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Revisiting National Forage Demand and Availability Scenario

Authors:
Introduction
Since ancient times in India, agriculture and animal
husbandry are interwoven with the intricate fabric of
the society in cultural, religious and economical ways
as mixed farming. Livestock rearing is an integral
component of rural living with cattle breeding and
milk production being the important professions in
rural India. Thus it was a well knit combination of crop
and dairy enterprise designed by our ancestors with
the aim to fulfil farm family needs and efficiently
utilize the by-products and crop residues. Animals
were always an integral part of rural India making
significant contribution to farm economy in terms of
dairy products, meat, wool, manure, hide, bones, rural
transport and a major energy source for draught power
in agricultural operations. Most often, livestock is the
only source of cash income for subsistence farms and
also serves as insurance in the event of crop failure. It
also offers alternative to global energy crisis as
utilization of livestock based bio-energy as well as
waste recycling for organic manure. With increasing
health awareness and purchasing power the demand
of organic farming is increasing for which livestock
components have great role to play.
India with only 2.29% of land area of the world, is
maintaining nearly 17.4% of world human population
and 10.7% of livestock (more than 510 million heads)
creating a huge pressure on land, water and other
resources. Furthermore some part of our country is
also largely inhabitable due to harsh climate as
reflected by very low population density. The major
feed resources for livestock in our country are grasses,
community grazing on common lands and harvested
fields, crop residues and agricultural by-products,
cultivated fodder, edible weeds, tree leaves from
cultivated and uncultivated lands and agro-industrial
by-products. Crop residues include fine straws, coarse
straws, leguminous straws, sugarcane tops etc. and are
the single largest bulk feed material available easily to
the farmers for feeding ruminants.
Revisiting National Forage Demand and Availability Scenario
A. K. Roy, R. K. Agrawal, N. R. Bhardwaj, A. K. Mishra and S. K. Mahanta
ICAR- Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284003
Authors e-mail: royak333@rediffmail.com; rajiv68@gmail.com; nitish.rattanbhardwaj@gmail.com; asimkmisra@gmail.com;
mahantask@rediffmail.com
1
Citation: Roy, A. K., Agrawal, R. K., Bhardwaj, N. R., Mishra, A. K. and Mahanta, S. K. (2019).
. In: Indian Fodder Scenario: Redefining State Wise Status (eds. A. K. Roy, R. K. Agrawal, N. R. Bhardwaj). ICAR- AICRP on Forage Crops and
Utilization, Jhansi, India, pp. 1-21.
Revisiting National Forage Demand and Availability
Scenario
India is characterized by genetic richness in flora and
fauna and fragile biomes. Livestock are an integral
component for green eco-sustainability. India has rich
livestock genetic diversity with possessing premier
dairy buffaloes, draft cattle, carpet wool sheep, and
prolific goat breeds. India with largest livestock and
second largest human population needs judiciously
conceived strategy to meet the ever increasing food,
feed and fodder demand with adequate quality and
quantity. While success has been achieved to a great
extent in food production due to technological
intervention coupled with government policy and
farmers initiative, but in case of fodder such
government policy support and commitment is
needed to meet the nutritional requirement of animals.
While country has achieved to a large extent the food
security, nutritional security parameters have not yet
been achieved and livestock sector production has a
great role to play in achieving these targets.
The demand for animal based food products is on
increase. In last few decades, per capita consumption
of meat in India has increased by many times higher as
compared to increase in the consumption of food
grains. This will continue to rise in the future due to
increasing urbanisation, change in food habit and
enhenced purchasing power. Feed cost accounts for
about 70-75% of the total cost of livestock production,
particularly in milch animals. So to increase the
margin of profit from livestock/dairy farming, proper
feeding strategies need to be followed with proper
inclusion of green and nutritious fodder.
Fodder crops are the plant species that are cultivated
and harvested for feeding the animals in the form of
green forage, silage, hay or other forms. Indian sub-
continent is one of the world's mega centers of crop
origin and crop plant diversity due to a wide spectrum
of eco-climate ranging from humid tropical to semi-
arid, temperate to alpine. India possesses a rich
genetic diversity with reports of 245 genera and 1256
species of Poaceae of which one third are considered
to have fodder value and are utilized in the form of
which can be met by variety of leguminous plants rich in
protein which can be grown in the farm (Raju, 2013).
Grazi ng liv elihood and nom adis m: Many
communities practice the livestock rearing through
ce ntur ies. T hey ha ve deve lope d tradi tion al
knowledge which pass on from generation to
generation and specialize in maintenance of particular
breeds. There are nearly thirty pastoral communities
in India located particularly in northern and western
part of the country (Roy and Singh, 2013). Based on
the practice followed by these pastoral communities
in various regions, the grazing systems may be
categorized in four grazing systems based on patterns
of migration depending upon the period/season, viz.
total nomadism, semi nomadism, transhumance and
partial nomadism. Mostly nomads rear small
ruminants like Sheep and goats. Goats are among the
earliest animal domesticated around 10 to 11 thousand
years ago (Joshi et al., 2004). They are reared as a
multipurpose animal for producing meat, milk,
manure etc. They are important for livelihood of
landless, small and marginal farmers who maintain
them on pasture based grazing resources.
Fodder resources: The data/estimates of fodder
production by different agencies in the country vary
widely. The three major sources of fodder supply are
crop residues, cultivated fodder from arable land
(irrigated and rainfed) and fodder from common
property resources (like forests, permanent pastures,
grazing lands etc.).
Cultivated fodder: Fodder is cultivated on
approximately 5 per cent of the gross cropped area in
the country, which has remained nearly same over the
last few decades. In states of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat
and some parts of Rajasthan, more area is under green
fodder production and the livestock productivity in
these states are the highest. There is a need for
restructuring the land use strategy to increase the fodder
production to about 10%. Sorghum, Berseem, Lucerne,
Maize, Bajra, fodder cowpea and oats are the major
fodders grown and are cultivated in more than 50 % of
the land under fodder. Perennial grasses like Bajra x
Napier hybrid, Guinea grass, Bracharia grass, Marvel
grass, Setaria grass, rye grass etc. are also cultivated in
large scale in their respective area of adoption. Similarly
perennial legumes like Desmanthus, Stylosanthes,
Clitoria etc. are also cultivated on poor and marginal
land of southern states.
grazing and cultivation. Similarly, about 60 genera
and 400 species of Leguminosae are reported out of
which 21 genera are useful as forage. The main centers
of genetic diversity are peninsular India (for tropical
types) and North-Eastern Region (for sub-tropical
types) besides some micro-centers for certain species
(Bhagmal et al., 2009).
Cultivated fodders and gathered grasses are two
important sources of green fodder and each account
for about half of the green fodder consumption
Common grazing lands (permanent pastures and
grazing lands, cultivable and uncultivable wastelands,
fallows other than current fallows) occupy nearly 16
per cent of the total geographical area, which is
gradually decreasing over the years. Area under
permanent pastures and grazing lands comprises a
mere 3.3% of the total area, and has been declining
steadily. The forest cover is to the tune of 21.54% of
which more than 85% are protected and these lands
used to be a major grazing area for livestock rearing
communities.
Land available for cultivation of green fodder crops in
India has remained static at around 5% of the total
cropped area for the last few decades. Although in few
states of the country it is more. Thus the supply of feed
resources has always remained short of normative
requirement, resulting in non-realization of the true
production potential of livestock. Indeed, the actual
milk yield of bovine animals is reported to be 26-51%
below the attainable yield under field conditions,
which otherwise could have been realized with better
feeding, breeding and disease management (Dikshit
and Birthal, 2010).
Per animal productivity
The productivity of livestock often remains low in
Indian condition, which is 20 to 60% lower than the
global average. The major reason perceived is
deficiency of feed and fodder followed by health,
breeding / reproduction and management. Around 80%
of the livestock are with marginal, small and medium
holdings farmers under rainfed situation, whereas,
small ruminants are mostly reared under nomadic
(30%) and sedentary (70%) systems. Fodder feed issues
needs to be addressed, because the feed alone
constitutes 60 to 70% of the milk production cost. Thus,
any attempt towards enhancing livestock productivity
should consider the feed availability. A balanced diet is
required to keep an animal healthy and productive
.
2 3
Over the past 5 decades significant advancement has
been made by ICAR and SAUs in development of new
technologies in the form of varieties, production and
protection technologies which have very high
production potential. Efforts to disseminate these
technologies to the farmers and livestock keepers
have succeeded significantly in improving the
productivity of the areas allocated for fodder
production. Similarly alternate land use system
technologies have increased the productivity of poor,
marginal or wasteland. ICAR-IGFRI and AICRP on
Forage Crops & Utilization have taken lead role and
more than 330 high yielding varieties in different
fodder crops have been released and notified so far.
This has greatly changed the fodder availability
scenario in last decade and more and more farmers are
being attracted towards fodder cultivation. Green
fodder is making the dairying more profitable by
reducing the need of costly concentrates.
Crop Residues: Among different resources, crop
residues are major one and generally defined as
feedstuffs, which are bulky and contain higher fibre
content (18%). These form the bulk of feeding
resources meeting more than 50% of the livestock
sector demand in the country. It depends on the
agricultural main crop and varies from season to
season and region to region. In eastern and coastal
belt, rice straw is the major residue whereas in
northern and central part wheat straw constitutes the
major ingredient of livestock feeding. In Sorghum,
Pearl millet, Guar, maize stover forms the bulk of
animal feeding in western and peninsular India.
Similarly pulse straw, groundnut haulm, sugarcane
top, vegetable, horticultural waste, top feed, kitchen
waste etc. also form important component of feeding
especially in household dairies and peri-urban diaries.
Cereal straw is inferior in quality as compared to the
leguminous straw. The increase in the availability of
crop residues over the years has largely been due to
increase in production of paddy, wheat and other crops
resulting in higher grain production and consequently
higher availability of straws from these crops.
Concentrates: Concentrate feeds which include oil
seed cakes, crushed pulses, grains, wheat and
ricebran, husk etc are also very important feed
resource as they are rich in energy-yielding nutrients.
It has been reported that 2% of wheat, 10% of maize,
1% of rice, 5% of barley, sorghum, pearl millet and
finger millet are fed to the animals (Chand et al.,
2015). In addition to the grains, a good quantity of
wheat bran and rice polish become available to
animals, which are around 6% and 3% of total wheat
and rice production, respectively. Oilseed cakes like
rapeseed, mustard, sunflower, soybean, groundnut,
linseed, sesamum, nigerseed and cottonseed cakes are
important and it has been reported that about 85% of
these oil seed cake production becomes available for
livestock population. However, at present the
estimated annual availability of total concentrate feed
is only 61 million tonnes against a demand of 96
million tonnes, indicating a deficit of 36% at national
level (Anonymous, 2018).
Fodder from other resources
Grazing resources in India: In India, grazing based
livestock husbandry continues to play an important
role in rural economy of the country as around 50 per
cent animals depend on grazing in forests and other
grazing areas in many parts of the country. In India
about 40% of total area is available for grazing of
livestock in some form or other round the year or
during year or particular period. In some state viz.
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya,
Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh the grazing land are
available even over 70%. Most of our pastures are
monsoon based and provide sufficient green fodder
for 4-5 months during monsoon and additionally one
to two months as dry fodder or fodder from trees or
shrubs. After winter rains also they also provide
limited quantity of fodder. The grazing intensity in the
country is as high as 12.6 adult cattle units (ACU)/ha
as against 0.8 ACU/ha in developed countries.
Therefore, improvement of pastures, as well as
judicious implementation of grazing management is
required.
Pasture land: This is the main grazing resources of
the country. 10.26 million ha area comprising 3.3% of
the geographical area of the country are under
permanent pasture. Furthermore, 3.10 million ha or
1.0% of total geographical areas are under
miscellaneous tree crops and groves. In the hilly state
like Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir,
or central and western parts like Karnataka, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat, the
pasture lands are more prominent In northern region,
the pasture lands of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh provide good quality
.
which can be met by variety of leguminous plants rich in
protein which can be grown in the farm (Raju, 2013).
Grazi ng liv elihood and nom adis m: Many
communities practice the livestock rearing through
ce ntur ies. They ha ve deve lope d tradi tion al
knowledge which pass on from generation to
generation and specialize in maintenance of particular
breeds. There are nearly thirty pastoral communities
in India located particularly in northern and western
part of the country (Roy and Singh, 2013). Based on
the practice followed by these pastoral communities
in various regions, the grazing systems may be
categorized in four grazing systems based on patterns
of migration depending upon the period/season, viz.
total nomadism, semi nomadism, transhumance and
partial nomadism. Mostly nomads rear small
ruminants like Sheep and goats. Goats are among the
earliest animal domesticated around 10 to 11 thousand
years ago (Joshi et al., 2004). They are reared as a
multipurpose animal for producing meat, milk,
manure etc. They are important for livelihood of
landless, small and marginal farmers who maintain
them on pasture based grazing resources.
Fodder resources: The data/estimates of fodder
production by different agencies in the country vary
widely. The three major sources of fodder supply are
crop residues, cultivated fodder from arable land
(irrigated and rainfed) and fodder from common
property resources (like forests, permanent pastures,
grazing lands etc.).
Cultivated fodder: Fodder is cultivated on
approximately 5 per cent of the gross cropped area in
the country, which has remained nearly same over the
last few decades. In states of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat
and some parts of Rajasthan, more area is under green
fodder production and the livestock productivity in
these states are the highest. There is a need for
restructuring the land use strategy to increase the fodder
production to about 10%. Sorghum, Berseem, Lucerne,
Maize, Bajra, fodder cowpea and oats are the major
fodders grown and are cultivated in more than 50 % of
the land under fodder. Perennial grasses like Bajra x
Napier hybrid, Guinea grass, Bracharia grass, Marvel
grass, Setaria grass, rye grass etc. are also cultivated in
large scale in their respective area of adoption. Similarly
perennial legumes like Desmanthus, Stylosanthes,
Clitoria etc. are also cultivated on poor and marginal
land of southern states.
grazing and cultivation. Similarly, about 60 genera
and 400 species of Leguminosae are reported out of
which 21 genera are useful as forage. The main centers
of genetic diversity are peninsular India (for tropical
types) and North-Eastern Region (for sub-tropical
types) besides some micro-centers for certain species
(Bhagmal et al., 2009).
Cultivated fodders and gathered grasses are two
important sources of green fodder and each account
for about half of the green fodder consumption
Common grazing lands (permanent pastures and
grazing lands, cultivable and uncultivable wastelands,
fallows other than current fallows) occupy nearly 16
per cent of the total geographical area, which is
gradually decreasing over the years. Area under
permanent pastures and grazing lands comprises a
mere 3.3% of the total area, and has been declining
steadily. The forest cover is to the tune of 21.54% of
which more than 85% are protected and these lands
used to be a major grazing area for livestock rearing
communities.
Land available for cultivation of green fodder crops in
India has remained static at around 5% of the total
cropped area for the last few decades. Although in few
states of the country it is more. Thus the supply of feed
resources has always remained short of normative
requirement, resulting in non-realization of the true
production potential of livestock. Indeed, the actual
milk yield of bovine animals is reported to be 26-51%
below the attainable yield under field conditions,
which otherwise could have been realized with better
feeding, breeding and disease management (Dikshit
and Birthal, 2010).
Per animal productivity
The productivity of livestock often remains low in
Indian condition, which is 20 to 60% lower than the
global average. The major reason perceived is
deficiency of feed and fodder followed by health,
breeding / reproduction and management. Around 80%
of the livestock are with marginal, small and medium
holdings farmers under rainfed situation, whereas,
small ruminants are mostly reared under nomadic
(30%) and sedentary (70%) systems. Fodder feed issues
needs to be addressed, because the feed alone
constitutes 60 to 70% of the milk production cost. Thus,
any attempt towards enhancing livestock productivity
should consider the feed availability. A balanced diet is
required to keep an animal healthy and productive
.
2 3
Over the past 5 decades significant advancement has
been made by ICAR and SAUs in development of new
technologies in the form of varieties, production and
protection technologies which have very high
production potential. Efforts to disseminate these
technologies to the farmers and livestock keepers
have succeeded significantly in improving the
productivity of the areas allocated for fodder
production. Similarly alternate land use system
technologies have increased the productivity of poor,
marginal or wasteland. ICAR-IGFRI and AICRP on
Forage Crops & Utilization have taken lead role and
more than 330 high yielding varieties in different
fodder crops have been released and notified so far.
This has greatly changed the fodder availability
scenario in last decade and more and more farmers are
being attracted towards fodder cultivation. Green
fodder is making the dairying more profitable by
reducing the need of costly concentrates.
Crop Residues: Among different resources, crop
residues are major one and generally defined as
feedstuffs, which are bulky and contain higher fibre
content (18%). These form the bulk of feeding
resources meeting more than 50% of the livestock
sector demand in the country. It depends on the
agricultural main crop and varies from season to
season and region to region. In eastern and coastal
belt, rice straw is the major residue whereas in
northern and central part wheat straw constitutes the
major ingredient of livestock feeding. In Sorghum,
Pearl millet, Guar, maize stover forms the bulk of
animal feeding in western and peninsular India.
Similarly pulse straw, groundnut haulm, sugarcane
top, vegetable, horticultural waste, top feed, kitchen
waste etc. also form important component of feeding
especially in household dairies and peri-urban diaries.
Cereal straw is inferior in quality as compared to the
leguminous straw. The increase in the availability of
crop residues over the years has largely been due to
increase in production of paddy, wheat and other crops
resulting in higher grain production and consequently
higher availability of straws from these crops.
Concentrates: Concentrate feeds which include oil
seed cakes, crushed pulses, grains, wheat and
ricebran, husk etc are also very important feed
resource as they are rich in energy-yielding nutrients.
It has been reported that 2% of wheat, 10% of maize,
1% of rice, 5% of barley, sorghum, pearl millet and
finger millet are fed to the animals (Chand et al.,
2015). In addition to the grains, a good quantity of
wheat bran and rice polish become available to
animals, which are around 6% and 3% of total wheat
and rice production, respectively. Oilseed cakes like
rapeseed, mustard, sunflower, soybean, groundnut,
linseed, sesamum, nigerseed and cottonseed cakes are
important and it has been reported that about 85% of
these oil seed cake production becomes available for
livestock population. However, at present the
estimated annual availability of total concentrate feed
is only 61 million tonnes against a demand of 96
million tonnes, indicating a deficit of 36% at national
level (Anonymous, 2018).
Fodder from other resources
Grazing resources in India: In India, grazing based
livestock husbandry continues to play an important
role in rural economy of the country as around 50 per
cent animals depend on grazing in forests and other
grazing areas in many parts of the country. In India
about 40% of total area is available for grazing of
livestock in some form or other round the year or
during year or particular period. In some state viz.
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya,
Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh the grazing land are
available even over 70%. Most of our pastures are
monsoon based and provide sufficient green fodder
for 4-5 months during monsoon and additionally one
to two months as dry fodder or fodder from trees or
shrubs. After winter rains also they also provide
limited quantity of fodder. The grazing intensity in the
country is as high as 12.6 adult cattle units (ACU)/ha
as against 0.8 ACU/ha in developed countries.
Therefore, improvement of pastures, as well as
judicious implementation of grazing management is
required.
Pasture land: This is the main grazing resources of
the country. 10.26 million ha area comprising 3.3% of
the geographical area of the country are under
permanent pasture. Furthermore, 3.10 million ha or
1.0% of total geographical areas are under
miscellaneous tree crops and groves. In the hilly state
like Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir,
or central and western parts like Karnataka, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat, the
pasture lands are more prominent In northern region,
the pasture lands of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh provide good quality
.
4
large area of cultivated wasteland belongs to
Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. The large
proportion of cultivated wasteland viz. ravine areas,
water logged areas, saline and alkaline lands, shrubs
and bushes infested lands and riverine lands has a
great potential to provide valuable fodder for
livestock.
Fallow lands: 26.18 million ha of land constituting
8.5% of the total land area of India is under fallow
land. Majority of this land is situated in Nagaland,
Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Rajasthan. These
fallow lands actually are the cultivated lands which
could not be utilised for cultivation due to scanty
rainfall in some areas viz., Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh, Rajasthan or due to heavy rain in Meghalaya,
Nagaland, Bihar etc.
Non-agricultural land: It includes the side of railway
tract, roads and canals, dams or bunds and river banks
etc. and provide considerable amount of forage for the
grazing of livestock, such lands near the villages are
used by animals for grazing especially the small
ruminants.
Miscellaneous tree crops and groves: 3.10 million
ha or1.0% of the total geographical area of India, is
under this category. Such type of grazing resources is
mainly found in NEH region.
Top feed: Leaves from fodder trees/ shrubs are
important feeding resource especially in hills and arid
zone. It is the main feeding component of small
ruminants like goat. In household practice also tree
leaves are fed to the animals.
Alternate land use Silvipasture/hortipasture
management
Alternate land use systems like Silvipasture /
hortipasture is being practiced in big scale as it
integrate the concerns for productivity, conservation
of resources and environment and profitability.
Silvipastures/ hortipasture integrate pasture and/or
animals with trees/ fruit trees. This system aims at
optimizing land productivity, conserving plants, soils
and nutrients and producing forage, timber, fruit and
firewood on a sustainable basis. The biodynamics of
system involves four major distinct life forms, viz., the
herbaceous vegetation (mostly grasses and legumes),
the woody foraging component /fruit component
(fodder /fruit trees), the domesticated animals
surviving on the vegetation, and the human being. It is
pasture in the form of green meadows and pasture for
livestock grazing. The alpine meadows have an
important economic value as it provides pasture for
the sheep and goats of migratory livestock owners.
Occurrence of both tropical pasture in lower hill and
temperate pasture at higher altitude is a common
phenomenon in the pasture of this region. In western
region, a vast area of pasture land provides good
quality fodder for livestock in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
In Peninsular India, pastures from the Deccan plateau
in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
Telangana, Tamil Nadu are poor yielders and can not
sustain the mixed herd grazing. The tract is rocky
strewn with boulders and gravels and annual rainfall is
less than 50 cm. In eastern region, most of the states
under this region viz. Manipur, Tripura, West Bengal
and Bihar have less pasture land. Due to tropical
monsoon climate, active growth in grazing lands
occurs only during monsoon months. It leads to
surplus fodder available during rainy months and
deficits of various levels in other months (source
various IGFRI publications).
In view of the high grazing intensity in the country the
task to deal with such situation is two fold i)
improvement of pastures, and ii) judi cious
implementation of grazing management policies.
Forest land: 21.54% of India's geographical area i.e.
about 70.83 million ha is covered by forest as per 2017
data(Agriculture Research Databook 2018). This
provides valuable grazing resources for livestock.
Several states have a sizable area under forests viz.
Arunachal Pradesh (79.96%), Tripura (73.68%),
Odisha (32.98%), Sikkim (47.13%), Meghalaya
(76.45%), Madhya Pradesh (25.11%), Kerala
(52.30%), Manipur (77.69%), Himachal Pradesh
(27.12%), Nagaland (75.33%), Assam (35.83%),
Chatsigarh (41.09%), Goa (60.21%), Jharkhand
(29.55%), Karnataka (19.58%), Mizoram (86.27%),
Tamil Nadu (20.21%), Telangana (18.22%),
Uttarakhand (45.43%) (Agriculture Research
Databook 2018). Livestock could not effectively
utilize the fodder from the forest of north-eastern hilly
region due to its dense nature. The forest land of
Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh have a fairly wide spread pasture
support the grazing of large number of livestock.
Cultivated wasteland: 12.47 million ha or 4.1% of
India's geographical area is under this category. The
5
associated with soil and climate to compliment the
diversity. These systems offer an ecologically viable
and sound approach. The tree lopping/ pruning are
also used as top feeds. It has been possible to increase
land productivity from 0.5-1.5 t/ha/year to > 15 t/ha/yr
by developing suitable silvipasture models. Now, the
concept of hortipasture is also gaining popularity with
the farmers for utilizing their degraded lands. The
additional forage availability through such systems is
likely to reduce grazing pressure and thus have
important environmental implications.
Need for revisiting estimation
India's livestock sector offers considerable scope for
enhancement as far as productivity is concerned. Our
cattle and buffalo produce less than 1000 kg of milk
per lactation as compared to 4500 kg in Europe, more
than 7000 kg in the United States and 10,000 kg in
Israel. The low productivity of livestock is due to
various reasons and inadequate supplies of quality
feeds and fodder is one of the major reasons. Hence
there is considerable scope of increasing or attaining
the genetic potential of our superior indigenous breeds
as well as judicious utilization of exotic breeds. In this
scenario, quantification of existing feed resources is
necessary for the development of efficient feeding
strategies and for the judicious utilization of available
feed resources, besides, planning to develop a feed
security system in the country covering all the states.
Thus efforts were made to develop a more realistic
methodology and estimates of feed resource availability
and requirement in the country at state level.
It has been observed that non-availability of adequate
feed resources is the main limiting factor in improving
livestock productivity. However, reliable estimates on
demand and supply of feed resources are not
available, though few attempts were made earlier to
estimate availability of different types of feed
resources and their requirements at the national level.
But these studies have assumed that the availability of
different feeds is equal to their production; and
production is equal to actual consumption, thus
enabling to claim that the gap between availability and
nutritional requirement is the gap between actual
consumption and requirement. However, these
assumptions are not always true and needs to be
reconsidered with better logical assumptions and
actual supportive data.
The present effort is an attempt to revisit the state wise
fodder availability (both green and dry from various
possible sources) vis a vis demand from different
categories of livestock and emerging deficit /surplus
situation. Since the multiplicity of agro-climatic zone,
land use pattern, rainfall pattern varies from state to
state, the various assumptions have been made to
estimate the production of green fodder. Data from
various government and other source publications
have been taken to estimate the dry forage or crop
residue availability.
Present estimation is based on primary as well as
secondary data. State level data with respect to land
use, area and production under different crops and
livestock population were collected from various
published (including Government publications) and
unpublished sources including different centres of
AICRP on Forage Crops, situated in different states of
the country.
For ease of data interpretation, the country wide data
is grouped in seven groups. Others group (comprising
of small states and Union Territories). North eastern
hill states (eight states including Assam), hill states
(J&K, Uttarakhand and HP), north (Punjab and
Haryana), east (WB, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar), West
(Maharashtra, Goa, Rajasthan, Gujarat), South
(Andhra Pradesh including Telangana, Kerala, Tamil
Nadu and Karnataka). The results are interpreted both
state wise and group wise.
Livestock scenario in country: Zone wise analysis :
The state wise livestock population as per Livestock
Census 2012 for Cattle, Buffaloes, Goat, Sheep, Yak
and Mithun were converted into ACU (Adult Cattle
Unit – 350 kg body weight) for ease of calculation and
estimation. The weight of different categories of
animals based on age, sex, species etc. were
considered as per standard norms (Nivsarkar et al.,
2000, Singhal et al., 2005, Arora, 1992, Kumbhare et
al. (1983) and Raju et al. (2018)) with modifications.
(Table A). The total ACU worked out for around 500
million numbers of livestock was calculated to be
approximately 232 million for exotic and Indigenous
cattle, Buffaloes, Goat, Sheep, Yak and Mithun
(Tables 1 & 2). Livestock pattern across the states
shows variable picture with less density in a few
states.
4
large area of cultivated wasteland belongs to
Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. The large
proportion of cultivated wasteland viz. ravine areas,
water logged areas, saline and alkaline lands, shrubs
and bushes infested lands and riverine lands has a
great potential to provide valuable fodder for
livestock.
Fallow lands: 26.18 million ha of land constituting
8.5% of the total land area of India is under fallow
land. Majority of this land is situated in Nagaland,
Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Rajasthan. These
fallow lands actually are the cultivated lands which
could not be utilised for cultivation due to scanty
rainfall in some areas viz., Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh, Rajasthan or due to heavy rain in Meghalaya,
Nagaland, Bihar etc.
Non-agricultural land: It includes the side of railway
tract, roads and canals, dams or bunds and river banks
etc. and provide considerable amount of forage for the
grazing of livestock, such lands near the villages are
used by animals for grazing especially the small
ruminants.
Miscellaneous tree crops and groves: 3.10 million
ha or1.0% of the total geographical area of India, is
under this category. Such type of grazing resources is
mainly found in NEH region.
Top feed: Leaves from fodder trees/ shrubs are
important feeding resource especially in hills and arid
zone. It is the main feeding component of small
ruminants like goat. In household practice also tree
leaves are fed to the animals.
Alternate land use Silvipasture/hortipasture
management
Alternate land use systems like Silvipasture /
hortipasture is being practiced in big scale as it
integrate the concerns for productivity, conservation
of resources and environment and profitability.
Silvipastures/ hortipasture integrate pasture and/or
animals with trees/ fruit trees. This system aims at
optimizing land productivity, conserving plants, soils
and nutrients and producing forage, timber, fruit and
firewood on a sustainable basis. The biodynamics of
system involves four major distinct life forms, viz., the
herbaceous vegetation (mostly grasses and legumes),
the woody foraging component /fruit component
(fodder /fruit trees), the domesticated animals
surviving on the vegetation, and the human being. It is
pasture in the form of green meadows and pasture for
livestock grazing. The alpine meadows have an
important economic value as it provides pasture for
the sheep and goats of migratory livestock owners.
Occurrence of both tropical pasture in lower hill and
temperate pasture at higher altitude is a common
phenomenon in the pasture of this region. In western
region, a vast area of pasture land provides good
quality fodder for livestock in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
In Peninsular India, pastures from the Deccan plateau
in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
Telangana, Tamil Nadu are poor yielders and can not
sustain the mixed herd grazing. The tract is rocky
strewn with boulders and gravels and annual rainfall is
less than 50 cm. In eastern region, most of the states
under this region viz. Manipur, Tripura, West Bengal
and Bihar have less pasture land. Due to tropical
monsoon climate, active growth in grazing lands
occurs only during monsoon months. It leads to
surplus fodder available during rainy months and
deficits of various levels in other months (source
various IGFRI publications).
In view of the high grazing intensity in the country the
task to deal with such situation is two fold i)
improvement of pastures, and ii) judicious
implementation of grazing management policies.
Forest land: 21.54% of India's geographical area i.e.
about 70.83 million ha is covered by forest as per 2017
data(Agriculture Research Databook 2018). This
provides valuable grazing resources for livestock.
Several states have a sizable area under forests viz.
Arunachal Pradesh (79.96%), Tripura (73.68%),
Odisha (32.98%), Sikkim (47.13%), Meghalaya
(76.45%), Madhya Pradesh (25.11%), Kerala
(52.30%), Manipur (77.69%), Himachal Pradesh
(27.12%), Nagaland (75.33%), Assam (35.83%),
Chatsigarh (41.09%), Goa (60.21%), Jharkhand
(29.55%), Karnataka (19.58%), Mizoram (86.27%),
Tamil Nadu (20.21%), Telangana (18.22%),
Uttarakhand (45.43%) (Agriculture Research
Databook 2018). Livestock could not effectively
utilize the fodder from the forest of north-eastern hilly
region due to its dense nature. The forest land of
Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh have a fairly wide spread pasture
support the grazing of large number of livestock.
Cultivated wasteland: 12.47 million ha or 4.1% of
India's geographical area is under this category. The
5
associated with soil and climate to compliment the
diversity. These systems offer an ecologically viable
and sound approach. The tree lopping/ pruning are
also used as top feeds. It has been possible to increase
land productivity from 0.5-1.5 t/ha/year to > 15 t/ha/yr
by developing suitable silvipasture models. Now, the
concept of hortipasture is also gaining popularity with
the farmers for utilizing their degraded lands. The
additional forage availability through such systems is
likely to reduce grazing pressure and thus have
important environmental implications.
Need for revisiting estimation
India's livestock sector offers considerable scope for
enhancement as far as productivity is concerned. Our
cattle and buffalo produce less than 1000 kg of milk
per lactation as compared to 4500 kg in Europe, more
than 7000 kg in the United States and 10,000 kg in
Israel. The low productivity of livestock is due to
various reasons and inadequate supplies of quality
feeds and fodder is one of the major reasons. Hence
there is considerable scope of increasing or attaining
the genetic potential of our superior indigenous breeds
as well as judicious utilization of exotic breeds. In this
scenario, quantification of existing feed resources is
necessary for the development of efficient feeding
strategies and for the judicious utilization of available
feed resources, besides, planning to develop a feed
security system in the country covering all the states.
Thus efforts were made to develop a more realistic
methodology and estimates of feed resource availability
and requirement in the country at state level.
It has been observed that non-availability of adequate
feed resources is the main limiting factor in improving
livestock productivity. However, reliable estimates on
demand and supply of feed resources are not
available, though few attempts were made earlier to
estimate availability of different types of feed
resources and their requirements at the national level.
But these studies have assumed that the availability of
different feeds is equal to their production; and
production is equal to actual consumption, thus
enabling to claim that the gap between availability and
nutritional requirement is the gap between actual
consumption and requirement. However, these
assumptions are not always true and needs to be
reconsidered with better logical assumptions and
actual supportive data.
The present effort is an attempt to revisit the state wise
fodder availability (both green and dry from various
possible sources) vis a vis demand from different
categories of livestock and emerging deficit /surplus
situation. Since the multiplicity of agro-climatic zone,
land use pattern, rainfall pattern varies from state to
state, the various assumptions have been made to
estimate the production of green fodder. Data from
various government and other source publications
have been taken to estimate the dry forage or crop
residue availability.
Present estimation is based on primary as well as
secondary data. State level data with respect to land
use, area and production under different crops and
livestock population were collected from various
published (including Government publications) and
unpublished sources including different centres of
AICRP on Forage Crops, situated in different states of
the country.
For ease of data interpretation, the country wide data
is grouped in seven groups. Others group (comprising
of small states and Union Territories). North eastern
hill states (eight states including Assam), hill states
(J&K, Uttarakhand and HP), north (Punjab and
Haryana), east (WB, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar), West
(Maharashtra, Goa, Rajasthan, Gujarat), South
(Andhra Pradesh including Telangana, Kerala, Tamil
Nadu and Karnataka). The results are interpreted both
state wise and group wise.
Livestock scenario in country: Zone wise analysis :
The state wise livestock population as per Livestock
Census 2012 for Cattle, Buffaloes, Goat, Sheep, Yak
and Mithun were converted into ACU (Adult Cattle
Unit – 350 kg body weight) for ease of calculation and
estimation. The weight of different categories of
animals based on age, sex, species etc. were
considered as per standard norms (Nivsarkar et al.,
2000, Singhal et al., 2005, Arora, 1992, Kumbhare et
al. (1983) and Raju et al. (2018)) with modifications.
(Table A). The total ACU worked out for around 500
million numbers of livestock was calculated to be
approximately 232 million for exotic and Indigenous
cattle, Buffaloes, Goat, Sheep, Yak and Mithun
(Tables 1 & 2). Livestock pattern across the states
shows variable picture with less density in a few
states.
Table 1: Total livestock population (in thousands)-Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun, Yak, Sheep and Goat
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Others including Union territories
A &N islands 16.1 29.5 7.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 65.3 118.8
Chandigarh 7.2 1.7 14.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 23.8
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0.7 41.2 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 4.2 50.3
Daman & Diu 0.1 2.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 4.6
Lakshadweep 0.8 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 46.5 49.6
NCT of Delhi 61.0 25.4 162.1 0.0 0.0 0.9 30.5 279.9
Puducherry 57.4 2.5 2.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 55.0 118.6
Total 143.3 104.6 190.6 0 0 2.7 204.4 645.6
NEH Zone
Arunachal Pradesh 23.2 440.5 6.0 249.0 14.1 13.5 305.5 1051.8
Assam 395.9 9911.7 435.3 0.0 0.0 518.1 6169.2 17430.2
Manipur 44.3 219.5 66.4 10.1 0.0 11.5 65.2 417
Meghalaya 35.2 860.8 22.1 0.0 0.0 20.1 473.1 1411.3
Mizoram 11.3 23.3 5.2 3.3 0.0 0.7 22.2 66
Nagaland 129.0 106.0 32.7 34.9 0.0 3.8 99.4 405.8
Sikkim 126.5 13.9 0.7 0.0 4.0 2.6 113.4 261.1
Tripura 133.1 815.7 10.8 0.0 0.0 3.1 610.9 1573.6
Total 898.5 12391.4 579.2 297.3 18.1 573.4 7858.9 22616.8
Hill zone
HP 983.9 1165.3 716.0 0.9 2.9 804.9 1119.5 4793.4
J&K 1469.7 1328.6 739.0 0.1 54.5 3389.5 2017.9 8999.3
Uttarakhand 497.6 1508.5 987.8 0.0 0.1 368.8 1367.4 4730.2
Total 2951.2 4002.4 2442.8 1 57.5 4563.2 4504.8 18522.9
North zone
Punjab 2064.6 363.1 5159.7 0.0 0.0 128.5 327.3 8043.2
Haryana 996.1 812.0 6085.3 0.0 0.0 362.6 369.1 8625.1
Total 3060.7 1175.1 11245 0 0 491.1 696.4 16668.3
West zone
Goa 17.5 40.0 31.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.0 102.3
Gujarat 1926.7 8057.3 10385.6 0.0 0.0 1707.8 4959.0 27036.4
Maharashtra 3650.9 11833.3 5594.4 0.0 0.0 2580.4 8435.3 32094.3
Rajasthan 1735.1 11589.4 12976.1 0.0 0.0 9079.7 21665.9 57046.2
Total 7330.2 31520 28987.9 0 0 13367.9 35073.2 116279.2
Central zone
Chhattisgarh 178.2 9636.7 1390.6 0.0 0.0 168.2 3225.3 14599
Uttar Pradesh 3579.0 15978.1 30625.3 0.0 0.0 1353.7 15585.6 67121.7
Madhya Pradesh 841.0 18761.4 8188.0 0.0 0.0 309.0 8013.9 36113.3
Total 4598.2 44376.2 40203.9 0 0 1830.9 26824.8 117834
East zone
Bihar 3475.1 8756.4 7567.2 0.0 0.0 232.5 12153.5 32184.7
Jharkhand 256.2 8473.9 1185.9 0.0 0.0 582.9 6581.4 17080.3
6
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Odisha 1305.8 10315.5 726.3 0.0 0.0 1581.1 6513.1 20441.8
West Bengal 2796.4 13717.8 597.4 0.0 1.1 1076.1 11506.0 29694.8
Total 7833.5 41263.6 10076.8 0 1.1 3472.6 36754 99401.6
South zone
Andhra Pradesh 2397.5 7198.5 10622.8 0.0 0.0 26395.6 9071.2 55685.6
Karnataka 2912.5 6604.0 3470.5 0.0 0.0 9583.8 4796.1 27366.9
Kerala 1251.6 77.0 102.3 0.0 0.0 1.4 1246.1 2678.4
Tamil Nadu 6354.5 2459.5 780.4 0.0 0.0 4786.7 8143.3 22524.4
Total 12916.1 16339 14976 0 0 40767.5 23256.7 108255.3
Grand Total 39731.8 151172.3 108702.1 298.3 76.7 65069.2 135173.1 500223.5
Source: Livestock census 2012 and Agricultural data book 2018
Table 2 : Livestock population converted to total ACU (in thousands)-Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun, Yak, Sheep
and Goat
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Others including Union territories
A &N islands 10 19 9 0 0 0 3 41
Chandigarh 5 1 14 0 0 0 0 20
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0 29 4 0 0 0 0 33
Daman & Diu 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Lakshadweep 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 4
NCT of Delhi 38 15 152 0 0 0 2 207
Puducherry 37 2 2 0 0 0 3 44
Total 91 68 181 0 0 0 10 350
NEH Zone
Arunachal Pradesh 15 265 6 257 11 1 16 571
Assam 234 6228 443 0 0 35 329 7269
Manipur 28 131 66 11 0 1 3 240
Meghalaya 25 551 25 0 0 1 25 627
Mizoram 7 14 5 3 0 0 1 30
Nagaland 83 64 32 36 0 0 5 220
Sikkim 82 8 1 0 4 0 6 101
Tripura 79 494 11 0 0 0 31 615
Total 553 7755 589 307 15 38 416 9673
Hill zone
Himachal Pradesh 672 794 670 1 3 57 59 2256
Jammu & Kashmir 926 830 690 0 47 233 105 2831
Uttarakhand 318 975 940 0 0 26 72 2331
Total 1916 2599 2300 1 50 316 236 7418
North zone
Punjab 1414 253 4701 0 0 9 17 6394
7
Table 1: Total livestock population (in thousands)-Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun, Yak, Sheep and Goat
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Others including Union territories
A &N islands 16.1 29.5 7.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 65.3 118.8
Chandigarh 7.2 1.7 14.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 23.8
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0.7 41.2 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 4.2 50.3
Daman & Diu 0.1 2.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 4.6
Lakshadweep 0.8 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 46.5 49.6
NCT of Delhi 61.0 25.4 162.1 0.0 0.0 0.9 30.5 279.9
Puducherry 57.4 2.5 2.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 55.0 118.6
Total 143.3 104.6 190.6 0 0 2.7 204.4 645.6
NEH Zone
Arunachal Pradesh 23.2 440.5 6.0 249.0 14.1 13.5 305.5 1051.8
Assam 395.9 9911.7 435.3 0.0 0.0 518.1 6169.2 17430.2
Manipur 44.3 219.5 66.4 10.1 0.0 11.5 65.2 417
Meghalaya 35.2 860.8 22.1 0.0 0.0 20.1 473.1 1411.3
Mizoram 11.3 23.3 5.2 3.3 0.0 0.7 22.2 66
Nagaland 129.0 106.0 32.7 34.9 0.0 3.8 99.4 405.8
Sikkim 126.5 13.9 0.7 0.0 4.0 2.6 113.4 261.1
Tripura 133.1 815.7 10.8 0.0 0.0 3.1 610.9 1573.6
Total 898.5 12391.4 579.2 297.3 18.1 573.4 7858.9 22616.8
Hill zone
HP 983.9 1165.3 716.0 0.9 2.9 804.9 1119.5 4793.4
J&K 1469.7 1328.6 739.0 0.1 54.5 3389.5 2017.9 8999.3
Uttarakhand 497.6 1508.5 987.8 0.0 0.1 368.8 1367.4 4730.2
Total 2951.2 4002.4 2442.8 1 57.5 4563.2 4504.8 18522.9
North zone
Punjab 2064.6 363.1 5159.7 0.0 0.0 128.5 327.3 8043.2
Haryana 996.1 812.0 6085.3 0.0 0.0 362.6 369.1 8625.1
Total 3060.7 1175.1 11245 0 0 491.1 696.4 16668.3
West zone
Goa 17.5 40.0 31.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.0 102.3
Gujarat 1926.7 8057.3 10385.6 0.0 0.0 1707.8 4959.0 27036.4
Maharashtra 3650.9 11833.3 5594.4 0.0 0.0 2580.4 8435.3 32094.3
Rajasthan 1735.1 11589.4 12976.1 0.0 0.0 9079.7 21665.9 57046.2
Total 7330.2 31520 28987.9 0 0 13367.9 35073.2 116279.2
Central zone
Chhattisgarh 178.2 9636.7 1390.6 0.0 0.0 168.2 3225.3 14599
Uttar Pradesh 3579.0 15978.1 30625.3 0.0 0.0 1353.7 15585.6 67121.7
Madhya Pradesh 841.0 18761.4 8188.0 0.0 0.0 309.0 8013.9 36113.3
Total 4598.2 44376.2 40203.9 0 0 1830.9 26824.8 117834
East zone
Bihar 3475.1 8756.4 7567.2 0.0 0.0 232.5 12153.5 32184.7
Jharkhand 256.2 8473.9 1185.9 0.0 0.0 582.9 6581.4 17080.3
6
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Odisha 1305.8 10315.5 726.3 0.0 0.0 1581.1 6513.1 20441.8
West Bengal 2796.4 13717.8 597.4 0.0 1.1 1076.1 11506.0 29694.8
Total 7833.5 41263.6 10076.8 0 1.1 3472.6 36754 99401.6
South zone
Andhra Pradesh 2397.5 7198.5 10622.8 0.0 0.0 26395.6 9071.2 55685.6
Karnataka 2912.5 6604.0 3470.5 0.0 0.0 9583.8 4796.1 27366.9
Kerala 1251.6 77.0 102.3 0.0 0.0 1.4 1246.1 2678.4
Tamil Nadu 6354.5 2459.5 780.4 0.0 0.0 4786.7 8143.3 22524.4
Total 12916.1 16339 14976 0 0 40767.5 23256.7 108255.3
Grand Total 39731.8 151172.3 108702.1 298.3 76.7 65069.2 135173.1 500223.5
Source: Livestock census 2012 and Agricultural data book 2018
Table 2 : Livestock population converted to total ACU (in thousands)-Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun, Yak, Sheep
and Goat
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Others including Union territories
A &N islands 10 19 9 0 0 0 3 41
Chandigarh 5 1 14 0 0 0 0 20
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0 29 4 0 0 0 0 33
Daman & Diu 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Lakshadweep 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 4
NCT of Delhi 38 15 152 0 0 0 2 207
Puducherry 37 2 2 0 0 0 3 44
Total 91 68 181 0 0 0 10 350
NEH Zone
Arunachal Pradesh 15 265 6 257 11 1 16 571
Assam 234 6228 443 0 0 35 329 7269
Manipur 28 131 66 11 0 1 3 240
Meghalaya 25 551 25 0 0 1 25 627
Mizoram 7 14 5 3 0 0 1 30
Nagaland 83 64 32 36 0 0 5 220
Sikkim 82 8 1 0 4 0 6 101
Tripura 79 494 11 0 0 0 31 615
Total 553 7755 589 307 15 38 416 9673
Hill zone
Himachal Pradesh 672 794 670 1 3 57 59 2256
Jammu & Kashmir 926 830 690 0 47 233 105 2831
Uttarakhand 318 975 940 0 0 26 72 2331
Total 1916 2599 2300 1 50 316 236 7418
North zone
Punjab 1414 253 4701 0 0 9 17 6394
7
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Haryana 636 514 5255 0 0 25 19 6449
Total 2050 767 9956 0 0 34 36 12843
West zone
Goa 12 26 31 0 0 0 1 70
Gujarat 1263 5207 9303 0 0 120 258 16151
Maharashtra 2509 8170 5431 0 0 180 433 16723
Rajasthan 1094 6996 11429 0 0 626 1115 21260
Total 4878 20399 26194 0 0 926 1807 54204
Central zone
Chhattisgarh 115 6391 1595 0 0 12 169 8282
Uttar Pradesh 2280 9511 27420 0 0 94 807 40112
Madhya Pradesh 524 12009 7373 0 0 21 415 20342
Total 2919 27911 36388 0 0 127 1391 68736
East zone
Bihar 2225 5285 6518 0 0 16 629 14673
Jharkhand 170 5702 1314 0 0 41 345 7572
Odisha 816 6795 793 0 0 111 341 8856
West Bengal 1657 8012 701 0 1 72 595 11038
Total 4868 25794 9326 0 1 240 1910 42139
South zone
Andhra Pradesh 1537 4782 9491 0 0 1831 469 18110
Karnataka 1982 4360 3242 0 0 670 249 10503
Kerala 772 42 74 0 0 0 62 950
Tamil Nadu 4077 1494 716 0 0 330 420 7037
Total 8368 10678 13523 0 0 2831 1200 36600
Grand Total 25644 95972 98458 308 66 4513 7006 231967
accounts for 28.17% of buffalo population followed
by Rajasthan (11.94%), undivided Andhra Pradesh
(9.77%) and Gujarat (9.55%). In two states of Punjab
and Haryana, 10.34 % of buffalo population in found.
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka also have
good number of buffaloes. In Hills and NEH buffalo
population is very less.
Sheep is predominant in undivided Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Undivided J &K
and Gujarat etc. Goat is reared mainly in Rajasthan
(28.17%), UP (11.53%), Bihar (8.99%), WB
(8.51%) etc. Among the NEH states, Assam
accounts for nearly 78% of total goat population of
NEH region. Small ruminants are very less in Punjab
and Haryana.
Mithun is reported from NEH states mainly in
Arunachal Pradesh and also from Himachal Pradesh.
Out of a total cattle population, 151 million are
indigenous and nearly 40 million are exotic. In Punjab
and Haryana exotic cattle outnumber indigenous in
large way and these are states which are leader in milk
production also. In other small states, exotic cattle are
more because of peri-urban dairies. In HP and J&K
also the exotic cattle are nearly at par with indigenous
ones. In the western states, in Gujarat, Maharashtra
and Rajasthan cattle are high in number. In eastern
zone, the exotic cattle are only 16% of the total cattle
population, only in Bihar the exotic cattle are 28 % of
total cattle of state. Overall country scenario indicates
that exotic cattle are 20.8% of total cattle population in
the country. Most of the indigenous cattle are of non-
descript type and are generally low milk yielder.
Population distribution pattern of buffaloes show a
skewed distribution pattern. Uttar Pradesh alone
8
The total population was found to be 308 thousand.
Similarly Yak is reported from Western Hills and NEH
regions only. The total Yak population was found to be
65 thousand of which majority lies in Ladakh region.
Green and dry fodder requirement:
The capacity of consumption for the appetite of the
animal is measured by the amount of dry matter in the
diet, which an animal can consume. The requirement
for green, dry forage and concentrate was done in
consultation with subject Matter Specialists and the
standard published norms. Various factors like age,
milking or non-milking state, gender, working nature,
feeding practices etc. were taken into consideration
(Table B). For cattle and buffaloes total dry matter
requirement was worked out to ranging from 1.8% to
2.8% of body weight depending on the age, sex, nature
of work etc. Similarly for sheep and goat it was
estimated to be 3.0% for 1.0 years and 3.5% for more
than 1 year age group. For Yak and Mithun found only
in NEH region, the dry matter intake was estimated to
be 1.8% for all categories. The feeding ration was
estimated to be combination of green fodder, dry
matter and concentrates in varying proportion ranging
from 40 to 80% for crop residue, 10 to 30% for green
fodder and 10 to 30% for concentrates. (Table B).
The total dry matter demand of livestock was worked
out and it was converted into green, dry and concentrate
requirement. Based on the above mentioned factors, the
estimate for total green fodder requirement, dry fodder
requirements and concentrate from these six categories
of livestock was worked out to be 827.19, 426.11, 85.78
million tonnes respectively. (Table 3)
pattern based forage availability from non-cultivable
land including pasture, fallow, forest etc. The total
green fodder availability was worked out to be 734.2
million tonnes from various sources of which forage
from cultivated land was 88.0%. Table 4 presents
details of green fodder availability status as well as
deficit/surplus scenario. Figure 1 presents the
contribution of different sources in total green fodder
availability.
Table 3 : Total feed and fodder requirement estimate (in thousand tonnes)
Assumption for dry matter – 20% of green fodder; 90% of crop residue and concentrate.
Livestock Green Fodder Dry fodder Concentrate
Cattle 368086 214580 39394
Buffalo 376637 186566 39021
Sheep 29186 8648 2592
Goat 52636 15596 4674
Mithun 531 590 79
Yak 113 126 17
Total 827189 426106 85777
Deficit and surplus scenario: zone wise and state
wise:
Estimates of green fodder availability /requirement
in India: Estimation of green fodder was made from
the resources like forage crops, grasses from forest,
pastures and grazing lands, cultivable wasteland, etc.
The data on area under fodder crops, both irrigated as
well as unirrigated, forest, pasture and grazing lands
and cultivable wasteland were collected from Land
Utilization Statistics published by Government
agencies and other unpublished reliable sources.
The state wise availability of green forages was
estimated based on the cultivated area under forage,
cropping intensity, productivity etc. Availability of
green fodder from fallow land, wasteland, forest
fringe areas, social forestry and pasture land was also
taken into account. The yield estimate details are
given in table DD and was based on penetration of
technologies, rainfed and irrigated conditions, rainfall Figure 1: Contribution of different sources to
green fodder availability
9
State/UT Cattle Buffalo Mithun Yak Sheep Goat Total
Exotic Indigenous
Haryana 636 514 5255 0 0 25 19 6449
Total 2050 767 9956 0 0 34 36 12843
West zone
Goa 12 26 31 0 0 0 1 70
Gujarat 1263 5207 9303 0 0 120 258 16151
Maharashtra 2509 8170 5431 0 0 180 433 16723
Rajasthan 1094 6996 11429 0 0 626 1115 21260
Total 4878 20399 26194 0 0 926 1807 54204
Central zone
Chhattisgarh 115 6391 1595 0 0 12 169 8282
Uttar Pradesh 2280 9511 27420 0 0 94 807 40112
Madhya Pradesh 524 12009 7373 0 0 21 415 20342
Total 2919 27911 36388 0 0 127 1391 68736
East zone
Bihar 2225 5285 6518 0 0 16 629 14673
Jharkhand 170 5702 1314 0 0 41 345 7572
Odisha 816 6795 793 0 0 111 341 8856
West Bengal 1657 8012 701 0 1 72 595 11038
Total 4868 25794 9326 0 1 240 1910 42139
South zone
Andhra Pradesh 1537 4782 9491 0 0 1831 469 18110
Karnataka 1982 4360 3242 0 0 670 249 10503
Kerala 772 42 74 0 0 0 62 950
Tamil Nadu 4077 1494 716 0 0 330 420 7037
Total 8368 10678 13523 0 0 2831 1200 36600
Grand Total 25644 95972 98458 308 66 4513 7006 231967
accounts for 28.17% of buffalo population followed
by Rajasthan (11.94%), undivided Andhra Pradesh
(9.77%) and Gujarat (9.55%). In two states of Punjab
and Haryana, 10.34 % of buffalo population in found.
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka also have
good number of buffaloes. In Hills and NEH buffalo
population is very less.
Sheep is predominant in undivided Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Undivided J &K
and Gujarat etc. Goat is reared mainly in Rajasthan
(28.17%), UP (11.53%), Bihar (8.99%), WB
(8.51%) etc. Among the NEH states, Assam
accounts for nearly 78% of total goat population of
NEH region. Small ruminants are very less in Punjab
and Haryana.
Mithun is reported from NEH states mainly in
Arunachal Pradesh and also from Himachal Pradesh.
Out of a total cattle population, 151 million are
indigenous and nearly 40 million are exotic. In Punjab
and Haryana exotic cattle outnumber indigenous in
large way and these are states which are leader in milk
production also. In other small states, exotic cattle are
more because of peri-urban dairies. In HP and J&K
also the exotic cattle are nearly at par with indigenous
ones. In the western states, in Gujarat, Maharashtra
and Rajasthan cattle are high in number. In eastern
zone, the exotic cattle are only 16% of the total cattle
population, only in Bihar the exotic cattle are 28 % of
total cattle of state. Overall country scenario indicates
that exotic cattle are 20.8% of total cattle population in
the country. Most of the indigenous cattle are of non-
descript type and are generally low milk yielder.
Population distribution pattern of buffaloes show a
skewed distribution pattern. Uttar Pradesh alone
8
The total population was found to be 308 thousand.
Similarly Yak is reported from Western Hills and NEH
regions only. The total Yak population was found to be
65 thousand of which majority lies in Ladakh region.
Green and dry fodder requirement:
The capacity of consumption for the appetite of the
animal is measured by the amount of dry matter in the
diet, which an animal can consume. The requirement
for green, dry forage and concentrate was done in
consultation with subject Matter Specialists and the
standard published norms. Various factors like age,
milking or non-milking state, gender, working nature,
feeding practices etc. were taken into consideration
(Table B). For cattle and buffaloes total dry matter
requirement was worked out to ranging from 1.8% to
2.8% of body weight depending on the age, sex, nature
of work etc. Similarly for sheep and goat it was
estimated to be 3.0% for 1.0 years and 3.5% for more
than 1 year age group. For Yak and Mithun found only
in NEH region, the dry matter intake was estimated to
be 1.8% for all categories. The feeding ration was
estimated to be combination of green fodder, dry
matter and concentrates in varying proportion ranging
from 40 to 80% for crop residue, 10 to 30% for green
fodder and 10 to 30% for concentrates. (Table B).
The total dry matter demand of livestock was worked
out and it was converted into green, dry and concentrate
requirement. Based on the above mentioned factors, the
estimate for total green fodder requirement, dry fodder
requirements and concentrate from these six categories
of livestock was worked out to be 827.19, 426.11, 85.78
million tonnes respectively. (Table 3)
pattern based forage availability from non-cultivable
land including pasture, fallow, forest etc. The total
green fodder availability was worked out to be 734.2
million tonnes from various sources of which forage
from cultivated land was 88.0%. Table 4 presents
details of green fodder availability status as well as
deficit/surplus scenario. Figure 1 presents the
contribution of different sources in total green fodder
availability.
Table 3 : Total feed and fodder requirement estimate (in thousand tonnes)
Assumption for dry matter – 20% of green fodder; 90% of crop residue and concentrate.
Livestock Green Fodder Dry fodder Concentrate
Cattle 368086 214580 39394
Buffalo 376637 186566 39021
Sheep 29186 8648 2592
Goat 52636 15596 4674
Mithun 531 590 79
Yak 113 126 17
Total 827189 426106 85777
Deficit and surplus scenario: zone wise and state
wise:
Estimates of green fodder availability /requirement
in India: Estimation of green fodder was made from
the resources like forage crops, grasses from forest,
pastures and grazing lands, cultivable wasteland, etc.
The data on area under fodder crops, both irrigated as
well as unirrigated, forest, pasture and grazing lands
and cultivable wasteland were collected from Land
Utilization Statistics published by Government
agencies and other unpublished reliable sources.
The state wise availability of green forages was
estimated based on the cultivated area under forage,
cropping intensity, productivity etc. Availability of
green fodder from fallow land, wasteland, forest
fringe areas, social forestry and pasture land was also
taken into account. The yield estimate details are
given in table DD and was based on penetration of
technologies, rainfed and irrigated conditions, rainfall Figure 1: Contribution of different sources to
green fodder availability
9
Table 4 : Estimates of green fodder availability ('000t) and deficit/ surplus status
In '000 tonnes
State/ UT Source Total green Total green Percent Percent
Cultivated Cultivable Fallow Pasture Forest fodder fodder Availability Deficit(-)/
land wasteland land land availability requirement Surplus (+)
Others including UTs
A & N islands 23.2 1.2 2.4 28 60.7 115.4 144.1 80.1 -19.90
Chandigarh 1.9 0 0 0 0 1.9 87.4 2.1 -97.90
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 16.9 0 1.6 3.5 4.1 26.2 101.2 25.9 -74.10
Daman & Diu 2.1 0 0 0 0 2.1 6.6 32.5 -67.50
Lakshadweep 2.4 0 0 0 0 2.4 23.2 10.5 -89.50
NCT of Delhi 155.4 4 8 0 0 167.4 869.5 19.3 -80.70
Puducherry 13.6 2 3.2 0 0 18.8 170.9 11 -89.00
Total 215.6 7.2 15.2 31.5 64.8 334.4 1402.8 23.8 -76.20
NEH Zone
Arunachal Pradesh 238.2 24.8 40.4 126 1205.4 1634.8 1387.8 117.8 17.80
Assam 15918.8 56.8 70 818.3 1124.2 17988.1 22735.7 79.1 -20.90
Manipur 229.8 0.4 0 7 208.2 445.4 759.4 58.6 -41.40
Meghalaya 247 156 86 0 548.7 1037.6 1873.7 55.4 -44.60
Mizoram 87 2.8 69.6 77 36.4 272.8 97.3 280.3 180.30
Nagaland 390.9 27.2 59.6 0 99.9 577.6 692.6 83.4 -16.60
Tripura 548.6 1.2 1.2 7 247.2 805.2 1916.1 42 -58.00
Sikkim 143.6 1.6 4.8 0 40.1 190.1 369.6 51.5 -48.50
Total 17803.9 270.8 331.6 1035.3 3510 22951.6 29832.2 76.9 -23.10
Hill Zone
Himachal Pradesh 1073.1 48.8 30.4 10570 338.2 12060.6 8383.3 143.9 43.90
Jammu & Kashmir 2561.2 55.6 48.4 784 1812 5261.2 11194.4 47 -53.00
Uttarakhand 1804.9 126.8 57.6 1344 485.9 3819.2 8580.3 44.5 -55.50
Total 5439.3 231.2 136.4 12698 2636.1 21141 28157.9 75.1 -24.90
East Zone
Bihar 34799.3 18 403.2 73.5 105.1 35399.1 49406.6 71.6 -28.40
10 11
Jharkhand 3923.1 141.2 1002.8 558.6 2231.1 7856.8 24358.6 32.3 -67.70
Odisha 7176 220 619.6 3668 3594.2 15277.7 27700.6 55.2 -44.80
West Bengal 21511.8 6.8 140 14 539.1 22211.7 35915.8 61.8 -38.20
Total 67410.2 386 2165.6 4314.1 6469.5 80745.4 137381.6 58.8 -41.20
West Zone
Gujarat 56622.7 784 158 2978.5 177.1 60720.3 58371.6 104 4.00
Rajasthan 45248 1615.2 1570 5859 212.1 54504.3 80980.5 67.3 -32.70
Goa 115.7 21.2 6 7 13.4 163.2 248.1 65.8 -34.20
Maharashtra 63520.6 367.6 1034.8 4371.5 405.5 69700 57992.1 120.2 20.20
Total 165507 2788 2768.8 13216 808.1 185087.8 197592.3 93.67 -6.33
North Zone
Haryana 46703.6 6.8 43.2 87.5 0 46841.1 24074.5 194.6 94.60
Punjab 59577.08 2275 2560 1772 1050 67234.08 24873.3 270.3 170.30
Total 106280.7 2281.8 2603.2 1859.5 1050 114075.2 48947.8 233.05 133.05
Central Zone
Chhattisgarh 11217.7 140.4 210 3104.5 1666.4 16339 24430.8 66.9 -33.10
Madhya Pradesh 92323.3 404 348.4 4560.5 1548.3 99184.5 67264.6 147.5 47.50
Uttar Pradesh 113249.2 162 652.4 318.5 117.4 114499.5 149959.2 76.4 -23.60
Total 216790.2 706.4 1210.8 7983.5 3332.1 230023 241654.6 95.2 -4.80
South Zone
Andhra Pradesh 21334 156.4 904 749 3485.4 26628.8 71799.5 37.1 -62.90
Karnataka 26872.4 163.6 838.8 3164 841.1 31879.9 38959.3 81.8 -18.20
Kerala 3373.1 40.4 48 0 130.1 3591.6 3761.3 95.5 -4.50
Tamil Nadu 14915.6 130 1092.8 756 841 17735.4 27699.8 64 -36.00
Total 66495.1 490.4 2883.6 4669 5297.6 79835.7 142219.9 56.14 -43.86
All India
Total ('000t) 645941.8 7161.8 12115.2 45806.9 23168.3 734193.8 827189.3 88.75765 -11.24
Total ('million t) 645.94 7.16 12.11 45.81 23.17 734.19 827.19
Table 4 : Estimates of green fodder availability ('000t) and deficit/ surplus status
In '000 tonnes
State/ UT Source Total green Total green Percent Percent
Cultivated Cultivable Fallow Pasture Forest fodder fodder Availability Deficit(-)/
land wasteland land land availability requirement Surplus (+)
Others including UTs
A & N islands 23.2 1.2 2.4 28 60.7 115.4 144.1 80.1 -19.90
Chandigarh 1.9 0 0 0 0 1.9 87.4 2.1 -97.90
Dadra & Nagar Haveli 16.9 0 1.6 3.5 4.1 26.2 101.2 25.9 -74.10
Daman & Diu 2.1 0 0 0 0 2.1 6.6 32.5 -67.50
Lakshadweep 2.4 0 0 0 0 2.4 23.2 10.5 -89.50
NCT of Delhi 155.4 4 8 0 0 167.4 869.5 19.3 -80.70
Puducherry 13.6 2 3.2 0 0 18.8 170.9 11 -89.00
Total 215.6 7.2 15.2 31.5 64.8 334.4 1402.8 23.8 -76.20
NEH Zone
Arunachal Pradesh 238.2 24.8 40.4 126 1205.4 1634.8 1387.8 117.8 17.80
Assam 15918.8 56.8 70 818.3 1124.2 17988.1 22735.7 79.1 -20.90
Manipur 229.8 0.4 0 7 208.2 445.4 759.4 58.6 -41.40
Meghalaya 247 156 86 0 548.7 1037.6 1873.7 55.4 -44.60
Mizoram 87 2.8 69.6 77 36.4 272.8 97.3 280.3 180.30
Nagaland 390.9 27.2 59.6 0 99.9 577.6 692.6 83.4 -16.60
Tripura 548.6 1.2 1.2 7 247.2 805.2 1916.1 42 -58.00
Sikkim 143.6 1.6 4.8 0 40.1 190.1 369.6 51.5 -48.50
Total 17803.9 270.8 331.6 1035.3 3510 22951.6 29832.2 76.9 -23.10
Hill Zone
Himachal Pradesh 1073.1 48.8 30.4 10570 338.2 12060.6 8383.3 143.9 43.90
Jammu & Kashmir 2561.2 55.6 48.4 784 1812 5261.2 11194.4 47 -53.00
Uttarakhand 1804.9 126.8 57.6 1344 485.9 3819.2 8580.3 44.5 -55.50
Total 5439.3 231.2 136.4 12698 2636.1 21141 28157.9 75.1 -24.90
East Zone
Bihar 34799.3 18 403.2 73.5 105.1 35399.1 49406.6 71.6 -28.40
10 11
Jharkhand 3923.1 141.2 1002.8 558.6 2231.1 7856.8 24358.6 32.3 -67.70
Odisha 7176 220 619.6 3668 3594.2 15277.7 27700.6 55.2 -44.80
West Bengal 21511.8 6.8 140 14 539.1 22211.7 35915.8 61.8 -38.20
Total 67410.2 386 2165.6 4314.1 6469.5 80745.4 137381.6 58.8 -41.20
West Zone
Gujarat 56622.7 784 158 2978.5 177.1 60720.3 58371.6 104 4.00
Rajasthan 45248 1615.2 1570 5859 212.1 54504.3 80980.5 67.3 -32.70
Goa 115.7 21.2 6 7 13.4 163.2 248.1 65.8 -34.20
Maharashtra 63520.6 367.6 1034.8 4371.5 405.5 69700 57992.1 120.2 20.20
Total 165507 2788 2768.8 13216 808.1 185087.8 197592.3 93.67 -6.33
North Zone
Haryana 46703.6 6.8 43.2 87.5 0 46841.1 24074.5 194.6 94.60
Punjab 59577.08 2275 2560 1772 1050 67234.08 24873.3 270.3 170.30
Total 106280.7 2281.8 2603.2 1859.5 1050 114075.2 48947.8 233.05 133.05
Central Zone
Chhattisgarh 11217.7 140.4 210 3104.5 1666.4 16339 24430.8 66.9 -33.10
Madhya Pradesh 92323.3 404 348.4 4560.5 1548.3 99184.5 67264.6 147.5 47.50
Uttar Pradesh 113249.2 162 652.4 318.5 117.4 114499.5 149959.2 76.4 -23.60
Total 216790.2 706.4 1210.8 7983.5 3332.1 230023 241654.6 95.2 -4.80
South Zone
Andhra Pradesh 21334 156.4 904 749 3485.4 26628.8 71799.5 37.1 -62.90
Karnataka 26872.4 163.6 838.8 3164 841.1 31879.9 38959.3 81.8 -18.20
Kerala 3373.1 40.4 48 0 130.1 3591.6 3761.3 95.5 -4.50
Tamil Nadu 14915.6 130 1092.8 756 841 17735.4 27699.8 64 -36.00
Total 66495.1 490.4 2883.6 4669 5297.6 79835.7 142219.9 56.14 -43.86
All India
Total ('000t) 645941.8 7161.8 12115.2 45806.9 23168.3 734193.8 827189.3 88.75765 -11.24
Total ('million t) 645.94 7.16 12.11 45.81 23.17 734.19 827.19
133.05%. In both Punjab and Haryana, major source
of green fodder is cultivated land (59577.1 thousand
tonnes in Punjab and 46703.6 thousand tonnes in
Haryana) followed by pasture land in Haryana (87.5
thousand tonnes) and fallow land (2560 thousand
tonnes) in Punjab. The diaries are most profitable in
these states also with highest level of milk production
and productivity. In Punjab after Rice and Wheat,
maximum area under cultivation is occupied by
forages. Commercial dairies are in practice and they
also convert a large part of green fodder of maize as
silage. Technology adoption is also very high and
productivity of forage crops as well as cropping
intensity is highest among the country.
In West Zone, comprising of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Goa
an d M ahara shtra, while Guja rat (4%) an d
Maharashtra (20.2%) are surplus in green fodder
availability, on the other hand Rajasthan (32.7%) and
Goa (34.2%) are deficit in green fodder. In all these
states, major source of green fodder is from cultivated
land followed by pasture land in Gujarat, Rajasthan
and Maharashtra and cultivated wasteland in Goa.
Overall deficit of green fodder in west zone is 6.3 %.
In these states livestock rearing is in good practice.
The livestock product especially small ruminant's
meat is exported to nearby states.
In Central Zone, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh are
deficit in green fodder availability with a deficit of
33.1% and 23.6% respectively. Madhya Pradesh is
surplus in green fodder availability (47.5%). In all
these states major source of green fodder is from
cultivated land followed by pasture land in
Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh and fallow land in
Uttar Pradesh. Overall deficit of green fodder in
central zone is 4.8%.
In East Zone, comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha
and West Bengal, all the states are in deficit of green
fodder with maximum deficit occurring in Jharkhand
(67.7%) followed by Odisha (44.8%). In all these states
major source of green fodder is cultivated land followed
by pasture land in Odisha, forests land in Jharkhand and
West Bengal and fallow land in Bihar. Overall deficit of
green fodder in central zone is 41.2%. There is need of
introduction of new technologies and allocation of more
areas under forage especially rice fallow areas. The
productivity of animals and milk production is also very
less in this zone.
Among Other group including Union territories (UTs)
and Delhi, all UTs are in deficit of green fodder with
an overall deficit of 76.20%. Maximum deficit of
97.9% is in Chandigarh followed by Lakshadweep
(89.5%) and Puducherry (89%). Major source of
green fodder availability in this group is cultivated
land followed by forests and pasture land. The results
are as per expectation as very little penetration of
advanced technologies has taken place in most of UTs
like A&N islands, Puducherry, Daman & Diu etc. and
dairying is not a commercial enterprise in most of
these areas. In mega cities like Chandigarh and Delhi,
the supply of milk which is in high demand is met by
surrounding states and dairies are mostly dependent
on concentrate feedings. There is also cultivation of
green fodder with high input and purchase of dry
fodder from nearby villages.
In North East Zone, major source of green fodder
availability is cultivated land (17803.9 thousand
tonnes) followed by forests (3510 thousand tonnes)
and pasture land (1035 thousand tonnes). There exists
an overall deficit of 23.1% of green fodder in NEH
region. However, some of the states such as Mizoram
and Arunachal Pradesh are having surplus green
fodder. States which are most deficit in green fodder
availability are Tripura (58%) followed by Sikkim
(48.5%) and Meghalaya (44.6%). The situation in NE
states is quite different than rest of the country as the
major livestock commodity in demand is meat with
milk as secondary product. There is vast availability
of wasteland and forest land which are not utilized for
grazing etc. due to difficult terrain. The number of
animals reared for milk is very less.
In Hill Zone comprising of H.P., J & K and
Uttrakhand, there is an overall deficit of 24.9% in
green fodder availability. The per cent deficit in J&K
and Uttrakhand is 53 and 55.5 respectively. Himachal
Pradesh is surplus in green fodder (43.9%). Major
source of green fodder is pasture land (12698
thousand tonnes) followed by cultivated land (5439.3
thousand tonnes) and forests (2636.1 thousand
tonnes). Small ruminants form a major part of
livestock here and they are mostly dependent on
grazing lands. Nomadism and semi-nomadism is also
in practice in major part. The demand is also fulfilled
by top feeds and migration to nearby states.
In North Zone, Punjab and Haryana are surplus in
green fodder availability with overall surplus of
12
In South Zone, comprising of Andhra Pradesh
(including Telangana), Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil
Nadu, there is an overall deficit of 43.9% in green
fodder availability. All the four states in south zone are
deficit in green fodder with maximum in Andhra
Pradesh (62.9%) and Tamil Nadu (36%). Major
source of green fodder availability is cultivated land in
all the states in south zone followed by forests in
Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, pasture land in Karnataka
and fallow land in Tamil Nadu. However in these
states the green fodder availability is going to increase
is there is rapid penetration of new technologies
especially perennial NB hybrid and perennial
sorghum which is giving round the year green fodder
to farmers.
On all India basis, there is an overall deficit of 11.24% in
green fodder availability in the country. Total green
fodder availability is 734.2 mt against requirement of
827.19 mt. Major source of green fodder in India is from
cultivated land followed by pasture land and forests.
Estimates of dry fodder availability/requirement
in India
Availability of crop residue for fodder was calculated
based on the major utilizable cereals, pulses and
oilseed crops, harvest index, production, and
utilization pattern for each state as done in earlier
studies as well as based on information taken from
subject matter specialist in the study area. Availability
of dry forages utilizable for grazing from forest,
wasteland, fallow land and cultivated field after
harvest were considered. Assumptions for different
level of production are given in table C. Table 5
presents details of dry fodder availability estimates as
well as surplus/deficit scenario. Figure 2 presents
contribution of different sources towards the total dry
fodder availability.
In the group comprising of small states and Union
territories, all are in deficit in dry fodder except
Andaman and Nicobar with an overall deficit of
59.1%. Maximum deficit of 100% is in Delhi
followed by Lakshadweep (99.9%) and Puducherry
(96.9%). Major source of dry matter is from forests
followed by kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm
waste in UTs of India. The overall demand and supply
is very low in this group.
In North East Zone, major source of dry fodder
availability is forests followed by food grains straw
and kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm waste. There
exists an overall surplus of 14.0% of dry fodder in
NEH region and except Assam all other states in the
region are having surplus dry fodder.
In East Zone, comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha
and West Bengal, major source of dry fodder
availability is food grains crop residue followed by
forests and kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm
waste. There exists an overall deficit of 43.9% of dry
fodder in east zone and except Odisha all other states
in the region are deficit in dry fodder.
In West Zone, comprising of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Goa
and Maharashtra, major source of dry fodder
availability is food grains cop residue followed by
forests, other sources (including groundnut and
sugarcane) and kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/farm
waste. There exists an overall deficit of 43.5% of dry
fodder in west zone and except Goa all other states in
the region are deficit in dry fodder.
In Central Zone, Chhattisgarh (9.8%) and Madhya
Pradesh (0.8%) are surplus in dry fodder while Uttar
Pradesh (30.4%) is deficit in dry fodder availability
with an overall deficit of 16.4% in the central zone.
Major source of dry fodder is food grains crop residue
in U.P. and M.P., While in Chhattisgarh forests are the
main source.
In Hill Zone comprising of H.P., J & K and
Uttarakhand, major source of dry fodder availability is
forests followed by pastureland and food grains.
There exists an overall surplus of 55.9% of dry fodder
Figure 2: Contribution of different sources to
dry fodder availability
13
133.05%. In both Punjab and Haryana, major source
of green fodder is cultivated land (59577.1 thousand
tonnes in Punjab and 46703.6 thousand tonnes in
Haryana) followed by pasture land in Haryana (87.5
thousand tonnes) and fallow land (2560 thousand
tonnes) in Punjab. The diaries are most profitable in
these states also with highest level of milk production
and productivity. In Punjab after Rice and Wheat,
maximum area under cultivation is occupied by
forages. Commercial dairies are in practice and they
also convert a large part of green fodder of maize as
silage. Technology adoption is also very high and
productivity of forage crops as well as cropping
intensity is highest among the country.
In West Zone, comprising of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Goa
an d M ahara shtra, while Guja rat (4%) and
Maharashtra (20.2%) are surplus in green fodder
availability, on the other hand Rajasthan (32.7%) and
Goa (34.2%) are deficit in green fodder. In all these
states, major source of green fodder is from cultivated
land followed by pasture land in Gujarat, Rajasthan
and Maharashtra and cultivated wasteland in Goa.
Overall deficit of green fodder in west zone is 6.3 %.
In these states livestock rearing is in good practice.
The livestock product especially small ruminant's
meat is exported to nearby states.
In Central Zone, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh are
deficit in green fodder availability with a deficit of
33.1% and 23.6% respectively. Madhya Pradesh is
surplus in green fodder availability (47.5%). In all
these states major source of green fodder is from
cultivated land followed by pasture land in
Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh and fallow land in
Uttar Pradesh. Overall deficit of green fodder in
central zone is 4.8%.
In East Zone, comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha
and West Bengal, all the states are in deficit of green
fodder with maximum deficit occurring in Jharkhand
(67.7%) followed by Odisha (44.8%). In all these states
major source of green fodder is cultivated land followed
by pasture land in Odisha, forests land in Jharkhand and
West Bengal and fallow land in Bihar. Overall deficit of
green fodder in central zone is 41.2%. There is need of
introduction of new technologies and allocation of more
areas under forage especially rice fallow areas. The
productivity of animals and milk production is also very
less in this zone.
Among Other group including Union territories (UTs)
and Delhi, all UTs are in deficit of green fodder with
an overall deficit of 76.20%. Maximum deficit of
97.9% is in Chandigarh followed by Lakshadweep
(89.5%) and Puducherry (89%). Major source of
green fodder availability in this group is cultivated
land followed by forests and pasture land. The results
are as per expectation as very little penetration of
advanced technologies has taken place in most of UTs
like A&N islands, Puducherry, Daman & Diu etc. and
dairying is not a commercial enterprise in most of
these areas. In mega cities like Chandigarh and Delhi,
the supply of milk which is in high demand is met by
surrounding states and dairies are mostly dependent
on concentrate feedings. There is also cultivation of
green fodder with high input and purchase of dry
fodder from nearby villages.
In North East Zone, major source of green fodder
availability is cultivated land (17803.9 thousand
tonnes) followed by forests (3510 thousand tonnes)
and pasture land (1035 thousand tonnes). There exists
an overall deficit of 23.1% of green fodder in NEH
region. However, some of the states such as Mizoram
and Arunachal Pradesh are having surplus green
fodder. States which are most deficit in green fodder
availability are Tripura (58%) followed by Sikkim
(48.5%) and Meghalaya (44.6%). The situation in NE
states is quite different than rest of the country as the
major livestock commodity in demand is meat with
milk as secondary product. There is vast availability
of wasteland and forest land which are not utilized for
grazing etc. due to difficult terrain. The number of
animals reared for milk is very less.
In Hill Zone comprising of H.P., J & K and
Uttrakhand, there is an overall deficit of 24.9% in
green fodder availability. The per cent deficit in J&K
and Uttrakhand is 53 and 55.5 respectively. Himachal
Pradesh is surplus in green fodder (43.9%). Major
source of green fodder is pasture land (12698
thousand tonnes) followed by cultivated land (5439.3
thousand tonnes) and forests (2636.1 thousand
tonnes). Small ruminants form a major part of
livestock here and they are mostly dependent on
grazing lands. Nomadism and semi-nomadism is also
in practice in major part. The demand is also fulfilled
by top feeds and migration to nearby states.
In North Zone, Punjab and Haryana are surplus in
green fodder availability with overall surplus of
12
In South Zone, comprising of Andhra Pradesh
(including Telangana), Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil
Nadu, there is an overall deficit of 43.9% in green
fodder availability. All the four states in south zone are
deficit in green fodder with maximum in Andhra
Pradesh (62.9%) and Tamil Nadu (36%). Major
source of green fodder availability is cultivated land in
all the states in south zone followed by forests in
Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, pasture land in Karnataka
and fallow land in Tamil Nadu. However in these
states the green fodder availability is going to increase
is there is rapid penetration of new technologies
especially perennial NB hybrid and perennial
sorghum which is giving round the year green fodder
to farmers.
On all India basis, there is an overall deficit of 11.24% in
green fodder availability in the country. Total green
fodder availability is 734.2 mt against requirement of
827.19 mt. Major source of green fodder in India is from
cultivated land followed by pasture land and forests.
Estimates of dry fodder availability/requirement
in India
Availability of crop residue for fodder was calculated
based on the major utilizable cereals, pulses and
oilseed crops, harvest index, production, and
utilization pattern for each state as done in earlier
studies as well as based on information taken from
subject matter specialist in the study area. Availability
of dry forages utilizable for grazing from forest,
wasteland, fallow land and cultivated field after
harvest were considered. Assumptions for different
level of production are given in table C. Table 5
presents details of dry fodder availability estimates as
well as surplus/deficit scenario. Figure 2 presents
contribution of different sources towards the total dry
fodder availability.
In the group comprising of small states and Union
territories, all are in deficit in dry fodder except
Andaman and Nicobar with an overall deficit of
59.1%. Maximum deficit of 100% is in Delhi
followed by Lakshadweep (99.9%) and Puducherry
(96.9%). Major source of dry matter is from forests
followed by kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm
waste in UTs of India. The overall demand and supply
is very low in this group.
In North East Zone, major source of dry fodder
availability is forests followed by food grains straw
and kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm waste. There
exists an overall surplus of 14.0% of dry fodder in
NEH region and except Assam all other states in the
region are having surplus dry fodder.
In East Zone, comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha
and West Bengal, major source of dry fodder
availability is food grains crop residue followed by
forests and kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm
waste. There exists an overall deficit of 43.9% of dry
fodder in east zone and except Odisha all other states
in the region are deficit in dry fodder.
In West Zone, comprising of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Goa
and Maharashtra, major source of dry fodder
availability is food grains cop residue followed by
forests, other sources (including groundnut and
sugarcane) and kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/farm
waste. There exists an overall deficit of 43.5% of dry
fodder in west zone and except Goa all other states in
the region are deficit in dry fodder.
In Central Zone, Chhattisgarh (9.8%) and Madhya
Pradesh (0.8%) are surplus in dry fodder while Uttar
Pradesh (30.4%) is deficit in dry fodder availability
with an overall deficit of 16.4% in the central zone.
Major source of dry fodder is food grains crop residue
in U.P. and M.P., While in Chhattisgarh forests are the
main source.
In Hill Zone comprising of H.P., J & K and
Uttarakhand, major source of dry fodder availability is
forests followed by pastureland and food grains.
There exists an overall surplus of 55.9% of dry fodder
Figure 2: Contribution of different sources to
dry fodder availability
13
Table 5 : Estimates of dry fodder availability ('000t) and deficit/ surplus status
In '000 tonnes
State/ UT Source of dry fodder Top feed/ Total Demand Net Percent Percent
Food Pulse Others Pasture Forest Total Kitchen/ dry Surplus/ availability deficit
Grains Crops (Groundnut + Land Residue Horticultural/ fodder Deficit (-)
Sugarcane) Farm waste availability
Union Territories
A & N islands 0.05 202.3 202.3 20.2 222.5 75.2 147.3 295.88 195.88
Chandigarh 0 0.4 0.4 0 0.5 36.1 -35.7 1.39 -98.61
Dadra & Nagar 0.05 25.9 25.9 2.6 28.5 60.5 -32 47.11 -52.89
Daman & Diu 0.01 2.6 2.6 0.3 2.8 3.6 -0.8 77.78 -22.22
Lakshadweep 0.01 0 0 0 0 8.9 -8.9 0.00 -100.00
Delhi 0.07 0 0.1 0 0.1 364.4 -364.3 0.03 -99.97
Puducherry 0.05 2.1 2.2 0.2 2.4 78.8 -76.4 3.05 -96.95
TOTAL 0.24 0 0 0 233.3 233.5 23.4 256.9 627.6 -370.8 40.93 -59.07
North East States
Arunachal Pradesh 0.62 0 0 2678.6 2679.2 267.9 2947.1 1056.7 1890.4 278.9 178.90
Assam 442.72 28.8 104.2 299.6 7869.4 8740.7 874.1 9614.7 13007.8 -3393 73.9 -26.10
Manipur 0.79 0 0 1040.8 1041.6 104.2 1145.7 423.6 722.1 270.4 170.40
Meghalaya 0.72 0 0 1714.6 1715.3 171.5 1886.9 1096.2 790.7 172.1 72.10
Mizoram 0.24 0 0 909.3 909.5 91 1000.5 55.9 944.6 1788.7 1688.70
Nagaland 1.05 0 0 1248.9 1249.9 125 1374.9 397.4 977.5 346 246.00
Sikkim 0.31 0 0 401.3 401.6 40.2 441.7 186.7 255.1 236.6 136.60
Tripura 0.8 0 0 1236.2 1237 123.7 1360.7 1113 247.7 122.3 22.30
TOTAL 447.3 28.8 104.2 299.6 17099 17974.8 1797.5 19772.2 17337.3 2435.1 114 14.00
East Zone
Bihar 7682.5 156.8 1468.3 25.2 1751.8 11038.9 1103.9 12142.8 27857.2 -15714.5 43.6 -56.40
Jharkhand 872.1 196.3 90.4 0 4648.2 5798.7 579.9 6378.6 13560 -7181.5 47 -53.00
Orissa 617.4 215.2 110.9 235.2 15403.5 16544.7 1654.5 18199.1 16120.2 2079 112.9 12.90
West Bengal 2967.2 99.9 399.9 2.1 2695.5 6146.2 614.6 6760.9 19943.1 -13182.2 33.9 -66.10
TOTAL 12139.2 668.1 2069.5 262.5 24499 39528.5 3952.8 43481.3 77480.5 -33999.2 56.1 -43.90
14 15
West Zone
Gujarat 4019.5 217.1 3560.1 21 2066 9851.7 985.2 10836.9 29971.2 -19134.3 36.20 -63.80
Rajasthan 15634.9 1308.2 1058.8 632.8 2485.8 20849.2 2084.9 22934.2 39607.3 -16673.1 57.90 -42.10
Goa 0.3 0 0 167.2 167.5 16.8 184.3 123.1 61.2 149.70 49.70
Maharashtra 4406.9 689.3 7453 2114 6081.8 20712.6 2071.3 22783.8 30659.7 -7875.9 1.35 -98.65
TOTAL 24061.6 2214.6 12071.9 2767.8 10800.8 51581 5158.2 56739.2 100361.3 -43622.1 56.53 -43.47
North Zone
Haryana 11484 26.7 655.4 0 0 12164 1216.4 13380.4 12106.6 1273.8 110.5 10.50
Punjab 15582.5 35.8 659.4 79.8 183.7 16526.1 1652.6 18178.7 11848.8 6329.9 153.4 53.40
TOTAL 27066.5 62.5 1314.8 79.8 183.7 28690.1 2869 31559.1 23955.4 7603.7 131.74 31.74
South Zone
Andhra Pradesh + 4970.1 1068.2 2140.4 5.6 3642.5 11713.8 1171.4 12885.1 33651.6 -20766.5 38.3 -61.70
Telangana
Karnataka 6993.1 784.6 4313.1 1.4 5257 17324 1732.4 19056.4 19164 -107.6 99.4 -0.60
Kerala 30.5 0.8 14.3 1191.4 2438.5 3675.5 367.5 4043 1710.6 2332.4 236.3 136.30
Tamilnadu 4524.5 290.8 3496.3 0 3153.7 11404.9 1140.5 12545.4 12657.4 -112 99.1 -0.90
TOTAL 20925.3 2833.6 17417.1 3312.4 20740.7 64998.2 6499.8 71498 97966.4 -26468.4 73 -27.00
Hill Zone
Himachal Pradesh 1478.3 7.8 2.3 1862.7 2416 5767 576.7 6343.7 4070.1 2273.6 155.9 55.9
Jammu & Kashmir 1081.1 0.7 0.3 2.1 4530 5613.9 561.4 6175.3 5106.8 1068.5 120.9 20.9
Uttarakhand 969.3 5 599.5 2622.9 3401.3 7597.9 759.8 8357.7 4212.1 4145.6 198.4 98.4
TOTAL 3528.6 13.4 602.1 4487.7 10347.3 18978.8 1897.9 20876.7 13389 7487.7 155.9 55.9
Central Zone
Chhattisgarh 696.9 198.7 39 233.8 13886.8 15052.2 1505.2 16557.4 15083.5 1473.9 109.8 9.8
Madhya Pradesh 20920.9 3047.4 839.1 35 9289.7 34075.3 3407.5 37482.8 37174.2 308.6 100.8 0.8
Uttar Pradesh 29014.9 355.9 14600.9 1368.2 1174.3 46494.3 4649.4 51143.8 73513 -22369.3 69.6 -30.4
TOTAL 50632.7 3602 15479 1637 24350.8 95621.8 9562.2 105183.9 125770.7 -20586.8 83.6 -16.4
All India (in 000t) 134394.2 8733.8 41605.7 10732.8 102005.4 296726.5 29672.7 326399.2 426105.3 -99706.1 76.6 -23.4
All India (in million t) 134.4 8.7 41.6 10.7 102 296.7 29.7 326.4 426.1 -99.7
Table 5 : Estimates of dry fodder availability ('000t) and deficit/ surplus status
In '000 tonnes
State/ UT Source of dry fodder Top feed/ Total Demand Net Percent Percent
Food Pulse Others Pasture Forest Total Kitchen/ dry Surplus/ availability deficit
Grains Crops (Groundnut + Land Residue Horticultural/ fodder Deficit (-)
Sugarcane) Farm waste availability
Union Territories
A & N islands 0.05 202.3 202.3 20.2 222.5 75.2 147.3 295.88 195.88
Chandigarh 0 0.4 0.4 0 0.5 36.1 -35.7 1.39 -98.61
Dadra & Nagar 0.05 25.9 25.9 2.6 28.5 60.5 -32 47.11 -52.89
Daman & Diu 0.01 2.6 2.6 0.3 2.8 3.6 -0.8 77.78 -22.22
Lakshadweep 0.01 0 0 0 0 8.9 -8.9 0.00 -100.00
Delhi 0.07 0 0.1 0 0.1 364.4 -364.3 0.03 -99.97
Puducherry 0.05 2.1 2.2 0.2 2.4 78.8 -76.4 3.05 -96.95
TOTAL 0.24 0 0 0 233.3 233.5 23.4 256.9 627.6 -370.8 40.93 -59.07
North East States
Arunachal Pradesh 0.62 0 0 2678.6 2679.2 267.9 2947.1 1056.7 1890.4 278.9 178.90
Assam 442.72 28.8 104.2 299.6 7869.4 8740.7 874.1 9614.7 13007.8 -3393 73.9 -26.10
Manipur 0.79 0 0 1040.8 1041.6 104.2 1145.7 423.6 722.1 270.4 170.40
Meghalaya 0.72 0 0 1714.6 1715.3 171.5 1886.9 1096.2 790.7 172.1 72.10
Mizoram 0.24 0 0 909.3 909.5 91 1000.5 55.9 944.6 1788.7 1688.70
Nagaland 1.05 0 0 1248.9 1249.9 125 1374.9 397.4 977.5 346 246.00
Sikkim 0.31 0 0 401.3 401.6 40.2 441.7 186.7 255.1 236.6 136.60
Tripura 0.8 0 0 1236.2 1237 123.7 1360.7 1113 247.7 122.3 22.30
TOTAL 447.3 28.8 104.2 299.6 17099 17974.8 1797.5 19772.2 17337.3 2435.1 114 14.00
East Zone
Bihar 7682.5 156.8 1468.3 25.2 1751.8 11038.9 1103.9 12142.8 27857.2 -15714.5 43.6 -56.40
Jharkhand 872.1 196.3 90.4 0 4648.2 5798.7 579.9 6378.6 13560 -7181.5 47 -53.00
Orissa 617.4 215.2 110.9 235.2 15403.5 16544.7 1654.5 18199.1 16120.2 2079 112.9 12.90
West Bengal 2967.2 99.9 399.9 2.1 2695.5 6146.2 614.6 6760.9 19943.1 -13182.2 33.9 -66.10
TOTAL 12139.2 668.1 2069.5 262.5 24499 39528.5 3952.8 43481.3 77480.5 -33999.2 56.1 -43.90
14 15
West Zone
Gujarat 4019.5 217.1 3560.1 21 2066 9851.7 985.2 10836.9 29971.2 -19134.3 36.20 -63.80
Rajasthan 15634.9 1308.2 1058.8 632.8 2485.8 20849.2 2084.9 22934.2 39607.3 -16673.1 57.90 -42.10
Goa 0.3 0 0 167.2 167.5 16.8 184.3 123.1 61.2 149.70 49.70
Maharashtra 4406.9 689.3 7453 2114 6081.8 20712.6 2071.3 22783.8 30659.7 -7875.9 1.35 -98.65
TOTAL 24061.6 2214.6 12071.9 2767.8 10800.8 51581 5158.2 56739.2 100361.3 -43622.1 56.53 -43.47
North Zone
Haryana 11484 26.7 655.4 0 0 12164 1216.4 13380.4 12106.6 1273.8 110.5 10.50
Punjab 15582.5 35.8 659.4 79.8 183.7 16526.1 1652.6 18178.7 11848.8 6329.9 153.4 53.40
TOTAL 27066.5 62.5 1314.8 79.8 183.7 28690.1 2869 31559.1 23955.4 7603.7 131.74 31.74
South Zone
Andhra Pradesh + 4970.1 1068.2 2140.4 5.6 3642.5 11713.8 1171.4 12885.1 33651.6 -20766.5 38.3 -61.70
Telangana
Karnataka 6993.1 784.6 4313.1 1.4 5257 17324 1732.4 19056.4 19164 -107.6 99.4 -0.60
Kerala 30.5 0.8 14.3 1191.4 2438.5 3675.5 367.5 4043 1710.6 2332.4 236.3 136.30
Tamilnadu 4524.5 290.8 3496.3 0 3153.7 11404.9 1140.5 12545.4 12657.4 -112 99.1 -0.90
TOTAL 20925.3 2833.6 17417.1 3312.4 20740.7 64998.2 6499.8 71498 97966.4 -26468.4 73 -27.00
Hill Zone
Himachal Pradesh 1478.3 7.8 2.3 1862.7 2416 5767 576.7 6343.7 4070.1 2273.6 155.9 55.9
Jammu & Kashmir 1081.1 0.7 0.3 2.1 4530 5613.9 561.4 6175.3 5106.8 1068.5 120.9 20.9
Uttarakhand 969.3 5 599.5 2622.9 3401.3 7597.9 759.8 8357.7 4212.1 4145.6 198.4 98.4
TOTAL 3528.6 13.4 602.1 4487.7 10347.3 18978.8 1897.9 20876.7 13389 7487.7 155.9 55.9
Central Zone
Chhattisgarh 696.9 198.7 39 233.8 13886.8 15052.2 1505.2 16557.4 15083.5 1473.9 109.8 9.8
Madhya Pradesh 20920.9 3047.4 839.1 35 9289.7 34075.3 3407.5 37482.8 37174.2 308.6 100.8 0.8
Uttar Pradesh 29014.9 355.9 14600.9 1368.2 1174.3 46494.3 4649.4 51143.8 73513 -22369.3 69.6 -30.4
TOTAL 50632.7 3602 15479 1637 24350.8 95621.8 9562.2 105183.9 125770.7 -20586.8 83.6 -16.4
All India (in 000t) 134394.2 8733.8 41605.7 10732.8 102005.4 296726.5 29672.7 326399.2 426105.3 -99706.1 76.6 -23.4
All India (in million t) 134.4 8.7 41.6 10.7 102 296.7 29.7 326.4 426.1 -99.7
total digestible nutrients. Supply of concentrates is in
both organized as well as unorganized sector. Some
industries as well as milk federations and their
subsidiaries ar e invo lved in prod ucti on of
concentrates which include oil seed cakes, crushed
pulses, grains, wheat and ricebran, husk etc. These are
very important feed resource as they are rich in
energy-yielding nutrients which are generally not met
from the crop residues. For cattle at different growth
stages 1.5 to 2.0 kg for cattle and 2-2.5 kg for buffalo
are recommended. For milking animal, 400 g per litre
of milk for cows and 500 g per litre of milk for buffalo
is recommended (NDDB, 2019 information available
on web site https://www.nddb.coop/services/
animalnutrition/cattlefeed).
In our study and analysis we found that 85.78 million
tonnes of concentrate is required at national level,
however, at present the estimated annual availability
of total concentrate feed is only 61 million tonnes
(Anonymous, 2018) which makes a deficit of
approximately 24.78 million tonnes or 28.9% of the
demand.
National level deficit/surplus scenario:
On the whole the statistics show that there is deficit of
11.24% for green fodder and 23.4% for dry fodder.
However, difficulty in transportation due to bulkiness
and perishable nature of fodder permits limited scope
to avert the picture of regional imbalance in green and
dry matter availability. The deficit/surplus scenario
zone wise was estimated and presented in tables 6 and
7 and figures 3, 4, 5, 6.
in hilly states and all states in the region are having
surplus dry fodder. These surplus fodders are not fully
utilized because of hilly and difficult terrains, thereby
creating a practical deficit.
In North Zone, Punjab and Haryana are surplus in dry
fodder availability with overall surplus of 31.7%. In
both Punjab and Haryana, major source of dry fodder
is food g r a in s crop res i d u e followed by
kitchen/horticultural/ farm waste and other sources
(groundnut, sugarcane). The wheat straw is major
fodder source whereas rice straw is not fed to livestock
hence has not been taken into account in this
estimation.
In South Zone, comprising of Andhra Pradesh
including Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil
Nadu, major source of dry fodder availability is food
grains crop residue followed by forests and other
sources (including groundnut and sugarcane) and
kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm waste. There
exists an overall deficit of 27.00% of dry fodder in
south zone and except Kerala all other states in the
region are deficit in dry fodder.
On all India basis, there is an overall deficit of 23.4%
in dry fodder availability in the country. Total dry
fodder availability is 326.4mt against requirement of
426.1 mt. Major source of dry fodder in India is food
grains followed by forests and other sources
(including groundnut and sugarcane).
Concentrates: A concentrate is usually a feed
mixture which supplies protein, carbohydrates and fat
at higher level but contains less than 18% crude fibre.
In general, they are high in nitrogen free extract and
Table 6 : Green Fodder availability scenario of different States
Percent deficit Percent surplus
<25 25-50 > 50 <25 25-50 > 50
Uttar Pradesh,
Assam, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh Punjab,
Karnataka, Meghalaya, Tripura, Maharashtra Mizoram
Nagaland, Manipur, Uttarakhand,
Kerala West Bengal, Jammu & Kashmir
Tamil Nadu,
Goa,
Chhattisgarh,
Rajasthan,
Bihar
Sikkim, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana,
16
Table 7: Dry Fodder availability scenario of different states
Percent deficit Percent Surplus
<25 25-50 > 50 <25 25-50 > 50
Assam, Rajasthan, Bihar, Tripura, Goa Arunachal Pradesh,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Odisha, Manipur,
Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal, Haryana, Meghalaya,
Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Mizoram,
Andhra Pradesh + Chhattisgarh, Nagaland,
Telangana Madhya Pradesh Sikkim,
Punjab,
Kerala,
Himachal Pradesh,
Uttarakhand
Fig. 4 : Dry fodder availabilty scenario of different StatesFig. 3 : Green fodder availabilty scenario of different States
Figure 5: Availability and demand scenario of green
fodder in different zones
Figure 6: Availability and demand scenario of dry
fodder in different zones
17
total digestible nutrients. Supply of concentrates is in
both organized as well as unorganized sector. Some
industries as well as milk federations and their
subsidiaries ar e invo lved i n producti on of
concentrates which include oil seed cakes, crushed
pulses, grains, wheat and ricebran, husk etc. These are
very important feed resource as they are rich in
energy-yielding nutrients which are generally not met
from the crop residues. For cattle at different growth
stages 1.5 to 2.0 kg for cattle and 2-2.5 kg for buffalo
are recommended. For milking animal, 400 g per litre
of milk for cows and 500 g per litre of milk for buffalo
is recommended (NDDB, 2019 information available
on web site https://www.nddb.coop/services/
animalnutrition/cattlefeed).
In our study and analysis we found that 85.78 million
tonnes of concentrate is required at national level,
however, at present the estimated annual availability
of total concentrate feed is only 61 million tonnes
(Anonymous, 2018) which makes a deficit of
approximately 24.78 million tonnes or 28.9% of the
demand.
National level deficit/surplus scenario:
On the whole the statistics show that there is deficit of
11.24% for green fodder and 23.4% for dry fodder.
However, difficulty in transportation due to bulkiness
and perishable nature of fodder permits limited scope
to avert the picture of regional imbalance in green and
dry matter availability. The deficit/surplus scenario
zone wise was estimated and presented in tables 6 and
7 and figures 3, 4, 5, 6.
in hilly states and all states in the region are having
surplus dry fodder. These surplus fodders are not fully
utilized because of hilly and difficult terrains, thereby
creating a practical deficit.
In North Zone, Punjab and Haryana are surplus in dry
fodder availability with overall surplus of 31.7%. In
both Punjab and Haryana, major source of dry fodder
is food g r a in s crop resi d u e followed by
kitchen/horticultural/ farm waste and other sources
(groundnut, sugarcane). The wheat straw is major
fodder source whereas rice straw is not fed to livestock
hence has not been taken into account in this
estimation.
In South Zone, comprising of Andhra Pradesh
including Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil
Nadu, major source of dry fodder availability is food
grains crop residue followed by forests and other
sources (including groundnut and sugarcane) and
kitchen/horticultural/ top feed/ farm waste. There
exists an overall deficit of 27.00% of dry fodder in
south zone and except Kerala all other states in the
region are deficit in dry fodder.
On all India basis, there is an overall deficit of 23.4%
in dry fodder availability in the country. Total dry
fodder availability is 326.4mt against requirement of
426.1 mt. Major source of dry fodder in India is food
grains followed by forests and other sources
(including groundnut and sugarcane).
Concentrates: A concentrate is usually a feed
mixture which supplies protein, carbohydrates and fat
at higher level but contains less than 18% crude fibre.
In general, they are high in nitrogen free extract and
Table 6 : Green Fodder availability scenario of different States
Percent deficit Percent surplus
<25 25-50 > 50 <25 25-50 > 50
Uttar Pradesh,
Assam, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh Punjab,
Karnataka, Meghalaya, Tripura, Maharashtra Mizoram
Nagaland, Manipur, Uttarakhand,
Kerala West Bengal, Jammu & Kashmir
Tamil Nadu,
Goa,
Chhattisgarh,
Rajasthan,
Bihar
Sikkim, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana,
16
Table 7: Dry Fodder availability scenario of different states
Percent deficit Percent Surplus
<25 25-50 > 50 <25 25-50 > 50
Assam, Rajasthan, Bihar, Tripura, Goa Arunachal Pradesh,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Odisha, Manipur,
Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal, Haryana, Meghalaya,
Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Mizoram,
Andhra Pradesh + Chhattisgarh, Nagaland,
Telangana Madhya Pradesh Sikkim,
Punjab,
Kerala,
Himachal Pradesh,
Uttarakhand
Fig. 4 : Dry fodder availabilty scenario of different StatesFig. 3 : Green fodder availabilty scenario of different States
Figure 5: Availability and demand scenario of green
fodder in different zones
Figure 6: Availability and demand scenario of dry
fodder in different zones
17
Table 8: Human population, Livestock production and per capita availability
Source (modified after Agricultural Research Data Book 2018)
Product 2011-12 2016-17 % increase over 5 years
Human population (million no.) 1210 1275 5.37
Fish (Lakh tonnes) 86.66 114.40 32.01
Milk (million tonnes) 127.90 165.40 29.32
Egg ( million number) 66450 88139 32.64
Wool (million kg) 44.70 43.50 -2.68
Meat (million tonnes) 5.50 7.40 34.54
Milk g/day per capita availability 290 355 18.31
Egg (number/annum) availability 55 69 25.45
It shows that certain states like Punjab, Haryana,
Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh are surplus in
green as well as dry fodder. In Punjab and Haryana it is
due to large area under forage cultivations as well as
adoption of new technologies whereas in Himachal
Pradesh, pasture land and grazing also have
significant contribution. In these states high
production of cereals also contributes to crop residue
production. Out of cereal straw, rice and wheat forms a
major part. However, we have not taken into account
the rice straw in Haryana, Punjab, UP as it is not in
practice to feed cattle with rice straw.
Milk demand availability scenario:
NitiAyog's Working group report (Feb 2018) on
demand and supply projections towards 2033
indicates demand to be 174, 246, 292 MMT for 2020-
21, 2028-29, 2032-33 respectively and supply for
corresponding period is estimated to be 194, 276, 330
MMT respectively for same period. It indicates a
surplus situation in milk availability. It indicates scope
for value added products for domestic consumption or
export potential. The data indicates that while the
human population over the last 5 years increased by
5.37%, the production of fish, milk, egg, meat
increased by nearly 30% for the same period (Table 8).
/profitability on one hand and productivity and
livestock health on the other.
There are regional and seasonal disparity in fodder
production and availability. Due to lack of sufficient
post harvest and storage facility, surplus fodder is not
properly utilized. Diversion of fodder from surplus to
deficit areas is very less or negligible. There is plenty
of green fodder available during monsoon season but
are not utilized. Mechanized harvesting like Combine
etc had also reduced crop residue recovery. There is
also issue of rice straw burning especially in parts of
Punjab, Haryana, UP etc. Edible crop residues
diversion to non- agricultural use is a current practice
which needs to be checked. Despite the importance
and contribution of forage production in livestock
sector, the area has not been given due attention so far.
There is lack of awareness about fodder production,
utilization and marketing aspects among the farmers
as well as extension workers. Forage crops face
unique problems in national perspectives as they are
region and season specific. Each zone of the country
Based on milk availability states can be categorised in
4 groups
·More than 700 g/day – Punjab (1075g), Haryana
(930g), Rajasthan (785g)
·401-600 g/day – Gujarat (563g), Andhra Pradesh
(522g), HP (521g), MP (468g), Uttarakhand (440g)
·200-400 g/day : J&K (400 g), UP (348 g) TN (294
g), Maharashtra (243 g), Karnataka (291 g), Bihar
(228 g), Sikkim (228 g)
·Less than 200 g/day : Rest of the states
Scope Future paradigm
Consi d e r i ng the f u t ur e agri- b u s i ne ss and
entrepreneurship scope, the future strategies demand
shifting of paradigm from casual feeding to
effectively harnessing feed resources with precision
technologies for optimum nutrition to the livestock for
enhanced and economical productivity in order to
meet production needs. We need to develop suitable
feeding model for different categories of livestock in
different age and sex groups in various agro-
ecological locations considering both economics
18
has its own preference and adaptability of forage
crops. Due to bulky nature transportation of surplus
fodder from one to other zone becomes costly.
Furthermore due to perishable nature of green fodder,
the storage and transportation becomes problem.
Suitable conservation techniques like hay making,
baling, silage making, feed block etc. needs to be
taken up on large scale for which private partnership
and entrepreneurship is needed.
Future thrust: The fodder development in the
country in mission mode may be pursued with the
following objectives.
vA national programme in mission mode for
accelerating production and effective utilization
of fodder through promotion of comprehensive
fodder production, conservation and utilization
programmefor enhancing the availability of
fodder throughout the year
vGrassland and grazing policy for the country and
rejuvenation of degraded pastures.
vEstablishing backward and forward linkages with
different stakeholders.
vFocused R&D in prioritized areas of concern in
fodder variety, technologies, seed production and
feed management.
vPromotion of opportunities in commercial
venture of fodder production and utilization,
entrepreneurship development in fodder, silage,
densified bales, feed pellets, feed block, fodder
seed pelleting, etc.
References
Agricultural Research data Book. 2018. ICAR-IASRI, New
Delhi. http://www.iasri.res.in
Anonymous. 2018. Demand and supply projections towards 2033:
Crops, livestock, fisheries and agricultural inputs. The
Working Group Report (February, 2018).NitiAyog, New
Delhi.
Arora, C. L.1992. Proceedings of organized goat breeding and
breeding strategies. In Research on Goats: Indian
Experience, Central Institute of Research on Goats,
Makhdoom, Mathura, 1992, p. 14.
Bhagmal, Singh, K.A., Roy, A.K., Ahmad, Shahid, Malaviya,
D.R. 2009. Forage Crops and Grasses. In: Handbook of
Agriculture. Directorate of Information and Publications of
Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New
Delhi, India pp 1353-1417.
Chand, P., Sirohi, S. Sirohi, S.K. and Chahal, V.P. 2015.
Estimation of demand and supply of livestock feed and
fodder in Rajasthan: a disaggregated analysis. Indian
Journal of Animal Sciences85 (11): 1229–1234.
Chaudhary, U.B. and Tripathi, M.K. 2011 Feeding of small
ruminants. In: animal nutrition- advancements in feeds and
feeding of livestock (eds) Lokesh Gupta and Singhal KK
Agribios India pp 81-102.
Dikshit, A.K. and Birthal, P.S. 2010. India's livestock feed
demand: estimates and projections'; Agricultural Economics
Research Review, 23(1): 15-28.
Joshi, M.A., Raut, P.K., Mandal, A.K., Tyler-Smith, C., Singh, L.
and Thangraj, K. 2004 Phylogeography and origin of Indian
domestic goats,. Molecular biology and Evolution 21: 454-
462.
Kumbhare, S. L., Sharma, K. N. S. and Patel, R. K. 1983.
Standardisation of Bovine Units. Indian Journal of Animal
Sciences53: 543–547.
Nivsarkar, A. E., Vij, P. K. and Tantia, M. S. 2000. Animal Genetic
Resources of India: Cattle and Buffalo, ICAR Publ., New
Delhi,2000.
Raju, J., Ravi Kanth, Reddy, P., Nalini Kumari, N., Narasimha, J.
and Nagalakshmi, D. 2018. Assessment of potential
livestock feed resources in Telangana state, India. Indian
Journal of Animal Research 52(9): 1285-1291.
Raju, S.S.2013. Assessment of feed resources and its impact on
livestock output in India. Agricultural Situation in India
69(12): 5-11.
Roy, A.K. and Singh, J.P. 2013. Grasslands in India: Problems and
pe r spe c tiv e s fo r sust aini ng li v est o ck a n d rur al
livelihoods.Tropical Grasslands ForrajesTropicales1:
240−243
Singhal K. K., MohiniMadhu, Jha Arvind K. and Gupta Prabhat K.
20 05 . Me tha ne e missi on e sti mates fro m en teric
fermentation in Indian livestock: Dry matter intake approach
Current Science, 88(1):119-127
19
Table 8: Human population, Livestock production and per capita availability
Source (modified after Agricultural Research Data Book 2018)
Product 2011-12 2016-17 % increase over 5 years
Human population (million no.) 1210 1275 5.37
Fish (Lakh tonnes) 86.66 114.40 32.01
Milk (million tonnes) 127.90 165.40 29.32
Egg ( million number) 66450 88139 32.64
Wool (million kg) 44.70 43.50 -2.68
Meat (million tonnes) 5.50 7.40 34.54
Milk g/day per capita availability 290 355 18.31
Egg (number/annum) availability 55 69 25.45
It shows that certain states like Punjab, Haryana,
Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh are surplus in
green as well as dry fodder. In Punjab and Haryana it is
due to large area under forage cultivations as well as
adoption of new technologies whereas in Himachal
Pradesh, pasture land and grazing also have
significant contribution. In these states high
production of cereals also contributes to crop residue
production. Out of cereal straw, rice and wheat forms a
major part. However, we have not taken into account
the rice straw in Haryana, Punjab, UP as it is not in
practice to feed cattle with rice straw.
Milk demand availability scenario:
NitiAyog's Working group report (Feb 2018) on
demand and supply projections towards 2033
indicates demand to be 174, 246, 292 MMT for 2020-
21, 2028-29, 2032-33 respectively and supply for
corresponding period is estimated to be 194, 276, 330
MMT respectively for same period. It indicates a
surplus situation in milk availability. It indicates scope
for value added products for domestic consumption or
export potential. The data indicates that while the
human population over the last 5 years increased by
5.37%, the production of fish, milk, egg, meat
increased by nearly 30% for the same period (Table 8).
/profitability on one hand and productivity and
livestock health on the other.
There are regional and seasonal disparity in fodder
production and availability. Due to lack of sufficient
post harvest and storage facility, surplus fodder is not
properly utilized. Diversion of fodder from surplus to
deficit areas is very less or negligible. There is plenty
of green fodder available during monsoon season but
are not utilized. Mechanized harvesting like Combine
etc had also reduced crop residue recovery. There is
also issue of rice straw burning especially in parts of
Punjab, Haryana, UP etc. Edible crop residues
diversion to non- agricultural use is a current practice
which needs to be checked. Despite the importance
and contribution of forage production in livestock
sector, the area has not been given due attention so far.
There is lack of awareness about fodder production,
utilization and marketing aspects among the farmers
as well as extension workers. Forage crops face
unique problems in national perspectives as they are
region and season specific. Each zone of the country
Based on milk availability states can be categorised in
4 groups
·More than 700 g/day – Punjab (1075g), Haryana
(930g), Rajasthan (785g)
·401-600 g/day – Gujarat (563g), Andhra Pradesh
(522g), HP (521g), MP (468g), Uttarakhand (440g)
·200-400 g/day : J&K (400 g), UP (348 g) TN (294
g), Maharashtra (243 g), Karnataka (291 g), Bihar
(228 g), Sikkim (228 g)
·Less than 200 g/day : Rest of the states
Scope Future paradigm
Consi d e r i ng the f u t ur e agri- b u s i ne ss and
entrepreneurship scope, the future strategies demand
shifting of paradigm from casual feeding to
effectively harnessing feed resources with precision
technologies for optimum nutrition to the livestock for
enhanced and economical productivity in order to
meet production needs. We need to develop suitable
feeding model for different categories of livestock in
different age and sex groups in various agro-
ecological locations considering both economics
18
has its own preference and adaptability of forage
crops. Due to bulky nature transportation of surplus
fodder from one to other zone becomes costly.
Furthermore due to perishable nature of green fodder,
the storage and transportation becomes problem.
Suitable conservation techniques like hay making,
baling, silage making, feed block etc. needs to be
taken up on large scale for which private partnership
and entrepreneurship is needed.
Future thrust: The fodder development in the
country in mission mode may be pursued with the
following objectives.
vA national programme in mission mode for
accelerating production and effective utilization
of fodder through promotion of comprehensive
fodder production, conservation and utilization
programmefor enhancing the availability of
fodder throughout the year
vGrassland and grazing policy for the country and
rejuvenation of degraded pastures.
vEstablishing backward and forward linkages with
different stakeholders.
vFocused R&D in prioritized areas of concern in
fodder variety, technologies, seed production and
feed management.
vPromotion of opportunities in commercial
venture of fodder production and utilization,
entrepreneurship development in fodder, silage,
densified bales, feed pellets, feed block, fodder
seed pelleting, etc.
References
Agricultural Research data Book. 2018. ICAR-IASRI, New
Delhi. http://www.iasri.res.in
Anonymous. 2018. Demand and supply projections towards 2033:
Crops, livestock, fisheries and agricultural inputs. The
Working Group Report (February, 2018).NitiAyog, New
Delhi.
Arora, C. L.1992. Proceedings of organized goat breeding and
breeding strategies. In Research on Goats: Indian
Experience, Central Institute of Research on Goats,
Makhdoom, Mathura, 1992, p. 14.
Bhagmal, Singh, K.A., Roy, A.K., Ahmad, Shahid, Malaviya,
D.R. 2009. Forage Crops and Grasses. In: Handbook of
Agriculture. Directorate of Information and Publications of
Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New
Delhi, India pp 1353-1417.
Chand, P., Sirohi, S. Sirohi, S.K. and Chahal, V.P. 2015.
Estimation of demand and supply of livestock feed and
fodder in Rajasthan: a disaggregated analysis. Indian
Journal of Animal Sciences85 (11): 1229–1234.
Chaudhary, U.B. and Tripathi, M.K. 2011 Feeding of small
ruminants. In: animal nutrition- advancements in feeds and
feeding of livestock (eds) Lokesh Gupta and Singhal KK
Agribios India pp 81-102.
Dikshit, A.K. and Birthal, P.S. 2010. India's livestock feed
demand: estimates and projections'; Agricultural Economics
Research Review, 23(1): 15-28.
Joshi, M.A., Raut, P.K., Mandal, A.K., Tyler-Smith, C., Singh, L.
and Thangraj, K. 2004 Phylogeography and origin of Indian
domestic goats,. Molecular biology and Evolution 21: 454-
462.
Kumbhare, S. L., Sharma, K. N. S. and Patel, R. K. 1983.
Standardisation of Bovine Units. Indian Journal of Animal
Sciences53: 543–547.
Nivsarkar, A. E., Vij, P. K. and Tantia, M. S. 2000. Animal Genetic
Resources of India: Cattle and Buffalo, ICAR Publ., New
Delhi,2000.
Raju, J., Ravi Kanth, Reddy, P., Nalini Kumari, N., Narasimha, J.
and Nagalakshmi, D. 2018. Assessment of potential
livestock feed resources in Telangana state, India. Indian
Journal of Animal Research 52(9): 1285-1291.
Raju, S.S.2013. Assessment of feed resources and its impact on
livestock output in India. Agricultural Situation in India
69(12): 5-11.
Roy, A.K. and Singh, J.P. 2013. Grasslands in India: Problems and
pe r spe c tiv e s fo r sust aini ng li v est o ck a n d rur al
livelihoods.Tropical Grasslands ForrajesTropicales1:
240−243
Singhal K. K., MohiniMadhu, Jha Arvind K. and Gupta Prabhat K.
20 05 . Me tha ne e missi on e sti mates fro m en teric
fermentation in Indian livestock: Dry matter intake approach
Current Science, 88(1):119-127
19
Table A: Assumed body weights for conversion of livestock population into adult cattle units (ACUs). One
ACU = 350 kg body weight
Cattle Male Female
Cattle Exotic < 1.5 yrs = 90 kg < 1 yrs = 90 kg
>1.5 yrs = 310 kg 1-2.5 yrs = 180 kg
>2.5 yrs = 310 kg
Not calved once = 180 kg
Others = 180 kg
Cattle Indigenous <2 yrs = 130 kg < 1 yrs = 70 kg
> 2 yrs = 290 kg 1-3 yrs = 145 kg
Others = 265 kg >3 yrs = 260 kg
Not calved once= 225kg
Others = 250 kg
Buffaloes <2 yrs = 200 kg <1 yrs =90 kg
>2 yrs = 500 kg 1- 3 yrs = 200 kg
Others = 450 kg >3 yrs = 450 kg
Not calved once = 300 kg
Others = 350 kg
Sheep
Indigenous and Exotic < 1 yrs = 18 kg < 1 yrs = 18 kg
> 1 yrs = 30 kg > 1 yrs =27 kg
Goat < 1 yrs = 16 kg < 1 yrs = 15 kg
> 1 yrs = 22 kg > 1 yrs =19 kg
Yak < 3 yrs = 250 kg < 3 yrs =250 kg
> 3 yrs = 450 kg > 3 yrs = 450 kg
Mithun < 3 yrs = 200 kg < 3 yrs =200 kg
> 3 yrs = 350 kg > 3 yrs = 350 kg
Table B: Details of feeding pattern estimation in different categories of livestock
Feeding pattern estimation Total dry Contribution (%) in dry matter
Livestock class Category matter Crop Green Concentrate
requirement residue fodder
etc
Exotic Cattle Male <1.5 yrs 2.5% 70 20 10
>1.5 yrs for breeding 2.5% 40 30 30
>1.5 yrs for draught 2.5% 60 20 20
>1.5 yrs for breeding + draught 2.5% 50 25 25
Exotic Cattle Female <1 yrs 2.1% 60 20 20
1-2.5 yrs 2.65% 60 20 20
>2.5 yrs in milk 2.5% 40 30 30
>2.5 yrs dry 2.0% 72 15 10
Not calved once 2.0% 60 20 20
Others 1.8% 80 10 10
Indigenous cattle male <2 yrs 1.9% 70 15 15
>2 yrs for breeding 1.9% 50 25 25
20
Table C: Various assumptions for estimation of green and dry fodder from different sources.
Green Fodder Dry fodder
Percent area under cultivated fodders 1 to 7 % Percent rice straw use as forage in states 0-70
in states as per available records and
knowledge.
Green fodder productivity of 30 to 60 t Percent wheat straw use as forage 70
cultivated fodders/ha
Percent cultivable wasteland 10 Percent jowar, bajra, maize ragi, barley, 80
under fodder groundnut haulm, gramstraw use as forage
Forage productivity from cultivable 4t Percent green gram and black gram straw 50
wasteland /ha use as forage
Percent total fallow land under fodder 10 Sugarcane to sugarcane top (%) 20
Forage productivity from fallow land /ha 4t Sugarcane top use as forage 50
Percent pasture area under fodder 70 Percent pasture area under fodder 70
Forage productivity from pasture land/ha 5-10t
Percent forests area under fodder 1 to 10 Dry fodder productivity from pasture land /ha 1-3t
Forage productivity from forest land /ha 4-15t Percent forests area under fodder 1-10
Forage productivity from forest /ha 1-4 t
Grain to edible biomass calculated based on average harvest index
Kitchen / horticultural /farm waste and top feeds considered as 10% of total residue availability of state
>2 yrs for draught 2.15% 60 20 20
>2 yrs for breeding + draught 2.15% 60 20 20
Others 1.8% 80 10 10
Indigenous cattle female <1 yrs 2.0% 70 20 10
1-3 yrs 2.0% 70 20 10
>3 yrs in milk 2.2% 40 30 30
>3 yrs dry 2.0% 75 15 10
Not calved once 2.0% 70 20 10
Others 1.8% 80 10 10
Buffalo Male <2 yrs 1.8% 75 15 10
>2 yrs for breeding 2.2% 40 30 30
>2 yrs for draught 2.2% 50 25 25
>2 yrs for breeding + draught 2.2% 50 25 25
Others 2.2% 80 10 10
Buffalo female <1 yrs 2.0% 70 20 10
1-3 yrs 2.2% 70 15 15
>3 yrs in milk 2.8% 40 30 30
>3 yrs dry 2.5% 70 15 15
Not calved once 2.5% 70 15 15
Others 2.0% 80 10 10
Sheep Male and female <1 yrs 3.0% 40 30 30
Indigenous and exotic >1 yrs 3.5% 40 30 30
Goat Male and female <1 yrs 3.0% 40 30 30
>1 yrs 3.5% 40 30 30
Mithun Male and female All 1.8% 75 15 10
Yak male and female All 1.8% 75 15 10
21
Table A: Assumed body weights for conversion of livestock population into adult cattle units (ACUs). One
ACU = 350 kg body weight
Cattle Male Female
Cattle Exotic < 1.5 yrs = 90 kg < 1 yrs = 90 kg
>1.5 yrs = 310 kg 1-2.5 yrs = 180 kg
>2.5 yrs = 310 kg
Not calved once = 180 kg
Others = 180 kg
Cattle Indigenous <2 yrs = 130 kg < 1 yrs = 70 kg
> 2 yrs = 290 kg 1-3 yrs = 145 kg
Others = 265 kg >3 yrs = 260 kg
Not calved once= 225kg
Others = 250 kg
Buffaloes <2 yrs = 200 kg <1 yrs =90 kg
>2 yrs = 500 kg 1- 3 yrs = 200 kg
Others = 450 kg >3 yrs = 450 kg
Not calved once = 300 kg
Others = 350 kg
Sheep
Indigenous and Exotic < 1 yrs = 18 kg < 1 yrs = 18 kg
> 1 yrs = 30 kg > 1 yrs =27 kg
Goat < 1 yrs = 16 kg < 1 yrs = 15 kg
> 1 yrs = 22 kg > 1 yrs =19 kg
Yak < 3 yrs = 250 kg < 3 yrs =250 kg
> 3 yrs = 450 kg > 3 yrs = 450 kg
Mithun < 3 yrs = 200 kg < 3 yrs =200 kg
> 3 yrs = 350 kg > 3 yrs = 350 kg
Table B: Details of feeding pattern estimation in different categories of livestock
Feeding pattern estimation Total dry Contribution (%) in dry matter
Livestock class Category matter Crop Green Concentrate
requirement residue fodder
etc
Exotic Cattle Male <1.5 yrs 2.5% 70 20 10
>1.5 yrs for breeding 2.5% 40 30 30
>1.5 yrs for draught 2.5% 60 20 20
>1.5 yrs for breeding + draught 2.5% 50 25 25
Exotic Cattle Female <1 yrs 2.1% 60 20 20
1-2.5 yrs 2.65% 60 20 20
>2.5 yrs in milk 2.5% 40 30 30
>2.5 yrs dry 2.0% 72 15 10
Not calved once 2.0% 60 20 20
Others 1.8% 80 10 10
Indigenous cattle male <2 yrs 1.9% 70 15 15
>2 yrs for breeding 1.9% 50 25 25
20
Table C: Various assumptions for estimation of green and dry fodder from different sources.
Green Fodder Dry fodder
Percent area under cultivated fodders 1 to 7 % Percent rice straw use as forage in states 0-70
in states as per available records and
knowledge.
Green fodder productivity of 30 to 60 t Percent wheat straw use as forage 70
cultivated fodders/ha
Percent cultivable wasteland 10 Percent jowar, bajra, maize ragi, barley, 80
under fodder groundnut haulm, gramstraw use as forage
Forage productivity from cultivable 4t Percent green gram and black gram straw 50
wasteland /ha use as forage
Percent total fallow land under fodder 10 Sugarcane to sugarcane top (%) 20
Forage productivity from fallow land /ha 4t Sugarcane top use as forage 50
Percent pasture area under fodder 70 Percent pasture area under fodder 70
Forage productivity from pasture land/ha 5-10t
Percent forests area under fodder 1 to 10 Dry fodder productivity from pasture land /ha 1-3t
Forage productivity from forest land /ha 4-15t Percent forests area under fodder 1-10
Forage productivity from forest /ha 1-4 t
Grain to edible biomass calculated based on average harvest index
Kitchen / horticultural /farm waste and top feeds considered as 10% of total residue availability of state
>2 yrs for draught 2.15% 60 20 20
>2 yrs for breeding + draught 2.15% 60 20 20
Others 1.8% 80 10 10
Indigenous cattle female <1 yrs 2.0% 70 20 10
1-3 yrs 2.0% 70 20 10
>3 yrs in milk 2.2% 40 30 30
>3 yrs dry 2.0% 75 15 10
Not calved once 2.0% 70 20 10
Others 1.8% 80 10 10
Buffalo Male <2 yrs 1.8% 75 15 10
>2 yrs for breeding 2.2% 40 30 30
>2 yrs for draught 2.2% 50 25 25
>2 yrs for breeding + draught 2.2% 50 25 25
Others 2.2% 80 10 10
Buffalo female <1 yrs 2.0% 70 20 10
1-3 yrs 2.2% 70 15 15
>3 yrs in milk 2.8% 40 30 30
>3 yrs dry 2.5% 70 15 15
Not calved once 2.5% 70 15 15
Others 2.0% 80 10 10
Sheep Male and female <1 yrs 3.0% 40 30 30
Indigenous and exotic >1 yrs 3.5% 40 30 30
Goat Male and female <1 yrs 3.0% 40 30 30
>1 yrs 3.5% 40 30 30
Mithun Male and female All 1.8% 75 15 10
Yak male and female All 1.8% 75 15 10
21
... Maize along with barley, sorghum and pearl millet account for about 44% of the in animal feed supply (IGFRI, 2015). Hence, maize with other prominent fodder crops as sorghum, berseem, lucerne, bajra, fodder cowpea and oats are being grown in more than 50% of the area under fodder crops (Choudhary et al., 2019;Roy et al., 2019). Due to decreasing size of operational holdings, diversified biointensive systems are need of the hour. ...
... The demand for quality fodder and its other industrial use encourages the farmers to grow maize intensively. At present, the country faces a net deficit of 61.1% green fodder, 21.9% dry crop residues and 64% concentrate feeds (Chaudhary et al., 2014;IGFRI, 2015;Roy et al., 2019). To ensure supply of quality fodder for the ever increasing livestock population, there is a need for productivity enhancement of fodder crop based systems. ...
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The experiments on Zn management in diversified fodder maize based system was conducted with the objective of enhancing cropping system productivity and profitability under irrigated conditions during 2016-17 and 2017-18. The higher green and dry fodder productivity of maize (African tall) under maize-mustard-wheat cropping system was observed. The B: C ratio of fodder maize was more than 1 and ranged between 1.57-1.68. Better growth, agronomic characters and yield were recorded with higher levels of Zn (5.0 kg/ha). Significantly higher production efficiency (744 and 186 kg/ha/day of green and dry fodder maize, respectively) was also recorded with 5.0 kg Zn/ha over no Zn (676 and 168.9 kg/ha/day of green and dry fodder, respectively). There was increase of almost 15% in net return under 2.5 and 5.0 kg/ha Zn applications over no Zn application. On residual Zn, early mustard variety, PM 28 invariably resulted in higher seed yield. W heat (HD 3118), late sown cultivar produced higher seed yield with Zn solubilizer at residual 5.0 kg Zn/ha level. Onion yield increased with increase in Zn fertilization. Zn solubilizer (ZnS1) resulted in higher fodder maize productivity and profitability. NPK uptake (kg/ha) was comparatively higher in maize-mustard (PM 28)-wheat cropping system, and among the different primary elements, uptake of potash was maximum over P and N in fodder maize crop.
... An increasing population of livestock also necessitates enhanced demand of green and nutritious fodder. A recent survey and critical analysis of fodder availability and demand indicate an overall deficit of 11.2% for green fodder, 23.4% for dry fodder and 28.9% for feed/ concentrates (Roy et al. 2019a). However, there could be higher deficit at the regional or state level in comparison to national averages. ...
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Livestock, since ages, has been contributing significantly to the rural economy and livelihoods in India and accounted for 4.35% and 29.34%, respectively, of total and agriculture sector gross value added during 2019-20. The current deficit for green fodder, dry fodder and feeds/concentrates is estimated to be at 11.2%, 23.4% and 28.9%, respectively. The paper discusses the recent trends in breeding methodologies for important forage crops, varietal release, notification, their induction in seed chain and seed availability during the last decade (2010-11 to 2019-20) as well as strategies for enhancing quality seed production. In range grasses and legumes, the breeding methodology largely involved introduction, exploration, evaluation and selection whereas in oat, forage sorghum, berseem, forage cowpea it was inter-varietal and inter-specific hybridization followed by pedigree selection. In lucerne, success was achieved with polycross nurseries whereas; composite and synthetic populations have resulted in varieties in forage maize. In berseem, mutation and colchiploidy, development of inter-specific crosses by embryo rescue and selection using molecular markers have given good success. Of late hybrid development became the main focus in forage sorghum and forage pearl millet. The focus of varietal development was on largely high green and dry biomass coupled with better quality in terms of high crude protein and digestibility and tolerance to prevalent biotic stresses. Concerted and systematic efforts resulted in the development of 110 varieties/hybrids during 2011-2020. Availability of quality seed was higher than or equal to the requirement during 2010-11, 2011-12, 2014-15, 2015-16, 2018- 19 and 2019-20 but showed deficit by 7.5%, 8.0%, 7.9% and 16.2%, respectively, during 2012-13, 2013-14, 2016-17 and 2017-18. The requirement of seed of forage crops is largely being fulfilled by the unorganised sector, where the quality of seed is mostly compromised. Most of the perennial range grasses including Bajra x napier hybrid are maintained by stem cutting or rooted slips due to poor or no seed set as well as apomictic nature of grasses. Quality seed production in forage crops is laborious and tedious and, due to lack of suitable machinery and low and false seed there is no government support like minimum support price in fodder seeds. The popularity drive of fodder varieties is also hampered due to absence of the front line demonstration scheme for fodder crops. It is important to formulate strategies to enhance quality seed production and its timely availability to the farmers.
... 326.4, and 61.0 million tonnes, respectively; this is against the current requirement of 827.2, 426.1, and 85.8 million tonnes, with a net deficit of 11.24%, 23.40%, and 28.90%, respectively [6]. Similarly, in Karnataka, the supply is 85, 15, and 7.5 million tonnes, respectively, compared to the current requirement of 122, 25.4, and 29.5 million tonnes, resulting in a net deficit of 30%, 40.95%, and 74.50%, respectively [7]. ...
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The quantity and quality of forage and fodder crops is the major drawback of the livestock sector in the country. There is a need to bridge the gap between the supply and demand of fodder through the adoption of specific sustainable fodder production strategies. The field experiments were conducted during kharif (rainy, June-October), rabi (post-rainy, October-February), and summer (March-May) seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20 to identify a sustainable fodder cropping system module in randomized complete block design with fifteen fodder cropping systems in three repli-cations. The main objective of this research was to identify the most productive cereal-legume cropping system, both in terms of quantity and quality of biomass, to reduce the gap between supply and demand of quality livestock feed around the year. Among cropping systems, Bajra-Napier hybrid intercropped with lucerne, cowpea, and sesbania recorded significantly higher green fodder (163.6, 155.2, and 144.0 t/ha/year, respectively) and dry matter yields (32.1, 30.8, and 31.3 t/ha/year, respectively). Similarly, the same perennial systems also recorded higher quality yield and ash content. However, higher crude protein content was noticed in monocrop legumes, with the highest in sesbania (22.32%), while higher ether extractable fat was found in monocrop sesbania (3.78%). The monocrop oats recorded higher non-fiber carbohydrates (36.90%) while a monocrop of pearl millet recorded higher total carbohydrates (80.75%), however they were on par with other monocrop cereal cropping systems. Cultivation of legumes as a monocrop, and their inclusion as an intercrop with cereals resulted in lower fiber fractions and improved crude protein in intercropping systems. Furthermore, this improved the dry matter intake and digestibility of fodder. With higher sustainable yield index values and land-use efficiency, perennial intercropping systems were also found to be sustainable. Thus, cultivation of the Bajra-Napier hybrid with either lucerne, cowpea, or sesbania as an intercrop will help livestock farmers to achieve higher productivity in terms of quantity and quality, and forms a viable option for overcoming livestock feed scarcity.
... Considering the shortage of fodder for livestock in India, it is imperative to develop suitable technologies for increasing fodder production and productivity (Roy et al. 2019a;2019b) and increasing yields in saline areas would make a valuable contribution. The area under cultivation to produce forage crops has remained constant for the last few decades and there is little prospect of any increase in the area of arable land devoted to forage cultivation. ...
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Oats (Avena sativa L.) is an important winter season fodder cultivated in many parts of the world. India faces huge shortages of green forage and possesses large salt-affected areas, so identification of salt-tolerant material offers scope for breeding of cultivars for increasing production from salt-affected soils. Forty-eight genotypes of oats comprised of cultivars, germplasm accessions and advanced breeding lines were evaluated with the aim of identifying salt-tolerant genotypes for use on saline soils and/or in programs to breed more salt-tolerant cultivars. Screening was carried out at different growth stages in both pot and field studies. Germination and seedling vigor at different levels of salinity in terms of electrical conductivity (EC), i.e. EC4, EC8, EC12 and EC16, were assessed. Field-level salinity tolerance was assessed in pits where soils had EC ranging from 3.3 to 3.6 dS/m and pH 9.6. Sand culture experiments were carried out on 2 genotypes at different levels of NaCl solution as well as saline soil scrap solution so as to simulate a real field situation. Na, K, Ca and proline concentrations were estimated to understand the mechanism of salinity tolerance of the crop. The study resulted in identification of some suitable genotypes with acceptable levels of salt tolerance, which can be used in developing productive cultivars for saline soils.
... Its ease of propagation, high biomass, good nutritional quality, shade tolerance and availability of