Oecologia (2019) 191:709–719
GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY – ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Phenotypically plastic responses topredation risk are temperature
ThomasM.Luhring1,2 · JannaM.Vavra1· ClaytonE.Cressler1· JohnP.DeLong1
Received: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published online: 10 October 2019
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019
Predicting how organisms respond to climate change requires that we understand the temperature dependence of ﬁtness in
relevant ecological contexts (e.g., with or without predation risk). Predation risk often induces changes to life history traits
that are themselves temperature dependent. We explore how perceived predation risk and temperature interact to determine
ﬁtness (indicated by the intrinsic rate of increase, r) through changes to its underlying components (net reproductive rate,
generation time, and survival) in Daphnia magna. We exposed Daphnia to predation cues from dragonﬂy naiads early,
late, or throughout their ontogeny. Predation risk increased r diﬀerentially across temperatures and depending on the tim-
ing of exposure to predation cues. The timing of predation risk likewise altered the temperature-dependent response of T
and R0. Daphnia at hotter temperatures responded to predation risk by increasing r through a combination of increased R0
and decreased T that together countered an increase in mortality rate. However, only D. magna that experienced predation
cues early in ontogeny showed elevated r at colder temperatures. These results highlight the fact that phenotypically plastic
responses of life history traits to predation risk can be strongly temperature dependent.
Keywords Climate change· Fecundity· Life history· Mortality· Reproduction· Survivorship
Global climate change is leaving an indelible mark on the
ecology of organisms worldwide (Walther etal. 2002;
Parmesan 2006; Poloczanska etal. 2013). Organisms can
respond to climate change through rapid evolutionary and/
or developmental changes in morphology, behavior, and life
history (Reale etal. 2003; Knies etal. 2006, 2009; Charman-
tier etal. 2008; Angilletta etal. 2010; Anderson etal. 2012;
Charmantier and Gienapp 2014; Tseng and O’Connor 2015;
Seebacher etal. 2015; Padﬁeld etal. 2016; Schaum etal.
2017). Furthermore, changing thermal regimes associated
with climate change inﬂuence virtually all aspects of natural
systems, because biological processes are dominated by the
eﬀects of temperature (Ernest etal. 2003; Brown etal. 2004;
Kerkhoﬀ etal. 2005; Kingsolver 2009; DeLong etal. 2017).
While the temperature dependence of ﬁtness is of interest
for projecting the eﬀects of climate change (Deutsch etal.
2008; Vasseur etal. 2014; Sinclair etal. 2016), the traits
that determine ﬁtness occur within the context of natural
food webs and are simultaneously altered and constrained
by temperature and other factors (e.g., predation, allocation
trade-oﬀs) (Luhring etal. 2018).
Predation and predation risk strongly inﬂuence prey evo-
lution, development, morphology, behavior, and life history
(Reznick and Endler 1982; Lima and Dill 1990; Stibor 1992;
Van Buskirk and Schmidt 2000; Benard 2004; Lind and
Cresswell 2005; Grigaltchik etal. 2012, 2016; Seebacher
and Grigaltchik 2015; Tseng and O’Connor 2015; Luhring
etal. 2016). Furthermore, predators shape prey demography
and dynamics through both the lethal eﬀects of predation
and the eﬀects of predation risk on prey behavior and phe-
notypes (Pangle etal. 2007; Creel and Christianson 2008;
Communicated by Scott D Peacor.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (https ://doi.org/10.1007/s0044 2-019-04523 -9) contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
* Thomas M. Luhring
1 School ofBiological Sciences, University ofNebraska-
Lincoln, 410 Manter Hall, Lincoln, NE68588, USA
2 Present Address: Department ofBiological Sciences, Wichita
State University, 1845 Fairmount Street, Wichita, KS67260,