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Sabal lougheediana (Arecaceae), a critically endangered, endemic palm species from Bonaire

  • Montgomery Botanical Center
  • Montgomery Botanical Center

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A new palm species, Sabal lougheediana, is described and illustrated. This critically endangered island endemic, native solely to Bonaire, is characterized by a compact crown of leaves, erect leaf segments, distinctive leaf scars, and frequently vascularized fiber bundles in leaflet transection. Detail on history, morphology, range, habitat, and conservation status is presented, along with a diagnostic key.
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Phytotaxa 420 (2): 095–101
Copyright © 2019 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by William Baker: 3 Oct. 2019; published: 10 Oct. 2019
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License
Sabal lougheediana (Arecaceae), a critically endangered, endemic palm species
from Bonaire
1Montgomery Botanical Center, Coral Gables, Florida, United States of America.
2 BonBèrdè, Tras ‘I Montaña 45, Bonaire. Dutch Caribbean.
Email:,,, larryn@montgomerybotani-
A new palm species, Sabal lougheediana, is described and illustrated. This critically endangered island endemic, native
solely to Bonaire, is characterized by a compact crown of leaves, erect leaf segments, distinctive leaf scars, and frequently
vascularized fiber bundles in leaflet transection. Detail on history, morphology, range, habitat, and conservation status is
presented, along with a diagnostic key.
Key words: anatomy, Coryphoideae, critically endangered, single-island endemic, Palmae, palms, Southern Caribbean
Sabal Adans.—the palmetto—is a New World genus with 17 recognized species (Zona, 1990, Goldman et al. 2012,
Griffith et al. 2017). Boldingh’s Florae (1913, 1914) did not include any Sabal in the Leeward Antilles. The first
collection of Sabal on these islands (M. Arnoldo 1030, U!) was made in 1948 on Curaçao, and thereafter Stoffers (1956)
wrote of “an unidentified species of Sabal” on both Curaçao and Bonaire. More than two decades later, a dedicated
and detailed study of these palms on both islands (Winkelman, 1979) considered them endemic, but continued to list
them as “Sabal spec.”
Despite being a prominent, emergent feature of the Bonaire vegetation, review of herbaria suggests that the native
palm on Bonaire was not collected until 2017 (Griffith 392, NY!). Conservation concern over the native Bonaire palm
population—first mentioned by Winkelman (1979), and continued through de Freitas et al. (2005) and Griffith et al.
(2017)—prompted further study of these little-known plants. Following in the steps of Winkelman’s work, a detailed re-
assessment of the palms on both Bonaire and Curaçao was conducted, mapping and documenting every native palm on
both islands (de Freitas et al. 2019), comparing these data to the record from 40 years prior. Significant morphological,
anatomical, and ecological differences were noted during the course of both the 1979 and 2018 surveys: the palms
on Bonaire share a number of morphologically cohesive features not seen elsewhere, and are also distinct from Sabal
antillensis M.P.Griff. (2017:56) on Curacao. We therefore describe the Sabal on Bonaire as a new species.
Taxonomic Treatment
Sabal lougheediana M.P.Griff. & Coolen, sp. nov. (Figures 1, 2, 3A, 4A, 5A).
Type:—BONAIRE. Lima, limestone terrace pavement west of Lac Bay, north of the solar salt works, and south of Kaya Rudolph Statius
von Eps. 5 m elev., 12° 6’ 1.098” N, 68° 15’ 30.603” W, 11 January 2017, Griffith 392 (holotype NY!, isotype FTG!).
Diagnosis:—This new species is most similar to Sabal antillensis in leaf morphology and inflorescence structure, but
differs by the much taller overall height (7 m vs. 5 m) and more slender-trunked (less than 40 cm vs. greater than 40
cm) habit, the conspicuous, textured trunk scars, the uniformly erect leaf segments unlike the pendescent segments in
S. antillensis, and the more frequently vascularized fiber bundles.
96 Phytotaxa 420 (2) © 2019 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 1. Sabal lougheediana (illustration: Barros). A. Habit. B. Detail of leaf scar. C. Leaf.
Habit as a solitary palm, overall height to 7 m, with a compact crown of leaves, mostly ascending from the
trunk axis, and inflorescences held within and mostly occluded by the crown of leaves.
Trunk to 5.5 m high, 30–
37 cm diameter at widest point, gently narrowing near the crown, with prominent regular raised leaf scars (Figure
1B), holding up to 35 leaves. Leaf 120 to 200 cm long overall (longer in immature plants), strongly costapalmate,
grass-green, the palman strongly sinuous with more than one arch when viewed from the side, filiferous between the
leaflets. Petiole half or less of the total leaf length, less than 1 m, often 60–100 cm long, up to 6 cm wide, 2 cm thick,
the proximal portion split to nearly 35% of its length, with papyraceous ligules to 22 cm long and 5 cm wide, persistent
on newest leaves and rarely seen on older leaves. Hastula adaxial, acute, 10 to 17 cm long. Costa linear, 30–55 cm
long. Leaf segments up to 80, strongly induplicate at insertion to hastula and proximally undivided for up to 25% of
their length, with the apex divided for up to 35% of the segment length. Basal leaf segment 45–70 cm long hastula to
tip, up to 1.8 cm wide. Median leaf segment to 90 cm long, 5 cm wide, undivided up to 50% of its length. Apical leaf
segment to 70 cm long, 1.8 cm wide. Inflorescence arcuate, held within the crown of leaves and not pendant below it,
very rarely exserted beyond the leaf tips, mostly occluded by the foliage unless senescent, branched to three orders,
to 150 cm long. Peduncle proximally to 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick with an average of 5 sheathing bracts. First order
branches up to 15. Flowers sessile, 3–4.5 mm long, bisexual. Sepals 3, green, glabrous, tubular to cupulate, 2–3 mm
long, 2 mm wide. Petals 3, glabrous, white, obovate, 1.2–1.5 mm long, anthers 1–1.2 mm long, cream white to pale
SABAL LOUGHEEDIANA Phytotaxa 420 (2) © 2019 Magnolia Press 97
yellow, style 1.4–1.5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. Fruit glabrous, maturing to black, spherical, 9–12 mm high, 11–13 mm
wide. Seed oblate-spherical to slightly pyriform, brown to black, 5–8 mm high, 7–11 mm wide.
Distribution:—This species is currently limited to a very small range on the island of Bonaire (de Frietas et al.
2019) in the Southern Caribbean. The plants are found in the southern part of the island (Lima), west of Lac Bay and
north of the solar salt factory.
Habitat:—The plants are found in the CoccolobaMelocactus Middle Terrace landscape type (de Freitas et
al. 2005), on flat limestone pavements, at elevations near 5 m. Vegetation cover in the range of S. lougheediana is very
sparse, and there is evidence that the current vegetation is greatly reduced from its potential density via introduced
herbivores (Coolen, 2015; Roberts et al. 2018).
Etymology:—The name honors Dr. Lin Lougheed, author, explorer, and patron of botanic gardens.
Common Names:—The plant is called Sabalpalm on Bonaire. We also propose an additional common name
“Bonaire Palm” to highlight its single-island endemism, and distinguish from its nearest geographic neighbor on
Curaçao also called Sabalpalm.
FIGURE 2. Sabal lougheediana, Bonaire, showing uniformly erect leaf segments and infructesence (white arrow) occluded by foliage
(photograph: Coolen).
Conservation Status:—Under the IUCN (2012) Red List criteria, Sabal lougheediana is considered Critically
Endangered (criteria B1ab(v), B2ab(v), C2a(ii), D), owing to its single, very restricted population of very few mature
individuals. Complete survey in 2018 located only 25 reproductively mature palms in the wild (de Freitas et al.,
2019), compared to 31 adults located during the Winkelman (1979) survey. Furthermore, the range of these palms
fell from near 5 km2 to less than 1 km2 over the same period. Winkelman detailed an extractive harvest of these palm
leaves with over a dozen individuals—at least 40% of the mature population—completely defoliated and showing
cuts on the trunks. Extant palms in 2018 still show these “steps” (Figure 4A) to facilitate climbing, which may date
98 Phytotaxa 420 (2) © 2019 Magnolia Press
to Winkelman’s era. However, no palms in 2018 showed signs of cut leaves. A single dead palm was noted during
recent field survey, but the loss of this single plant represents 4% of the total reproductive population. Very limited
recruitment of seedlings into more mature palms—likely due to herbivore pressure—suggests that the population will
continue to decline without intervention (de Freitas et al. 2019).
De Freitas
et al. (2019) presented recommendations to improve the conservation status of this highly imperiled
island endemic, primarily dependent upon excluding herbivores from the very limited native range. Cultivation of
Bonaire Palm in offsite reserves and other managed landscapes on Bonaire and elsewhere is also essential to assure
against extinction, given the small number and tiny range of extant wild plants.
FIGURE 3. Comparison of habit and leaf segments of Sabal lougheediana and S. antillensis (photographs: Griffith). A. Sabal lougheediana
showing typical slender trunk and erect leaf segments, Bonaire; overall height of this plant is just over 7m. B. Sabal antillensis showing
pachycaulous trunks and pendescent leaf segments, Christoffelpark, Curaçao; overall heights of these plants are 4–5m.
Discussion:—The leaf, leaflet anatomy, inflorescence, flowers and seeds all place this species in Sabal, and
these plants were once considered close to Sabal causiarum Beccari (1907:71), as reviewed in Griffith et al. (2017).
As detailed above, a record of the indigenous Bonaire Palm exists in the literature for over sixty years, yet apparently
no specimen was collected before 2017. Sabal lougheediana appears most similar to S. antillensis, also described in
2017; until now S. antillensis applied to palms from both Curaçao and Bonaire. Winkelman (1979) first noted the much
taller height of the Bonaire palms (Figure 3). The pronounced stem thickening seen in S. antillensisis is also not present
in S. lougheediana (Figure 3). S. lougheediana shows distinctive persistent raised leaf scars that do not appear on S.
antillensis (Figure 4). Both species show a characteristicly dense crown resulting from short petiole length relative
to lamina length, but also show a difference in foliage, with sharply erect “spiky” leaf segments distinctive for
SABAL LOUGHEEDIANA Phytotaxa 420 (2) © 2019 Magnolia Press 99
lougheediana, and a more pendulous, flexible leaf segment habit in S. antillensis (Figure 3). Separating Bonaire’s S.
lougheediana from the previous broader circumscription of S. antillensis also tightens the concept of S. antillensis to
solely comprise the short, stout palms of western Christoffelberg.
Anatomical differences also support distinction between Sabal lougheediana and S. antillensis. (Figure 5). In leaflet
transection, S. antillensis shows a characteristic alternation between vascularized fiber bundles and unvascularized
fiber strands (Griffith et al. 2017). S. lougheediana instead shows more frequent large vascularized fiber bundles
without consistent intercalary, smaller unvascularized fiber bundles. This results in a greater density of vascularized
fiber bundles per width of lamina in S. lougheediana than in S. antillensis, and perhaps this anatomy supports the more
rigid leaflet habit in S. lougheediana.
FIGURE 4. Comparison of trunk leaf scars of Sabal lougheediana and S. antillensis (photographs: Griffith) A. Sabal lougheediana
showing typical conspicuous regular leaf scars (black arrows), presenting as linear rows of small (< 10mm) protuberances, Bonaire. This
distinctive character is observed on all trunked plants on Bonaire. Note also the carved “steps” (white arrows) originally observed by
Winkleman (1979). B. Sabal antillensis showing typical annular leaf scars with no raised texture, Christoffelpark, Curaçao.
Beyond the structural differences that separate these two species, they are also separated by 100 km of open water
and a mountain ridge, and occur in very different habitats. As noted above, Sabal lougheediana grows on limestone
flats near sea level, while S. antillensis grows on cherty mudstone hills only above 140m elevation. Overall vegetation
100 Phytotaxa 420 (2) © 2019 Magnolia Press
type differs sharply between these habitats (Beers et al. 1997, de Freitas et al. 2005). Conservation status also differs
between these two taxa. The S. antillensis population is trending upward as a result of conservation management, while
S. lougheediana is declining (de Freitas et al. 2019).
Given the very significant differences in morphology, anatomy, habitat, ecology, and geography detailed above,
recognizing Sabal lougheediana as separate from S. antillensis best characterizes both the distinctiveness of each
taxon, as well as the morphological cohesiveness of each. In addition to improved taxonomic clarity, recognition of
two separate taxa may further galvanize conservation action for these iconic plants.
Diagnostic key to the Sabal of the Leeward Antilles
1 Plants to 7 m overall height; trunk diameters 40 cm or less, showing prominent leaf scars of raised protuberances; with uniformly
erect leaf segments; Bonaire .................................................................................................................................Sabal lougheediana
1* Plants to 5 m overall height; mature trunk diameters above 40 cm at widest point, showing faint annular leaf scars with no texture,
or no leaf scars, with pendescent leaf segments; Curaçao .........................................................................................Sabal antillensis
FIGURE 5. Leaf segment lamina transections of Sabal lougheediana and S. antillensis, methods follow Noblick (2013), scale bar = 0.25
mm (micrographs: Noblick). A. Sabal lougheediana (Griffith 392, NY!). B. Sabal antillensis (Griffith 385, NY!). A shows secondary
minor veins with few intercalary fiber bundles, while B shows adaxial fiber bundles intercalated between all secondary minor veins.
The authors thank: Directorate of Spatial Planning and Development, Section Environment and Nature, Government
of the Public Entity of Bonaire for permission to study, collect and export specimens on Bonaire; USDA for permission
to import specimens (Permits PCIP-16-00418 and P37-16-00941); Johan van Blerk, Caren Eckrich, Peter Montanus,
Lauren Schmalz and Frank van Slobbe for information, advice, guidance, and discussion; Curators of FTG, NY, and U
for access; two anonymous reviewers and Editor William Baker for very constructive edits; and the Plant Exploration
Fund for supporting this project.
SABAL LOUGHEEDIANA Phytotaxa 420 (2) © 2019 Magnolia Press 101
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National park. WUR, Stinapa, Imares & Carmabi report, 51 pp.
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putative Sabal hybrid (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae), and the description of a new nothospecies, Sabal × brazoriensis. Phytotaxa 27:
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+ 32 pp.
Noblick, L.R. (2013) Leaflet anatomy verifies relationships within Syagrus (Arecaceae) and aids in identification. PhytoKeys 26: 75–99.
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Winkelman, J.E. (1979) Inventarisatie Sabal spec. (Cabana) (fam. Palmae) op Curaçao en Bonaire N. A. Thesis. Landbouwhogeschool,
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Zona, S. (1990) A monograph of Sabal (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae). Aliso 12: 583–666.
... With our study of Sabal, we find that threat level correlates with the breadth of presence in collections ( Figure 5 and Table 2 (Zona, 1990) S. gretherae 1 VU (Quero, 1998a) S. guatemalensis 6 VU (Paiz and Stuardo, 1999) S. lougheediana 1 CR (Griffith et al., 2019b) S. maritima 12 LC (Zona et al., 2007) S. mauritiiformis 41 LC (Zona, 1990) S. mexicana 62 LC (Zona, 1990) S. miamiensis 5 EW (Zona, 1990;Walter and Gillett, 1998, this paper) S. minor 146 LC (IUCN SSC GTSG, 2020) ...
... and Coolen and (to a lesser extent) S. antillensis M. P. Griff. Sabal lougheediana is Critically Endangered and currently limited to only 25 mature specimens in an area of less than 1 km 2 due to overgrazing by feral ungulates (De Freitas et al., 2019;Griffith et al., 2019b). While S. antillensis is more secure in the wild, it remains vulnerable due to limited range and potential threats from invasive pests (Griffith et al., 2017b). ...
With more than 2,600 species and 181 genera, palms (Arecaceae) are one of the most diverse and widely distributed plant families in tropical environments (Baker and Dransfield, 2016). Although they make up a modest portion of the above-ground biomass in most neotropical forests (DeWalt and Chave, 2004), their contribution increases in places where palms are dominant (Muscarella et al., 2020). In the Amazon forests, palms are hyperdominant elements(ter Steege et al., 2013). Their sheer abundance secures them a key role in forest function and forest structure (Boukili and Chazdon, 2017). Palms provide food for a wide variety of animal species (Onstein et al., 2017), including key resources for frugivores, which in turn disperse canopy trees that store most of the carbon in mature forests (Bello et al., 2015). Many human groups value palms and use them as raw material for building, food, drink, clothing, fuel, and medicine (Sylvester et al., 2012). Palms tissues stretch the limits of plant cells to reach tree-like heights while preserving mechanical stability and long-term function using only apical meristems (Tomlinson, 2006). Little is known about the functional mechanisms governing palms’ adaptation to environmental gradients, despite their ecological significance and distinctive morphological and physiological structure. Here, we summarize the functional role of palms from a variety of perspectives, which concentrate on the analysis of functional traits and their influence on adaptation to environmental gradients. Contributions are grouped into the analysis of functional traits and conservation issues.
... With our study of Sabal, we find that threat level correlates with the breadth of presence in collections ( Figure 5 and Table 2), as is also seen in many other groups, including Australian plants (Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI), 2013), conifers (Shaw and Hird, 2014), maples (Acer L.; Crowley et al., 2020), oaks (Quercus L.; Beckman et al., 2019;Carrero et al., 2020), and US plants (Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI), 2014). (Zona et al., 2007) S. etonia 26 VU (Zona, 1990) S. gretherae 1 VU (Quero, 1998a) S. guatemalensis 6 VU (Paiz and Stuardo, 1999) S. lougheediana 1 CR (Griffith et al., 2019b) S. maritima 12 LC (Zona et al., 2007) S. mauritiiformis 41 LC (Zona, 1990) S. mexicana 62 LC (Zona, 1990) S. miamiensis 5 EW (Zona, 1990;Walter and Gillett, 1998, this paper) S. minor 146 LC (IUCN SSC GTSG, 2020) ...
... and Coolen and (to a lesser extent) S. antillensis M. P. Griff. Sabal lougheediana is Critically Endangered and currently limited to only 25 mature specimens in an area of less than 1 km 2 due to overgrazing by feral ungulates (De Freitas et al., 2019;Griffith et al., 2019b). While S. antillensis is more secure in the wild, it remains vulnerable due to limited range and potential threats from invasive pests (Griffith et al., 2017b). ...
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Under the old taxon Principes, palms were once the Princes of the Kingdom Plantae. First on Engler’s list, they occupy a cherished place to botanists, and remain treasured centerpieces of many gardens. In turn, botanic gardens have put forward a decades-long effort to conserve these widely admired plants, keeping a number of palm species from extinction. Living palm collections also have critical value for comparative ecological studies. In this paper we highlight successful ex situ conservation programs for palms, review how the promising new field of collections genetics can guide ex situ conservation of palms, conduct a family-wide gap analysis for living collections in the Arecaceae, and provide an in-depth case study of ex situ conservation of the genus Sabal. These analyses highlight ways in which gardens can advance palm conservation following four recommendations: collect, cultivate, communicate, and collaborate.
... A comparison can be made between the 1994 and 2017 surveys, the number of adult individuals increased from 19 to 23; however, the number of juveniles decreased from six to one; this suggests that there has been a recruitment crisis (cf. Griffith et al. 2019). We hypothesize that the increase of adult plants is because individuals that were reported as juveniles in 1994 became adults prior to our 2017 field work. ...
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With only 24 plants located in the wild in 2017, the Haitian endemic Attalea crassispatha (Mart.) Burret (Arecaceae) is one of the major priorities for palm conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot and is the only member of the genus (~ 30 species) that occurs in the region. A project of ex situ conservation and field surveys published in 1994 involved Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG) as a major distributor of wild collected germplasm with other botanic gardens/institutions from South Florida and the tropics in 1989 and 1991. Part of this material was also grown in FTBG. Over 25 years after this conservation initiative was established, new field surveys were made in 2017 where the species occurs in Peninsule de Tiburon, southern Haiti. The number of living plants recorded in this new inventory was 24 (vs 25 reported in 1994). DNA microsatellite data (SSRs) were used to compare levels of genetic variation in the FTBG ex situ conservation collections and the wild. We found that the FTBG genotypes did not capture most of the already limited genetic diversity found in the wild. Cluster analyses based on Bayesian statistics recognized three major genetic groups in the wild, and three of them were found in plants occurring mostly in the northern slopes of Peninsule de Tiburon; in contrast, only two of the genetic clusters were predominant in the southern portion of this peninsula mostly in the Cavaillon area. Our results concur with those recently published based on Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) molecular markers for ex situ collections of this palm species conserved in five botanic gardens/research institutes.
... It contains limited amounts of trait data for the species as well, for example on geographical distribution, growth form and indigeneity. Several species are endemics for one or multiple of the six Dutch islands (see for example Van Proosdij 2012;Axelrod 2017Axelrod , 2021Griffith et al. 2019). ...
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The vegetation database CACTUS (registered in GIVD under SA-00-004) aims to bring together all plot-based relevés from the Dutch Caribbean Islands that are available from literature, unpublished resources, and recent field surveys. The database currently contains 2,701 vegetation descriptions. The database is used for vegetation classification, to investigate vegetation change over time, to assist in the planning of vegetation surveys, as a source for plant species distribution maps, and to inform nature conservation and policy. Taxonomic references : Van Proosdij (2012) for the Leeward Islands, Axelrod (2017, 2021) for the Windward Islands, except for St. Martin (Howard 1974-1989).
Technical Report
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The southern wetlands of Bonaire represent a unique environment for the island. Consisting of a wide variety of habitat types including caves, karsts, dry tropical forests, coastal areas, salt pans and mangroves. The Ramsar site Pekelmeer lies completely in this area, as well as a small portion of the buffer zone of the Ramsar site Lac Bay. Culturally, a number of Bonaire’s historic monuments and tributes to its past can be found as you drive around the perimeter, from ruins of old salt pans to the remains of slave huts and gravestones. Maintaining and respecting these sober reminders of Bonaire’s history is vital to ensuring the sacrifices of the enslaved populations are not forgotten. It would be impossible to separate the historic and cultural identity of Bonaire from this area. Economically the southern wetlands represent commercial opportunities for salt extraction by Cargill Salt Works as well as a significant driver of tourism, whether it is history enthusiasts, cyclists, kiteboarders, recreational fishers, scuba divers or bird watchers. The cultural and economic value of this area is only surpassed by its environmental value. The southern wetlands are recognized internationally as an Important Bird Area (IBA), as a site of regional importance by the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, as an area important for sea turtle nesting and as a Ramsar site. The Ramsar site Pekelmeer, which encompasses most of the southern portion of the wetlands, is critical to a number of threatened, endangered or keystone species. Pekelmeer offers a much-needed rest stop for a number of migratory bird species while also serving as an important breeding ground for the Caribbean Flamingo and five different tern species. Furthermore, the southern wetlands constitute most of the natural habitat of the rare and endemic Bonaire Sabal Palm. This management plan offers a description of the southern wetlands (chapter 1), a legal and legislative overview (chapter 2), a description of resources and utilities (chapter 3), an explanation of the spatial development plan (chapter 4), an overview of conservation target habitats (chapter 5), an analysis of threats and issues (chapter 6), an outline of management actions and strategies (chapter 7), and provides recommendations for the management plan evaluation and review (chapter 8). Conserving this unique wetland will be a major challenge. A critical first step is to designate Pekelmeer as a protected area under island and national legislation, and appoint a management authority.
Premise of research. Ex situ plant conservation can be improved through genetic analysis. One area of interest is the relative value of conserving smaller or larger populations, and how sampling strategies for these might differ. Current practice emphasizes collecting large sample sizes from some populations and limited sampling from others, and aims for capture of allele diversity exceeding predetermined thresholds at the species level. Evaluating how well botanic garden collections can capture genetic diversity of populations of different sizes can help refine guidance on conservation efforts. Methodology. A model species, Pseudophoenix sargentii (Arecaceae), was chosen for its disjunct and insular range, variation in population size, and presence in collections. We compared 123 in situ plants from three discrete island populations to 94 ex situ conservation specimens via ten microsatellite markers. Comparison of allelic diversity among the wild populations and collections allowed for evaluation of genetic capture. Pivotal results. Genetic distance analysis, Fixation indices, and Bayesian clustering analysis show discrete in situ geographic structure, and close affinity of ex situ collections to in situ source populations. Yet, collections from just the largest population met the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Target 9 threshold for conservation success for that source population, for other smaller populations, and for all populations together. Conclusions. Percent genetic capture thresholds may need revision, as such thresholds overlook important diversity. Efficient genetic capture is maximized by emphasizing unique maternal lineages and limiting half-siblings in a collection, but this selectivity must be balanced against the need for redundancy in living collections. Large and small populations each contribute to meeting genetic diversity goals. We recommend that botanic gardens and their networks develop conservation priorities based on genetic diversity and resources, carefully consider existing thresholds for conservation success, define metrics for ex situ conservation goals, and integrate analysis into ex situ conservation efforts.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Claremont Graduate School, 1989. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 177-192). Photocopy.
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The current investigation was carried out to examine how palm anatomy may coincide with the current molecular analysis including the three recognized clades of Syagrus Mart. and to justify the splitting of acaulescent Syagrus species (e.g. Syagrus petraea (Mart.) Becc.) into several species. Free-hand cross-sections of leaflets were made and the comparison of these verifies the relationships suggested by the molecular data. Free-hand leaflet sections were also found to be useful in the identification of otherwise difficult-to-identify acaulescent Syagrus species. The result and conclusion is that anatomical data is valuable in helping to verify molecular data and that splitting the acaulescent species of Syagrus is justified by the differences discovered in their field habit and anatomy. These differences were used to produce an identification key that is based on the anatomy. NOBLICK NOTE: Figure 7 is wrong in this pdf version. For the correct figure, please see:
Island ecosystems are recognised as high priority for biodiversity conservation, with invasive species a significant threat. To investigate prioritisation invasive species control, we conducted cost-effectiveness analysis of donkey control on Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Successful prioritisation must take account of ecological, economic and social aspects of conservation. Further improvements are possible where impacts are measured across ecosystem boundaries, and management is tied to funding. We modelled the expected ecological impacts of control options, estimated costs, and connected this to the willingness of beneficiaries to fund such projects. Finally we surveyed experts to understand the social acceptability of donkey control. Of the control options, eradication is predicted to have the highest ecological impacts across two ecosystems, and to be cost-effective over the long term. Costs of all control options were within user willingness to pay. Social acceptability was highest for fencing, and lowest for lethal control. Though eradication offers the highest ecological benefits, we suggest that lower initial costs and higher social acceptability make fencing the better choice for Bonaire in the immediate future. In this way we illustrate the importance of considering economic and social impacts alongside the ecological in environmental conservation, and present an integrated application for prioritising conservation choices.
A new species of palmetto, Sabal antillensis, native to Curaçao and Bonaire, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a pachycaulous habit, a compact crown of leaves, large seeds, and frequent fiber bundles in leaflet transection. Details on history, morphology, distribution, habitat, and conservation status are provided.
In a coastal plain forest in eastern Texas, USA, occurs a population of a putative Sabal hybrid, one of few native, putative palm hybrids in the continental USA. Robust plants with large trunks, they are morphologically dissimilar to the much smaller and acaulescent plants of S. minor, with which they co-occur. The only other large Sabal species in the USA are S. mexicana and S. palmetto, with S. mexicana native only to Texas. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), we sampled several plants of the putative hybrid and its possible parents in order to evaluate its possible hybrid origin. UPGMA, principal coordinate analysis, and Bayesian analyses indicated that it seems to be a hybrid, but an old one, with clear genetic distinctiveness. However, these results also suggest a closer affinity of the putative hybrid with S. minor and S. palmetto than with S. mexicana, excluding the latter species from possible parentage. Results also suggest that S. minor, despite its wide morphological diversity, is a clearly coherent species with minimal evidence of introgression, except for Mexican material that appears to be introgressed with S. mexicana. Sabal palmetto may also possess a complicated genetic history not necessarily reflected in its morphology
Le palme americane della tribù delle Corypheae. Webbia 2: l-343
  • O Beccari
Beccari, O. (1907) Le palme americane della tribù delle Corypheae. Webbia 2: l-343.
Flora voor de Nederlandsch West-Indische eilanden
  • I Boldingh
Boldingh, I. (1913) Flora voor de Nederlandsch West-Indische eilanden. J.H. de Bussy, Amsterdam, 450 pp.
The Flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands. Second Volume. Curaçao, Aruba and
  • I Boldingh
Boldingh, I. (1914) The Flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands. Second Volume. Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 197 pp.