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I would like to live over the rainbow: Dreams of young children

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Abstract

Dreams are an indicator of the extent of imagination. Young children have simple, fabulous and happy dreams. This study tries to determine the dreams of young children. For this purpose, drawings and narrations of 483 children aged between 3-4 and 5 years attending the kindergartens and preschool classes in a city and district in the southwestern Turkey concerning their dreams were examined. In the study, Clark's Drawing Abilities Test was used and the drawings were classified according to their subject areas. At the end of the study, it was determined that young children made drawings reflecting the culture in their dreams, and their dreams varied according to their age, gender and residence location. Dreaming is a multi-directional cognitive process that is affected by factors like culture, age, gender and residence location.

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... In line with these findings, the Life Satisfaction also includes entertainment, personal achievements and dreams. Dreaming makes children happy (Gündoğan, 2019). Emotional well-being is related to the characteristic features of children such as hope, love, pleasure, love of learning (Shoshani, 2019). ...
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Subjective well-being is important for young children to be successful and happy now and in the future. Studies on the subjective well-being of young children are relatively few. Subjective well-being includes different factors such as family, school, friends, positive life experiences. Different from other age groups, subjective well-being factors differ in younger age groups (3–6 years). This study aims to develop a subjective well-being scale in line with what young children care about. The subjective well-being scale in this study consists of three dimensions: Positive Relationships with Others, Life Standard, and Life Satisfaction. The subjective well-being scale for young children is a semi-structured, self-reported, and designed for all daily living environments, regardless of a single environment. Subjective well-being scale shows good psychometric properties. By discussing the dimensions, the factors that are important in the subjective well-being of young children are revealed.
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This study examined the cognitive underpinnings of spontaneous imagination in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by way of individual differences. Children with ASD (N = 27) and matched typically developing (TD) children were administered Karmiloff-Smith's (1990) imaginative drawing task, along with measures that tapped specific executive functions (generativity, visuospatial planning, and central coherence processing style) and false belief theory of mind (ToM) understanding. The ASD group drawings displayed deficits in imaginative content and a piecemeal pictorial style. ASD participants also showed group deficits in generativity, planning and ToM, and exhibited weak coherence. Individual differences in generativity were related to imaginative drawing content in the ASD group, and the association was mediated through planning ability. Variations in weak coherence were separately related to a piecemeal drawing style in the ASD group. Variations in generativity were also linked with imaginative drawing content in the TD group; the connection unfolded when it received pooled variance from receptive language ability, and thereupon mediated through false belief reasoning to cue imaginative content. Results are discussed in terms of how generativity plays a broad and important role for imagination in ASD and typical development, albeit in different ways.
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In three experiments, children's reliance on other people's testimony as compared to their own, first-hand experience was assessed in the domain of ontology. Children ranging from 4 to 8 years were asked to judge whether five different types of entity exist: real entities (e.g. cats, trees) whose existence is evident to everyone; scientific entities (e.g. germs, oxygen) that are normally invisible but whose existence is generally presupposed in everyday discourse; endorsed beings (e.g. the Tooth Fairy, Santa Claus) whose existence is typically endorsed in discourse with young children; equivocal beings (e.g. monsters, witches) whose existence is not typically endorsed in discourse with young children; and impossible entities (e.g. flying pigs, barking cats) that nobody believes in. Children make a broad dichotomy between entities and beings that they claim to exist (real entities; scientific entities; and endorsed beings) and those whose existence they deny (equivocal beings and impossible entities). They also make a more fine-grained distinction among the invisible entities that they claim to exist. Thus, they assert the existence of scientific entities such as germs with more confidence than that of endorsed beings such as Santa Claus. The findings confirm that children's ontological claims extend beyond their first-hand encounters with instances of a given category. Children readily believe in entities that they cannot see for themselves but have been told about. Their confidence in the existence of those entities appears to vary with the pattern of testimony that they receive.
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This study explored the perceptions of 78 parents from low, mid and high socio-economic areas in Melbourne, Australia to increase understanding of where children play and why. Using an ecological model interviews with parents revealed that safety and social factors emerged as key social themes, facilities at parks and playgrounds, and urban design factors emerged as important physical environment themes. The children's level of independence and attitudes to active free-play were considered to be important individual level influences on active free-play. The study findings have important implications for future urban planning and children's opportunities for active free-play. <br /
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