bubbled gas was 1.4 dm3, which was fed at a rate of 0.2 cm3/s to the investigated water volume (75 cm3) throughout the duration of the process. The calculated total microbial count in natural water and various industrial wastewater was used to determine the initial number of microorganisms per unit volume of investigated water. The dynamics of bacterial numbers under the influence of gases on the water system is presented graphically. Colonies of B. cereus bacteria type are presented during growth on nutrient medium before and after bubbling of microbial water with gas. Decreasing of the bacterial cells number was observed in the atmosphere of both investigated gases, but with different activity. Comparison of the values of the effective rate constants of bacteria for argon and helium showed that the cell number decreased more actively under argon bubbling conditions. Active destruction of microorganisms under argon bubbling compared to helium was observed, regardless of the initial bacterial count in 1 cm3 of investigated water. The effect of argon on water containing bacteria is described by the greater value of the effective rate constant of cell destruction: kd(Ar) > kd(He). It is shown that the efficiency of water purification from microorganisms depends on the nature of the bubbled gas.
The simultaneous effect of cavitation and inert gases (argon and helium) on the process of microorganisms (MO) destruction has been studied. Sporogenic rod-shaped bacteria of the Bacillus cereus type were used for the study. The initial microbial load was 104 cells per 1 cm3 of test water. The volume of water for the study was 75 cm3. The source of the cavitation phenomenon was an ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 22 kHz. The gas was bubbled through the water system at a rate of 0.2 cm3/s throughout the duration of the process (2 h) with a total flow rate of 0.7 dm3/h. After every 30 min of simultaneous action of gas/cavitation, water samples were taken to determine the dynamics of the number of microorganisms (NM) from the time of water treatment. The change in the NM for each gas is given depending on the duration of the process and the initial number of cells per unit volume of water. To compare the effectiveness of the studied gases, the values of the effective rate constant of bacterial destruction (kd) were calculated according to the kinetic equation of the first-order reaction. According to the calculated kd values, the higher efficiency of bacterial destruction during argon bubbling under cavitation conditions was noted, in comparison with helium in similar experimental conditions. It is shown that kd(Ar/US) > kd(He/US). The efficiency of the process of water purification from pollutants of biological origin under cavitation conditions depends on the nature of the bubbled gas.
A Prussian blue screen-printed working electrode (PB-SPWE) was fabricated for continuous detection of free chlorine compound (free-Cl) in water samples from swimming pools. Carbon and Prussian blue were deposited on a flexible substrate using a screen-printing technique. Different screen-printed PB-SPWEs demonstrated the good reproducibility of the electrode fabrication and were further incorporated with a lab-made flow cell in a flow injection (FI) analysis system. The electrochemical response via Prussian blue reaction was recorded at a potential of 50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. High-throughput analysis was achieved by continuous injection of a standard NaOCl solution, and 336 measurements could be completed in 5.6 hours. Under optimal conditions, the PB-SPWE was applied to determine free-Cl in several swimming pool water samples without any sample preparation. The results not only were in good agreement with the standard DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) spectrophotometric method, but also presented excellent accuracy (recovery = 80.0±0.2 to 109±1%) and precision (test by Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks) in measuring free-Cl concentrations. In summary, these results supported that the combination of PB-SPWE and FI-AMP can be applied to monitor swimming pool water quality, which can minimize the risk to swimmers’ health.
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The present study is aimed to determine whether sex hormones predict an association with type 2 diabetes using ELISA. The results of this study showed that patients with type 2 diabetic of both male and female have significant elevation (p ≤ 0. 05) insulin hormone levels, insulin resistance, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) than control group. While the testosterone levels decreased significantly in male and increased significantly in female of patients group than control groups. Also, estradiol levels decreased significantly in females but it elevated significantly in males when compared with control group. Insulin sensitivity show significant decrease in diabetic group when compared with control group. According to the gender the results of testosterone level show significant differences between males and females. The division according to the duration detected that at the period (> 15) Estradiol levels showed significant elevation in males while it decreased significantly in females while insulin sensitivity values showed a significant decrease in both genders when compared with other duration. With the increase in the duration of diabetic, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) values showed a significant increase than the lower duration of diabetic. The correlation analysis showed inverse correlation between testosterone and insulin, FBG and insulin resistance in males and positive correlation with insulin sensitivity while in females there were positive correlation between testosterone and insulin sensitivity. There were positive correlation between estradiol and insulin resistance and FBG in male and while in females the correlation is negative and positive correlation with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Disorders in sex hormones are associated with insulin resistance and development of type 2.
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We report a new method for the simultaneous in situ detection of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). The technique relies on the formation and detection of iodide ion-molecule clusters, I(ClNO2)- and I(N2O5)-. The novel N2O5 detection scheme is direct. It does not suffer from high and variable chemical interferences, which are associated with the typical method of nitrate anion detection. We address the role of water vapor, electric field strength, and instrument zero determinations, which influence the overall sensitivity and detection limit of this method. For both species, the method demonstrates high sensitivity (>1 Hz/pptv), precision (~10% for 100 pptv in 1 s), and accuracy (~20%), the latter ultimately determined by the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) cylinder calibration standard and characterization of inlet effects. For the typically low background signals (
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The concentrations of a suite of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) were measured near Barrow, Alaska, from January to April 2005. The HVOCs are produced from the reaction of bromine and chlorine atoms with ethene and propene. During periods of decreasing ozone concentration, increases in the HVOC concentrations allowed for the calculation of the ratio of bromine to chlorine radical concentrations, based on available kinetic data. We use these concentration data to interrogate the chemistry that results in tropospheric ozone depletion in the Arctic, the possible sources of ozone depleting halogen molecules, and the spatial scale in which ozone depletion occurs. We report calculated halogen atom concentration ratios ([Br]/[Cl]) during partial ozone depletion events. The concentration ratio was observed to range from 80 ± 30 to 990 ± 300 when ozone concentrations were above 15 ppb. These data make it clear that chlorine and bromine atom chemistry is active in the Arctic troposphere beginning at twilight, even absent large-scale ozone depletion, and that the sources of the chlorine atoms are poorly understood.
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Chlorine was the first of the halogens to be discovered and identified. The discovery of the last one, bromine, represented one of the first experimental evidences that elements could be grouped in families of similar properties. From a controversial scientific subject and a laboratory curiosity chlorine grew to become the eighth largest chemical commodity in the world. The regulations that followed the negative ecological impact of the Leblanc soda process were the jumping board for the beginning of large-scale production of chlorine for bleaching purposes. Transformation of the new element and its derivatives into a substantial commercial reality came with the mass production of automobiles and chlorofluorohydrocarbons. The pattern end use of chlorine has reflected the changes in social appreciation of environmental protection and safety.
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Airway disorders are common in regular chlorinated swimming pool attendees, particularly competitive athletes, but the impact of intense swimming training on airway function and structure remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate airway inflammation and remodeling in elite swimmers. Twenty-three elite swimmers were tested during off-training season. All had exhaled nitric oxide measurement, methacholine test, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge, allergy skin prick tests, and bronchoscopy with bronchial biopsies. Clinical data and tissues from 10 age-matched mild-asthmatic and 10 healthy nonallergic subjects were used for comparison. Swimmers had increased airway mucosa eosinophil and mast cell counts than did controls (P < .05). They had more goblet cell hyperplasia and higher mucin expression than did healthy or asthmatic subjects (P < .05). A greater submucosal type I and III collagen expression and tenascin deposition was also observed in swimmers than in controls (P < .05). Neither exhaled nitric oxide nor airway responsiveness to methacholine or eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge correlated with these inflammatory and remodeling changes. Intense, long-term swimming training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools is associated with airway changes similar to those seen in mild asthma, but with higher mucin expression. These changes were independent from airway hyperresponsiveness. The long-term physiological and clinical consequences of these changes remain to be clarified.
Chlorine (Cl) occurs predominantly as Cl in soil and plant. It is an essential micronutrient of higher plants and participates in several physiological metabolism processes. Its functions in plant growth and development include osmotic and stomatal regulation, evolution of oxygen in photosynthesis, and disease resistance and tolerance. At adequate levels of supply, Cl improves the yields and quality of many crops such as onions and cotton if the soils are deficient in this nutrient. When excessive, Cl can be as a major component of salinity stress and toxic to plants. This paper provides a brief review of current progresses on Cl nutrition of higher plants.
For detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry it is necessary to consider aqueous-phase reactions in cloud droplets and deliquesced aerosol particles. Often, the gas-phase concentration is in equilibrium with the aqueous phase. Then Henrys law can be used to describe the distribution between the phases provided that the Henrys law coefficient is known. In some cases, thermodynamic equilibrium will not be reached and it is necessary to use kinetic expressions of the rates involved. These rates depend on diffusion constants, accommodation coefficients, Henrys law coefficients, particle size distributions, and several other parameters. This review describes how these processes can be treated in computer modeling and how the necessary data can be obtained. Even though it is written primarily for use in modeling atmospheric chemistry, some parts will also be useful for waste water and pesticide control and in other areas where the distribution of chemicals between the aqueous and the gas phase is important.
Regular physical activity is recognized as an effective health promotion measure. Among various activities, swimming is preferred by a large portion of the population. Although swimming is generally beneficial to a person's overall health, recent data suggest that it may also sometimes have detrimental effects on the respiratory system. Chemicals resulting from the interaction between chlorine and organic matter may be irritating to the respiratory tract and induce upper and lower respiratory symptoms, particularly in children, lifeguards and high-level swimmers. The prevalence of atopy, rhinitis, asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is increased in elite swimmers compared with the general population. This may be related to the airway epithelial damage and increased nasal and lung permeability caused by the exposure to chlorine subproducts in indoor swimming pools, in association with airway inflammatory and remodelling processes. Currently, the recommended management of swimmers' respiratory disorders is similar to that of the general population, apart from the specific rules for the use of medications in elite athletes. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the development or worsening of respiratory disorders in recreational or competitive swimmers, to determine how we can optimize treatment and possibly help prevent the development of asthma.
Six hundred diaphragm cell workers and 382 control workers from 25 plants manufacturing chlorine in North America were studied in an epidemiological survey conducted by Wayne State University. Chlorine exposure on a time-weighted average basis ranged from 0.006 ppm to 1.42 ppm with a mean of 0.146 ± 0.287 but almost all workers were exposed to less than 1 ppm. There were no exposure data available for 268 workers. Among 332 chlorine cell workers, for which time-weighted exposure data were available, there were no statistically significant signs or symptoms on a dose-response relation basis. Tooth decay based on medical history was the only finding showing a moderate degree of dose-response relationship, but this was not corroborated by the physical examination findings. There was no higher incidence of abnormal chest X-rays, abnormal EKG or abnormal pulmonary function tests among diaphragm cell workers compared to controls on a dose-response basis.