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The Story Only Few Can Tell: Exploring the Disproportionately Gendered Professoriate in Business Schools

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Abstract

In American business schools, the higher the position, the lower the female representation, especially when including additional intersections of identity such as race, sexual orientation, and ethnicity. Our article aims to supplement existing research regarding gender bias and underrepresentation in academia, particularly in business schools. Such research can uncover faculty gender issues, work toward mitigating the existing biases related to diversity and inclusion, and bring a needed voice and discussion for the purpose of moving toward solutions. To build our hypotheses, we provide a literature review regarding academic satisfaction, perceived performance weight–teaching and perceived performance weight–service differences between genders, and gender issues with the academic pipeline to full professor. Next, we utilize data collected from a sample of n = 696 academics from American business schools and find that women faculty have significantly lower academic satisfaction throughout all ranks and institutions. Our results further indicate that there are differences in perceived performance weight–teaching and perceived performance weight–service between female and male academics at the ranks of assistant and full professors at various types of institutions. Last, we offer conclusions and implications, limitations, and future research suggestions that include studies regarding intersectional faculty, academic mobbing and bullying, incivility, and academic satisfaction.

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Happy employees are a major source of competitive advantage. This research examines antecedents of employees' well-being with an emphasis on balance of challenges and skills. Using data from a survey of 185 employees in academia, this research tests whether a balance of challenges and skills at high levels of underlying components is necessary and/or sufficient for work enjoyment. The results of a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis indicate an asymmetrical causal relationship between balance of challenges and skills at high levels and work enjoyment. In addition, post hoc analyses reveal complex configurations of job demands and resources that lead to work enjoyment. From a methodological perspective, this research contributes to qualitative comparative analysis literature by outlining an approach to visualize contrarian cases in large-N samples, using a binned scatterplot.
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Recent decades have witnessed increasing scholarly and public attention to the status of women in academia. Although women are now the majority of degree recipients and their share of initial academic appointments approximates their representation among degree recipients, substantial gender inequality persists. In this article, we review existing research on this topic, focusing on how gender inequality manifests and unfolds throughout the academic career life course, from graduate school experiences, through initial academic appointments, into the associate professor years, and, finally, to women's experiences as full professors and administrators. Throughout, we emphasize how institutionalized policies and subtle biases, rather than overt discrimination, perpetuate gender inequality. We conclude with suggested areas for future research.
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The forces that drive the impact of academic research articles in the marketing discipline are of great interests to authors, editors, and the discipline's policy makers. A key understudied driver is social network utilization by academic researchers. In this paper, we examine how activating one's social network can contribute to the impact of academic research and what factors lead researchers to utilize their social network. We treat social networks as a resource that researchers can potentially invoke to supplement other resources available to them. We propose a framework of antecedents for the use of professional social networks by academics. The framework captures researchers' relevant personal and professional experience, as well as conditions associated with the project at hand. Specifically, we study an academic researcher's (1) personal background (gender and country of origin economic advancement), (2) professional development (time since PhD completion and editorial review board (ERB) membership), and (3) ad-hoc human capital directly involved in the research project (team size). The current study draws upon research from scientometrics, social networks, and resource availability and use, and involves an empirical analysis of a sample of 1329 articles published between 1980 and 2008 in top marketing journals. We predict and generally find that women researchers, researchers originating from less economically advanced countries, or those working with fewer co-authors on a research project are more likely to utilize their social network than their peers. We find weaker evidence for our prediction that years since PhD completion and ERB membership are negatively associated with social network utilization. Importantly, we further surmise and find that, in turn, social network utilization enhances the impact of a research article.
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This study examines the perceptions of students, recruiters, and faculty regarding the importance of various workplace attributes to students who are entering the job market. Furthermore, this study discusses the important role that faculty can play as a knowledge broker with both students and recruiters. Looking at students’ Top 10 attributes, we found there is a significant difference between students and faculty perceptions for (1) job satisfaction, (2) company culture, (3) company’s employee treatment, (4) training program, (5) company growth potential, and (6) company financial stability. In each case, the faculty underestimated the importance of these attributes to the students. Regarding (1) fit with goals and (2) current organization employees are satisfied/loyalty, both faculty and recruiters significantly underestimated the attributes’ importance to the students. Results indicate recruiters are more accurate with respect to what students look for in a job than are faculty. This study also begins some initial exploratory work on developing factors for the items used within this study. Specifically, the three samples were combined and exploratory factor analysis was conducted, resulting in a five-factor solution. Furthermore, this study provides faculty with a better understanding of what student job applicants are looking for in a job and also gives suggestions for helping the faculty become better able to serve as knowledge brokers between recruiters and students.
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Conventional wisdom holds that research-productive faculty are also the finest instructors. But, is this commonly held belief correct? In the current study, the notion that faculty scholarship exhibits a positive association with teaching evaluations is investigated. Reflecting the data structure of faculty nested within university, the current study uses hierarchical linear modeling, and finds that scholarship displays a positive correspondence with teaching evaluations, but only for male faculty publishing in elite or top-tier marketing journals. Although this linkage is only found under specific conditions, it stands in contrast to much of the extant literature, which reports little to no correlation between research and teaching evaluations. In addition, significant control variables and interactions, at both the faculty level (i.e., gender, faculty title) and university level (i.e., tuition, entry GPA, flagship university), are identified. In total, the findings suggest that while there is an association between elite publications and student evaluations, the primacy of research in the academy may, nonetheless, not always be in the best interest of students.
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Gender inequality in academia might be understood as an effect of the belief of a contradiction between woman and science, which make it difficult for women to appropriate the right to author and authorise acts of knowing and thinking in science. In relation to this concern, the aim of this article is to explore how a group of successful women researchers do science and uphold their position as researchers. It is based on evidence from participant observation and qualitative interviews. Theoretical understandings of femininity and cloning culture are used to analyse how the women united as a group that displays a subordinate, heterosexual femininity. Their strategies might be understood as a form of cultural cloning. By expressing a collective emphasised femininity grounded in white, heterosexual, middle-class norms, the women experienced a sameness that rendered them strong as a group and well adapted in academia.
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Despite the increasing popularity of journal rankings to evaluate the quality of research contributions, the individual rankings for journals that ranked below the top tier of publications usually feature only modest agreement. Attempts to merge rankings into meta-rankings suffer from some methodological issues, such as mixed measurement scales and incomplete data. This paper addresses the issue of how to construct suitable aggregates of individual journal rankings, using an optimization-based consensus ranking approach. The authors apply the proposed method to a subset of marketing-related journals from a list of collected journal rankings. Next, the paper studies the stability of the derived consensus solution, and the degeneration effects that occur when excluding journals and/or rankings. Finally, the authors investigate the similarities/dissimilarities of the consensus with a naive meta-ranking and with individual rankings. The results show that, even though journals are not uniformly ranked, one may derive a consensus ranking with considerably high agreement with the individual rankings.
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Purpose – While collegiality is often discussed and touted as a critical aspect of academia, there is little research that empirically examines collegiality in university business schools. One cause of the paucity of research is the lack of a reliable scale to measure collegiality (Sabharwal, 2011). The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that measures collegiality at the departmental level for university faculty, and then uses it to understand the implications of collegiality within an academic department within a business school. Design/methodology/approach – The present study uses a scale development process consisting of: defining the domain of the construct; item generation; and psychometric assessment of the scale’s reliability and validity. Items were adapted for a university business school context from Shah (2011) and Seigel and Miner-Rubino (2009). The scale was administrated using a convenience non-random sample design drawn from active marketing and entrepreneurship academics who subscribe to the American Marketing Association’s ELMAR and the Academy of Management’s ENTRE list-serves. Findings – The faculty collegiality scale (FCS) was found to exhibit sound psychometric properties in this study. The study found that assessments of department-level collegiality are associated with budgets, performance evaluation processes, and workload allocations. In addition, factors from the FCS mediate the relationships between institutional variables and work satisfaction, which indicate that collegiality is an important determinant of work satisfaction in a contemporary university environment. Originality/value – The FCS developed in the present study offers business school academics and administrators a glimpse into the dimensions of what the marketing and entrepreneurship academics perceive makes a good colleague – one that provides professional and social support and is trustworthy; does not engage in politics, positioning, or rent-seeking to advantage their own situation; and that contributes to the well-being of the students, the department, the discipline and the university. In addition, the present study found that the FCS was related to budgets, performance evaluation processes, and faculty workloads.
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The continued gender gap in wages and rank are popularly attributed to an “ambition gap” between men and women (Sandberg, 2013). According to this explanation, men, but not women, desire and strive for positions of power and prestige at work. With two field studies we investigated why this might be the case. Drawing on prior theory and research on workplace mistreatment, we suggest that ambition is penalized in women more than in men at work, and that this difference becomes more pronounced up the organizational hierarchy. Study 1 showed that, contrary to popular stereotypes, women were as or more ambitious than men, yet ambition positively predicted women’s, but not men’s, experiences of workplace mistreatment. Study 2 investigated the sources of mistreatment by organizational rank and found that ambitious men were mistreated by superiors and coworkers, but that ambitious women were mistreated by superiors, coworkers, and subordinates as well. In other words, the social penalties for ambition appear to cease when men, but not when women, become the “boss.” Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
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Unlike the diversity issues in corporate governance, the diversity in top academic positions (e.g., editorial boards of academic journals in business) is rather underresearched. The editorial boards of academic marketing journals are important gatekeepers and trendsetters in the creation and dissemination of marketing knowledge. Membership on journal editorial boards usually signals scholarly stature and professional advancement. This study examines the composition of editorial boards of general marketing journals, and compares it with what it was like 15 years ago. The study also investigates the impact of the composition of editorial boards on journal quality. We find that women's participation in editorial boards generally corresponds to their presence in the profession. We also find an overall small representation of board members affiliated with nonacademic institutions. While the presence of women, practitioners, or international members does not have any relationship with journal quality, the presence of scholars affiliated with doctoral programs seems to correlate with journal quality. The number of female and international members on the boards increased, whereas practitioners' representation dropped from 1997 to 2012.