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İnsan-alet etkileşiminin kültürel ve psikolojik boyutları



Bilinen canlılığın 3.8 milyar Dünya yılı evvel başladığını tahmin ediyoruz. Kategorilendirdiğimiz milyonlarca canlı türü var. Hepsi bu gezegen üzerinde yaşıyor. 1957’ye kadar da Dünya dışında hiçbir canlı gözlenmemişti. Dünya dışında gördüğümüz ilk canlının ismi Layka. Bir köpek. Bir uydu içinde Dünya’dan yörüngeye fırlatılmıştı. Dünya dışında gördüğümüz ilk “üstün zekalı yaşam formu” yine insan. Bizden biri. İsmi Yuri Gagarin. Bir kozmonot. O da Dünya’dan fırlatıldı. Dünya dışında başka bir gök cismi üzerinde gözlenen ilk canlı yine bir insandı. Dünya’nın uydusu olan Ay’da görüldü. İsmi Neil Armstrong. Ondan sonra on iki canlı daha gözlendi Ay yüzeyinde. Hepsi yine özel araçlar içinde, Dünya’dan Ay’a fırlatılmış insanlardı. Dünya dışında gözlenen canlıların hepsi Dünyalı ve Dünya’nın uzağında sadece belirli bir süre yaşayabiliyorlar. Şanslı olanlar Dünya’ya geri dönüyor. Layka şanssızdı mesela. Dünya’dan uzaklaşabilen bu Dünyalılar dışında, evrenin herhangi bir köşesinde Dünyalı olmayan bir tek-hücreli bile göremedik hala.
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Homo sapiens is not just a tool-using species, they also can invent and develop tools. This is the feature that distinguishes humans from other species. It is necessary to get rid of the perceptual dominance of the present state of the material to invent and develop a tool. It is based on a mental process: designing. So how was that possible? In this article, I propose an evolutionary hypothesis in response to this question: the referential triangle. Accordingly, the relationship that people establish with things is mentally indirect, but the relationship they establish with each other is mentally direct. The hypothesis claims that the mental solutions of people have naturally established with each other are also used to invent and develop tools. The latest and most interesting product of this mechanism is artificial intelligence. Because artificial intelligence also acts as an inorganic system. What distinguishes it from other machines in this context is its social behavior. Artificial intelligence can generate social signals. So can artificial intelligence be both a tool and a partner at the same time in the referential triangle established with the tools by the human? In other words, can children, for instance, socially interact with artificial intelligence, just as they do naturally with people around? The article draws attention to that this problem should be included in the cultural psychological research agenda.
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A précis of Michael Tomasello
Addresses the question of whether the brain initiates behavior as the mind or self is said to do. This cannot be answered in the body-cum-brain, observed either introspectively or with instruments and methods of psychology. Two sciences that have a bearing on human behavior are discussed. These are physiology and a group of 3 sciences concerned with the variation and selection that determine the condition of the body-cum-brain at any moment: ethology, behavior analysis, and anthropology. Behavior analysis is the youngest of the 3 sciences and the only one to be studied at length in the laboratory. The roles of behaviorism and cognitive psychology in the development of the discipline of psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Two general kinds of theory (one ecological and one social) have been advanced to explain the fact that primates have larger brains and greater congnitive abilities than other animals. Data on neocortex volume, group size and a number of behavioural ecology variables are used to test between the various theories. Group size is found to be a function of relative neocortical volume, but the ecological variables are not. This is interpreted as evidence in favour of the social intellect theory and against the ecological theories. It is suggested that the number of neocortical neurons limits the organism's information-processing capacity and that this then limits the number of relationships that an individual can monitor simultaneously. When a group's size exceeds this limit, it becomes unstable and begins to fragment. This then places an upper limit on the size of groups which any given species can maintain as cohesive social units through time. The data suggest that the information overload occurs in terms of the structure of relationships within tightly bonded grooming cliques rather than in terms of the total number of dyads within the group as a whole that an individual has to monitor. It thus appears that, among primates, large groups are created by welding together sets of smaller grooming cliques. One implication of these results is that, since the actual group size will be determined by the ecological characteristics of the habitat in any given case, species will only be able to invade habitats that require larger groups than their current limit if they evolve larger neocortices.
Simgesel Düşüncenin Doğuşu
  • A Barnard
Barnard, A. (2014). Simgesel Düşüncenin Doğuşu [Genesis of Symbolic Thought] (M. Doğan, Çev.). İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
Zihin Dil Toplum, Gerçek Dünyada Felsefe [Mind, Language And Society: Philosophy In The Real World
  • J R Searle
Searle, J. R. (2006). Zihin Dil Toplum, Gerçek Dünyada Felsefe [Mind, Language And Society: Philosophy In The Real World] (A. Tural, Çev.). İstanbul: Litera Yayıncılık.