Article

Common Academic Experiences No One Talks About: Repeated Rejection, Impostor Syndrome, and Burnout

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Abstract

Academic life is full of learning, excitement, and discovery. However, academics also experience professional challenges at various points in their career, including repeated rejection, impostor syndrome, and burnout. These negative experiences are rarely talked about publicly, creating a sense of loneliness and isolation for people who presume they are the only ones affected by such setbacks. However, nearly everyone has these experiences at one time or another, and thus talking about them should be a normal part of academic life. The goal of this article is to explore and destigmatize the common experiences of rejection, impostor syndrome, and burnout by sharing a collection of short personal stories from scholars at various stages of their career with various types of academic positions. Josh Ackerman, Kate Sweeny, and Ludwin Molina discuss how they have dealt with repeated rejection. Linda Tropp, Nick Rule, and Brooke Vick share experiences with impostor syndrome. Finally, Bertram Gawronski, Lisa Jaremka, Molly Metz, and Will Ryan discuss how they have experienced burnout.

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... Academics are under pressure to obtain funding, publish articles, and provide teaching and supervision, which may result in high workload and job-related stress (Evans et al., 2018;Levecque et al., 2017). Furthermore, the profession entails frequent rejection, anxiety due to fixed contracts or uncertain job outlooks, burnout, and loneliness (Day, 2011;Jaremka et al., 2020). Since many of the reasons for poor wellbeing or mental health problems in academia can only be changed by the system and over time, academic employees need to be able to cope with these challenges in the here and now. ...
... Awareness about mental health and well-being in academia is increasing (Jaremka et al., 2020). Some countries and universities have recognized the seriousness of the impact of working conditions on the mental health and well-being of academic staff (Woolston, 2019). ...
... This suggests that individuals from various cultures can benefit from self-compassion. Furthermore, we highlighted the importance of our investigation by citing various studies that point out the importance of applying measures or interventions in order to stop the further deterioration of well-being in academia (Jaremka et al., 2020;Levecque et al., 2017;Woolston, 2019). However, in our study we specifically investigated job-related well-being and did not include other measures to capture well-being more generally. ...
Article
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Working in academia entails many challenges including rejections by journals, competition for funding or jobs, and uncertain job outlooks (for non-tenure staff), which can result in poor mental health and well-being. Previous studies have suggested self-compassion as a resource for mental health and well-being, but to date no study has been published that has tested interventions targeting self-compassion in academia. In this weekly diary study, 317 academics from Germany, Switzerland, and the US were asked to recall a negative event and were then randomly assigned to either a self-compassionate writing intervention, a three good things intervention, or an active control intervention, respectively. They also completed two surveys on four consecutive Thursdays measuring state positive and negative affect and job-related well-being (i.e., job satisfaction and work engagement). Using multi-level regression modelling, results showed that participants in the self-compassion condition reported more job satisfaction and work engagement due to experiencing less negative affect. Academics in the three good things condition showed no such effects. Results indicated that self-compassion in academia is a resource that enables emotion-oriented coping during difficult times or in challenging situations that may benefit academics’ job-related well-being. The study highlights both the importance of discussing well-being in academia and ways to strengthen it.
... Community, institutional support [60] Conflicting views in CSEd community on priority research areas [18] Creation and dissemination of high-quality, equity-focused resources, tools, best practices, instruments, assessments [9,39,55,59,85] CSEd not recognized as a sub discipline within CS departments [16] Difficulties conducting qualitative research [37] Difficulty in deciding which department students should be apart of (Computing or Education) [16] Diversity in collaborators, leadership, researchers [8,88] Equal opportunities for networking Flawed peer review bidding processes [68] Funding, incentives, recognition, awards [16,19,42,81,84] Gaps in pay, publication, promotion Importance of conferences vs journals [43] Insufficient publication venues [16,17,43,58] Lack of CSEd faculty mentors for PhD students [17] Lack of infrastructure to support CSEd [19,20] Lack of qualitative research/prioritization of quantitative [18,37] Lack of replication studies (undervalued for publication, promotion, prestige over original work) [1,36] Lack of research questions in regards to research practitioners [25] Lack of respect for CSEd [16,17,20] Lack of validated assessment instruments [82] Limited job prospects [16,17] Limited opportunities to collaborate [16,19,20] Local publications devalued in favor of global research [14] Increased workload and lack of compensation for peer reviewers [68] Methods for linking research to practice and practice to research [41] Outreach viewed as a feminine task with less legitimacy [22] Personal costs (time, training, financial burden of higher education, unpaid labor, etc.) Proliferation of methods (longitudinal research [22], replication studies [1,36]) Removal of physical and other inequitable barriers to publish at and participate in conferences Research that does not match needs of practitioners [24] Strict use of theory requirement in research can stymie the search for better curriculum design [65] Time constraints (teaching vs research) [14,17] Tension between empowering less-established academics while anonymous and open reviews [68] Unclear recruiting practices for academic peer review [68] and workshops and within publications, and access to attend and participate in conferences virtually. It also includes the open access of research artifacts (e.g., publications, data, instrumentation, etc.) [6]. ...
... With respect to experiences of CSEd researchers, many of the same areas of focus we place on learners can be a framework for exploring issues impacting researchers focusing on equity and researchers from historically marginalized groups. Impostor phenomenon among researchers, for instance, is closely tied with self-efficacy and confidence, which can be influenced by repeated rejection and burnout [11,42]. Rejection is a norm in academia, but for already isolated or marginalized researchers it can have a more significant impact-particularly when rejection occurs due to bias from reviewers. ...
... Content knowledge of CSEd and education research Engaging in conferences, journals, workshops, etc. Finding the appropriate publication venue [43] Impostor Phenonemon [11,42] Interest in attending future CSEd research conferences Interest in professional development (e.g., completing PhD programs, attending PD) Interest in contributing to the body of knowledge (e.g., publication, presentations) Professional Burnout [42] Self-efficacy and confidence Sense of belonging Sense of support Stress and strain [56] Another author has led interventions for equity in CSEd from the private sector for over seven years, producing research in partnership with various faculty and evaluator collaborators. This coauthor does not have formal quantitative or qualitative research training, nor formal training in CS or education, but has learned through hands-on experience and mentorship. ...
... Este tipo de pensamiento negativo, a menudo denominado síndrome del maestro impostor, puede resultar aún más paralizante para el género femenino (Hawley, 2019). Es por ello que en este caso nos centraremos en la figura femenina dentro del mundo académico y focalizaremos esta revisión desde una perspectiva de género (Jaremka et al., 2020). ...
... De hecho, investigaciones de gran calado encontraron que las personas que experimentan el síndrome de la impostora también suelen experimentar depresión y ansiedad. Además, estudios indicaron que el síndrome de la impostora afecta el desempeño laboral y, en última instancia, puede llevar al agotamiento (Jaremka et al. 2020). En definitiva, la falta de confianza en sí mismos puede impedir que los maestros busquen puestos de liderazgo que puedan hacer avanzar sus carreras (Hawley, 2019). ...
... Overall, elite sports is characterised by a culture of risk in which it is socially expected and encouraged to disregard and hide pain for the sake of athletic achievement (Nixon 1993;. The so-called culture of risk and associated individual health-risks behaviours, however, can also be observed in music (John, Gropper, and Thiel 2019), and to a certain extent also in academics with its highly selective system that encourages extremely long working hours with potential negative health consequences such as burnout (Jaremka et al. 2020). ...
... It appears as if he still experienced an internal battle between optimising performance and maximising his long-term mental and physical health. This apparent contradiction between performance and health has been described for elite sports (Everard, Wadey, and Howells 2021;Barker et al. 2014) but also for music (Park, Guptill, and Sumsion 2007) and academics (Bunds 2021;Jaremka et al. 2020). ...
Article
Public accounts about world-class athletes, musicians, and mathematicians often include notions of the highly talented child that then develops into a successful performer in a more or less straightforward manner. However, a large corpus of scientific literature indicates that talent development trajectories are highly diverse and idiosyncratic. Analysing the experiences of the high-achieving individuals themselves might add an additional perspective to our understanding of how talent develops over time. In this regard, the stories that individuals tell about their talent development can provide in-depth accounts of their experiences but also of individual and societal beliefs about talent and its development. The current study intends to examine the talent development stories of athletes, musicians, and mathematicians. Cross-domain talent research might help to culturally contextualise developmental processes. In this regard, our aims are twofold. First, we aim to examine how high-achieving individuals story their talent development pathways. Second, we aim to identify cultural ideas about talent in the individual stories. In total, we interviewed ten elite athletes, ten professional musicians, and ten elite mathematicians. We employed a thematic narrative analysis and a structural narrative analysis. We identified five types of talent narratives on developmental pathways: searching for the spotlight, straightforward career, overcoming obstacles, riding the waves, and applying effort. These types of narratives were observable across performance domains. Despite the idiosyncratic nature of developmental pathways, athletes, musicians, and mathematicians appeared to be impacted by similar sociocultural narratives about talent and its development when constructing their personal talent development stories.
... Fenomena impostor sebenarnya umum dialami oleh semua orang. Sekitar 70% individu akan mengalami setidaknya satu episode fenomena ini dalam hidup mereka (Jaruwan Sakulku, 2011) Fenomena ini terbukti dialami individu dengan latar belakang yang beragam: individu dengan tingkat pendidikan yang tinggi, pekerja, dan juga pelajar (Jaremka et al., 2020;Parkman, 2016). Studi pada karyawan dengan posisi manajer juga telah diteliti dan terbukti mengalami fenomena serupa (Rohrmann, Bechtoldt, & Leonhardt, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Memasuki era revolusi industri 4.0 yang telah dijalani dengan berbagai disrupsinya, membawa gagasan lebih lanjut sebagaimana diajukan oleh Jepang untuk menjadikan masyarakat sebagai pusat dari teknologi yang berkembang pesat. Diskursus yang dibahas kemudian mencakup bagaimana berbagai teknologi tersebut membawa kebermanfaatan dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan masyarakat. Gagasan yang diajukan oleh Jepang tersebut disebut sebagai gambaran perkembangan Society 5.0 yang merupakan kelanjutan dari hunting society (Society 1.0), agricultural society (Society 2.0), industrial society (Society 3.0), dan information society (Society 4.0). Society 5.0 digambarkan sebagai masyarakat yang menjadikan manusia sebagai pusat perkembangan teknologinya. Dengan demikian, perkembangan teknologi informasi tidak hanya semata ditujukan untuk akselerasi pembangunan ekonomi semata, melainkan juga untuk dapat mengatasi berbagai permasalahan sosial yang ada. Gagasan ini kemudian mengemuka dan membawa diskusi lebih lanjut bagaimana proyeksi Society 5.0 di Indonesia. Secara khusus, sebagai mahasiswa Psikologi, muncul pertanyaan bagaimana menempatkan Psikologi sebagai kontributor penting dalam menyambut society 5.0 di Indonesia. Peran Psikologi yang luas diharapkan dapat menyentuh berbagai lapisan sistem di masyarakat mulai dari keluarga, organisasi hingga komunitas. Hal tersebut mendorong Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Diponegoro untuk menyelenggarakan sebuah konferensi ilmiah untuk mahasiswa Psikologi yaitu Konferensi Mahasiswa Psikologi Indonesia (KMPI) yang telah diselenggarakan secara daring pada 29 Agustus 2020 lalu. Tema Revitalisasi Peran Psikologi dalam Keluarga, Organisasi, dan Komunitas: Tantangan dalam Menyambut Society 5.0 ini mendapat respons yang sangat baik dari mahasiswa Psikologi di berbagai penjuru Tanah Air dengan diterimanya puluhan artikel yang membahas mengenai peran psikologi dalam menyambut Society 5.0 dan isu-isu lain yang turut mengiringinya. Artikel tersebut disatukan dalam sebuah prosiding yang sedang pembaca nikmati sekarang. Akhirnya, tim editor mengucapkan terima kasih kepada peserta sekaligus kontributor artikel dalam prosiding ini. Semoga sumbangsih ilmu tersebut mengalir tiada henti, dan tergandakan tiada batas. Psikologi Prioritas!
... On the other hand, early-career researchers and people from marginalized groups are usually prejudiced in the race for funding, being systematically underfunded (Woolston, 2020;Stevens et al., 2021). This award-winning feedback ultimately forces marginalized groups to cope with repeated rejections, undermining their personal and professional development (Jaremka et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Academic productivity is often defined as the number of published scientific articles, citations, and grants a scientist achieves (Sarli and Carpenter, 2014). It is considered an objective metric of a researcher's impact or ability in their field (Sarli and Carpenter, 2014) and is used to rank competitors for research funding, job openings, and other competitions (Bol et al., 2018). However, systematic biases against traditionally marginalized groups (women, people with disabilities, BIPOC—black, indigenous, and people of color, people from the Global South, and 2SLGBTQIA+–two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersexual, asexual, and others), can impact their productivity, making the currently used academic productivity metric a biased index of scientific merit, besides also impacting the way that this productivity is evaluated. Such systematic biases are demonstrated by empirical evidence, which we discuss.
... In contrast, when working in academia, milestones and rewards demand long-term persistent efforts, if they are achieved at all. Studies have described academia as an arena characterised by repeated rejections in many forms (e.g., funding proposals), as well as the sense of failure associated with impostor syndrome and burnout [42]. These issues are not just connected to academia but are prominent in other occupations, such as amongst health professionals [43] and teachers [44]. ...
Article
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The literature on online gaming has generally focused on male gamers and has been dominated by negative aspects of gaming. The present study addresses the gender gap in this field by exploring experiences of female gamers further by unravelling several positive experiences alongside some potentially harmful tendencies connected to gaming, including female gamers’ wishes and ambitions for their future gaming. A total of 20 female adult gamers across Europe were interviewed and results were analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified: (i) to be or not to be a (female) gamer; (ii) improving social skills and levelling up on mental health; (iii) not always a healthy escape; and (iv) there is more to explore. The present study is one of few empirical studies regarding the construction of self-image, and experiences of female gamers. It has showed participants have a history as gamers from adolescence, but still face problems derived from the stigmatised internal gender self-image. Externally, female gamer stigmatisation may result in sexism, gender violence, harassment, and objectification. Additionally, females may decide against identifying as gamers, engaging in social gaming interaction, or hold back from online gaming in general, thereby missing out on the opportunities for recreation as well as social and psychological benefits that gaming brings. There is, therefore, urgent need for more research and actions to promote change, equity, education, and security for female gamers as well as their male counterparts. Game developers would benefit from understanding this large gamer demographic better and tailoring games for women specifically.
... This will often happen at the initial stage of the review process before a manuscript is sent to reviewers. Overall, we encourage authors to try to remain hopeful and remember that rejection is (unfortunately) a universal experience in academia (see Jaremka et al., 2020). Persistence, however, is key to seeing a manuscript accepted for publication. ...
... In an organizational environment, wellbeing embraces areas targeting personal faculty potential : "professional, social, psychological, physiological, moral, spiritual, behavioral, creational, communicative, and, ultimately, labor potential" (Potemkin & Molod'kova, 2016, p. 83). For faculty, psychological aspects, reducing https: //doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.12.03.85 Corresponding Author: Yulia A. Filyasova Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference eISSN: 639 stress levels and burnout (Elomaa et al., 2021;Filyasova, 2020;Jaremka et al., 2020;Mercer, 2020), necessity to understand pride for their work results (Alzaanin, 2021), appreciation, consistency, novelty in their pedagogical activity (Doble & Santha, 2008) -all have a high value. At a personal level, social wellbeing is defined as an aspiration to achieve a certain social level (Grigor'eva et al., 2014, p. 44), life satisfaction and happiness (Tatarova & Kuchenkova, 2016, p. 31), health, creativity, freedom from economic dependence (Udaltsova & Abramova, 2020). ...
... Historically, scholars have pointed to publication pressure as a necessary aspect of academia to incentivize the generation of high-quality research [13,14]. However, in the past decade, there has been a shift acknowledging the problematic aspects of "publish-or-perish", including decreases in sharing raw data or unpublished ndings, decreased academic creativity, less rigorous research, and increased academic misconduct [15][16][17][18][19]. High levels of publication pressure have also been associated with increased feelings of burnout and exhaustion [20][21][22]. This challenging relationship between academia at large and the "publish-or-perish" culture has been further complicated by COVID- 19. ...
Preprint
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The phenomenon of “publish-or-perish” in academia, spurred on by limited funding and academic positions, has led to increased competition and pressure on academics to publish. Publication pressure has been linked with multiple negative outcomes, including increased academic misconduct and researcher burnout. COVID-19 has disrupted research worldwide, leading to lost research time and increased anxiety amongst researchers. The objective of this study was to examine how COVID-19 has impacted perceived publication pressure amongst academic researchers in Canada. We used the revised Publication Pressure Questionnaire, in addition to Likert-type questions to discern respondents’ beliefs and concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on academic publishing. We found that publication pressure increased across academic researchers in Canada following the pandemic, with respondents reporting increased stress, increased pessimism, and decreased access to support related to publishing. Doctoral students reported the highest levels of stress and pessimism, while principal investigators had the most access to publication support. There were no significant differences in publication pressure reported between different research disciplines. Women and non-binary or genderfluid respondents reported higher stress and pessimism than men. We also identified differences in perceived publication pressure based on respondents’ publication frequency and other demographic factors, including disability and citizenship status. Overall, we document a snapshot of perceived publication pressure in Canada across researchers of different academic career stages and disciplines. This information can be used to guide the creation of researcher supports, as well as identify groups of researchers who may benefit from targeted resources.
... Obviamente, el efecto de esta faceta de discriminación machista es la intimidación de la alumna, haciéndola sentir que no forma parte por igual de la comunidad o llegando a traumatizarla en los casos más extremos(Giles et al., 2020;Schneider, 2020). Esta forma de violencia, desde los casos más leves, genera un ambiente hostil que perjudica a la salud mental de las mujeres, fomentando fenómenos como el síndrome de la impostora o el burnout, e incluso desencadenando ansiedad o enfermedades mentales más graves(Jaremka et al., 2020). Por todo lo anteriormente citado, una consecuencia directa de este patrón de discriminación machista sería la desmotivación o desinterés de esas alumnas por la carrera científica, llegando al abandono de la carrera en los casos más extremos.3. ...
Conference Paper
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Está demostrado que una ciencia más inclusiva produce mejores resultados en la participación y desarrollo de las mujeres en las carreras científicas y en la sociedad en general. En el ámbito universitario enfocado en el medio ambiente, las excursiones y salidas de campo son una parte esencial para el desarrollo y la puesta en práctica de las habilidades técnicas, y para una mejora notable de la empleabilidad del alumnado. No obstante, este desarrollo de habilidades prácticas que conlleva el trabajo de campo no es igual para hombres y mujeres. En esta ponencia identificamos y discutimos los tres tipos principales de conductas machistas que impregnan las salidas de campo: (1) el reparto desigual de tareas, (2) la socialización diferenciada y (3) los comentarios sexistas, el acoso y abuso sexual. Nuestro objetivo es fomentar la toma de conciencia del profesorado universitario responsable de salidas de campo, aportando algunas recomendaciones para eliminar la discriminación machista y continuar avanzando hacia la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres dentro de las carreras científicas STEM (Ciencia, Tecnología, Ingeniería y Matemáticas).
... These seem to arise, especially during career changes and to decrease with growing professional experience (Prata and Gietzen, 2007). The IP is triggered by contextual factors such as questioning one's expertise, the pressure to publish as a scientist, and comparisons with colleagues (Jaremka et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The Impostor-Profile (IPP) is a six-dimensional questionnaire measuring the Impostor Phenomenon facets. This study aims to test (a) the appropriateness of a total score, (b) measurement invariance (MI) between gender, (c) the reliability of the IPP, and (d) the convergent validity of the IPP subscales. The sample consisted of N = 482 individuals (64% female). To identify whether the scales of the IPP form a total score, we compared four models: (1) six correlating subscales, (2) a general factor model, (3) a second-order model with one second-order factor and six first-order factors, and (4) a bifactorial model with six group factors. The bifactorial model obtained the best fit. This supports the assumption of a total impostor score. The inspection of structural validity between gender subgroups showed configural, metric, and partial scalar MI. Factor mean comparisons supported the assumption that females and males differ in latent means of the Impostor Phenomenon expressions. The omega coefficients showed sufficient reliability (≥0.71), except for the subscale Need for Sympathy. Overall, the findings of the bifactor model fit and construct validity support the assumption that the measurement through total expression is meaningful in addition to the theoretically formulated multidimensionality of the Impostor Phenomenon.
... It is for this reason that we suggest to take into account an often overlooked factor known in psychology as the "impostor phenomenon" (IP), which tends to characterise the experience of female academics (Jaremka 2020). The studies on the IP (often incorrectly reported as a "syndrome") date back to 1978, when two American female psychologists portrayed for the first time the IP that affected "high achieving women" (Clance and Imes 1978;Sakulku and Alexander 2011). ...
Article
This article adds a new case-study to the existing empirical analyses of gender differences in academic journals. The record of South European Society and Politics confirms the established pattern of a gender gap in published output, with its source at the submissions stage. It also reveals gendered preferences with regard to authorship styles, highlighting a pattern of greater individualism and homophily for men and a more collaborative picture for female scholars; in particular, we found that co-authoring increases women’s publication footprint. Moving on to the journal’s gatekeepers, we also discovered gender imbalance. An investigation of rejection rates finds that the predominantly female editorial team made gender-neutral choices during the initial editorial review of submissions, but selected overwhelmingly male referees. While women are less successful than men in the blind peer review process, this is overshadowed by the difference in submission rates. Potential explanations for the latter were considered, including lesser access to academic networks as well as the “impostor phenomenon”, which afflicts women more than men. The article concludes that addressing the journal publishing gender gap requires broader changes in academic life.
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ Structural-and individual-level interventions will be needed to reduce the burden of mental ill-health among Ph.D. students worldwide 31,86 . Despite the high prevalence of mental health and substance use problems 87 , Ph.D. students demonstrate low rates of help-seeking 40,52,88 . ...
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University administrators and mental health clinicians have raised concerns about depression and anxiety among Ph.D. students, yet no study has systematically synthesized the available evidence in this area. After searching the literature for studies reporting on depression, anxiety, and/or suicidal ideation among Ph.D. students, we included 32 articles. Among 16 studies reporting the prevalence of clinically significant symptoms of depression across 23,469 Ph.D. students, the pooled estimate of the proportion of students with depression was 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18–0.31; I ² = 98.75%). In a meta-analysis of the nine studies reporting the prevalence of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety across 15,626 students, the estimated proportion of students with anxiety was 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12–0.23; I ² = 98.05%). We conclude that depression and anxiety are highly prevalent among Ph.D. students. Data limitations precluded our ability to obtain a pooled estimate of suicidal ideation prevalence. Programs that systematically monitor and promote the mental health of Ph.D. students are urgently needed.
... Obviamente, el efecto de esta faceta de discriminación machista es la intimidación de la alumna, haciéndola sentir que no forma parte por igual de la comunidad o llegando a traumatizarla en los casos más extremos(Giles et al., 2020;Schneider, 2020). Esta forma de violencia, desde los casos más leves, genera un ambiente hostil que perjudica a la salud mental de las mujeres, fomentando fenómenos como el síndrome de la impostora o el burnout, e incluso desencadenando ansiedad o enfermedades mentales más graves(Jaremka et al., 2020). Por todo lo anteriormente citado, una consecuencia directa de este patrón de discriminación machista sería la desmotivación o desinterés de esas alumnas por la carrera científica, llegando al abandono de la carrera en los casos más extremos.3. ...
Conference Paper
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Al aproximarnos al estudio de la ciencia y la tecnología, encontramos diferentes problemáticas y limitaciones relacionadas con la desigualdad de género, como, por ejemplo, la limitada presencia de mujeres en dichas carreras, pero también la inexistencia de sus aportaciones en los libros de ciencias e Historia de la ciencia. En el marco de la asignatura de Historia de la ciencia y la tecnología (impartida en el primer curso de diversas ingenierías), se pretende formar al alumnado en la capacidad para comprender el funcionamiento del desarrollo científico y tecnológico y su necesaria vinculación con contextos históricos, sociales, culturales, políticos y económicos. Por esta razón, resulta de vital importancia incorporar la perspectiva feminista en una acepción plural del estudio de la ciencia y la tecnología, y de los retos y problemas que éstas plantean hoy en día. El objeto de este escrito es sintetizar la experiencia docente desarrollada en dicha asignatura desde el curso 2018/2019 hasta 2020/2021, así como proponer acciones de mejora para los próximos cursos.
... Junior TT faculty's willingness to be social may be an overt performance of transparency with discretion: they are showing that they have nothing to hide about themselves and that they see themselves as social equals with other faculty members, whatever rank they may be. Contradictorily, the very reason why they may feel pressured to perform these social duties may be because they know they have not yet reached social equality and they have to hide their very self-consciousness of, or anxiety about, that fact (Jaremka et al. 2020). ...
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Becoming a professor is complicated by a lack of clear guidelines for promotion to permanent status and, paradoxically, a surplus of mechanisms for institutional transparency. Drawing on Lilith Mahmud’s anthropologies of discretion applied to secret societies like the Italian Freemasons, this paper compares becoming a professor to an initiate’s journey toward becoming a member of a secret society. Membership in both requires a balance between knowing who to know and knowing the codes of what goes said and unsaid. These ways of knowing may manifest in mentor/mentee relations, in informal networks and communities of practice, or in acts of compliance and resistance to the neoliberal university.
... ,Buller (2014),Jaremka et al. (2020), andSeal (2018). Other recommended works areBerg and Seeber (2016),Giroux (2010), or Kahl (2018.Part 3: (Re)imagining the future of higher education ...
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This semester-long discussion activity is designed for onboarding faculty at any rank or status, including new faculty or graduate teaching assistant/associate orientations, faculty learning communities, mid-career professional development programs, transition to administrative roles such as department chair or associate dean, and the like. Course Organizational culture analysis for higher education personnel at any rank or status, including tenure-track or lecturer faculty; graduate teaching assistants; doctoral students; academic senators; university administrators, cabinet members, and other management personnel; faculty learning communities; or faculty transitioning to leadership roles. Objectives By the end of this activity, participants will be able to: (1) identify aspects of their institution’s organizational culture; (2) appraise how neoliberalism shapes higher education in general and their own organizations in particular; and (3) develop and articulate ideas for post-pandemic changes to higher education in general and their own organizations in particular.
... Without such an approach the risk is that a rejected paper will never be re-submitted. Rejection is always a painful experience, and early career researchers may be particular affected due to repeated experiences of rejection which may activate impostor syndrome [39]. So the first goal when a rejection is received is to support the development of the resilience needed to prosper in an academic environment. ...
Article
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A personal perspective is given on the processes involved in managing and sustaining a high-performing mental health recovery research group. The broader context of scholarship in the United Kingdom is outlined, in which academic productivity is commodified specifically in relation to peer-reviewed journal papers. Four leadership choices in developing a high-performing research group are discussed: optimal group size; sharing the workload; maintaining a programmatic focus; and performance expectations. Approaches to maximising innovation are identified, including emotional and intellectual engagement of team members, working with diverse stakeholders and convening communities of practice. We use a highly managed approach to publications from inception to acceptance, which is described in detail. The use of these approaches is illustrated in relation to the Recovery Research Team which was formed in 2009. Specific recovery-related issues covered include demonstrating the ability to develop a significant recovery research portfolio (our four current large [>UK£2 m] studies relate to recovery narratives, global mental health peer support work, digital interventions and Recovery Colleges); the positive implications of actively recruiting researchers with mental health lived experience; how performance issues are managed; our approach to involving lived experience co-authors in papers; and our decision to conduct mixed-methods rather than solely qualitative studies.
... Accordingly, taking part in a support group for ethnic minorities has provided me with a safe space to explore those issues and experience a sense of belonging (Etengoff, 2020). Therefore, reflecting on unconditional positive self-regard (Rogers, 1957) allowed me to welcome negative feedback without shame (Jaremka et al., 2020) and positive feedback without the pressure to achieve, which could lead to burnout (Lombardi, 2020). ...
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This reflective essay offers a personal account of my experience during my counselling psychology training. Research highlights that the person of the therapist contributes to clients’ improvement beyond the intervention, advocating the importance of personal development beyond a competency-based model. Consonantly, counselling psychology appreciates how practitioners bring their “self” to the therapeutic relationship, thus valuing their training, wider knowledge, and lived experiences. Accordingly, I will explore significant events that illuminate the personal dimension of my professional practice while also considering the wider empirical knowledge. Furthermore, as the beginning of my training has focused on the person-centered/experiential approach, I will conceptualize my experience within the framework posited by Rogers. Specifically, I will begin by reflecting on the theme of power to expose how personal issues might affect my development as a trainee. Second, I will illustrate how engaging with feedback has brought to awareness aspects of my “self” that relate to the theme of acceptance. Third, I will consider personal strengths that have the potential to enrich my practice and are encapsulated by the theme of lightness. Last, I will suggest the theme of presence as my attempt to make sense of challenges and limitations that I have faced during my training. By presenting these themes, I endeavor to offer a picture of how I have grown into a new place in my development as trainee counselling psychologist.
... Our emotional encounters with failure take place alongside the onwards march of the University-Industrial Complex: a commodified model of higher education that has turned students into customers, academics into content providers, and Vice Chancellors into grossly overpaid CEOs. Looking out from our perspective in the UK, the increasingly marketised agenda of higher education-complete with performance metrics, insecure contracts, and fundamentally flawed frameworks for measuring 'excellence'-is having an emotional toll on the lives of many academics (Jaremka et al., 2020;Berg et al., 2016). The competitive and precarious 1 For the purposes of this article, we join with Mountz et al. (2015) in defining neoliberalism as 'a contextually contingent articulation of free market governmental practices with varied and often quite illiberal forms of social and political rule' (Sparke 2006,153). ...
Article
Failure is a pervasive yet rarely articulated reality of being an academic. From grant rejections to fieldwork mistakes, this editorial introduces a special issue that engages with the notion of ‘failure’ within the neoliberal university. Highlighting the uncomfortable impacts of ‘failure’ across contrasting spaces and career stages, the authors explore its politics, power, and emotional resonance, as well as raising crucial questions of resistance, hope, and refusal within geography and its allied disciplines. Three key themes emerged from these 16 papers: (i) failure is embedded in the structures of the academy; (ii) failure is an inherent part of academic knowledge production; and (iii) failure is an experience that is not equally felt, but is contingent upon uneven power relations and positionalities. We situate the special issue within the context of the coronavirus pandemic and suggest that the failure of the university sector to cope with this existential threat has exposed the very worst characteristics of market-driven education. Ultimately, this special issue aims to push back against the fear and loneliness that ‘failure’ can create, in order to confront the neoliberal university. In troubling conventional models of ‘success’ and ‘failure’ in academia, we conclude that refusing to accept the unrealistic expectations, impositions, and demands of the University-Industrial Complex is not a failure at all.
... Obviamente, el efecto de esta faceta de discriminación machista es la intimidación de la alumna, haciéndola sentir que no forma parte por igual de la comunidad o llegando a traumatizarla en los casos más extremos(Giles et al., 2020;Schneider, 2020). Esta forma de violencia, desde los casos más leves, genera un ambiente hostil que perjudica a la salud mental de las mujeres, fomentando fenómenos como el síndrome de la impostora o el burnout, e incluso desencadenando ansiedad o enfermedades mentales más graves(Jaremka et al., 2020). Por todo lo anteriormente citado, una consecuencia directa de este patrón de discriminación machista sería la desmotivación o desinterés de esas alumnas por la carrera científica, llegando al abandono de la carrera en los casos más extremos.3. ...
... Obviamente, el efecto de esta faceta de discriminación machista es la intimidación de la alumna, haciéndola sentir que no forma parte por igual de la comunidad o llegando a traumatizarla en los casos más extremos(Giles et al., 2020;Schneider, 2020). Esta forma de violencia, desde los casos más leves, genera un ambiente hostil que perjudica a la salud mental de las mujeres, fomentando fenómenos como el síndrome de la impostora o el burnout, e incluso desencadenando ansiedad o enfermedades mentales más graves(Jaremka et al., 2020). Por todo lo anteriormente citado, una consecuencia directa de este patrón de discriminación machista sería la desmotivación o desinterés de esas alumnas por la carrera científica, llegando al abandono de la carrera en los casos más extremos.3. ...
... Impostor syndrome has been linked to burnout, a significant form of work-related stress (Bravata et al., 2020;Jaremka et al., 2020). GTAs often report experiencing impostor syndrome and feeling unqualified for their position, along with a lack of belongingness in their program (Herrmann, 2016). ...
Article
This study extends research on Communicatively Restricted Organizational Stress (CROS) by documenting the impact of assimilation, organizational support, and impostor syndrome on CROS in a Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) student population. Through a survey of 102 GTAs from U.S. universities, we found that higher levels of assimilation and organizational support, along with lower levels of impostor syndrome, predicted lower CROS Prevalence. Lower CROS Prevalence then predicted lower CROS Distress. Fellow graduate student familiarity, acculturation, and recognition appeared to play a more significant role in CROS Prevalence than other dimensions of assimilation. Our findings support the implementation of targeted socialization efforts for addressing graduate student mental health; we conclude with several recommendations based on our data.
... Obviamente, el efecto de esta faceta de discriminación machista es la intimidación de la alumna, haciéndola sentir que no forma parte por igual de la comunidad o llegando a traumatizarla en los casos más extremos(Giles et al., 2020;Schneider, 2020). Esta forma de violencia, desde los casos más leves, genera un ambiente hostil que perjudica a la salud mental de las mujeres, fomentando fenómenos como el síndrome de la impostora o el burnout, e incluso desencadenando ansiedad o enfermedades mentales más graves(Jaremka et al., 2020). Por todo lo anteriormente citado, una consecuencia directa de este patrón de discriminación machista sería la desmotivación o desinterés de esas alumnas por la carrera científica, llegando al abandono de la carrera en los casos más extremos.3. ...
... As perceived pressure to publish has been reported to vary between countries and disciplinary contexts, so to does the prevalence of these outcomes [23,24]. Nevertheless, high levels of publication pressure have been associated with increased feelings of burnout and exhaustion [25][26][27]. This challenging relationship between academia at large and the "publish-or-perish" culture has been further complicated by COVID- 19. ...
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The phenomenon of "publish-or-perish" in academia, spurred on by limited funding and academic positions, has led to increased competition and pressure on academics to publish. Publication pressure has been linked with multiple negative outcomes, including increased academic misconduct and researcher burnout. COVID-19 has disrupted research worldwide, leading to lost research time and increased anxiety amongst researchers. The objective of this study was to examine how COVID-19 has impacted perceived publication pressure amongst academic researchers in Canada. We used the revised Publication Pressure Questionnaire, in addition to Likert-type questions to discern respondents' beliefs and concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on academic publishing. We found that publication pressure increased across academic researchers in Canada following the pandemic, with respondents reporting increased stress, increased pessimism, and decreased access to support related to publishing. Doctoral students reported the highest levels of stress and pessimism, while principal investigators had the most access to publication support. There were no significant differences in publication pressure reported between different research disciplines. Women and non-binary or genderfluid respondents reported higher stress and pessimism than men. We also identified differences in perceived publication pressure based on respondents' publication frequency and other demographic factors, including disability and citizenship status. Overall, we document a snapshot of perceived publication pressure in Canada across researchers of different academic career stages and disciplines. This information can be used to guide the creation of researcher supports, as well as identify groups of researchers who may benefit from targeted resources.
... Indeed, there is clear evidence that transdisciplinarity is a more time-consuming mode of conducting research and potentially yields less academic outputespecially at the beginning of a projectcompared to traditional science Steelman et al., 2021). Accordingly, researchers have increasingly called for questioning the productivity paradigm of academia (Jaremka et al., 2019) and for alternative evaluations of research outcomes away from publication and citation metrics toward valuing the depth of collaborative work (Fam et al., 2020;Chapman et al., 2019). ...
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Both within science and society, transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly employed to address today’s sustainability challenges. Often transdisciplinary research processes are structured in three core phases: a) problem identification and formation of a common research object; b) co-production of solution-oriented and transferable knowledge; c) embedding co-produced knowledge through transdisciplinary reintegration. In all phases of this ideal-typical model, the involvement of non-academic actors is essential to meet the challenges of real-world problems, and of transformative research practices. Despite existing guidance for the core transdisciplinary process, its initiation often remains an uncharted area because of its strong context dependency. Based on a concrete transdisciplinary case study addressing sustainability transformation in Transylvania, we bring together our learned experience with initiating a transdisciplinary process using a research-driven approach. To this end, we introduce the notion of Phase 0, as an initiating phase prior to beginning an ideal-typical transdisciplinary process. Within Phase 0, we propose three empirically and literature informed sub-phases: Sub-Phase 0.1) selecting the case study; Sub-Phase 0.2) understanding the case study context from a transdisciplinary perspective; Sub-Phase 0.3) fostering premises for coming together. We outline the general rationale behind these sub-phases, and we illustrate how we carried out each sub-phase in practice. By deriving cross-cutting lessons from the three sub-phases, we enhance the practice of transdisciplinary sustainability research with the aim to leverage its transformative potential.
... And we encourage (particularly women and minority) scholars to spend time mentoring underrepresented students in hopes of addressing the broader lack of representation problem in the field (Roberts et al., 2020), but then deny these scholars jobs, tenure, and promotion when doing so takes time away from producing the vast numbers of papers we acknowledge is an absurd expectation to begin with (Nelson et al., 2012). We have set up a system of lose-lose, "damned if you do, damned if you don't" situations that we expect people to somehow navigate successfully, and then we wonder why we have high rates of anxiety, depression (Evans et al., 2018), and burnout (Jaremka et al., 2020). ...
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Psychological science is at an inflection point: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated inequalities that stem from our historically closed and exclusive culture. Meanwhile, reform efforts to change the future of our science are too narrow in focus to fully succeed. In this article, we call on psychological scientists-focusing specifically on those who use quantitative methods in the United States as one context for such conversations-to begin reimagining our discipline as fundamentally open and inclusive. First, we discuss whom our discipline was designed to serve and how this history produced the inequitable reward and support systems we see today. Second, we highlight how current institutional responses to address worsening inequalities are inadequate, as well as how our disciplinary perspective may both help and hinder our ability to craft effective solutions. Third, we take a hard look in the mirror at the disconnect between what we ostensibly value as a field and what we actually practice. Fourth and finally, we lead readers through a roadmap for reimagining psychological science in whatever roles and spaces they occupy, from an informal discussion group in a department to a formal strategic planning retreat at a scientific society.
... The cumulative effect of harassment and gender segregation in STEM may impact women's mental health, stimulating issues like impostor and burnout syndromes, often leading to anxiety and depression 21 . One first step to fighting these issues is creating committees responsible for stimulating the community education concerning our implicit bias and promoting an academic environment where harassment is not tolerated. ...
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Understanding gaps in academic representation while considering the intersectionality concept is paramount to promoting real progress towards a more inclusive STEM. Here we discuss ways in which STEM careers can be sown and germinated so that inclusivity can flourish.
... As performance indicators continue to play a central role for promotions and grants, researchers are under pressure to publish extensively, quickly, and preferably in high-ranking journals (Burrows, 2012). These dynamics increase the risk of mental health issues among scientists (Jaremka et al, 2020), dis-incentivise relevant and important work (Benedictus et al, 2016), decrease the quality of scientific papers (Sarewitz, 2016) and induce conservative and short-term thinking rather than risk-taking and original thinking required for scientific innovation (Alberts et al, 2014;Fochler et al, 2016). Against this background, strong incentives for fostering innovative and daring research are indispensable. ...
Article
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Science is about venturing into the unknown to find unexpected insights and establish new knowledge. Increasingly, academic institutions and funding agencies such as the European Research Council (ERC) explicitly encourage and support scientists to foster risky and hopefully ground-breaking research. Such incentives are important and have been greatly appreciated by the scientific community. However, the success of the ERC has had its downsides, as other actors in the funding ecosystem have adopted the ERC’s focus on “breakthrough science” and respective notions of scientific excellence. We argue that these tendencies are concerning since disruptive breakthrough innovation is not the only form of innovation in research. While continuous, gradual innovation is often taken for granted, it could become endangered in a research and funding ecosystem that places ever higher value on breakthrough science. This is problematic since, paradoxically, breakthrough potential in science builds on gradual innovation. If the value of gradual innovation is not better recognized, the potential for breakthrough innovation may well be stifled.
... In particular, academic discussions about replication and reproducibility have on occasion been fraught with hostility and have often publicly unfolded over online platforms (Bohannon 2014;Derksen 2019;Hamlin 2017). Such uncivil communication imposes psychological costs (Hamlin 2017;Pownall et al., 2021), especially given that competitive, stressful, and often economically precarious academic environments are already sources of stress and anxiety (Hazell et al., 2021;Jaremka et al., 2020;Woolston 2018Woolston , 2019. Addressing such issues will require proactive thinking about unintended consequences and a cultural shift in our understanding of the scientific enterprise. ...
Article
Worries about a “credibility crisis” besieging science have ignited interest in research transparency and reproducibility as ways of restoring trust in published research. For quantitative social science, advances in transparency and reproducibility can be seen as a set of developments whose trajectory predates the recent alarm. We discuss several of these developments, including preregistration, data-sharing, formal infrastructure in the form of resources and policies, open access to research, and specificity regarding research contributions. We also discuss the spillovers of this predominantly quantitative effort towards transparency for qualitative research. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of mutual accountability for effective science, the essential role of openness for this accountability, and the importance of scholarly inclusiveness in figuring out the best ways for openness to be accomplished in practice.
... The global tertiary education system is embedded with challenges (Jaremka et al., 2020), and navigating them can be an arduous task. My passion and commitment is to create a more positive and inclusive society and be a role model to others through understanding, acceptance of differences, and innovation. ...
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The European School for Interdisciplinary Tinnitus Research (ESIT) is an EU-funded doctoral training network. ESIT is a consortium of 12 universities, over 30 commercial and not‐for‐profit organizations, and 15 PhD students providing cutting-edge education across 10 European countries to develop highly knowledgeable and innovative experts in the field of tinnitus research. The ESIT consortium is composed of multidisciplinary researchers and academics engaged in supervising culturally diverse students from nine countries. Over the span of 4 years, ESIT students demonstrated transformational growth in academic and personal spheres and overcame multiple challenges. This case study documents the meaningful partnerships developed between students and the ESIT support network and some of the challenges faced by ESIT in training 15 international students during a global pandemic. It documents the co-creation of knowledge achieved by those engaged in a global shared learning journey and the conflicts and cultural dimensions that they navigated.
... First, the uncertainty and stress involved in obtaining permanent academic employment, fueled by the shortage of such positions in many countries, push trained and talented young scholars to consider alternatives (Gould, 2015). Second, academic life can be an emotional rollercoaster, where one has to deal with repeated rejections and the impostor syndrome (Jaremka et al., 2020), to the point that many young academics experience mental health crises (Evans et al., 2018;Woolston, 2018). Third, maintaining a healthy work-life balance, which many consider a key priority in career choices, is notoriously challenging in often stressful academia (Bartlett et al., 2021 An applied game such as the Ecologist's Career Compass cannot (and is not aiming to) solve all the challenges that early-career ecologists face. ...
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One of the most challenging endeavors for students is choosing a career path that best fits their interests, wills and skills, and setting their professional goals accordingly. Such decisions are often made from within the culture of academia, in which mentors and peers are mainly familiar with the academic job market and lack the knowledge necessary to consult about other types of careers. We aimed to address this gap for ecology and related fields by creating an engaging and effective tool to help students and professionals to familiarize themselves with the diversity of potential career paths available to ecologists. The tool is an applied card game - the Ecologist's Career Compass - which is provided here freely. The game is played as a trump card game and includes 33 cards, each representing a combination of one of four job-market sectors and one of nine types of positions. Each card indicates the level of seven skill categories required to likely be hired and succeed in the focal position at the focal sector, as well as more specific examples for typical jobs in the focal combination. The information in the game largely relies on input from a global survey we conducted among 315 ecologists from 35 countries. While the challenges faced by early-career ecologists in developing their professional path are substantial and diverse, this game can assist in gaining a broad comparative overview of the whole ecology job market and the skills required to likely excel in different paths. We hope this applied game will act as a conversation starter about the diversity of aspirations and opportunities in ecology classrooms and labs.
... First, forcing integration experts to meet traditional standards of disciplinary excellence to attain promotion (Lyall, 2019), while leading integration in ITD projects or programs, is a demanding challenge that imposes a serious risk of physical and emotional exhaustion (cf., Oliver et al., 2019;Jaremka et al., 2020). This risk is even more pronounced when occupying liminal spaces and navigating possible identity conflicts associated with integration experts' "hybrid roles" (Croft et al., 2015, p. 380) of being a scholar and a leader (or assuming many different roles as one workshop participant noted). ...
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Integration is often considered the core challenge and the defining characteristic of inter- and trans-disciplinary (ITD) research. Given its importance, it is surprising that the current system of higher education does not provide permanent positions for integration experts; i.e., experts who lead, administer, manage, monitor, assess, accompany, and/or advise others on integration within ITD projects or programs. Based on empirical results of an ITD 2019 Conference Workshop entitled “Is there a new profession of integration experts on the rise?” held in Gothenburg, Sweden, and our own experience in leading and studying ITD integration, the present article sheds light on the overarching question, “What are integration experts?”, thus contributing to the emerging literature on integration and integration expertise. We use direct quotes from participants to substantiate workshop results and triangulate them with recent literature on ITD research as well as Science of Team Science (SciTS) and Science and Technology Studies (STS). We conclude our article by discussing possible unintended consequences of establishing academic careers for integration experts, and suggest four complementary ways to support them, while mitigating potentially negative consequences: (a) establishing an international Community of Practice (CoP) to foster peer-to-peer exchange among integration experts, create greater visibility, and develop ideas for transforming academic structures; (b) studying academic careers of integration experts to provide empirical evidence of “successful” examples and disclose different ways of establishing related academic positions; (c) funding respective positions and aligning metrics for ITD research to foster integration within ITD projects or programs; and (d) engaging in collaborative dialog with academic institutions and funding agencies to present empirical results and lessons learnt from (a) and (b) to support them in establishing and legitimating careers for integration experts. If academia is to be serious about addressing the most pressing environmental and societal problems of our time, it needs to integrate its integrators.
... Imaginary as these perceptions may be, their negative consequences are very real. Studies have linked IP to lower job satisfaction, 5 work-related burnout, 6 anxiety and depression, 7 and higher risk for suicide. 8 While IP is known to impact many populations, [9][10][11] it appears to have a particular affinity for high-achieving individuals, in academics and professionals. ...
Article
Theory: Impostor phenomenon (IP) refers to people's feelings of intellectual fraudulence and fear of being "discovered," despite contradicting evidence of success. Due to its association with burnout and distress, it is progressively being studied in medicine. While various explanations for IP have been discussed in the literature, the role of motivation has largely been neglected. Hypotheses: Using self-determination theory (SDT) as a lens, it was hypothesized that different general causality orientations (impersonal, control, autonomy), domain-specific types of motivation (autonomous vs. controlled) toward going to medical school, and levels of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in the medical program, would each predict severity of IP symptoms. Method: A total of 1,450 medical students from three Canadian institutions were invited to complete a survey containing the Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale and scales derived from SDT's mini theories: basic psychological needs theory, causality orientations theory, and organismic integration theory. We explored the prevalence of IP among the students and used regression to capture variable relationships, accounting for gender effects. Results: Data from 277 (19.1%) students were assessed, 73% of whom reported moderate or worse IP symptoms. Having an impersonal general causality orientation, more controlled motivation toward going to medical school, and lower need satisfaction in the medical program, each related to increased IP severity. Together, these motivational factors accounted for 30.3%, 13.6%, and 21.8% of the variance in students' IP severity, respectively. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that students who are more self-determined (both in general and in medical school), and whose basic psychological needs are more supported in their medical program, will experience less frequent and severe IP symptoms. Preliminary explanations and implications of these findings are discussed within the medical education context.
... One defense mechanism against it is industriousness. Impostor syndrome is increasingly studied in students from minority groups (ethnic, socio-economic, sexual orientation, gender) and is conceptualized as a trauma resulting from micro-aggressions and repeated rejections (41)(42)(43)(44)(45). Intersected groups such as immigrants, and ethnic minorities, may develop impostor syndrome because of racism, rejection, and socio-economic difficulties. ...
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Background School refusal is one cause of school absenteeism along with truancy, and the two can be difficult to distinguish. School absenteeism behaviors among students in transcultural situations (immigrants or children of immigrants) and from ethnic minority groups are subject to misdiagnosis and decreased access to care. To improve the care provided, this exploratory study addresses the experience of adolescents and young adults engaging in school refusal, from immigrant and ethnic minority groups. Methods Sixteen participants between the ages of 16 and 20 years old presenting with school refusal were interviewed for this qualitative study. All participants were either immigrants, children of immigrants, or from an ethnic minority group. We conducted a qualitative analysis based on Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Participants experienced school refusal as a loss of identity and as a failure to achieve what was perceived as parental expectations of success, which triggered feelings of worthlessness, shame, and guilt. The loss of a peer group, namely their classmates, as a result of school absenteeism was experienced as a marginalization from the larger society. Although participants denied having personally experienced racism, some of them recalled their parents experiencing racism at school. Conclusion School refusal complicates identity construction, autonomy, and integration into society. For adolescents and young adults from immigrant and ethnic minority backgrounds, it also triggers guilt, transgenerational traumatic memories, and the fear of marginalization. In addition to validated therapies for school refusal, sociological, intersectional, and cross-cultural tools would be a valuable addition to treatment.
Chapter
Psychology is a popular subject to study, with thousands entering graduate school each year, but unlike med or pre-law, there is limited information available to help students learn about the field, how to successfully apply, and how to thrive while completing doctoral work. The Portable Mentor is a useful, must-have resource for all students interested in psychology. This third edition is updated and expanded, designed to address students' and trainees' need for open dialogue and mentorship. Throughout, it covers some of the common challenges graduates face and features discussions about how to celebrate your identity and find a rewarding, worthwhile career path. It comprises thirty chapters written by more than seventy of the field's top experts, successfully filling a void in professional development advice.
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We develop a new perspective on various forms of psychological suffering – including attachment issues, burn-out, and fatigue complaints – by drawing on the construct of learned helplessness. We conceptualise learned helplessness in operant terms as the behavioural effects of a lack of reinforcement and in goal-directed terms as the dysregulation of goal-directed behaviour. Our central claim is that if one fails to reach a goal (e.g. the goal to secure a job), then not only this goal but also other related goals (e.g. the goal to maintain social relationships) may lose their motivating effects. The similarity relation between goal stimuli can therefore shed light on how failure in one life domain can come to affect various other life domains. We detail the relation between our proposal and existing theories and discuss new research and clinical directions.
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Peer review is a mechanism that premier journals should pro-actively leverage to promote high-quality scholarly work regardless of whether that work is accepted or rejected. To do so, this article highlights the expectation–confirmation gap in peer reviewing and offers a set of guiding principles and a template for pro-active reviewing to help reviewers deliver high-quality feedback. In doing so, this article hopes to inspire greater constructive and developmental reviews as opposed to destructive and judgmental reviews in premier journals.
Chapter
This chapter introduces Trauma-Informed Pedagogies: A Guide for Responding to Crisis and Inequality in Higher Education, which is an equity-centered, evidence-based guide to trauma-informed teaching and learning in higher education. First, the chapter contextualizes the book in understanding that trauma is not just in past but also in the present and discusses the prevalence and impact of trauma on college students and educators. Next, the chapter explores what it means to respond to trauma, crisis, and inequality using a trauma-informed approach. The chapter then describes the origins and aims of the book and the book’s contents.
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Science is still an enterprise in which positions of power are mainly held by white, cis-gender, male academics. We discuss how the legacy of science’s exclusionary past still persists in scientific structures and propose concrete changes to open the system to a more diverse future.
Article
The central goal of clinical psychology is to reduce the suffering caused by mental health conditions. Anxiety, mood, psychosis, substance use, personality, and other mental disorders impose an immense burden on global public health and the economy. Tackling this burden will require the development and dissemination of intervention strategies that are more effective, sustainable, and equitable. Clinical psychology is uniquely poised to serve as a transdisciplinary hub for this work. But rising to this challenge requires an honest reckoning with the strengths and weaknesses of current training practices. Building on new data, we identify the most important challenges to training the next generation of clinical scientists. We provide specific recommendations for the full spectrum of stakeholders—from funders, accreditors, and universities to program directors, faculty, and students—with an emphasis on sustainable solutions that promote scientific rigor and discovery and enhance the mental health of clinical scientists and the public alike. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Volume 18 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Although many psychologists are interested in making the world a better place through their work, they are often unable to have the impact that they would like. Here, we suggest that both individuals and psychology as a field can better improve human welfare by incorporating ideas from Effective Altruism, a growing movement whose members aim to do the most good by using science and reason to inform their efforts. In this paper, we first provide a brief introduction to Effective Altruism and review important principles that can be applied to how psychologists approach their careers, such as the ITN framework (Importance, Tractability, and Neglectedness). Next, we review how effective altruism can inform how individuals approach their roles as teachers, clinicians, researchers, mentors, and participants in the non-academic world. Finally, we close with a discussion of ideas for how psychology, as a field, can increase its positive impact. By applying insights from effective altruism to psychological science, we aim to integrate new theoretical frameworks into psychological science, stimulate new areas of research, start a discussion on how psychology can maximize its impact, and inspire the psychology community to do the most good.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this review article is to examine the well-being of faculty in higher education. Success in academia depends on productivity in research, teaching, and service to the university, and the workload model that excludes attention to the welfare of faculty members themselves contributes to stress and burnout. Importantly, student success and well-being is influenced largely by their faculty members, whose ability to inspire and lead depends on their own well-being. This review article underscores the importance of attending to the well-being of the people behind the productivity in higher education. Method This study is a narrative review of the literature about faculty well-being in higher education. The history of well-being in the workplace and academia, concepts of stress and well-being in higher education faculty, and evidence-based strategies to promote and cultivate faculty well-being were explored in the literature using electronic sources. Conclusions Faculty feel overburdened and pressured to work constantly to meet the demands of academia, and they strive for work–life balance. Faculty report stress and burnout related to excessively high expectations, financial pressures to obtain research funding, limited time to manage their workload, and a belief that individual progress is never sufficient. Faculty well-being is important for the individual and in support of scholarship and student outcomes. This article concludes with strategies to improve faculty well-being that incorporate an intentional focus on faculty members themselves, prioritize a community of well-being, and implement continuous high-quality professional learning.
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In order to successfully obtain a faculty position, postdoctoral fellows or postdocs, must submit an application which requires considerable time and effort to produce. These job applications are often reviewed by mentors and colleagues, but rarely are postdocs offered the opportunity to solicit feedback multiple times from reviewers with the same breadth of expertise often found on an academic search committee. To address this gap, this manuscript describes an international peer reviewing program for small groups of postdocs with a broad range of expertise to reciprocally and iteratively provide feedback to each other on their application materials. Over 145 postdocs have participated, often multiple times, over three years. A survey of participants in this program revealed that nearly all participants would recommend participation in such a program to other faculty applicants. Furthermore, this program was more likely to attract participants who struggled to find mentoring and support elsewhere, either because they changed fields or because of their identity as a woman or member of an underrepresented population in STEM. Participation in programs like this one could provide early career academics like postdocs with a diverse and supportive community of peer mentors during the difficult search for a faculty position. Such psychosocial support and encouragement has been shown to prevent attrition of individuals from these populations and programs like this one target the largest leak in the pipeline, that of postdoc to faculty. Implementation of similar peer-reviewing programs by universities or professional scientific societies could provide a valuable mechanism of support and increased chances of success for early-career academics in their search for independence.
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The death of a parent can strike at our very core, rattling our sense of self and raising questions of how we could possibly continue beyond their departure. For the PhD student, parental loss can act as a significant disruption, saddling them with a heavy emotional toll to carry alongside the typical challenges of completing a thesis. Yet, parental death can also be transformative, providing the doctoral student with a powerful reason to persevere. Through an autoethnographic account of losing my father during my PhD, I reveal how parental death, and the desolation it engenders, can be transformed into a productive influence for the doctoral journey. This work contributes to international literature on parental loss, grief and graduate school experiences, while revealing how dialoguing with the dead can act as an effective learning tool. Methodologically, it demonstrates the usefulness of autoethnography for higher education scholars transnationally.
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What is Imposter Syndrome, whom does it affect, and when, and why is it important to recognize? In this multidisciplinary article, the phenomenon is defined and discussed by a psychiatrist, followed by strategic advice by a radiologist, interventional radiologist and radiation oncologist.
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What would my vita look like if it recorded not just the successes of my professional life but also the many, many rejections? http://chronicle.com/article/MeMy-Shadow-CV/233801
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Sixty doctoral students and 34 faculty members were interviewed in departments identified as having high and low doctoral student completion rates at one institution in the United States in order to examine the cultural contexts and structures that facilitate or hinder doctoral student completion. This paper outlines the differences in understandings of doctoral student attrition by role and by department using attribution theory. Implications for policy, practice, and further research are included.
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Four studies examined the hypothesis that, although people may generally want to savor, rather than to dampen, their positive emotions (i.e., hedonic emotion regulation), such a hedonic emotion regulation tendency should be less pronounced for Easterners than for Westerners. Using retrospective memory procedures, Study 1 found that Easterners recalled engaging in hedonic emotion regulation less than Westerners did, even after controlling for their initial emotional reactions. Studies 2-3 showed that cultural differences in emotion regulation were mediated by dialectical beliefs about positive emotions. Study 4 replicated the findings by examining online reports of emotion regulation strategies on the day students received a good grade. Furthermore, there were cultural differences in actual emotion change over time, which was partly explained by dialectical beliefs about positive emotions. These findings highlight the active role cultural scripts play in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.
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A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.
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Keeping a visible record of your rejected applications can help others to deal with setbacks, says Melanie Stefan.
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People are generally unaware of the operation of the system of cognitive mechanisms that ameliorate their experience of negative affect (the psychological immune system), and thus they tend to overestimate the duration of their affective reactions to negative events. This tendency was demonstrated in 6 studies in which participants overestimated the duration of their affective reactions to the dissolution of a romantic relationship, the failure to achieve tenure, an electoral defeat, negative personality feedback, an account of a child's death, and rejection by a prospective employer. Participants failed to distinguish between situations in which their psychological immune systems would and would not be likely to operate and mistakenly predicted overly and equally enduring affective reactions in both instances. The present experiments suggest that people neglect the psychological immune system when making affective forecasts.
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A preliminary study and main experiment tested the hypothesis that racial solo status (being the only member of one's race in a group) increases racial self-construal among African Americans. The preliminary study showed that African American men and women reported greater collectivist (i.e., group-based) over individualist self-construal under solo compared to nonsolo status, whereas Whites did not. The main experiment showed that the increased collectivism among African American solo women appears to be strongly reflected in racial identity becoming a salient aspect of self-construal. African American participants were also more likely than Whites to perceive that their anticipated performance would be generalized to their race, to feel like representatives of their race, and to show greater performance apprehension (indirectly evidenced by increased self-handicapping) when in racial solo status. The implications of solo status for African Americans in evaluative situations (such as academic testing sessions) are discussed.
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The relationships among solo status of racial/ethnic minorities in psychology departments, job satisfaction, and subjective feelings of distinctiveness were examined. Distinctiveness was defined as stigmatizing feelings associated with token status of racial/ethnic minorities in academia. It was hypothesized that minorities in positions of solo (relative to nonsolo) status within their departments, members of more stigmatized groups, and minorities occupying lower academic ranks would feel more distinctive and less satisfied with their jobs and that perceptions of distinctiveness would mediate job satisfaction. The data partially supported these hypotheses, most notably for African Americans. The implications of situational salience and the importance of recognizing differences among and between minority groups are considered.
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Does the temporal perspective people adopt when reflecting on negative events influence how they respond emotionally to these events? If so, through what cognitive pathway(s) does it have this effect? Seven studies explored these questions. Studies 1a, 1b, and 2 tested our basic hypothesis that adopting a distant-future perspective on recent stressors (relative to a near-future or control perspective) reduces emotional distress, examining 4 potential mediators of this effect. Study 3 built upon the prior studies by investigating whether their findings apply to a new domain and affect longer-term outcomes. Studies 4-6 centered on a key cognitive mechanism that helped to account for the distress-reducing properties of temporal distancing across our first 4 studies-impermanence focus. Studies 4 and 5 examined whether individual differences in impermanence focus predicted emotional reactions to negative events in a manner similar to adopting a distant-future perspective. They also explored the implications of impermanence focus for broader academic (Study 4) and psychological (Study 5) functioning. Finally, Study 6 manipulated impermanence focus to test whether it affected emotional reactions to stressors in a manner parallel to adopting a distant-future perspective. Together, these findings demonstrate that temporal distancing plays an important role in emotional coping with negative events, and that it does so by directing individuals' attention to the impermanent aspects of these events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Experiments testing the self-serving bias (SSB; taking credit for personal success but blaming external factors for personal failure) have used a multitude of moderators (i.e., role, task importance, outcome expectancies, self-esteem, achievement motivation, self-focused attention, task choice, perceived task difficulty, interpersonal orientation, status, affect, locus of control, gender, and task type). The present meta-analytic review established the viability and pervasiveness of the SSB and, more important, organized the 14 moderators just listed under the common theoretical umbrella of self-threat. According to the self-threat model, the high self-threat level of each moderator is associated with a larger display of the SSB than the low self-threat level. The model was supported: Self-threat magnifies the SSB. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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suggest that in the absence of social verification, experience is transitory, random, and ephemeral / once acknowledged by others and shared in a continuing process of social verification termed "shared reality," experience is no longer mere capricious subjectivity, but instead achieves the phenomenological status of objective reality / in other words, experience is established as valid and reliable to the extent that it is shared with others / examine classic social-psychological research and theory as well as more recent research, especially that pertaining to the role of communication processes in social cognition / [the authors] suggest several implications of the hypothesis for such topics as stereotyping, self, language, attitudes, and persuasion suggest that (1) the individual creates and maintains the experience of reality or meaning by sharing it with others in a process of social verification; (2) social interaction depends upon and is regulated by the achievement of shared reality; and (3) the shared reality that is established in social interaction in turn functions to regulate the self, closing the dialogical circle (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The study examined the relationship between narcissism, performance attributions, and negative emotions following success or failure. As expected, narcissistic individuals showed more self-serving attributions for their performance in an intelligence test than less narcissistic individuals: compared with less narcissistic individuals, narcissists revealed a stronger tendency to attribute success to ability and failure to task difficulty. In contrast to this, less narcissistic participants tended to show the opposite pattern by ascribing failure, but not success, to their ability. Additionally, anger and depression could be predicted by an interaction of performance feedback and performance attributions. Mediation analyses revealed that the attribution dimensions ‘task difficulty’ and ‘ability’ mediated the effect of narcissism on anger and depression following failure feedback. The results provide support for the theoretical assumption that attributional processes might, at least to some extent, explain the often reported relation between narcissism and negative emotions following failure. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1991, 60[2], 218–228). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1991-18327-001). Compared with Whites, Blacks were more likely to attribute negative feedback to prejudice than positive feedback and were more likely to attribute both types of feedback to prejudice when they could be seen by the other student. Being seen by the evaluator buffered the self-esteem of Blacks from negative feedback but hurt the self-esteem of Blacks who received positive feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Does placing females in environments in which they have contact with males cause deficits in their problem-solving performance? Is a situational cue, such as gender composition, sufficient for creating a threatening intellectual environment for females--an environment that elicits performance-impinging stereotypes? Two studies explored these questions. Participants completed a difficult math or verbal test in 3-person groups, each of which included 2 additional people of the same sex as the participant (same-sex condition) or of the opposite sex (minority condition). Female participants in the minority condition experienced performance deficits in the math test only, whereas males performed equally well on the math test in the two conditions. Further investigation showed that females' deficits were proportional to the number of males in their group. Even females who were placed in a mixed-sex majority condition (2 females and 1 male) experienced moderate but significant deficits. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of distinctiveness, stereotype threat, and tokenism.
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Stigmatization can give rise to belonging uncertainty. In this state, people are sensitive to information diagnostic of the quality of their social connections. Two experiments tested how belonging uncertainty undermines the motivation and achievement of people whose group is negatively characterized in academic settings. In Experiment 1, students were led to believe that they might have few friends in an intellectual domain. Whereas White students were unaffected, Black students (stigmatized in academics) displayed a drop in their sense of belonging and potential. In Experiment 2, an intervention that mitigated doubts about social belonging in college raised the academic achievement (e.g., college grades) of Black students but not of White students. Implications for theories of achievement motivation and intervention are discussed.
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I recently saw an old friend for the first time in many years. We had been Ph.D. students at the same time, both studying science, although in different areas. She later dropped out of graduate school, went to Harvard Law School and is now a senior lawyer for a major environmental organization. At
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