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A Comparative Study of ICT Maturity Measurement Models.

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A Comparative Study of ICT Maturity Measurement Models.

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Over the last few years, several maturity models have been developed to support ICT management. They address a broad range of different application areas, comprising holistic assessments of ICT management as well as appraisals of specific subareas. In the service industry, ICT Maturity models are valuable instruments to service expert and managers as they are used for the assessment of the current state of its firms as well as the identification of reasonable improvement measures. However, how to measure the maturity of ICT is not only strange to service expert and managers of service organization but also confront them with the problem of choice of the appropriateness of existing ICT maturity measurement tool(s). This paper attempts to be a one stop shop to service experts and managers of service organisation by identifying and explicating among the several maturity measurement tools that are particularly suited to ICT maturity measurement, exposed their features, strengths and weaknesses.
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Vol 8. No. 3 – September, 2015
African Journal of Computing & ICT
© 2015 Afr J Comp & ICT – All Rights Reserved - ISSN 2006-1781
www.ajocict.net
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A Comparative Study of ICT Maturity Measurement Models
V.A. Olutayo & G.O. Ekuobase,
Department of Computer Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Osun State, Nigeria
Department of Computer Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
Emails: akinbolaolutayo@gmail.com, godspower.ekuobase@uniben.edu
ABSTRACT
Over the last few years, several maturity models have been developed to support ICT management. They address a broad range
of different application areas, comprising holistic assessments of ICT management as well as appraisals of specific subareas. In
the service industry, ICT Maturity models are valuable instruments to service expert and managers as they are used for the
assessment of the current state of its firms as well as the identification of reasonable improvement measures. However, how to
measure the maturity of ICT is not only strange to service expert and managers of service organization but also confront them
with the problem of choice of the appropriateness of existing ICT maturity measurement tool(s). This paper attempts to be a one
stop shop to service experts and managers of service organisation by identifying and explicating among the several maturity
measurement tools that are particularly suited to ICT maturity measurement, exposed their features, strengths and weaknesses.
Keywords: Service Science, ICT, Maturity Measurement Tools, Service Industry
African Journal of Computing & ICT Reference Format:
V.A. Olutayo & G.O. Ekuobase (2015): A Comparative Study of ICT Maturity Measurement Models.
Afr J. of Comp & ICTs. Vol 8, No. 3. Pp 59-68.
1. INTRODUCTION
ICT support of business processes has become indispensable
for a lot of companies [2]. Moreover, innovative ICT systems
generally offer great opportunities to improve a company’s
competitiveness [3, 4, 5]. The responsibility for effective and
efficient design and use of IT lies with the company’s IT
management. The main goal here is to continually improve
ICT performance with regard to its economic efficiency.
ICT management therefore needs supportive tools to assess
the as-is situation of a company, derive and prioritize
improvement measures and subsequently control the progress
of their implementation. Continual improvement requires the
company’s positioning with regard to its ICT capabilities and
the quality of its goods and services. As a rule, this
positioning involves a comparison with the company’s goals,
external requirements (e.g. customer demands, laws or
guidelines), or benchmarks. To achieve an objective
assessment of a company’s position, however, often proves to
be a difficult task.
For each aspect of the company’s ICT under investigation,
the questions arise what needs to be measured and how, and
what to compare it with, in order to assess the as-is situation
of a company and to assign it a specific quality or degree of
maturity. Maturity models are helpful tools for addressing
these issues [5]. A maturity model consists of a sequence of
maturity levels for a class of objects. It represents an
anticipated, desired, or typical evolution path of these objects
shaped as discrete stages. Typically, these objects are
organizations or processes.
The bottom stage stands for an initial state that can be, for
instance, characterized by an organization having little
capabilities in the domain under consideration. In contrast,
the highest stage represents a conception of total maturity.
Advancing on the evolution path between the two extremes
involves a continuous progression regarding the
organization’s capabilities or process performance. The
maturity model serves as the scale for the appraisal of the
position on the evolution path. It provides criteria and
characteristics that need to be fulfilled to reach a particular
maturity level. During a maturity appraisal, a snap-shot of the
organization regarding the given criteria is made. The
characteristics found are evaluated to identify the appropriate
organization-individual maturity level. The application of
maturity models can be supported by predetermined
procedures, e. g. by questionnaires. Based on the results of
the as-is analysis, recommendations for improvement
measures can be derived and prioritized in order to reach
higher maturity level [7].
Studies have shown that more than a hundred different
maturity models exist [6]. The constant publication of new
maturity models for often fairly similar applications however
suggests certain arbitrariness. This often get service experts
and managers of service organisation confused when it comes
to which of the model(s) to employ; for it is not only
irrational but it is also impossible in a given context or
organisation, to use all the existing maturity measurement
models.
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In particular, knowing which of these models or tools is
suited for ICT maturity measurement in their organization is
another issue. Consequently, this paper identified and
explicates among the several maturity measurement tools
those that are particularly suited to ICT maturity
measurement; exposed their features, strengths and
weaknesses, so that services science researchers, consultants
and managers may have a single document that can guide
them on which measurement tool(s) is appropriate for ICT
maturity measurement in a given service organization.
2. MODELS FOR MEASURING ICT MATURITY
The distinction on maturity models can be related to the ICT
Maturity Models as a benchmark for comparison and as an
aid to understanding the comparative assessment. The use of
these ICT maturity models allows an organization to have its
methods and processes assessed according to management
best practice, against a clear set of external benchmarks. The
paper identified ten notable models for measuring ICT
maturity: Nolan ICT Maturity Model, UNESCO’S Model of
ICT Maturity, Cloud ICT Maturity Model, Knowledge
Management Maturity Model (KMM), Interoperability ICT
Maturity Model, TOBI Maturity Model, Sustainable ICT
Capability Maturity Framework (SICT-CMF), Accessibility
Maturity Model, Green ICT maturity model and ICT
Maturity Model of SMEs.
A. Nolan Stages of Growth ICT Maturity Model
Developed by Richard Nolan in 1979, Nolan Stages of
Growth Maturity Model was the first ICT model which
established a relationship between the growth phase of an
EDP (Electronic Data Processing) department and the
proportion of money spent on Data Processing. According to
this model, an organisations involved in the adoption of
Information Technology (I.T.) go through similar stages of
organisational growth. The model was developed to actually
looked at I.T. expenditure and noticed it followed a common
‘S’ shape which had three identifiable change points which in
turn allowed them identify four different stages of growth in
the life of I.T. introduction. The Nolan Stages of growth
model initially identified four different stages;
1. Initiation (often referred to as the ‘ad-hocracy’ stage)
2. Contagion (later expressed as expansion)
3. Control (later expressed as formalisation)
4. Maturity
In [8] Nolan’s initial model is enhanced to include two
additional stages; Integration and Data Administration, and
the revised model characteristics were re-expressed as
follows:
Initiation (introduction of IT) - this is the initiation
phase often described ‘adhocracy’ phase during
which there is little control and I.T. issues are not
that well understood.
Contagion (proliferation of IT) during this phase
there is expansion of I.T. systems to meet an
increasing demand. There is a lack of business
involvement in I.T. during this phase.
Control (a need to contain costs) as the cost of
I.T. spirals and a perceived unsatisfactory service
from the I.T. Department, formalisation is
introduced with an increase of central control and
an increased scrutiny of I.T. from management.
Integration – this phase is characterised by an
increase in cooperation and discussion where
lessons are learned and the I.T. and business
functions come closer together.
Data Administration this phase examines
entrepreneurial opportunity which can add value to
the business through effective use of I.T.
Maturity (the mature phase) this phase is
described as an integrated harmonious phase
where lessons are learned and there is an emphasis
on integrating internal and external data and
bringing I.T. into the mainstream of the
organisation.
The deficiencies identified in the original Nolan model is the
lack of organisational or management focus.
B. Unesco’s Model of ICT Maturity
This model was developed in 2002 to measure indicators of
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in
educational institutions. In the model, issues forming
successful ICT integration were identified stage by stage
according to competencies stated by UNESCO (2002). These
stages are:
1. The emerging stage;
2. The applying stage;
3. The infusing stage and
4. The transforming stage.
The Emerging Stage: is the beginning stage of ICT
development demonstrated in that sector. It involves the
purchase of computing equipment and other ICT
infrastructure. In this stage, administrators are just starting to
explore the possibilities and consequences of using ICT in
that sector. Sectors at this emerging stage are still firmly
grounded in traditional centred practice, although there might
be in an increase in basic skills and there is an awareness of
ICT.
The Applying Stage: there is a new understanding of the
contribution of ICT that has developed past the emerging
stage. Here ICT is used for tasks already carried out in that
sector; leaning of the uses of ICT usually goes on in this
environment. Sectors in this stage adapt to the use of ICT in
various areas with specific tools and software and prepares
for movement to the next stage if so desired.
The Infusing Stage: involves integrating or embedding ICT
across the services provided or managed by that sector and it
is seen in sectors that now employ a range of computer based
technologies in their laboratories, administrative offices and
so on.
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The Transforming Approach: here the sector uses ICT in
creative ways, which leads to invention and innovations. ICT
becomes an integral though mostly invisible part of daily
personal productivity and professional practices. Here ICT is
incorporated into all areas of that sector. The model was
developed purposely for educational sector and is very
difficult to be implemented in other sector of the service
organization.
C. Cloud ICT Maturity Model
Cloud maturity model developed by Oracle in 2011 was
based on collective experience and best practices. A Cloud
Computing Maturity Model (CCMM) is a model that was
developed to define, analyse and measure the progress of an
organization’s ability to deliver cloud services in key areas
such as capabilities, domains, maturity and adoption. A
CCMM, like all maturity models, is a matrix laid out in rows
and columns. The criteria to be evaluated is listed in the left-
hand column and each column's corresponding row has cells
that describe, in a few words, the typical behaviour exhibited
at each level of development -- beginning with entry level.
The Cloud Maturity Model measures Cloud capability
against six defined maturity levels. The maturity levels
progress from ‘None’ up to ‘Optimized.’ These levels define
the path an organization usually takes moving toward Cloud
Maturity. Cloud computing by its very nature, requires
coordination, cooperation, and a common vision to be
successful; therefore, it is necessary to define the strategy
before it is possible to be truly successful at repeating it and
then ultimately optimizing it. The six levels of maturity used
in the Cloud Maturity Model from lowest to highest are:
None - There is no Cloud approach being taken. No elements
of Cloud are being implemented.
Ad Hoc Awareness of Cloud Computing is established and
some groups are beginning to implement elements of Cloud
Computing. There is no cohesive Cloud Computing plan
being followed.
Opportunistic An approach has been decided upon and is
being opportunistically applied. The approach has not been
widely accepted and redundant or overlapping approaches
exist. It may be informally defined, or if documented, may
exist primarily as “shelf ware”.
Systematic The approach has been reviewed and accepted
by affected parties. There has been buy-in to the documented
approach and the approach is always (or nearly always)
followed.
Managed The capability is being measured and
quantitatively managed via some type of governance
structure. Appropriate metrics are being gathered and
reported.
Optimized Metrics are being consistently gathered and are
being used to incrementally improve the capability. Assets
are proactively maintained to ensure relevancy and
correctness. The potential for market mechanisms to be used
to leverage inter-cloud operations has been established.
The maturity model is primarily designed for cloud
technology driven organization. It is still a relatively new
unpopular approach.
D. Knowledge Management Maturity Model (KMM)
KM Maturity Model was developed by C.J Kruger in 2008.
According to him, there are six (6) levels/phases of maturity
in an organization toward Knowledge Management (KM) and
these include:
Phase 1: ICT and Information management enablers for
knowledge management
Before any endeavour in knowledge management
commences, a certain amount of ICT and information
management (as enablers of effective knowledge
management) needs to be present in the organization [9].
According to [10], 'at a basic operational level, knowledge
that helps an organisation to conduct its day-to-day
operations is necessary, without which work would grind 'to a
halt'. The mere fact that organizations exist and survive
indicates that a certain amount of knowledge is available
within the organization. Primarily, all knowledge resides in
the head of the knower, and if it is being shared, this is done
in an informal manner. The following aspects are
characteristic of this phase:
* Organizations are not yet made aware of the power
vested in knowledge, and/or the importance of
knowledge as a strategic resource.
* ICT (if it is present within the organization) is not
managed in an effective and efficient manner.
Organizations are getting to grips with the way they
handle data and information. There is a need to
develop an understanding of existing ICT systems,
ICT technology, where information resources are
situated and what the capabilities of technical
personnel, etc., are.
During these preliminary phases,' organizations should
progress to an ICT maturity level where they are capable of
knowing and managing what constitutes data and
information. At me end of this stage, organizations should be
capable of shifting data and information by means of ICTS in
support of business operations. ICT-related relationships
should be of a sound nature. In order to aid in these
endeavours, it is proposed .that simple system maps and lists
can be used to clarify ICT issues- Although ICT and
information management can be considered enablers of
knowledge management, due to the data-to-information
cycle, a certain amount of ICT should be in place in order for
information management to function optimally. In a similar
manner the information-to-knowledge cycle dictates that
certain information management practices can be regarded as
prerequisites to successful knowledge management.
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These include:
The ability to determine information needs.
The ability to determine the value and cost of
information.
The ability to procure, store, distribute, retrieve,
share, dispose and protect information,
Having an information management policy and
strategy in place.
It should be noted, however, that it is envisaged that some of
the initial phases will run concurrently with successive ICT
and knowledge management phases.
Phase 2: Deciding on knowledge management issues
During the second level of maturity, there must be a
realization of the importance of knowledge, recognition that a
formal knowledge management function exists, and an
associated drive to instil this realization into the entire
organization [1].
In order to launch this phase it is proposed that the level of
knowledge management orientation within the organization
be determined. It is imperative that the extent to which
knowledge is regarded as a strategic resource, be assessed.
Emphasis should not only be placed on assessing the
knowledge orientation of the organization, but this
orientation should be consciously turned into a commitment
to inculcate a knowledge culture in the organization. It is
proposed that While the preliminary technological platform is
put in place (as proposed in Phase 1), endeavours in
knowledge management should start off by identifying
issues, success factors and elements that will promote the
institution of a culture of knowledge and knowledge
management architecture within the organization.
Phase 3: The formulation of an organization-wide
knowledge management policy
This level constitutes a realization among business managers
that knowledge is of extreme importance. In essence plans
and policies to establish a knowledge culture within
At this level, efficient and effective ICT architectures and
knowledge infrastructures" should already be in place.
During this phase, managers must become more than just
aware of the power vested in knowledge. They must
consciously begin encouraging endeavours in knowledge
management. Typical of this phase will be the need of
organizations to rely heavily on information systems to
achieve and sustain competitive advantage. Decision support
and strategic information systems should be available to
support and even enable knowledgeable decision-making, as
well as group decision-making, to take place.
Phase 4: Formulating knowledge management
strategy/strategies
The next level of maturity commences with a focus on
determining to what extent organizations know what
constitutes knowledge resources (both tacit and explicit),
where knowledge resources are situated and why resources
are strategic (i.e. organizational awareness of the power
vested in knowledge, and /or the importance of knowledge as
a strategic resource). In order to bridge the gap between
current knowledge and knowledge needed (to base business
strategy formulization on), organization at this level must be
able (via the use of competitive intelligence and internal
knowledge-sharing systems) to formulate a knowledge
strategy and knowledge management strategies. In essence,
this constitutes the ability to formulate strategies to explore,
create, acquire, transfer, capture, codify, share and distribute
knowledge. Of importance is the realization that strategies
include ICT, information management, human resource and
other organizational aspects.
At this level, efficient and effective ICT architectures and
knowledge infrastructures should already be in place .During
this phase, managers must become more than just aware of
the power vested in knowledge. They must consciously begin
encouraging endeavours in knowledge management. Typical
of this phase will be the need of organizations to rely heavily
on information systems to achieve and sustain competitive
advantage. Decision support and strategic information
systems should be available to support and even enable
knowledgeable decision-making, as well as group decision-
making, to take place.
Phase 5: Implementation of knowledge management
strategies
Kazimi, Dasgupta and Natarajan (2004) state that 'Investment
in technology, and. improvement in culture is not enough. It
is the currency of knowledge creation that matters most for
organizations seeking sustained knowledge advantage'. At
this level strategists start perceiving ICT, information
management and knowledge management as interdependent
entities, entities irreplaceable in the quest, to sustain
competitive advantage. The emphasis in ICT and knowledge
management shifts to streamlining processes and procedures.
Where the knowledge strategy is insufficient to supply
answers to strategic knowledge gaps, and/or if strategists
(functional owners) point out that 'new and more' knowledge
and intellectual capital are needed in order to institutionalize
future business strategies, there is a necessity to either
leverage the power of existing internal knowledge resources,
or increase knowledge in a particular area.
A checklist to determine whether or not this level of maturity
has been reached should not only focus on questions to
determine if strategists can formulate- strategies to increase
knowledge in a particular area, and/or leverage existing
knowledge, but should also assess whether or not the
organization is capable of formulating efficient and effective
plans to change the organization's knowledge structure and
supporting ICT structure from the ‘as is' to the" required
'should be' structure. At this level the goals of ICT
management and knowledge management converge in a quest
to continually improve processes, i.e. optimize the use of ICT
with regard to maximizing the value gained from knowledge.
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Phase 6: Ubiquitous Knowledge
As soon as organizations are capable of continually
enhancing and formulating strategies to further create and/or
to process knowledge internally, the next evolutionary step
involves utilizing the knowledge of the organization's
partners and extended partners. To emphasize this point, [10]
state that knowledge maturity will in the end be determined
by how well the organization can manage knowledge across
all segments. During this phase ‘knowledge management
needs to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise eco-system’,
an eco-system consisting of customers, business partners,
(shareholders, alliances, etc), operations and vendors. This
mindset requires that the organization's ICT architecture be
capable of transcending the borders of the organization, i.e.
capable of not only sharing data and information, but also
knowledge and expertise with all stakeholders in the
organization's extended value chain.
However, due to cost and technological restrictions, most
organizations will not easily reach or pass this point of
knowledge management maturity, A checklist to determine
whether or not this level of maturity has been reached should
not only focus on determining if knowledge is being shared
among value chain partners, but more specifically to what
extent knowledge management has become institutionalized,
between partners. If this level has not been reached, then
organizations must return to Phase One of the maturity
model.
Advantages of Knowledge Management Maturity Model
1. It is a knowledge driven model that extensively
defines ICT knowledge management that can help
companies in assessment of their ICT captured data
and information.
2. It level is well defined for easy understanding and
generally provides accurate result.
Disadvantages of Knowledge Management Maturity
Model
1. It is quite difficult to implement in other sector that
are not ICT knowledge driven in their entirety.
2. Owing to it complex nature, the model is quite
unpopular in its usage and thus research materials
in this domain is very scarce.
E. Interoperability ICT Maturity Model
Nowadays, Information Technology (IT) as well as human
systems evolve in a worldwide heterogeneous environment
and work in network. For enterprises, operating in such
environment requires flexibility and co-operations between
other enterprises, sharing their core competencies in order to
exploit the market opportunities. It is now admitted that a
major issue in global collaboration and co-operation is the
development of interoperability between enterprise systems.
This model was developed by C4ISR as a universal reference
resources to define interoperability among organizations. The
model deals with the ability of organizations to interoperate
and assess organizational issues at business / company
interoperability level. Five levels are identified in the model.
OIM aims at assessing the systemic interoperability of an
organization, considering the quality of its components inter-
operations. OIM does not explicitly propose a specific
approach to solve interoperability problems but within each
level, there are some guidelines mainly focusing on the use of
common terms and structures. In an enterprise context, OIM
covers business area of concern: with its strong focus on
organizational issues, it does not address technical, semantic
or syntactical aspects.
Table 1: Interoperability Maturity levels
Level Name Description
4
3
2
1
0
Unified
Integrated
Collaborative
Ad hoc
Independent
The organization is interoperating on continuing basis Command Structure and knowledge basis
are shared.
Shared value systems and goals, a common understanding to interoperate. However there are
still residual attachments to a home organization.
Recognised interoperability frameworks are in place. Shared goals are recognised. Roles and
responsibilities are allocated but the organizations are still distinct.
Some guidelines to describe how interoperability will occur but essentially the specific
arrangements are still un-planned. Organizations remain entirely distinct.
Organizations work without any interaction. Arrangements are unplanned and unanticipated.
No formal frameworks in place. Organizations are able to communicate e.g. via phone, fax and
face-to-face meetings.
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F. Tobi ICT Maturity Model
TOBI or Technology Operations and Business Integration
Framework Maturity Model is a framework acting as the glue
between IT operations and business operations, developed by
Access Consulting Services (ACM) in 2009. The model,
is designed to be flexible, robot and agile to meet all aspects.
The framework can provide a high level maturity focus and at
the same time drill down into the individual solution detail. A
maturity model acts as a measurement or barometer of the
current operational level of a solution, technology,
department or the entity as a whole. The TOBI maturity
model has five distinct levels. Each level has defined
operational characteristics.
The goal of an organization will be to move from a lower to
higher maturity level. Reaching the top maturity level may
not be optimal for a particular organization. This is
determined by requirements and business objectives.
LEVELS
The level concept is the level of maturity. TOBI maturity
model define five levels of maturity. Maturity level can be
used to gauge single solution entities, multiple solutions,
areas, layers and the whole business entity.
The maturity levels are defined as follows:
Reactive Mode: organizations, solutions or
processes that are in this mode are reacting to
circumstances and the general direction to fire fight
current issues.
Foundation: organizations at this level of maturity
are starting to formulate plans, procedures and
process.
Intermediate: at this stage of maturity, the
organization and the supporting solutions are able
to have some benefits of the strategic value.
Managed: at this level of maturity has many of the
benefits of a strategic partnership, but there are still
some aspects that prevent full interpretability.
Strategic Partner: organizations at this level will
have the benefit of being a strategic asset to the
business.
The levels are depicted below:
REACTIVE FOUNDATION
INTERMEDIATE
MANAGED STRATEGIC
PARTNER
Figure 1: Technology Operations and Business Integration (TOBI) Model (Tobias, 2011)
Advantages of TOBI maturity model
It is designed to be agile and flexible to incorporate the
frameworks and the model allows for these processes to be
incorporated. It enhances the overall functionality. The TOBI
framework is the glue to hold all the pieces together, but it is
aided by the industry frameworks, standards and compliance
structures.
Disadvantages of TOBI maturity model
It is expensive to design and implement.
G. Sustainable ICT Capability Maturity Framework
(SICT-CMF)
The Sustainable ICT Capability Maturity Framework gives
organizations a vital tool to manage their sustainability
capability. This was developed in 2011 by a consortium of
leading organizations from industry, the non-profit sector,
and academia has developed and tested a framework for
systematically assessing and improving SICT capabilities.
The Innovation Value Institute (IVI; http://ivi.nuim.ie)
consortium used an open-innovation model of collaboration,
engaging academia and industry in scholarly work to create
the SICT-Capability Maturity Framework (SICT-CMF). The
framework provides a comprehensive value-based model for
organizing, evaluating, planning, and managing SICT
capabilities.
Using the framework, organizations can assess the maturity
of their SICT capability and systematically improve
capabilities in a measurable way to meet the sustainability
objectives. The IT-Capability Maturity Framework (IT-CMF)
is a high-level process capability maturity framework for
managing the IT function within an organization to deliver
greater value from IT by assessing and improving a broad
range of management practices.
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The framework identifies 33 critical IT processes and
describes an approach to designing maturity frameworks for
each process.
A core function of the IT-CMF is to act as an assessment tool
and a management system with associated improvement
roadmaps that guide senior IT and business management in
selecting strategies to continuously improve, develop, and
manage the IT capability in support of optimized business
value delivery. The framework focuses on the execution of
four key actions for increasing SICT’s business value:
Define the scope and goal of SICT; understand the current
SICT capability maturity level; systematically develop and
manage the SICT capability building blocks and Access and
manage SICT progress over time.
The framework defines a five-level maturity curve for
identifying and developing SICT capabilities:
1. Initial: SICT is ad hoc; there’s little understanding
of the subject and few or no related policies.
Accountabilities for SICT aren’t defined, and SICT
isn’t considered in the systems life cycle.
2. Basic: There’s a limited SICT strategy with
associated execution plans. It’s largely reactive and
lacks consistency. There’s an increasing awareness
of the subject, but accountability is not clearly
established. Some policies might exist but are
adopted inconsistently.
3. Intermediate: A SICT strategy exists with
associated plans and priorities. The organization
has developed capabilities and skills and
encourages individuals to contribute to
sustainability programs. The organization includes
SICT across the full systems life cycle, and it tracks
targets and metrics on an individual project basis.
4. Advanced: Sustainability is a core component of
the IT and business planning life cycles. IT and
business jointly drive programs and progress. The
organization recognizes SICT as a significant
contributor to its sustainability strategy. It aligns
business and SICT metrics to achieve success
across the enterprise. It also designs policies to
enable the achievement of best practices.
5. Optimizing: The organization employs SICT
practices across the extended enterprise to include
customers, suppliers, and partners. The industry
recognizes the organization as a sustainability
leader and uses its SICT practices to drive industry
standards. The organization recognizes SICT as a
key factor in driving sustainability as a competitive
differentiator.
The model offers a comprehensive value-based model for
organizing, evaluating, planning, and managing SICT
capabilities. But lack consistent standards
H. Green ICT Maturity Model
The Green ICT Maturity Model was developed by Philipson
in 2010. According to Hart [11], Green ICT often refers to
meeting the needs of present generations without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
needs. Also, it involves pollution prevention at the end of a
product’s use, product stewardship to minimize the
environmental footprint during use, utilization of clean
technologies to reduce the share of polluting materials and
development of environmentally friendly competencies.
Recent changes in the environment, economy and technology
substantially drive an adoption of Green ICT practices across
the world (Rowe, 2011). The model has six levels as describe
in Table1.2.
Table 2: Green ICT Maturity Level Description
Level Description
0 No intension Never thought about it, no awareness
1 Initial Some awareness considered, but not implemented
2 Replicable Some ad hoc implementation, but no strategy
3 Defined Formal programs have been defined, but implementation is immature
4 Managed Methodical implementation of programs, with adequate measurement and management
5 Optimized All activities are monitored and managed for optimal performance.
The advantage of Green ICT maturity model is that, is
implemented as a web application, enabling company’s self-
assessment via internet, but not popular.
I. ICT Accessibility Maturity Model (AMM)
The AMM is a self-assessment model, designed to help
improve the accessibility of ICT systems, products and
services. The approach enables an organisation to make an
informed choice about the legal risks of overlooking
accessibility. Using the AMM does not guarantee an
organization from legal risk. The model is designed by the
Technology Taskforce for Business Disability Forum.
Technology Taskforce is committed to ensuring that all its
products and services are as accessible as possible to
everyone, including the disabled persons which are the major
focus area of the model. The model has five levels, as shown
in Table1.4.
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66
Table 3: ICT Accessibility Maturity Model Level Description
Level Description
Level 1 Poor understanding of disability related legal requirements / issues
Level 2 understanding of disability related legal requirements
Level 3 Disability awareness across all ICT Staff
Level 4 Accessibility targets met (e.g. for recruitment and retention of disabled staff, take up of on-line services
by disabled customers, disabled user satisfaction)
Level 5 Disabled staff / customers role (e.g. in setting and reviewing direction and policies) formalised and well
established – regular events, documented actions and outcomes, mature feedback process
AMM can be used by public and private sectors in different
ways. For example it will help the public sector meet their
obligations under the ‘Disability Equality Duty’ by working
towards level 5.
J. ICT Maturity Model of SMEs
This is a model for measuring ICT maturity of Small and
Medium Enterprises. This model was designed by Australian
Communication Authority in 2008. It is based on four main
factors: Infrastructure, Application, Human Resource and
ICT Policy. The ICT maturity of an enterprise is a solid
foundation for successful implementation of knowledge
management. According to a report of (Australian
Communications & Media Authority, 2008) about ICT
development trend, there are top six trends as follows:
TREND 1: An accelerating pace of change in ICT,
TREND 2: Diversity in the development of physical
infrastructure, TREND 3: Continuing spread of
distributed connectivity, TREND 4: Enhanced content
and network management capabilities, TREND 5: The
emerging social web and TREND 6: Continuing scientific
and technological innovation.
Based on above classification [12] of ICT development in
SMEs, with consideration of recent development trends as
well as conditions for knowledge management maturity, the
‘Sophisticated’ phase is suggested to be divided into two (2)
stages: Web-based and Knowledge-oriented. Which result to
the five (5)-stage road-map of ICT development includes:
Ø Inactive – no current use of ICT in company.
Ø Basic including word processing and other
desktop packages.
Ø Substantial – extending into the networking of
PCs and several applications.
Ø Web-based – extending to e-commerce with
many web-based services.
Ø Knowledge-oriented integration of
applications and using ICT tools for
innovation and knowledge management.
Each of maturity levels is characterized by certain observable
capabilities of four (4) major factors: Policy, Infrastructure,
Application and Human Resource. Based on trend analysis of
ICT use in SMEs, table 1 maps above five (5) stages of ICT
maturity in SMEs with its specific features.
Vol 8. No. 3 – September, 2015
African Journal of Computing & ICT
© 2015 Afr J Comp & ICT – All Rights Reserved - ISSN 2006-1781
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67
Table 4: ICT Maturity Stages and Its Features
Maturity level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
Development
Trend Inactive Basic Substantial Web based Knowledge
Oriented
Infrastructure Connectivity &
Mobility Telephone PC, laptop Network Internet Wireless
ICT HR Sophisticated &
Innovation Unskilled Business skills Technology
skills MIS skills Learning skills
Application Integrated
applications
No
application
Office,
E-mail
MIS
applications E-commerce E-business
Policy Flexibility &
Mobility No policy Standardize Modernize Cooperation Outsourcing
Certainly, above five (5) stages do not exclude, but include
each other. Any SME must pass through this road-map on the
way to be fully maturity in ICT. So, the ICT maturity of an
SME could be known based on getting information about its
ICT use according to four (4) main factors and comparing
with above classification.
3. CONCLUSION
We have identified and explicated ten ICT maturity
measurement tools that are particularly suited to measuring
the maturity of ICT in a service organisation. This was
necessitated by the difficulty in making a choice on the
appropriateness of maturity measurement tools for ICT
maturity measurement by services science experts and
managers of service organisations.
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[1] Davenport, T.H. (1998) ‘‘some principles of
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[2] Müller A, von Thiemen L, Schröder H (2006) IT-
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African Journal of Computing & ICT
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[12] Pham, Q. T., (2010), “Measuring the ICT Maturity of
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40.
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... The value of ICT to service industry in both context and perspective could be used as a basis for exploring its service systems [20] as well as to uncover the contribution of ICT to the tripod goal of service organizations: profitability, staff productivity and customer satisfaction [21]. Besides, ''Measuring this value will help improve management control over ICT driven organization" [21]. Ekuobase [21] highlighted in sufficient details the ICT value measurement models. ...
... Besides, ''Measuring this value will help improve management control over ICT driven organization" [21]. Ekuobase [21] highlighted in sufficient details the ICT value measurement models. ...
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IT-Controlling. So messen Sie den Beitrag der
  • A Müller
  • L Von Thiemen
  • H Schröder
Müller A, von Thiemen L, Schröder H (2006) IT-Controlling. So messen Sie den Beitrag der Informationstechnology zum Unternehmenserfolg. Der Controlling-Berater(1):99-122
IT does matter'' -sagen Analysten
  • L Pößneck
Pößneck L (2007) ''IT does matter'' -sagen Analysten. Available at http://www.silicon.de/cio/strategie/0,39038989,391 83665,00/it+does+matter+sagen+analysten.htm.
Understanding the main phases of developing a maturity assessment model
  • T De Bruin
  • M Rosemann
  • R Freeze
  • U Kulkarni
De Bruin T, Rosemann M, Freeze R, and Kulkarni, U. (2005), ''Understanding the main phases of developing a maturity assessment model.''16th Australasian conference on information systems (ACIS). Sydney
COBIT 4.1. The IT Governance Institute
  • It Governance Institute
IT Governance Institute (2007) COBIT 4.1. The IT Governance Institute