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The astonishing 63Ni radioactivity reduction in radioactive wastes by means of ultrasounds application

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Nowadays, the radioactive wastes production is certainly one of the main issues along with their storage. The most interesting way to treat them would certainly be the radioactivity reduction. In this paper we show that the ⁶³Ni radioactivity reduction by ultrasounds is not a violation of the exponential decay law but can be explained by the Deformed Space–Time theory. The cavitation procedure under the DST conditions achieves a radioactivity decrease around 14% in 200 s. Comparing these results with the theoretical ones obtained by the decay law, we earn more than 20 years in the ⁶³Ni radioactivity decrease. For confirming the data, ICP-MS measurements were performed on cavitated and no-cavitated samples: once again, the 14%-difference (with CV 5%) was obtained from the analyses of both samples. Even if the data are not definitive, the new idea is that a radioactive substance can be “normalized” by its transformation into a normal stable one without radiation emission overcoming the traditional approaches (dilution, inertization, radioactive transmutation with fast neutron irradiation) and avoiding the use of large deposits or big reactors. Our results may be considered as starting point to pave the way to new methods to treat useless harmful radioactive substances from nuclear or medicine industry.
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SN Applied Sciences (2019) 1:1319 |
Research Article
The astonishing 63Ni radioactivity reduction inradioactive wastes
bymeans ofultrasounds application
AlbertoRosada1· FabioCardone2,3· PasqualeAvino4
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
Nowadays, the radioactive wastes production is certainly one of the main issues along with their storage. The most
interesting way to treat them would certainly be the radioactivity reduction. In this paper we show that the 63Ni radio-
activity reduction by ultrasounds is not a violation of the exponential decay law but can be explained by the Deformed
Space–Time theory. The cavitation procedure under the DST conditions achieves a radioactivity decrease around 14%
in 200s. Comparing these results with the theoretical ones obtained by the decay law, we earn more than 20years in
the 63Ni radioactivity decrease. For conrming the data, ICP-MS measurements were performed on cavitated and no-
cavitated samples: once again, the 14%-dierence (with CV 5%) was obtained from the analyses of both samples. Even
if the data are not denitive, the new idea is that a radioactive substance can be “normalized” by its transformation into
a normal stable one without radiation emission overcoming the traditional approaches (dilution, inertization, radioac-
tive transmutation with fast neutron irradiation) and avoiding the use of large deposits or big reactors. Our results may
be considered as starting point to pave the way to new methods to treat useless harmful radioactive substances from
nuclear or medicine industry.
Keywords Radioactivity·
63Ni· Reduction· Ultrasounds· Cavitation· Decay law
1 Introduction
The management of radioactive waste is one of the main
problems for the to-day mankind: during these last dec-
ades expensive and hard-realization proposals for achiev-
ing minor actinides burning or radionuclide transmuta-
tions have been proposed by International agencies [1]. At
the moment, the deactivation mainly consists in mechani-
cal processes, mainly the inertization where the waste is
incorporated into a large volume of material, or using liv-
ing organisms, e.g., Ralstonia detusculanense, an archae-
bacterium [2] able to signicantly reduce the radioactivity
of radionuclides coming from ssion reaction (e.g., Co-60,
Sr-90, Cs-135, Cs-137). Further, this crucial problem, i.e.,
reducing the radioactivity of nuclear (sanitary and indus-
trial) wastes, has also mainly been addressed through the
use of two main methodologies: mechanical and chemi-
cal-electrochemical methods. However, these methods do
not modify the radioactivity of the single radionuclide but
limit themselves to separate the radioactive fraction from
all the rest of the material and, possibly, to concentrate
it. In this way, the deactivation of a radioactive substance
consists in incorporating it in a large volume of inert mate-
rial: the result is a radioactivity decrease per unit of volume
but the total number of radioactive nuclei is unchanged
[3, 4].
Sugihara [5] proposed a treatment based on water
at high pressure for deactivating fission products in
Received: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published online: 3 October 2019
* Pasquale Avino, | 1National Agency forNew Technologies, Energy andSustainable Economic Development
(ENEA), Via Anguillarese 301, 00123Rome, Italy. 2Istituto perlo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN- CNR), Via dei Taurini,
00185Rome, Italy. 3GNFM, Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica “F. Severi”, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, p.le A. Moro 2, 00185Rome,
Italy. 4Department ofAgriculture, Environmental andFood Sciences, University ofMolise, Via De Sanctis, 86100Campobasso, Italy.
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... On the wake of the experiment of thorium, 7,8 the feasibility of normalizing a more complex molecule was investigated. 10,12 Nickel Nitrate made of radioactive Nickel-63 in Nitric acid (1.5 molar) was solved in bi-distilled and deionized water. The volume of the studied sample was 30 cm 3 : 25 cm 3 of nickel nitrate molecules in nitric acid and 5 cm 3 of water. ...
... In a similar way, a reduction of 13% of intensity was obtained [10][11][12] in the case of Nickel-63 after 100 s sonication at 35 kHz, 15 W. In 100 s, the same reduction effect was obtained as in 20 years on natural decay. Thus, also in this case, the same effect was obtained in a time lapse reduced of a factor about 10 4 . ...
... In this last experiment, the mass spectroscopy indicated that new nuclei were found after sonication. 10,11 In particular, the Cobalt-59, a stable element, was found to increase by 14%. Also, increases of lithium-7 (+35%), Beryllium-9 (+9%) and boron-11 (+9%) were detected. ...
Three cases are reviewed of radioactive material with anomalous decay after ultrasound irradiation. In the pure element thorium-228 in distilled water, the radioactivity decreased faster after cavitation than the natural decay. The more complex molecule of Nickel Nitrate, made of radioactive nickel-63, in solution of nitric acid and distilled water was investigated before and after ultrasound irradiation. The X-rays produced by Bremsstrahlung of the electrons from the beta decay of Ni-63 were recorded and a 13% decrease of intensity was measured after 100 s of sonication. A decrease of nickel and an increase of other elements was detected by mass spectrometry in the sonicated sample. The Cobalt-57 decay was investigated by detecting the gamma and X-ray intensity from the Iron-57 resulting after its beta emission. In this third case too, an anomalous decay was observed after sonication. These three cases of anomalous behavior can be explained at the light of the Deformed Space–Time theory. It assumes that a suitable sudden variation of energy density can induce a local deformation of space–time, thus violating the Local Lorentz Invariance. This variation can be created by the ultrasounds in the matter, thus, allowing reactions that cannot occur in a flat (Minkowskian) space–time. The “neutralization” of a radionuclide occurs when it undergoes a DST transformation changing the radionuclide into non-radioactive nuclides.
... Finally, by applying the same ultrasonic sonication technique to substances containing a radionuclide, a significant reduction in activity has been found and analyses have confirmed that this reduction is due to the nuclear metamorphosis of the radionuclide into other inactive nuclides under matter conservation conditions [97][98][99]. ...
... Indeed, all these phenomena, summarized under the label "nuclear metamorphosis" [88][89][90][91]94,[97][98][99], always occurred in the absence of any kind of gamma emissions above the natural background, thus excluding that they could be interpreted as phenomena connected to customary nuclear transformations. Hence, this consideration yields the possibility to interpret this absence of emitted energy in the sense of Mignani's mimicry. ...
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... A more complete set of experiments with the involvement of instruments including mass spectrometers gamma ray spectrometry, calorimetric techniques is under way. As a following step, experiments will be conducted adding other nuclides in the reactor chamber in order to investigate the viability of producing isotopes of interest including high value ones -such as rare earths [15] -and of reducing the radioactivity of potentially dangerous radioactive materials [16], [17], [18] such as nuclear waste. ...
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The reviewed papers presented here provide a general overview of worldwide radioactive waste‐related studies conducted in 2019. The current review includes studies related to safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, and transportation. Further, the review highlights radioactive wastewater decontamination, management solutions for the final disposal of low‐ and high‐level radioactive wastes (LLRW and HLRW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in the ecosystem, water and soil along with other research progress made in the management of radioactive waste. Practitioner points • The release of radionuclides and their subsequent fate and transport in the environment poses public health concern and has stimulated recent research on the waste management techniques. • Seeking a safe and environmental‐friendly solution is the current trend for existing and projected inventories of radioactive waste. • Significant progress in the field of geological disposal of radioactive waste has been made in the last two decades.
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The conditions of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) breakdown, obtained during neutron emission from a sonicated cylindrical bar of AISI 304 steel, were reproduced in a system made of a mole of mercury. After 3 min, a part of the liquid transformed into solid state material, in which isotopes were found with both higher and lower atomic mass with respect to the starting material. Changes in the atomic weight without production of gamma radiation and radionuclides are made possible by deformed space-time reactions.
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