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Comparative life cycle assessment for conventional and organic coffee cultivation in Vietnam

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Abstract

Coffee production has been a major source of income in Vietnam since the early twentieth century. This research aims to identify the hot spots, estimate and compare the environmental effects of conventional intensive, conventional moderate and organic intensive coffee cultivation methods in Vietnam. Life cycle assessment was used for the determination of environmental effects and carbon footprint for different coffee cultivation methods from cradle to gate. Functional unit was defined as 1 kg of green Robusta coffee bean in Tan Ha Commune, Lam Ha District, Lam Dong Province. The environmental effects of coffee cultivation were compared by SimaPro 8.3.0, and the two impact assessment methods used were IPCC 2013 v1.03 and ReCiPe v1.13. The life cycle assessment results in hotspot assessment for fertilizer and pesticide application showed that the conventional intensive contributed 85.5% to global warming owing to the high input of manure, whereas conventional moderate and organic intensive contributed 80.4% and 68% to global warming, respectively, throughout the 30 years of cultivation. Moreover, endpoint impact result indicated that human health is most affected by coffee cultivation compared to resources and ecosystem. The carbon footprint result of 1-year average productivity showed that the conventional intensive (0.935 kg CO 2 e) method had the highest global warming potential in comparison with conventional moderate (0.729 kg CO 2 e) and organic intensive (0.644 kg CO 2 e) due to the highest amount of fertilizer application. This study demonstrated that conventional intensive has the highest impact on the environment, followed by conventional moderate and organic intensive. Therefore, it is important to optimize Vietnamese coffee cultivation methods in order to reduce the impact on the environment and human health, while producing sustainable coffee for the international and domestic market.

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... The farmers face challenges related to unshaded areas and limited agroforestry coffee systems, making plantations vulnerable and impacting social and economic environments [39]. Likewise, the coffee production in Vietnam is 90% represented by Robusta Coffee due to the country's soil and climate characteristics, with many challenges related to environmental factors [40]. ...
... The intensive monoculture, for example, is a harmful activity for the quality of soil, water, air, and human health. In this sense, in-depth studies on coffee production can assist in the identification of best practices in favor of environmental preservation [40], such as climate-smart agriculture and agroforestry systems identified in the strategic diagram ( Figure 3). Agrobiodiversity offers paths to environmental resilience and sustainability through mechanisms for production with less risk and mitigation of environmental impacts [103]. ...
Article
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Precision Agriculture (PA) and Agriculture 4.0 (A4.0) have been widely discussed as a medium to address the challenges related to agricultural production. In this research, we present a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) supported by a Bibliometric Performance and Network Analysis (BPNA) of the use of A4.0 technologies and PA techniques in the coffee sector. To perform the SLR, 87 documents published since 2011 were extracted from the Scopus and Web of Science databases and processed through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) protocol. The BPNA was carried out to identify the strategic themes in the field of study. The results present 23 clusters with different levels of development and maturity. We also discovered and presented the thematic network structure of the most used A4.0 technologies in the coffee sector. Our findings shows that Internet of Things, Machine Learning and geostatistics are the most used technologies in the coffee sector, we also present the main challenges and trends related to technological adoption in coffee systems. We believe that the demonstrated results have the potential to be considered by researchers in future works and decision making related to the field of study.
... Most of the Brazilian coffee production occurs on conventional systems, but in past years, the organic system has been emerging and thus creating a new market niche for such products Trinh et al. 2020). According to Azevedo Junior et al. (2019), organic coffee production can reduce dependence on synthetic inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers and imported raw fertilizers. ...
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This paper aims to assess the sustainability of coffee production in Brazil by a framework at the farm level. The framework developed comprises four dimensions of sustainability structured from the literature review. Primary data were collected from 20 coffee farms selected from the most producing communities in the Planalto de Vitória da Conquista locality, sited in Centro-Sul Baiano middle region at the Bahia state. The main environmental issues identified related to coffee farmers are inadequate management of water consumption, influenced by the lack of knowledge about irrigation techniques in some cases, and the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The economic evaluation of the activity revealed a low index of producers belonging to a class organization. In social aspects the issues are low level of technical/technological instruction for coffee producers, temporary workers are often used, the old age of most producers, the lack of family succession for the activity, low incomes, the high number of temporary workers, and the absence of the worker gains. As for the technical dimension, only half of the farmers invest in innovation, which causes high obsolescence of their equipment and machinery and a low participation rate in training courses. In the environmental dimension, the farmers return the packages of pesticides to the stores where they bought them. In the technical dimension, most farmers perform soil analysis. Besides addressing the identified challenges, the initiatives can help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, especially the 9th, 12th, and 13th.
... Unter der Annahme, dass die Steuerbefreiung vollständig an die Konsument:innen weitergeleitet wird, würde die Nachfrage für nachhaltigen Kaffee um 28,9 % steigen. Legt man den Absatz an fairem Kaffee von etwas Eine Reihe von wissenschaftlichen Studien beschäftigt sich mit den Treibhausgasbilanzen der Kaffeeproduktion in unterschiedlichen Ländern und untersucht, ob sich im Vergleich konventioneller und biologischer Anbaumethoden 98 ein signifikanter und quantifizierbarer Unterschied zeigen lässt.Quellen: Eigene Darstellung FÖS e.V. Berlin, auf Basis von Daten ausNoponen et al. 2012;Trinh et al. 2020. ...
Technical Report
In dem Bericht werden Vorschläge für Verbrauchsteuern entwickelt, die das Ziel haben, den Konsum knapper Ressourcen zu verringern, Emissionen und Abfälle zu reduzieren und ökonomische Anreize zu geben für das Recycling von Produkten zur Rückgewinnung von Rohstoffen. Die folgenden Instrumente werden vorgeschlagen und auf ihre Wirkungen hin analysiert: eine Verbrauchsteuer auf Zement, gekoppelt mit Klimaschutzverträgen für weitgehend klimaneutralen Zement, die Befreiung nachhaltigen Kaffees von der Kaffeesteuer, eine Steuer auf Einkaufstragetaschen, die Bepreisung von Flugfracht, die Kostenübertragung auf Hersteller von Einwegkunststoffprodukten im Rahmen der erweiterten Herstellerverantwortung und ein Pfand auf Lithium-Ionen-Akkus.
... Furthermore, a special time-dependent system boundary method defined by various scholars for agricultural products in perennial cultures could be explored for cut flowers (Prechsl et al., 2017;Adsal et al., 2020;Trinh et al., 2020). It argues the full cropping rotation should be encompassed in the system boundary, allowing for the analysis of operations between adjacent growing seasons, and end-of-life stage. ...
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There have been many researchers investigating the strategies to optimize the quality and yield of the flower. However, only a small number is concerned with the environmental impacts of cut flowers from the growing facility to the end consumer, and no such review has been documented in the literature. As a result, this study attempts to review the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies for the cut flower to achieve a comprehensive and minimally biased overview. Based on the literature review, there is no consensus on which functional unit (FU) is the most suitable, but a majority of studies use pieces of product (number of stems in the case) as a FU to evaluate the environmental impacts, when post-harvest handling and consumer stages are usually excluded in the system boundary. It is also found that carbon footprint, or global warming potential (GWP) is the primary indicator the researchers focus on, and energy is another important factor. The inconsistencies of LCA parameter selections, together with the various flower species and cultivation methods, challenge the comparisons of environmental performance. Aiming to enhance the environmental sustainability in the industry, it is proposed to advance technology in the greenhouse system, implement integrated nutrient and pest management, introduce the certificate and label for cut flowers, develop sea transport with the refrigerated container, and raise consumer's perception to the environmental impact. Compared with studies of other products, research on LCA of cut flowers is laid behind. There is still a room for improvement in terms of LCA of cut flowers, since the issues such as allocation, waste treatment, and uncertainty analysis have not been explored yet. This review suggests that indicators such as water usage, chemicals, land use, and waste not included in CML methodology are also significant. Besides, analyses focusing on post-harvest handling and consumer stages should be carried out in the future.
... The outcome of those would be Life cycle inventory (LCI), the base for further steps in LCA, defined under ISO standards (ISO 14040 2006;ISO 14040 2006). Comparative LCA studies are often conducted when there is a need to reveal the difference between the environmental impacts of various products (Kokare et al. 2022;Trinh et al. 2020). ...
Article
Wastewater effluents are great contributors to the ubiquitous problem of water contamination. Seen as one of the “greener” technology solutions, coagulation/flocculation technology utilises alternative coagulants of “green” origin. A life cycle assessment was performed in order to provide an environmental performance evaluation of three differently produced coagulants obtained from common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris). The aim of the research was to compare production processes by identifying their hot spots and to determine which one was preferable from the ecological aspect. Furthermore, coagulation activity was determined and presented. The production processes included classic and ultrasound extraction, performed with 0.5 M NaCl solution as an extraction agent, and spray drying process conducted without or with carrier material (gum Arabic). Coagulant obtained by ultrasound extraction and dried with the help of carrier material, showed the lowest impact on the environment (around 50% lower than coagulants dried without carrier) while achieving high coagulation activity (61.5% of initial turbidity was reduced by the usage of 1 mL/L coagulant concentration). The life cycle assessment showed the highest impact from the production of all three types of coagulants originated from the electricity consumption mostly within spray drying phase (around 90% of total environmental impact originated from the mentioned phase). The coagulant production process has a relatively low environmental burden due to low chemical consumption, and it consisted of only a few simple production steps. Furthermore, possible improvements and optimisation of the production process hot spots were considered.
... Other authors, however, as they focus on the production process, consider other FUs. For example, the production of 1 kg of coffee, as studied by Del Monte et al. [18], Giraldi Diaz et al. [19] and Trinh et al. [20] and the production of 1 ton of coffee, as analyzed by Coltro et al. [21] and Vera-Acevedo et al. [22]. Therefore, there is not much agreement between FUs. ...
... In Vietnam, the application of LCA methodology for estimating GHG emissions from cropping systems is not a popular practice. These studies include research on paddy rice, cassava, coffee, tea, and a Vietnamese paper on fruticulture [30][31][32][33][34]. Research on estimating GHG emissions from SL cultivation using the LCA method is important for local agriculture planning and will contribute to achieving SDGs through OF application and GHG emission reduction. ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from conventional cultivation (S1) of seedless lime (SL) fruit in Hau Giang province, in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. We adjusted the scenarios by replacing 25% and 50% of nitrogen chemical fertilizer with respective amounts of N-based organic fertilizer (S2 and S3). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect primary data. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology with the “cradle to gate” approach was used to estimate GHG emission based on the functional unit of one hectare of growing area and one tonnage of fresh fruit weight. The emission factors of agrochemicals, fertilizers, electricity, fuel production, and internal combustion were collected from the MiLCA software, IPCC reports, and previous studies. The S1, S2, and S3 emissions were 7590, 6703, and 5884 kg-CO2 equivalent (CO2e) per hectare of the growing area and 273.6, 240.3, and 209.7 kg-CO2e for each tonnage of commercial fruit, respectively. Changing fertilizer-based practice from S1 to S2 and S3 mitigated 887.0–1706 kg-CO2e ha–1 (11.7–22.5%) and 33.3–63.9 kg-CO2e t–1 (12.2–25.6%), respectively. These results support a solution to reduce emissions by replacing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers.
... Their investigation accounted for the used inorganic fertilizer for a ton of coffee produced, which resulted in the consumption of 7.67 MJ/ton of energy and the release of over 5953 l of wastewater and 56,807,166 kg-CO₂-e/ton-coffee of greenhouse gas (GHG) (Diyarma and Bantacut, 2019). Based on related earlier studies by Tewodros Ayalew as well as Trinh and colleagues, such release of the huge GHG can be reduced significantly by using organic fertilizer, which is an experience in Ethiopia as well as Vietnam as realized through certification programs and marketing system (Ayalew, 2014;Trinh et al., 2020) (Table 1). ...
Article
Discovered in Ethiopia, coffee became a popular beverage in Asia, Europe, Latin America, Australia, Africa and the North America as a drink after water and the largest goods after petroleum. However, the coffee industry generates a huge biomass as its byproducts of which the spent coffee grounds (SCG) is concerning, especially in the production chain away from the farm. Therefore, the valorization and revalorization of the SCG has a huge impact on the socioeconomic and environmental sustainability of the industry, up to the realization of the circular bioeconomy. With the advancing biorefinery concept, even an almost complete recovery of the SCG is reported at an experimental level. Such kind of studies increased with time following the action of the Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations Development Program promulgated in 2015. The current review highlights on the background, socioeconomic, environmental contexts of coffee production and the SCG valorization and revalorization studies. Refereeing to 154 screened articles published in over 30 years' time, the SCG revalorization efforts and its integrated biorefinery as a green management approach are uniquely addressed. Plenty of studies have reported the production of bio-products from the SCG, such as the derivation of adsorbents, biochar, bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, bio-oil, compost, construction material aggregates, cosmetics, electricity and food ingredients. In conclusion, the recovery potential of the SCG is promising and can substantially contribute to a sustainable and green bioeconomy. Nevertheless, the recovery of bioactive materials through SCG fermentation is still lacking. Most studies are conducted on a lab scale, which needs to be piloted and commissioned. Furthermore, the link between climate change and variability vis-à-vis the sustainable management of the SCG remains unaddressed.
... The SimaPro ® software, faculty version, which has a large database and impact assessment methods, was used to build the LCI. This software has been widely applied by several researchers (e.g., Uche et al., 2015;Garfí et al., 2016;Rodriguez et al., 2016;Pokhrel et al., 2020;Rasul and Arutla, 2020;Trinh et al., 2020), as it allows creating a model of the studied system, inserting the inventory (manually or using databases), and calculating impacts using different life-cycle impact assessment methods. ...
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In recent years, water utilities have been under pressure to increase the efficiency of their processes, mainly due to the decrease in water availability and the need to increase environmental sustainability in their processes. Leak reduction is clearly an important part of sustainable management in the water industry, and its impacts should be assessed with a broader environmental protection objective. This study aimed to present an environmental and energy assessment of the water supply system (WSS) in Caruaru City, northeast of Brazil, for different levels of water loss. This research is one of the first to assess the environmental impacts of a WSS in Latin America. Primary data adopted for preparing the inventory were provided by the water utility, and modeling and analysis were performed with the SimaPro 8.0® program. Cumulative energy demand (CED) was used to track the energy consumption of the system’s life cycle. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated through the IPCC GWP 100a method with emissions expressed as CO2-Eq. The data sets from life-cycle inventories were used from the Ecoinvent 3.1 database. Four scenarios with different levels of water loss were analyzed. Scenario S0 was represented with the real conditions of the system, whereas the others considered hypothetical indices. The percentages proposed for Scenarios S1, S2, and S3 were based on indices that indicate a good loss rate in the distribution network for the Brazilian reality (25%), reduction by half of the loss rates, and excellent loss rates for the water pipeline system (5%) and distribution network (10%). The analysis of the processes’ contributions showed that the electricity consumption of the pumping systems of water mains represented the greatest environmental impact in all scenarios. The most efficient scenario would result in a 52% reduction in the emission of GHGs, demonstrating that the increase in the hydraulic efficiency of the distribution networks represents a significant opportunity to reduce the environmental impacts of the processes.
... The SimaPro ® software, faculty version, which has a large database and impact assessment methods, was used to build the LCI. This software has been widely applied by several researchers (e.g., Uche et al., 2015;Garfí et al., 2016;Rodriguez et al., 2016;Pokhrel et al., 2020;Rasul and Arutla, 2020;Trinh et al., 2020), as it allows creating a model of the studied system, inserting the inventory (manually or using databases), and calculating impacts using different life-cycle impact assessment methods. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, water utilities have been under pressure to increase the efficiency of their processes, mainly due to the decrease in water availability and the need to increase environmental sustainability in their processes. Leak reduction is clearly an important part of sustainable management in the water industry, and its impacts should be assessed with a broader environmental protection objective. This study aimed to present an environmental and energy assessment of the water supply system (WSS) in Caruaru City, northeast of Brazil, for different levels of water loss. This research is one of the first to assess the environmental impacts of a WSS in Latin America. Primary data adopted for preparing the inventory were provided by the water utility, and modeling and analysis were performed with the SimaPro 8.0® program. Cumulative energy demand (CED) was used to track the energy consumption of the system’s life cycle. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated through the IPCC GWP 100a method with emissions expressed as CO2-Eq. The data sets from life-cycle inventories were used from the Ecoinvent 3.1 database. Four scenarios with different levels of water loss were analyzed. Scenario S0 was represented with the real conditions of the system, whereas the others considered hypothetical indices. The percentages proposed for Scenarios S1, S2, and S3 were based on indices that indicate good loss rate in the distribution network for the Brazilian reality (25%), reduction by half of loss rates, and excellent loss rates for the water pipeline system (5%) and distribution network (10%). The analysis of the processes’ contributions showed that the electricity consumption of the pumping systems of water mains represented the greatest environmental impact in all scenarios. The most efficient scenario would result in a 52% reduction in the emission of GHGs, demonstrating that the increase in the hydraulic efficiency of the distribution networks represents a significant opportunity to reduce the environmental impacts of the processes.
... LCA is a highly versatile methodology, which finds application in different production sectors, it can be used for the evaluation of entire industrial systems (Zhao et al. 2018;Sabeen et al. 2019) or individual products (Peters et al. 2017;Cano Londoño et al. 2019), it can involve the study of new technologies (Lacirignola et al. 2017;van der Giesen et al. 2020) or the improvement of existing ones (Mohammadi and South 2017;Neri et al. 2018); moreover, it can also be applied both on an industrial (Cespi et al. 2016;Piccinno et al. 2018) and laboratory (Ricciardi et al. 2017;Tsapekos et al. 2019) scale to address sustainability in various fields. Its use has naturally reached also agricultural studies, with a particular focus on biological systems, as shown by the numerous recent works carried out on the subject (Quirós et al. 2015;Clark and Tilman 2017;Brockmann et al. 2018;Trinh et al. 2020;Avadí 2020;Jezierska-Tys et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Due to increased awareness of the current and future issues with the environment, sustainable development has become a well-known concept and goal in the last decades. Based on this idea, organic agriculture is now fairly generalized in many farms and grape processing factories. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a valuable and standardized technique to evaluate how sustainable a crop can become, determining the potential impacts that the complete-life product causes on the environment and on the management/conservation of resources. Although LCA can be applied to any product, this work focusses on organic grapevine crops as the subject of study, in order to improve energy and water efficiency and minimizing issues such as the use of pesticides. This paper, collecting primary data from three Spanish grape processing factories, quantifies the reduction of the overall impact related to the avoidance of artificial irrigation, amounting to 10%, and the saving of resources (− 4.3 kg oil eq. per ha) due to the replacement of chemical fertilisers with animal manure. On the other hand, the use of manure has shown some controversy from an environmental point of view as it contributes to global warming, resulting in an increase in the total impact of the organic vineyard. As predictable, the application of conventional practices as well as the use of water for irrigation could both result in a higher overall yield, and in a contemporary growth of environmental impacts; a discussion about the quantification of this aspect is also inserted.
... A partir de la revisión de la literatura, se recuperó un total de 33 documentos con arreglo a los criterios de inclusión y exclusión (28 corresponden a la base de datos Scopus, 3 a Science Direct y Por su parte, Herzog et al. (2020) analizaron la sostenibilidad del café de variedad conilón en las región norte y sur de Espíritu Santo y la región de Bahía, aplicaron el cuestionario del programa público Agro+: por una agricultura más sostenible, logran un mejor índice de sostenibilidad la región norte de Espíritu Santo (55%). En Vietnam (15%), la investigación de (Trinh et al. 2020) evalúa la sostenibilidad de café a partir de la comparación del ciclo de vida en cultivos intensivos de café, cultivos moderados de café y cultivos orgánicos de café, siendo este último el que presenta menos impactos negativos en el medio ambiente y es más sostenible. Analizando Anh et al. (2019) el impacto del cultivo de café convencional y café sostenible, siendo el último más rentable, por lo que se recomienda su práctica para asegurar el desarrollo de la caficultura. ...
Article
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El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la evolución y las tendencias de investigación respecto a la evaluación de la sostenibilidad del café. Desde el plano metodológico, se realiza una revisión sistemática de la literatura durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2010 al 2020. Se consideran artículos redactados en idioma inglés en tres bases de datos: Scopus, Science Direct y Springer Link, después de aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se analizaron 33 documentos, se encontró que existe una tendencia creciente en el estudio de la temática, los estudios son desarrollados principalmente en los países de Brasil, Vietnam, Uganda y Colombia; los principales medios de difusión son Sustainability (Switzerland), Ecological Economics, y Agricultural Systems. Se concluye que la evaluación de la sostenibilidad del café ha sido abordada principalmente a partir del marco de evaluación SAFA de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), como método el de análisis de ciclo de vida (ACV), y como técnica a la encuesta, demostrando además gran potencial para el estudio de esta temática la aplicación de Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA) y el Modelado Matemático Basado en Agentes (MPMAS).
... Penerapan sistem pertanian konvensional pada budidaya kopi dengan input pupuk anorganik, fungisida, herbisida, dan insektisida yang tinggi dapat memberikan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia (Noponen et al., 2012). Pertanian organik memiliki efek lingkungan yang konservatif karena emisi karbonnya rendah (Trinh et al., 2020). Menurut Wani et al. (2013), pertanian organik berpotensi dalam mengurangi emisi GRK dan meningkatkan serapan karbon dalam tanah melalui pemanfaatan bahan organik. ...
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em>Coffee is a commodity that has an important role in the national economy. Currently, coffee cultivation is threatened by climate change caused by global warming due to increased green house gas (GHG) emissions. The organic plantation model is a farming model that is considered to increase soil and crop productivity, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration effectively. The study was aimed to estimate GHG emissions and carbon stocks in organic and conventional coffee plantations in Badung Regency, Bali Province and Laboratory in Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian, Pati, Jawa Tengah Province, in July 2018. The study was conducted in smallholder coffee plantations in Badung Regency and the analysis was carried out at Laboratory of Indonesian Agricultural Environtment Research Institute. This study used a survey method, while the sampling used a purposive sampling method in organic and conventional coffee plantation. GHG emissions measurement was carried out with a close chamber method by simultaneously the carbon stocks measurement was carried out with the non-destructive method for plant biomass and destructive for understorey. The results showed that organic and conventional coffee plantations emitted GHG by 20.71 and 39.75 ton CO<sub>2</sub>e ha<sup>-1</sup> and stored carbon stock by 227.56 and 288.31 ton CO<sub>2</sub>e ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The differences in GHG emissions and carbon stocks are partly due to differences in management system and the diversity of plant. The management system of the organic coffee plantation should be improved to support handling of the impacts of climate change in Bali Province.</em
... & Mugruza-Vassallo, 2020;Haggar et al., 2015; Schnabel et al., 2018), facilitan la agrobiodiversidad y los recursos genéticos(Avilez-López et al., 2020;FAO, 2007), así como brindan beneficios positivos al suelo y aseguran menores emisiones y mayor captura y almacenamiento de carbono, entre otros beneficios ambientales(Oelofse et al., 2010;Trinh et al., 2020;Tully et al., 2013).Ahora bien, respecto del mercado de carbono, estando a puertas del cierre del segundo compromiso del Protocolo de Kioto, a través del trabajo de promoción del Fondo Nacional del Ambiente, el Perú cuenta con un portafolio de proyectos de carbono que ha ido creciendo, contando a la actualidad con proyectos de reducción de emisiones de GEI: 169 proyectos en el sector energía con inversiones de US$ 13,06 millones habiéndose implementado US$ 6,63 millones, así también en el sector forestal se tienen proyectos de Reducción de Emisiones por ...
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El cambio climático es una temática que ha tomado importancia en las políticas públicas de los países y promovido por diversos organismos y acuerdos internacionales. El Perú, no ha sido ajeno en la implementación de normativas, políticas y mecanismos para enfrentar el cambio climático, mostrándose avances importantes, aunque limitados, vinculados a enfrentar la contaminación mundial con el CO2, entre ellos, el desarrollo de un portafolio de 169 proyectos MDL en el sector energía con inversiones de US$ 13,06 millones habiéndose implementado US$ 6,63 millones, así también proyectos REDD, REDD+ en 4 Áreas Naturales Protegidas que proyectan reducir unos 25.48 millones de toneladas de carbono en 10 años, en cuyos proyectos se han comercializado más de 1.64 millones de créditos de carbono. Así también, y no menos importante, el gobierno peruano a través de la Superintendencia Nacional de Servicios de Saneamiento ha logrado avances en la implementación de Mecanismos de Retribución por Servicios Ecosistémicos, entre ellos, el servicio ecosistémico de recurso hídrico, con lo que se ha recaudado cerca de US$ 10 millones.
... kg CO2•(kg dried coffee beans −1 ). The use and type of fertilizers and plant protection products used have been identified as the main cause of these differences [73]. ...
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The concept of sustainable development is increasingly important in the agri-food sector and global economy. International activities are undertaken to improve the efficiency of industry by reducing its negative impact on the environment. To help determine harmful human activity, the environmental footprints of products and services are calculated using the LCA (life cycle assessment) method. The purpose of this article was to explain topics of sustainable development and environmental footprints, especially the carbon footprint in the agri-food sector, based on the latest literature. The agri-food industry consumes around 30% of global energy demand. It is also a source of emissions of a significant part of greenhouse gases released into the environment. The carbon footprint of food products is determined by many factors associated with their production. Food of animal origin is more harmful and has higher carbon footprints than plant-based products. GHG emission reduction is possible due to the use of renewable energy sources and the abandonment of the use of artificial fertilizers and plant protection products.
... This preference is related to the aroma, taste, flavor and the presence of caffeine that improve physical performance and increases energy availability, alertness and concentration (CHENG et al., 2016). In addition, coffee beans are important source of antioxidants and compounds that benefit human health (TRINH et al., 2020). ...
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Developing a sustainable food industry is the global consensus regarding climate change and food security. This present study aims to take account of life cycle-carbon footprints for the environmental performance/labeling of 20 food products commissioned by the flour processing factory in Pyongyang and to give lessons for the rest consumer products. This study conducts analyses of Functional Units (FUs) and hotspots with a couple of questions of how much are life cycle-carbon footprints per FU of the food products investigated from the company? and what are the key hotspots (primary, secondary, and tertiary) connected to the life cycle phases? The results show that the carbon footprints of food products vary in a range of 2050–5080 g CO2eq. depending on the defined FUs: mass-based FUdry (dry basis), mass-based FUtotal (total basis), and economic value-based FUpri (price basis). The results also reveal that both the mass-based FUdry and economic value-based FUpri might lead to proper environmental benchmarking/labeling of food products, when compared to the mass-based FUtotal that could definitely affect food LCAs. In addition, the results indicate that three subsystems in 20 product systems are identified as environmental hotspots to have improvement potential: flour subsystems (13 primary hotspots), washing and wastewater subsystems (12 secondary hotspots), and electricity subsystems (14 tertiary hotspots), while representing average contributions of 28.58, 23.34 and 16.23% to the total carbon footprints, respectively. The findings could encourage LCA practitioners and commissioners to implement a sustainable policy for environmental performance/labeling of crop-based food products and give lessons for the rest consumer products.
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Nutraceuticals are an ever-expanding market worldwide, facing the unstoppable transition towards a green economy. Developing economically feasible and sustainable alternatives to current raw materials for the extraction of nutraceuticals is, therefore, essential to reach these goals and, at the same time, achieve social and economic competitiveness. This paper intends to propose an economical and environmentally sustainable feedstock for chlorogenic acid (CGA) and inulin, whose current extraction from green coffee and chicory, respectively, is unsustainable. Our approach is based on the multi-criteria decision-making approach (MCDA), supported by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), ranking the performance of competitor biomasses according to economic, social, and technological criteria. The results of this study highlight cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) as a promising raw material for the extraction of CGA and inulin in virtue of the high concentration, low-input growth regime, and the possibility of being grown on marginal lands. Nevertheless, cardoon biomass availability is currently scarce, extraction methods are underdeveloped, and consequently, the obtained product’s price is higher than the benchmark competitors. Policies and investments favoring sustainable cultivations could stimulate cardoon employment, linking economic advantages and land requalification while limiting phenomena such as desertification and food competition in the Mediterranean basin.
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Nowadays Life Cycle Assessment is usually adopted to evaluate the carbon footprint and water footprint of packaged foods considering the whole supply chain, but not many studies compare the results coming from the adoption of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment methodologies. Adopting the IPCC 2013, IPCC 2013 incl. CO2 uptake, ILCD 2011 Midpoint +, ReCiPe 2016 and AWARE methods, this study aims to investigate the environmental impact of an organic Parmigiano Reggiano cheese produced in Italy. We demonstrated that the application of different LCIA methods gives different impact results for the same product: for example, global warming was lower with ILCD 2011 and IPCC 2013 CO2 uptake methods than IPCC 2013 and ReCiPe 2016. Moreover, the water footprint resulted different using ILCD 2011 midpoint + method, since it considers a European consumption of water, the AWARE, based on global average consumption, and the ReCiPe that considers the regionalized impacts. Overall, agricultural and breeding phases had a relevant contribution because of the use of water and greenhouse gas emissions from livestock and their daily feed. However, using renewable energy, such as biogas plants or photovoltaic panels, the paper demonstrated that the water and carbon footprint can be reduced.
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As a survey by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2019) confirms coffee is consumed in 83% of Hungarian households, thus our country can be considered to be one of the major coffee drinking nations. At the end of the 19th century and the turn of the twentieth Budapest with its internationally famous and unique coffee culture was known as the coffeehouse capital. Post-modern tourism revived this tradition and coffee became once again a favourite consumer item while cafés turned into scenes of community life. The latest stage of the coffeehouse renaissance was partly due to the increasing role of American type café chains including McCafé, Starbucks, California Coffee Company etc. and the drop in the price of the Arabica coffee. Our research focuses on the impact of this new type of coffee consumption wave on the coffee habits of Hungarians. The American café chains have become widespread in Europe and their ability to keep the price of coffee low worldwide demonstrates significant market power. While coffee consumption has several benefits from a physiological point of view, its environmental impact is detrimental to the planet. Coffee cultivation contributes to the destruction of rainforests, the changing of the soil and last but not least results in a high amount of solid waste due to the popularity of coffee capsules. Our treatise explores these concerns as well.
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PurposeLife cycle impact assessment (LCIA) translates emissions and resource extractions into a limited number of environmental impact scores by means of so-called characterisation factors. There are two mainstream ways to derive characterisation factors, i.e. at midpoint level and at endpoint level. To further progress LCIA method development, we updated the ReCiPe2008 method to its version of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the key elements of the ReCiPe2016 method. Methods We implemented human health, ecosystem quality and resource scarcity as three areas of protection. Endpoint characterisation factors, directly related to the areas of protection, were derived from midpoint characterisation factors with a constant mid-to-endpoint factor per impact category. We included 17 midpoint impact categories. Results and discussionThe update of ReCiPe provides characterisation factors that are representative for the global scale instead of the European scale, while maintaining the possibility for a number of impact categories to implement characterisation factors at a country and continental scale. We also expanded the number of environmental interventions and added impacts of water use on human health, impacts of water use and climate change on freshwater ecosystems and impacts of water use and tropospheric ozone formation on terrestrial ecosystems as novel damage pathways. Although significant effort has been put into the update of ReCiPe, there is still major improvement potential in the way impact pathways are modelled. Further improvements relate to a regionalisation of more impact categories, moving from local to global species extinction and adding more impact pathways. Conclusions Life cycle impact assessment is a fast evolving field of research. ReCiPe2016 provides a state-of-the-art method to convert life cycle inventories to a limited number of life cycle impact scores on midpoint and endpoint level.
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Various organic technologies have been utilized for about 6000 years to make agriculture sustainable while conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Among the benefits of organic technologies are higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, lower fossil energy inputs, yields similar to those of conventional systems, and conservation of soil moisture and water resources (especially advantageous under drought conditions). Conventional agriculture can be made more sustainable and ecologically sound by adopting some traditional organic farming technologies.
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The greenhouse gas (GHG) [methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)] mitigation effects of mixing dried grass into passively-aerated manure during the composting process (which accounts for 68.7% of Japanese dairy manure management) were assessed. Gaseous emissions [CH4, N2O, carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3)] from about 4 t of fresh dairy manure with or without 400 kg of dried grass mixed in were measured by the dynamic chamber method. The addition of dried grass contributed to a decrease in GHG emissions from 20.8 ± 1.3 g kg−1 volatile solids (VS) to 5.4 ± 1.4 g kg−1 VS (74.3% mitigation) for CH4 and from 7.4 ± 2.6 g N2O-N kg−1 Ninitial to 2.7 ± 0.4 g N2O-N kg−1 Ninitial (62.8% mitigation) for N2O. By applying this strategy, the expected reduction of GHG emission would be 70,466 t CH4 yr−1 and 1379 t N2O-N yr−1 (1907 Gg CO2 eq. yr−1 in total) in the Japanese dairy sector. On the other hand, it was showed that CO2 and NH3 emissions increase [from 424.4 ± 214.9 g CO2 kg−1 VS to 603.8 ± 99.6 g CO2 kg−1 VS for CO2 and from 16.9 ± 7.1 g ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N) kg−1 Ninitial to 38.3 ± 3.5 g NH3-N kg−1 Ninitial for NH3] by this method. Moreover, the mechanism of this significant N2O mitigation effect cannot be explained, and a better understanding of this effect could further improve the GHG mitigation strategy.
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Purpose Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is a well-established analytical method to quantify environmental impacts, which has been mainly applied to products. However, recent literature would suggest that it has also the potential as an analysis and design tool for processes, and stresses that one of the biggest challenges of this decade in the field of process systems engineering (PSE) is the development of tools for environmental considerations. Method This article attempts to give an overview of the integration of LCA methodology in the context of industrial ecology, and focuses on the use of this methodology for environmental considerations concerning process design and optimization. Results The review identifies that LCA is often used as a multi-objective optimization of processes: practitioners use LCA to obtain the inventory and inject the results into the optimization model. It also shows that most of the LCA studies undertaken on process analysis consider the unit processes as black boxes and build the inventory analysis on fixed operating conditions. Conclusions The article highlights the interest to better assimilate PSE tools with LCA methodology, in order to produce a more detailed analysis. This will allow optimizing the influence of process operating conditions on environmental impacts and including detailed environmental results into process industry.
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Coffee plays a key role in sustaining millions of livelihoods around the world. Understanding GHG emissions from coffee supply chains is important in evaluating options for climate change mitigation within the sector. We use data from two long-term coffee agroforestry experiments in Costa Rica and Nicaragua to calculate carbon footprints (CF) for coffee and identify emission hotspots within different management systems, levels of inputs and shade types. Management system and input level were the main cause of variation in CFs. Carbon footprints for 1 kg of fresh coffee cherries were between 0.26 and 0.67 kgCO2e for conventional and 0.12 and 0.52 kgCO2e for organic management systems. The main contributor to GHG emissions for all management systems was the inputs of organic and inorganic nitrogen. Nitrous oxide emissions from pruning inputs contributed between 7% and 42% of CFs. However, these estimates were strongly influenced by the choice of emission factor used in the calculations. Research is required to develop emission factors that account for different qualities and management of nitrogen inputs to enable effective calculation of the CF from different management strategies, and especially from the pruning and organic inputs managed in agroforestry systems. As such, effective climate change mitigation strategies can only be developed from site-specific studies which utilise accurate accounting and regional-specific emission factors.
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Purpose Perennial crops globally provide a lot of fruit and other food products. They may also provide feedstock for bioenergy and have been, notably to this end, the subject of several LCA-based studies mostly focusing on energy and GHG balances. The purpose of this review was to investigate the relevance of LCAs on perennial crops, especially focusing on how the perennial crop specificities were accounted for in the farm stage modelling. Methods More than 100 papers were reviewed covering 14 products from perennial crops: apple, banana (managed over several years), orange and other citrus fruits, cocoa, coconut, coffee, grape fruit, Jatropha oil, kiwi fruit, palm oil, olive, pear and sugarcane. These papers were classified into three categories according to the comprehensiveness of the LCA study and depending on whether they were peer-reviewed or not. An in-depth analysis of the goal and scope, data origin for farming systems, modelling approach for the perennial cropping systems and methods and data for field emissions helped reveal the more critical issues and design some key recommendations to account better for perennial cropping systems in LCA. Results and discussion In the vast majority of the reviewed papers, very little attention was paid on integrating the perennial cropping cycle in the LCA. It is especially true for bioenergy LCA-based studies that often mostly focused on the industrial transformation without detailing the agricultural raw material production, although it might contribute to a large extent to the studied impacts. Some key parameters, such as the length of the crop cycle, the immature and unproductive phase or the biannual yield alternance, were mostly not accounted for. Moreover, the lack of conceptual modelling of the perennial cycle was not balanced by any attempt to represent the temporal variability of the system with a comprehensive inventory of crop managements and field emissions over several years. Conclusions According to the reviewed papers and complementary references, we identified the gaps in current LCA of perennial cropping systems and proposed a road map for scientific researches to help fill-in the knowledge-based gaps. We also made some methodological recommendations in order to account better for the perennial cycle within LCA considering the aim of the study and data availability.
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Coffee production has grown by nearly 200 percent since 1950; after oil it is the most important traded commodity in the world. Although it is only grown in tropical and equatorial areas (it is the primary export of many developing countries), the majority of coffee is consumed in the developed world (the United States and the European Community combined import two out of every three bags of coffee produced in the world). Considering that the coffee chain is very wide-ranging, involving many companies of different types and sizes, each environmental decision, at any point of the coffee chain, should be taken under a “life cycle thinking” perspective. It was with this intention that Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied to analyse the environmental impacts connected to a coffee business located in Sicily. System boundaries were defined to include all life cycle steps: from coffee growing through to its distribution to consumers, consumption and disposal. The aim of the study was to identify the “hot spots” in the stages of the product’s life cycle in which environmental improvements were easily achievable and to suggest alternatives to minimise the environmental impact of production phases, thereby improving processes and company performance.
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Various organic technologies have been utilized for about 6000 years to make agriculture sustainable while conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Among the benefits of organic technologies are higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, lower fossil energy inputs, yields similar to those of conventional systems, and conservation of soil moisture and water resources (especially advantageous under drought conditions). Conventional agriculture can be made more sustainable and ecologically sound by adopting some traditional organic farming technologies.
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The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.
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This paper aims to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with spray dried soluble coffee over its entire life cycle and compare it with drip filter coffee and capsule espresso coffee. It particularly aims to identify critical environmental issues and responsibilities along the whole life cycle chain of spray dried coffee. This life cycle assessment (LCA) specifically uses foreground data obtained directly from coffee manufacturers and suppliers. Aside from energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions, water footprint is also studied in detail, including regionalization of water impacts based on the ecological scarcity method 2006. Other impact categories are screened using the IMPACT 2002+ impact assessment method.
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Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment (ALCA) is an important tool able to inform environmental improvement in agricultural ecosystems. However, many studies address only one or a few environmental aspects, and where several indicators are used, the optional steps of normalization and weighting are rarely used to support interpretation. In this study, the winter wheat-summer maize rotation, widely practiced on the North China Plain, was evaluated using a variety of indicators addressing natural resource use, human and ecosystem health. The results after normalization and weighting highlight the need to address eutrophication potential and aquatic eco-toxicity potential as significant environmental aspects, especially in the higher input winter wheat part of the rotation. Different results were obtained using Chinese normalization factors compared to global factors, highlighting the need to use local factors when local environmental challenges are the priority. With the scarcity of arable land in China, there have been concerted and successful attempts to raise yields. However, there is now a need to improve nutrient management and pest control as strategic priorities. The life cycle perspective is important because opportunities also exist to achieve environmental improvement in the local manufacturing systems for farming inputs.
Book
Environmental Management: Science and Engineering for Industry consists of 18 chapters, starting with a discussion of International Environmental Laws and crucial environmental management tools, including lifecycle, environmental impact, and environmental risk assessments. This is followed by a frank discussion of environmental control and abatement technologies for water, wastewater, soil, and air pollution. In addition, this book also tackles Hazardous Waste Management and the landfill technologies available for the disposal of hazardous wastes. As managing environmental projects is a complex task with vast amounts of data, an array of regulations, and alternative engineering control strategies designed to minimize pollution and maximize the effect of an environmental program, this book helps readers further understand and plan for this process. Contains the latest methods for Identifying, abating, or eliminating pollutants from air, water, and land Presents up-to-date coverage on environmental management tools, such as risk assessment, energy management and auditing, environmental accounting, and impact assessments Includes methods for collecting and synthesizing data derived from environmental assessments. © 2017 BSP books Pvt Ltd, Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
This chapter aims to introduce coffee (Coffea sp.) to those not familiar with it, as a platform for understanding the following chapters. Initially, a few interesting events in coffee history are outlined, followed by diagrams and color images that explain aspects of coffee botanics that are directly related to production. The most important Coffea species, for production or breeding, are described. Important features of coffee cultivation, such as soil preparation, seedling production, harvest and postharvesting processing, are explained. A comparative discussion is carried out on the most important technological aspects of this crop, such as full sun vs shaded cultivation systems, arabica vs robusta coffee production and low vs high technological input.
Article
Grass-legume associations may offer a way of improving the N efficiency of dairy farming, but may also have an adverse impact on the environment by increasing leaching losses. Nitrate leaching from four cropping sequences with different grassland frequency and management (long-term grazed, long-term cut, cereals followed by 1 and 2-year grazed leys) were investigated on a loamy sand in central Jutland for both unfertilized grass-clover (perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)/white clover (Trifolium repens L.)) and fertilized perennial ryegrass (300 kg N/ha) swards during 1997–2002. Furthermore, 1 year (2001) of N2 fixation in 1-, 2- and 8-year-old grass-clover pastures was determined. Nitrate leaching from grazed unfertilized grass-clover was always considerably lower than from grazed fertilized ryegrass. The effect of grassland age on nitrate leaching was insignificant in grass-clover but clear in grazed ryegrass, where levels increased dramatically with sward age. In production years 6–8, leaching from grass-clover was only 9–13% of the comparable losses from ryegrass. Under the cutting regime grass-clover showed a significant reduction in both yield and N-removal with increasing sward age, whereas for ryegrass these figures did not show any decreasing trend. N2 fixation was lower in 8-year-old swards compared with fully established 2-year-old swards as a consequence of lower dry matter production, lower clover content and a lower proportion of clover-N derived from the atmosphere. The results from the present study indicate that the higher leaching losses observed in fertilized grass compared with unfertilized grass-clover systems were caused by (1) a reduction in N2-fixation in grass-clover over time and (2) a reduction in dry matter production in grass-clover over time, lowering the grazing intensity and the recycling of grassland N via animal excreta.
Article
Goal, Scope and Background Brazil is the world's biggest producer of coffee beans with approx. a 30% market share. Depending on climate conditions, approx. 30 million bags of coffee beans are exported annually from Brazil, while domestic consumption is around 10 million bags, which makes Brazil the world's third largest coffee-consuming country. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to present the LCA of green coffee produced in Brazil for the reference crops 2001/02 and 2002/03 in order to generate detailed production inventory data as well as to identify the potential environmental impacts of its tillage in order to realize how to reduce those impacts and increase the environmental sustainability of this product. Only the inputs and outputs relative to the coffee tillage were considered. The production of fertilizers, correctives and pesticides were not included in the boundary, but only their amounts. The functional unit selected for this study was 1,000 kg of green coffee destined for exportation. Methods The LCI was performed according to the ISO 14040 standard series. All information considered in this study (use of water, fossil based energy, fertilizers and chemicals) were taken up in in-depth data collection and evaluation by questionnaires applied on a farm level and/or received by mail. Four Brazilian coffee producer regions were evaluated: Cerrado Mineiro, South of Minas Gerais State, the Marília and Alta Mogiana regions in São Paulo State. These regions have the following geographic coordinates: 44 to 50° W longitude and 18 to 24° S latitude. The data refer to a production of 420,000 coffee bean bags and a productive area of approx. 14,300 ha. The varieties of coffee beans considered in this study were Mundo Novo, Catuaí (yellow and red), Icatu (yellow and red), Catucaí (yellow and red) and Obatã. Farm specific data along with agricultural production data have been combined to elaborate a coffee cultivation inventory, which will be applied in an emissions estimation. Results and Conclusion The production of 1,000 kg of green coffee in Brazil requires approx. 11,400 kg of water, 94 kg of diesel, 270 kg of fertilizers as NPK, 900 kg of total fertilizers, 620 kg of correctives, 10 kg of pesticides and 0.05 hectare of annual land use. Outputs related to these functional units are approx. 3,000 kg of waste water from coffee washing, 8,500 kg of waste water from the wet method and 750 kg of organic residue that is reincorporated to the tillage as fertilizer. The publication of an LCI of agricultural products is a fundamental step for understanding the potential environmental impacts of each tillage and then establishes the basis for product sustainability. In this way, this work is the first Brazilian initiative for applying LCA to coffee cultivation. Recommendation and Perspective Different agricultural practices demonstrate different environmental profiles. The amount of agricultural pesticide is directly related to agricultural practices as tillage rotation, density of plants, etc. This study supplied important results for a better correlation of the agricultural practices and potential environmental impacts of coffee. Future updates of this study will show the evolution of the natural resource management such as land use, new agricultural practices, lower fertilizers and chemicals use.
Article
The climate variability of the North Atlantic/European sector is characterized by large-scale circulation patterns measured in terms of a time series of two binary variables: the occurrence of a Grosswetter state and of a cluster set of meridional sea level pressure (SLP) gradients (characterizing the westerlies). An outlier test of the decadal behaviour of the residence time of these states identifies the decade 1981-1990 to be the first outlier. The climatological embedding and a possible stochastic/dynamical interpretation are presented. Copyright © 2000 Royal Meteorological Society
Toward sustainable coffee production in Vietnam: more coffee with less water
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Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products
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Carbon footprint across the coffee supply chain: the case of Costa Rican coffee
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Asking questions: the definitive guide to questionnaire design--for market research, political polls, and social and health questionnaires
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Life cycle assessment of coffee consumption: comparison of single-serve coffee and bulk coffee brewing-final report
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