ArticlePDF Available

Raumnutzung und Verhalten von Wespenbussarden (Pernis apivorus) während der Jungenaufzucht und zu Beginn des Wegzuges – eine telemetrische Untersuchung

Article

Raumnutzung und Verhalten von Wespenbussarden (Pernis apivorus) während der Jungenaufzucht und zu Beginn des Wegzuges – eine telemetrische Untersuchung

Abstract

Home range and behaviour of Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) during brood-rearing and at the begin of autumn migration - a radio telemetry study 2 male and 2 female Honey Buzzards were radio-tracked in 3 study areas in the period 1993-1995 in Schleswig-Holstein. All birds produced fledglings. Home ranges of females were larger (4,350 resp. 4,500 ha) than those of males (1,700 resp. 2,200 ha). The tracked birds preferred forests, agricultural areas with hedgebanks, and bogs where they searched for prey mainly from perches. Identified prey items were 1 bumblebee and 64 wasp nests (Table 3). This sample is, however, not considered to be representative. Normally, each bird went hunting on its own. Sometimes, however, a bird was followed by its partner. 3 times a male seems to have partaken at its female’s wasp nests. Both sexes supplied the nestlings with food, but females retained from this until the young were nearly 3 resp. 4 weeks old. A male which fed 2 nestlings spent progressively 35 to 58 % of observation time hunting. The males defended territories of not less than 640 and 380 ha, respectively, which they marked by quivering flights and surveyed them during extended gliding flights. One male spent 6-7 %, the other (depending on weather conditions) 14-23 % of the observation time on such surveillance flights. Home ranges of neighbouring pairs overlapped widely. Even territory boundaries were often trespassed. Females did not show territorial behaviour. This may have allowed them to extend their home ranges much further than males which tended to keep to their territories. The adult breeding birds started autumn migration alone, without their partners, when the fledglings had reached an age of at least 53 days. It was the female in 1993 and the male in 1995 which was the first to migrate. Their resp. partners remained to feed the young 3 or more days. On their day of departure the males migrated ca. 133 km SSE resp. ca. 210 km SW. Length and direction of migration were strongly influenced by weather conditions.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Sie eignen sich deshalb gut, um Fortschritte durch die Telemetrie zu demonstrieren, aber auch die unterschiedlichen Stärken und Schwächen der Methoden zu verdeutlichen. Fallbeispiele sind meinen eigenen Arbeiten entnommen (Ziesemer 1983(Ziesemer , 1997, wenn sie nicht anders gekennzeichnet sind. Frau Dr. Anita Garn auf danke ich für die kritische Durchsicht des Manuskriptes, David M. Fleet für die Verbesserung der englischen Zusammenfassung. ...
... ha (Bijlsma 1991(Bijlsma , 1993, in Österreich im Mittel 1.493 ha (Gamauf 1995) und in Schleswig-Holstein 1.700-2.200 ha (Ziesemer 1997). Den Ergebnissen aus Schleswig-Holstein liegen telemetrische Daten zugrunde, denen aus den Niederlanden und Österreich Fernglas-Beobachtungen. Da diese gewöhnlich dann enden, wenn die Vögel in der Vegetation verschwinden, ergeben sie immer nur Mindestwerte für die Ausdehnung der Jagdgebiete. ...
... 2) beflogen in Schleswig-Holstein 4.350 bzw. 4.500 ha und damit doppelt so große Jagdgebiete wie die Männchen (Ziesemer 1997). Künftige telemetrische Untersuchungen werden diese Widersprüche aufklären. ...
Article
Full-text available
New results from telemetric studies of Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) Northern Goshawk hunting ranges are related to the amount of woodland edge and other habitat features, prey density, season and the social status of the birds. The ranges may vary in a given month from 200 to 6,400 ha. The territories of breeding birds are much smaller (a few hundred meters around the nest). The home ranges of neighbouring pairs and of non-breeders can overlap wiedely. Outside the breeding season territorial males, but not females, tend to spend many nights near their nests. Immatures disperse from their natal territories when their flight and tail feathers have hardened and their hunting behaviour has developed. Nearly all are ready to disperse when 3 months old. During dispersal they may join (and probably benefit from the food supply of) other families. An understanding of the structure and dynamics of Goshawk populations is important for discussions on the impacts of reduction or protection measures. This can be attained more reliably and more effectively by monitoring the survival of birds equipped with transmitters than by the evaluation of ringing recoveries. Prey remains found by telemetry represent a greater portion of the prey killed than is found by the conventional search for food remains. Telemetric studies help to assess the impact of Goshawk predation on prey populations. Both the harvestable surplus and the breeding populations of Pheasant sufferd from severe Goshawk predation in Sweden and Germany. Predation on autochthonous species was less important. Telemetric tracking of European Honey-buzzards showed that home ranges reach up to 4,500 ha in Central Europe. As in Northern Goshawks ranges may overlap widely. Males may spend hours in the sky signalling their presence and defending their territories 500-2,000 m around the nest. Telemetry facilitates finding the birds in the field. It has multiplied behavioural observations of this elusive species. Breeding birds start autumn migration singly when their progeny can find food on their own. On their day of departure two males migrated 133 and 210 km, respectively. Five birds carrying satellite transmitters have been tracked from Sweden to their wintering grounds in West Africa.
... It is not possible to determine the fine detail of the tagged birds' movements in this study because of the interval between fixes (one hour or longer). Although males search for food in all parts of their home range, they tend to actively defend their territory within a radius of 2 km of the nest (Gamauf 1988;Ziesemer 1997). In good weather conditions, they can spend a great deal of time in the air. ...
... In this way, their home range could be regarded as several, widely separated areas that, taken together (based on KDE 95% for foraging positions), could be even smaller than the home range of the males. Similar flights have also been recorded in Schleswig-Holstein; for example, one female traversed several other Honeybuzzard territories, about 1-2 days before the first chick hatched (Ziesemer 1997). This is unusually early, as in most years females will undertake long foraging flights only once the chicks are old enough to maintain their body temperature unaided (van Diermen pers. ...
... Thus arable land, which is tilled annually, is usually avoided, while grassland is suitable only to a limited extent, owing to the trampling of livestock and disturbance of the soil by heavy machinery. Wasp nests in human settlements can be exploited only if there is little human disturbance, for example in the large gardens on the outskirts of small settlements (Ziesemer 1997;van Manen et al. 2011). Wasps' nests are therefore predominantly accessible to Honey-buzzards in woodland, as well as around the margins of the agricultural land, particularly in banked hedgerows but also verges and embankments, etc. ...
Conference Paper
To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Turkish Republic in 2023 the country aims at becoming one of the ten largest economies in the world. To achieve this aim President Erdogan is driving forward gigantic infrastructure projects in Istanbul. One of the most ambitious is the construction of a new airport in the north of the million-strong metropolis. The airport is planned to be enormous. To date it has apparently gone unnoticed by the planners that the site of the airport lies directly on one of the most important Eurasian migration flyways on the west coast of the Black Sea which, twice a year, millions of migrating birds, including large species such as the Lesser Spotted Eagle, use on passage. In the past, so-called bird strike has repeatedly led to at times disastrous aircraft crashes. On 3 October 1960 for example, 62 passengers died following a crash after take-off in Boston, USA. There is unfortunately no reliable information available on bird migration in the vicinity of the planned Istanbul airport. In 2003 we were able to use a prototype of a GSM transmitter powered by solar energy. This, fitted to a 20-year-old male Lesser Spotted Eagle in Germany, was programmed to provide as many data as possible depending on the state of the battery. This enabled fixes every 3-5 minutes. To date five Bosporus crossings by this eagle have been recorded. Four other transmitters, also fitted to adult Lesser Spotted Eagles in July 2013, can transmit a GPS fix even every 2-3 minutes - several hundred a day. In this study the passage of five adult Lesser Spotted Eagles in the area where the airport is under construction are precisely analysed using GSM transmitters, and an attempt is made to estimate the degree of threat to humans, aircraft and Lesser Spotted Eagles.
... In two pairs it was the female that departed first. However, in two pairs observed in 1993 and 1995 respectively, one female and one male were the first to leave (Ziesemer 1997). ...
... It is not possible to determine the fine detail of the tagged birds' movements in this study because of the interval between fixes (one hour or longer). Although males search for food in all parts of their home range, they tend to actively defend their territory within a radius of 2 km of the nest (Gamauf 1988; Ziesemer 1997). In good weather conditions, they can spend a great deal of time in the air. ...
... In this way, their home range could be regarded as several, widely separated areas that, taken together (based on KDE 95% for foraging positions), could be even smaller than the home range of the males. Similar flights have also been recorded in Schleswig-Holstein; for example, one female traversed several other Honeybuzzard territories, about 1–2 days before the first chick hatched (Ziesemer 1997). This is unusually early, as in most years females will undertake long foraging flights only once the chicks are old enough to maintain their body temperature unaided (van Diermen pers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Four adult male Honey-buzzards Pernis apivorus were fitted with GPS satellite transmitters in northern Germany. The tags were deployed during the nestling period and the birds followed until they started their autumn migration. For one male, data were also collected throughout the following breeding season. The four birds occupied home ranges that varied between 13.5 and 25.8 km². The birds spent most of their time in woodland and apparently found most of their food there: of 35 wasp and two bumblebee nests that were found, 78% were in woodland. In all, 99% of the locations received from the four males were within a radius of 4 km of the nest. The birds roosted at different sites, some of which were close to the nest, but sometimes close to wasp nests that had not been fully exploited. As the young developed, the males visited new areas for foraging, and spent more time farther from the nest. The most frequently recorded food item was the Common Wasp Vespula vulgaris. Possible effects of the recent changes in the occurrence patterns of key wasp species, especially the German Wasp V. germanica, are discussed.
... Gelegentlich finden sich auch anekdotische Schilderungen über jagende Wespenbussarde (Trap-Lind 1962, Blanc 1957, Hauri 1955, Rifdel 1960, Wendland 1971, Högstedt 1976, Cobb 1979, M. Tjernberg in Wirdheim 1993, Bijlsma 1998. Deutlich seltener sind hingegen Angaben bezüglich seines Home Ranges (Bijlsma 1991, Amcoff et al. 1994, Ziesemer 1997) oder seiner Lebensraumansprüche zu finden (Kostrzewa 1991+1998, Amcoff et al. 1991, Gamauf 1988, Gamauf & Herb 1991, Steiner 1999. Angaben über letztere beziehen sich jedoch fast ausschließ lich auf Nisthabitate, während Jagdhabitate bisher weitgehend unberücksichtigt blieben. ...
... Da es leider nicht möglich war die Vorteile der Telemetrie (z.B. Kenward 1987, McGrady et al. 1998, Bijlsma 1998, Ziesemer 1997 zu nutzen, mußten die Wespenbussarde im Untersuchungsgebiet auf andere Art und Weise unter schieden werden. Erleichtert wurde das individuelle Erkennen durch die hochvariab le Gefiedenärbung und -zeichnung dieser Greifvogelart. ...
... und wurden als kleinstes konvexes Polygon (Minimum Konvex Polygon) ausgewertet. Damit sind die vorliegenden Ergebnisse auch mit den Daten anderer Autoren vergleichbar (Bijlsma 1991, Ziesemer 1997. Inkludiert wurden alle re gistrierten Aufenthaltsorte der Vögel, außer Flüge ("Exkursionen") in weit außerhalb des üblichen Jagdgebietes liegende Habitate (siehe auch Ziesemer 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Is the European Honey-buzzard (Pemis apivorus) a feeding specialist? The influence of social hymenoptera on habitat selection and home range size In the years 1984-88 and 1996-98 a long-term study of the food specialist European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) was conducted in southern 8urgenland, Austria. The study examined the influence of social Hymenoptera, in particular of wasps of the genus Vespidae, on habitat selection and home range size. (1) 404 prey items were collected at 56 nest sites and the occurrence of Hymenoptera in the nests was compared with their abundance (Iine transects, wasp nest density) in the environment. A few hymenoptera species comprised 81,8 % of prey items found (76,4 % wasps, 5,4 % bumblebees). Less abundant were frogs at 7,5 %, birds at 6,3 %, lizards at 1,1 % and various invertebrates at 3,3 % (Fig. 2). In comparison to their abundance large colonies of Vespula-species (V. vulgaris and V. germanica) were definitely prefered, whereas hornets (Vespa crabro) and field wasps (Pofistes spp.) were rather avoided. The frequency of Dolichovespula-species found as prey was similar to their occurrence in the environment. (2) In examining habitat utilization more than 2/3 of all observations (n := 157) occured in forests. Of 8 habitat types distinguished in the study area, mature and medium-aged forests, orchards, and small wetlands were preferred. Monocultures of arable fields, hay meadows and dense young wood stands were avoided by foraging European Honey-buzzards (Fig. 4). In habitats with the highest Hymenoptera density the hunting success (excavated nests) was highest (Fig. 6) and therefore they are the most important on es for the spedes. (3) Individual birds could be identified according to plumage characteristics. Altogether 45 home ranges (18 females and 27 males, minimum convex polygon) were analysed. Three different phases of the breeding cycle were analysed: (A) arrival start of breeding, (8) incubation, and (C) rearing time -independence of young, according to which 3 partial home ranges were calculated (Tab. 1). Home ranges were smallest (females 2,6 km2, males 3,2 km2) in phase (A) and largest in Phase (C) (females 14,6 km2, males 15,4 km2). Only during (8) incubation did the home ranges of females (3,7 km2) and males (7,2 km2) differ to a large extent. years when Hymenoptera were abundant, home range size varied between 7,9 and 16 km2 in poor Hymenoptera years between 16 and 25 km2• About 50 % of all observations of females (n 267) took place less than 1 km from the nest site; in contrast almost 50 % of all hunting males (n =622) were observed between 1 and 2 km (Fig. 8) from the nest. Most birds hunted within a radius of 3 km ot the nest site. Maximum distances from the nest for females were > 6 km, and for males> 7 km. When data from both sexes were pooled, significant differences in ranging behaviour in relation to Hymenoptera density were found. In years with abundant Hymenoptera, observations were concentrated within a radius of 1 km from the nest. In years with lower numbers of Hymenoptera birds flew for larger distances (observation peak 1-2 km, Fig. 9) when searching for food.
... 5). An Sender tragenden Vögeln hat sich jedoch gezeigt, dass sowohl Weibchen als auch Männchen frühzeitig abziehen und dem Partner die Versorgung der Jungen überlassen können (Ziesemer 1997, Ziesemer & Meyburg 2015. ...
... Frösche und Vögel trugen aber größtenteils die Männchen ein, wie es auch van Manen et al. (2011) feststellten. Dies kann wohl mit der unterschiedlichen Raumnutzung der Geschlechter erklärt werden: Während die Männchen ein Revier zu verteidigen haben und ihre Beute deshalb vorwiegend wenige Kilometer um den Horst herum suchen, bewegen sich Weibchen unabhängig von Reviergrenzen viel weiter umher (Ziesemer 1997, van Diermen et al. 2013. Mit fortschreitender Zeit dürften Wespennester im engeren Jagdgebiet zeitweise oder dauerhaft schwerer zu finden sein. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ziesemer, F., M. Schlüter & T. Grünkorn 2021. Video-Beobachtungen an Horsten des Wespenbussards Pernis apivorus in Schleswig-Holstein. Corax 24: 369-380. We analyzed data from two nests, each with two nest- lings aged about three weeks until after fledging. Videos (with audio at one nest) and some photos were taken by day and by night, with some gaps due to technical issues. All young fledged. Both females spent the nights on the nests until the nestlings left to adjacent branches. Females fed the young until they were 45 to 53 days old. Males continued to feed for another four to five days. After a further one to three days, the young came to the nests for the last time. At both nests 77 % of the food items were wasp combs, the rest were frogs and nestling passerines, most of them thrushes, and a single bumblebee nest. The young obviously preferred wasp grubs and seemed to treat birds indifferently whereas, at least in one nest, they disliked frogs. Males supplied most of the prey items, with 71 resp. 81 % of all food items, with frogs and birds being over- represented in comparison to females. It is assumed that males tend to switch to alternative prey, when, during the summer, wasp nests become less available. Males that defend territories tend to stay closer to the nest whereas females, by extending their home ranges, can stick to wasp nests, their preferred prey. The nestlings were remarkably good-natured toward their siblings. If they struggled in an attempt to secure a food item they concentrated on the object, not on their rival. A nestling took up a twig and rearranged it (nest building behaviour) for the first time at nearly four weeks old. Scratching in the nest bowl, an indication of digging behaviour, occurred at an age of 32 to 39 days. At an age of 37 to 41 days the nestlings visited branches adjacent to the nest. Later, when the young temporarily left the surroundings of the nest, the adults would melo- diously call them to take over prey. Three adults were repeatedly observed to probe deep in the nest bowl by day and by night, thereby turning the head, seemingly pursuing and eating insect larvae (wasp grubs, maggots, beetle larvae?) which they may have heard moving in the nest construction. Gender roles may differ between pairs. The same is true for food provided for the nestlings. Its composition can be recorded reliably by video observation, whereas traditional methods, like sampling prey remains from the nest, may give biased results.
... Although age may be a false factor, in most cases age may directly affect the process of habitat selection, which determines the ranging behaviour of birds. SEX Males and fe males may present home ranges of different size: sometimes larger in the male (Berger & Marchandeau, 1988; Ellison et al. , 1989; Birkan & Serre, 1988; Storch, 1993a), other times larger in the female (Graves et al. , 1983; Gj erde & We gge, 1989; Solis & Gutierrez, 1990; Perez et al. , 1996; Enderson & Craig, 1997; Ziesemer, 1997). Sex differences may depend on several factors. ...
Article
A complex web of functional and hierarchical relationships underlies the ecology of home range in birds: local spatial patterns are determined by ecological and biological processes which are affected by several factors in a direct or indirect way. This paper deals with these relationships by considering both movements and habitat use within home ranges. On the basis of a critical analysis of factors found in the literature, four processes (i.e. habitat selection, breeding, mating and flocking) and eleven true factors (i.e. food availability, habitat structure, habitat fragmentation, predator-prey interactions, topography, human disturbance, climatic conditions, nesting site availability, age, sex and social status) have been identified. Factors have been classed as direct in the sense that they directly influence processes, indirect when they affect other factors which then affect processes or false in the sense that they seem to affect processes while, in reality, other factors do so. Quantitative and ontological considerations suggest that the most important process affecting the spatial patterns of birds is habitat selection; it in turn is mostly affected and controlled by food availability and location. Hence, the main result of this study is that food availability is the primary determinant of home range ecology in birds and all the other factors are secondary.
Chapter
The benefits that insects offer to nature and humans are as diverse as they are inestimable. Insects pollinate plants, thus enabling many cycles to take place in our ecosystem in the first place. They are growth accelerators and make an essential contribution to the diversity of species and habitats.
Article
Full-text available
Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus in the Danish Wohld, Schleswig-Holstein, in the years 2016 and 2017 in comparison to the period 1985―1995 The population development of the Honey Buzzard in many parts of Europe, including Schleswig-Holstein is uncertain. However, from the Danish Wohld, a 280 km2 area within Schleswig-Holstein, results are available from surveys in the period 1978 to 2002, which could be compared with new data from 2016 and 2017. Occupied nests of Honey Buzzards were recorded in both periods, and, in addition, in 2016 and 2017 flight behaviour of the birds was recorded in order to assess territorial behaviour. Both methods and the difficulties encountered using them, are presented in detail, so that future investigations can be carried out in a comparable manner. In the core years (1985–1995) of the first study period, 8–12 (on average 10) occupied nests were mapped annually. Six to eight nests were recorded in 2016 and nine in 2017. Together with the results of the observations of flight behaviour, 14 breeding territories were identified in 2016 and 13 in 2017. The fact that it was not possible to detect nests in all breeding territories can be partly due to the methods used (nests could not be found for many reasons) and partly due to territorial behaviour from non-breeding individuals. Nevertheless the number of occupied territories is usually higher than the number of recorded occupied nests. Using the number of occupied nests found annually as the benchmark between investigation periods, it can be assumed that the breeding population of the Honey Buzzard in the Danish Wohld in the years 2016/2017 was about the same size as in the period 1985–1995.
Article
The selection of a suitable nest-site is critical for successful reproduction. Species' preferences for nest-sites have presumably evolved in relation to local habitat resources and/or interactions with other species. The importance of these two components in the nest-site selection of the Eurasian Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus was assessed in two study areas in eastern Austria. There was almost no difference in macro- and micro-habitat features between nest-sites and random plots, suggesting that Honey Buzzards did not base their choice of nest-site on habitat characteristics. However, nests were placed significantly further from nests of Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis than would be expected if nest-sites had been chosen at random. Furthermore, in one study area Honey Buzzards appeared to favour areas close to human settlements, perhaps indicating a mechanism to avoid Goshawks, which tend to avoid the proximity of humans. No habitat variable was significantly associated with the loss of Honey Buzzard young, but predation was higher in territories closer to breeding pairs of Goshawks at both study sites. Although Honey Buzzards are restricted to nesting in forests, their choice of nest-site therefore appears to be largely dictated by the distribution of predators. Studies of habitat association may yield misleading results if the effects of predation risk on distribution are not considered.
Article
Full-text available
An account is given of the satellite tracking of the movements of four adult and three juv. individuals. For the first time a migratory bird was successfully tracked all the way from its breeding grounds in Europe to its wintering quarters in southern Africa and back to Europe. Its outward and return migrations both took about weeks. Both routes were practically identical, with the bird covering a total distance of 19,400 km, including its movements in its winter quarters in Zambia. On average 166 km were covered per day during migration. Its wintering quarters, where the bird stayed from the end of October until the end of February, extended over an area of ca. 25,000 km2. The autumn migration of all individuals within Africa followed a relatively narrow corridor between longitudes 31° and 36° E from Suez south to Lake Tanganyika from where the birds dispersed. The greatest migration speed was reached by a young bird on the stage from Turkey to the Sudan, flying an average of 289 km per day.
Article
(1) Colonies of Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) show the following characteristics: (a) large variations in yearly abundance with, in the main; (b) a 2- and possibly a 7-year cycle; (c) exceptional years of abundance and scarcity tend to occur in pairs; (d) spring queens are scarce during exceptional years of summer abundance and numerous in exceptional years of summer scarcity. (2) Further analysis of the data suggests the above characteristics are generated by an over-compensating endogenous mechanism which damps colony counts to equilibrium. The equilibrium may be perturbed by an exogenous factor. (3) The endogenous mechanism is probably driven by either density-related intraspecific usurpation of early nests by spring queens or density-related variation in queen quality, or both. (4) The exogenous factor is probably a function of summer and autumn weather. (5) The endogenous and exogenous mechanisms are evaluated by three mathematical models.
Successfu l and unsuccessful development of colonies of Vespula vulgaris (Linn.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)
ARCHER, M.E. (1981): Successfu l and unsuccessful development of colonies of Vespula vulgaris (Linn.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ecological Entomology 6: J-10.
Migration and Oight behaviourofHoney Buzzards Pernis apivorus in southern Israel observed by radar
  • R G Bulsma
BuLSMA, R.G. (1993): Ecologische Atlas van de Nederlandse Roofvogels. Schuyt & Co., Haarlem. Bodengütekarte von Schleswig-Holstein 1: l00.000 ( L947) ßRUDERER, B., s. BLITZBLAU & D. PETER (1994): Migration and Oight behaviourofHoney Buzzards Pernis apivorus in southern Israel observed by radar. A rdea 82: 111-122.
Hierarchische Ordnung in der Wahl der Nistplatz-und Jagdhabitate dreier sympatrischer Greifvogelarten (Buteo buteo, Pernis apivorus
  • A Diss
  • Wien
  • A Gamauf
GAMAUF, A. (1988): Hierarchische Ordnung in der Wahl der Nistplatz-und Jagdhabitate dreier sympatrischer Greifvogelarten (Buteo buteo, Pernis apivorus, Accipiter gentilis). Diss., Wien. GAMAUF, A. (1995): Does hymenoptera density innuence the home range size of breeding Honey Buzzards (Pernis apivorus)? Poster abstract, Conference on Holarctic Birds of Prey, Badajoz, Spain.
  • G Höcsteot
HöcsTEOT, G. (1976): Födosöksteknik hos bivräken. Anser 15: 150-151.