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An Intersectional Gender Lens to Labour Market Interventions in Latin America

Authors:

Abstract

Labour market interventions are essential to shape a future of decent work and economic growth that leaves no one behind. Particularly in Latin America, a region that presents a landscape of lower productivity economic sectors and high dependence on commodities. While striving into higher technology conversion is one of the main aims for economic growth, there are important risks of displacement and exclusion of large population sectors, es- pecially women. The current employment segmentation in the region already presents important limitations for women, particularly the poor and indigenous, which would be accentuated if gender dimensions are not at the center of labour market interventions moving forward.
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Pathways to Sustainable
Economies and Decent Jobs
for All by 2030
A Youth Science-Policy Interface Publication
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Next Generation of Work: Pathways to Sustainable Economies and Decent Jobs for All
by 2030 is a publication of youth perspectives related to the future of work, sustainable economic
growth, and 21st century education and skills. This publication reflects the contribution, eorts, and
support across many dierent organizations and individuals.
The publication is prepared by the Global Youth Caucus for Decent Jobs and Sustainable
Economies, the convening space on SDG 8 within the UN Major Group for Children and Youth (UN
MGCY), led by co-editors Joyce J. Kim and Austin Halbert, and the UN MGCY Youth Science-Policy
Interface platform, with support from the U.S. Youth Working Group to the United Nations, an initia-
tive created to engage U.S. youth in the work of the UN. This publication presents youth voices from
around the globe, providing valuable perspectives and policy suggestions to Sustainable Devel-
opment Goal (SDG) 8: Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and
productive employment and decent work for all and SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality
education and promote lifelong opportunities for all. We thank all the authors of the fifteen papers
for their contributions to the publication.
The UN MGCY is the UN General Assembly-mandated, ocial, formal space for children and
youth to contribute to and engage in intergovernmental and allied policy processes at the UN. The
Youth Science-Policy Interface is a platform of the UN MGCY that seeks to bridge the gap between
science and policy in support of sustainable development.
We thank all those who edited the papers in this publication, including Mostafa Adel,
Svankita Arora, Tessa Forshaw, Julia Grierty, Winnie Mutevu, Adeyemi Okediran, Jiwon Park, Lena
Sykorova, and Jenna Yuan. A special thank you to Grace Kim for the design of this report with help
from Caroline Yong as well as to Janice Kim for creating the website accompanying this report.
We are grateful to all who contributed to this publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in the contributions to this publication are those of
individual authors and do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the
United Nations or of the organizations with which the authors are aliated.
Suggested Citation: Kim, J.J. & Halbert, A. (eds.) (2019) The Next Generation of Work: Pathways to
Sustainable Economies and Decent Jobs for All by 2030, United Nations Major Group for Children
and Youth.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
THE FUTURE OF WORK
The Human Centered Future of Work(force Development) · Tessa Forshaw and Colin Coltera
A Cross-Boundary Team Approach to a Collaborative Future of Work · Bozhanka Vitanova
An Intersectional Gender Lens to Labour Market Interventions in Latin America · Stefania Marchina
Social Entrepreneurship for the Future of Work: Co-creating a Healthier Economy & Workforce in
Williamson, West Virginia · Echoing Green, Impact Experience Team
Driving Economic Growth through Policy and Technology for the Aging Population · Hélène Vincent
and Sean Cheng
21ST CENTURY EDUCATION & SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Education to Employment Systems in the Fourth Industrial Revolution · Austin Halbert
Decent Work Requires Decent Innovation - Leveraging Entrepreneurial Education to Boost Innovation
and Job Creation in MENA · Johan Bjurman Bergman
Lifelong Learning: Ensuring the Youth of Today Prosper through Labour Market Reforms · Edward
Hainsworth
The “Unwritten Rules” of the Workplace: What Can (and should) be Written Down and Taught by
Schools and Employers · Gorick Ng
Realizing the 21st Century Skill of Global Competence in Higher Education: A Case Study of South
Korean Internationalizing Universities · Joyce Kim
DECENT WORK FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS
Pathways for Pacific Youth in the Face of the Climate Crisis · Betty Barkha
The Economic Case for Contraceptives: Their Role in Promoting Growth and Availability of Decent
Jobs for Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa · Jenna Yuan
Securing Decent Jobs for Marginalized Youth: A Case Study of Bangladesh · Musfiq Tajwar
Incubators as a Potential Tool for Employment Creation: A Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa · Tobias Bienz,
SpyrosSchismenos, Garry Stevens, Chi Tran, Nichole Georgeou
The Nexus of Decent Work and Emigration Trends in Nigeria · Olutomiwa Binuyo
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
4
6
8
12
17
21
26
32
34
40
44
48
52
58
60
66
71
75
79
86
3
Inclusive and sustainable economies are necessary to drive progress and propel the
achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at-large. Although global labor
productivity has increased, the global economy is still growing at a slow rate. There must be more
progress to ensure there are economic opportunities, especially for young people, that include
marginalized populations and create decent work for all. The need for sustainable, inclusive eco-
nomic growth goes hand in hand with the need for quality education for all. The future of work is
shaped by complex global trends related to demographic, social, environmental, and technological
changes, which challenges the current understanding of work, life, and livelihoods. Understanding
which skills, both for life and work, as well as modalities for attaining them (e.g. formal, informal),
will be key to ensure progress towards the 2030 Agenda. This publication sets out to address the
following question: How can we shift the current paradigm to achieve pathways for economic op-
portunity for all by 2030, in particular decent jobs for youth?
The International Labour Organization’s (ILO) Global Initiative on Decent Jobs for Youth seeks
to shift the current paradigm by scaling up action and impact on youth employment under the
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The priorities for action are: 1) Green Jobs for Youth 2)
Digital Skills for Youth 3) Quality Apprenticeships 4) Youth in Fragile Situations 5) Youth Transitioning
to the Formal Economy 6) Youth in the Rural Economy 7) Youth Entrepreneurship and Self-Employ-
ment and 8) Youth Workers in Hazardous Occupations. These priorities are tackled by the initiative
by building strategic alliances, scaling up action and impact, sharing and applying knowledge, and
mobilizing resources. This publication aims to provide young people’s insight into the initiative’s
priorities for action.
Although there are extensive eorts led by intergovernmental organizations to address
SDGs 8 and 4, there is a gap of youth perspectives on these goals. Given that the next genera-
tion of work will impact youth the most, we believe it is imperative that youth voices are elevated
on topics related to SDGs 8 and 4. As a result, this publication seeks to engage a diverse range of
young voices (under the age of 30), including but not limited to researchers, practitioners, civil soci-
ety, and industry representatives, across geographies and issue areas. Even though there has been
progress made on SDG 8 targets, globally over 70 million young people are still looking for a job
and one-fifth of the world’s youth are not in education, employment, or training. This is the begin-
ning of a future open platform to field more policy recommendations and papers for other SDGs.
Solving the most pressing questions related to youth employment means bringing youth voices to
the table to think critically about these issues. This publication showcases fifteen dierent youth
perspectives organized into three dierent sections: 1) The Future of Work, which assesses implica-
tions for changing workforce needs primarily but not limited to technological advancements 2) 21st
Century Education and Skills Development, which elucidates necessary skills and areas necessary
for the next generation of work and 3) Decent Work for Sustainable Livelihoods, which delves into
issues to ensure that economic opportunities are possible for even the most marginalized and vul-
nerable populations.
INTRODUCTION
4
Each of the fifteen papers presented in this inaugural version of the publication exhibits
unique insight and oers tangible policy recommendations related to the nexus of SDGs 8 and 4.
For example, Tessa Forshaw and Colin Coltrera's paper on human-centered design as it relates
to workforce development presents solutions from a learning science lens as opposed to a labor
skills lens that is traditionally used to create policy related to the future of work. Johan Bjurman
Bergman’s paper on entrepreneurial education in the MENA region highlights the ways in which
reimagining education policies can lead to more eective job readiness for youth in the MENA re-
gion. Betty Barkha takes a critical look at ways in which the climate crisis can economically impact
Pacific youth. Such examples are a small window into the keen insights and important youth per-
spectives of this publication.
This publication is a call for action to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers worldwide
to take into consideration youth voices as it relates to SDGs 8 and 4. With youth unemployment at
least three times higher than that of adults and youth employment investments remaining frag-
mented despite increased policy attention, the time is now for youth voices to be at the table to
ensure that sustainable economic growth and decent work is attainable for all by 2030.
5
THE FUTURE
OF WORK
The Human Centered Future of
Work(force Development)
Tessa Forshaw, MA
tforshaw@stanford.edu
Lecturer, Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, Stanford University, Graduate School of Engineering
Colin Coltrera, MA
coltrera@stanford.edu
Lecturer, Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, Stanford University, Graduate School of Engineering
Abstract
The future of work has never been more uncertain. Forces spanning automation to climate
change will impact the livelihoods of billions of people worldwide. When we only discuss this prob-
lem at the level of millions or billions, we miss the human-centered reality of what it means to be an
individual worker. Looking at the issues workers face as a “learning problem” vs. a “labor problem”
enables us to understand the landscape at an “n of 1” and, at this level, it is evident that tradition-
al workforce development eorts that focus on reskilling are often ineective, or become quickly
redundant.
By shifting our perspective from a labor skills lens (i.e., reskilling through mass content deliv-
ery) to a learning science lens (i.e., enabling transformative learning experiences for individuals),
we can create a new paradigm. Core learning science concepts such as exploration before expla-
nation, moments of mastery, and situated learning support workers in developing the mindsets they
need to navigate an ambiguous future. This could be the dierence between marginalized and
vulnerable young people becoming trapped in an endless cycle of reskilling and displacement, and
becoming active agents able to navigate the future world of work.
The Future of Work is Changing at a Rapid Pace.
Kyle, a recent high school graduate, attended a large opportunity youth-focused job fair in
Seattle to find a job. When asked why he was there, Kyle replied that he was finding it dicult to
find a job because he had “no skills.” As we talked, Kyle shared how the automation of farm ma-
chinery had disrupted his last job and that he considered this previous experience irrelevant to the
customer service positions on oer at the job fair. To overcome this hurdle, Kyle felt that the only
avenue open to him was to enroll in a reskilling program focused on customer service retail-specif-
ic skills.
Fast forward four years and Kyle has been employed at a nationwide retail company, one
that has been making strides in automating their frontline customer service agents. This type of au-
tomation has become commonplace across the retail sector, and it has resulted in the contraction
of thousands of jobs nationwide. As this trend is only set to continue, and labor economists predict
that retail is likely to be one of the hardest hit sectors, Kyle either already has or is likely to face a
similar fate again: job disrupted, in desperate need of short term income and feeling as though he
lacks all relevant skills.
8
Kyle’s story is becoming an increasingly common one. The world of work is experiencing
dramatic changes as it enters what the World Economic Forum has termed the Fourth Industrial
Revolution. According to the World Bank, a full two-thirds of jobs in the developing world are at risk
of replacement through automation, and in the United States estimates predict about 47 percent.
Despite the widespread impacts of this Fourth Industrial Revolution, our educational systems are
reminiscent of the First Industrial Revolution. Furthermore, automation and artificial intelligence are
far from the only forces reshaping the world of work in the 21st Century.
We Have A Learning Problem, Not A Labor Economics Problem.
The contemporary social narrative blames Kyle’s unemployment on the “skills gap” created
by these changes in the world of work. That term, although very common since the 1970s, has in-
creased in popularity recently and can be found in several cornerstone Future of Work reports, such
as the reports mentioned above and those from the World Economic Forum, McKinsey Global Re-
search Institute, and the OECD. These reports (and many others) span sectors and countries, yet
they all assess the future of work through a lens of labor economics. In doing so, they disconnect
labor skills from the individual psychological, cognitive, and societal elements that enable learning.
A skills gap centered lens leads to the belief that reskilling is the best option for someone
like Kyle to move forward. But what if it isn’t? What if it isn’t even a good option? We propose that
we need to rethink our approach to workforce development and ground that new approach in the
learning sciences, human-centered design, and the realities of the future of work. We propose that
we approach the future of work as a learning problem, not just a labor problem.
pare one billion people for the future of work, we have to be able to prepare one person.
The Future Of Work Has Outpaced Workforce Development.
There are many initiatives, spanning corporations, nonprofits, and governments already
tasked with reskilling disrupted and vulnerable workers, or workforce preparation in general. But
current models leave much to be desired. Traditional approaches usually take the form of reskill-
ing programs like the popular tech boot-camps, or initiatives like the one Kyle went through that
are content-driven and focused on getting participants a specific type of job-based on the devel-
opment of specific didactic skills. Not only can these programs be ineective at increasing worker
hireability and compensation in the short term, but many also train workers in skills likely to be
vulnerable to automation within the next five years.
So what is the answer? We have to stop preparing workers for only their immediate next job
and the latest in-demand skills. Yes, immediate economic opportunity is critical, but we also have
to start preparing them to thrive in a constantly evolving future of work landscape. Navigating that
landscape will require workers to be adaptable, creative, and able to navigate ambiguity. In the
language of the learning sciences, workers will need self-ecacy and a growth mindset to be able
to analogically reason (or transfer) how their existing skills apply to new and dierent contexts.
Self-ecacy, a key component of the larger concept of agency, is the dierence between
trying and not trying. It influences what problems people choose to take on, how much eort they
put towards solving those problems, and their resilience to adversity and failure. As Albert Ban-
dura, who coined Self-ecacy, puts it “[i]f people believe they have no power to produce results,
they will not attempt to make things happen.” The volatile nature of the future of work means that
workers must be prepared to attempt to make things happen.
9
A related concept, growth mindset, is the belief in the malleability of one’s intelligence, abil-
ities, and personality. Its opposition is fixed mindset, and the dierence between the two mindsets
has powerful impacts on how people approach opportunities for learning and improvement. Those
with a fixed mindset spend time and eort proving their intelligence and capability and avoiding
situations which challenge them or threaten failure. Those with a growth mindset seek out
opportunities for self-improvement. Given the rapid shifts in the world of work, a willingness to
learn and grow is also essential.
Together these two mindsets support the development of what we see as the essential ability
for the workers of the future: analogical reasoning. In the context of work, analogical reasoning is
the ability to see how existing skills, knowledge, and abilities transfer to new and dierent types of
work. Having a strong ability to analogically reason reduces a learner’s need to “reskill.” In the case
of Kyle, if he can learn analogical reasoning then he will be able to see how what he learned in his
past experiences in farming and the retail sector can apply to new work.
These mindsets and cognitive abilities can be inculcated in people but are ill-served by curricula
that focus on content at the cost of all else. Instead, we must approach them through a pedagogy
that encourages the development of self-ecacy, growth mindset and analogical reasoning. This
involves creating moments where learners can experience mastery, see accomplishment modeled
by their peers, receive encouragement, and feel comfortable to challenge themselves. A curricu-
lum and pedagogical style designed to deliver content as quickly as possible does not aord these
key transformative moments and ultimately only deliver content retention and not the development
of new mindsets and cognitive abilities.
We Need To Prioritize Pedagogy That Considers The Science Of Learning.
Decades of research in the learning sciences have given us key principles that can be built
into workforce development programs. For example, in our class, Design Thinking Studio, at the
Stanford University d.school we prioritize learners exploring a space or task before explaining it to
them. This lets students engage in the essential acts of sense-making constructing for themselves
the physical, social, and symbolic worlds they occupy. This pedagogical technique create the right
conditions for a learner to develop a growth mindset and self-ecacy, in part because learners
then understand their learning experiences as something they have ownership of and can actively
influence.
This approach is also applied by a workforce development initiative, Designing Your Success
(DYS). DYS applies design thinking to life design for those at risk of job disruption. In addition to
exploration before explanation pedagogy, DYS creates learning environments that prompt analog-
ical reasoning. For example, learners are asked to create skills profiles of themselves and to gener-
ate three possible futures that show how these skills profiles could be applied. Understanding that
learning is an activity embedded in contexts, environments, and people require programs to think
not just about the surface level of content but think critically about the design of learning spaces
and experiences.
Let’s Change The Current Paradigm.
The question of how to prepare the workforce for an uncertain future can seem intractable.
Workers caught in the shifting tides of the modern world of work can feel robbed of their agency,
and policy that protects their rights and empowers their choices is essential. But not all essential
changes happen at the policy level. Through the lens of the learning sciences, we can approach
shifts in work from the perspective of individuals; from the point of view of Kyle. But to give Kyle a
more inclusive future, we need to change the current paradigm: from a labor problem to a learn-
ing problem, from billions of people to one, from content to pedagogy, and from skills to mindsets
and cognitive abilities.
10
 For his privacy we have changed Kyle’s name.
 Gretczko, M (2018) The future of work for retail?, Deloitte LaborWise, Stamford CT
 Schwab, K. (2016). The fourth industrial revolution, Crown Business, New York.
 Weltbankgruppe (Ed.). (2016). Digital dividends. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.
 Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2015). Technology at work: The future of innovation and employment. Oxford and New York: University of Oxford and
CitiGroup.
 World Economic Forum (2017) The future of jobs report, Geneva
 Laboissiere, M., & Mourshed, M. (2017). Closing the skills gap: Creating workforce-development programs that work for everyone.
 Ibid. OECD
 Goldstein, A. (2017). Janesville: an American story (First Simon & Schuster hardcover edition). New York: Simon & Schuster.
 Wilson, G. (2017). Building a new mythology: The coding boot-camp phenomenon. ACM Inroads, 8(4), 66–71. https://doi.org/10.1145/3132706
 Bartha, Paul, “Analogy and Analogical Reasoning”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
 Pea R. D. (1987), Socializing the knowledge transfer problem, International Journal of Educational Research, Volume 11, Issue 6, Pages 639-663
 Bandura, A. (1997). Self-ecacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
 Ibid.
 Dweck, C. S. (2008). Mindset: the new psychology of success (Ballantine Books trade pbk. ed). New York: Ballantine Books.
 Bartha, Paul, “Analogy and Analogical Reasoning”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
 Bandura, ibid.
 See information on our class https://dschool.stanford.edu/classes/design-thinking-studio-spring
 Forshaw, T. (2019). Design your (educational) design work series #1: Exploration before explanation.
 Yeager, D. S., Romero, C., Paunesku, D., Hulleman, C. S., Schneider, B., Hinojosa, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Using Design Thinking to Improve Psycho-
logical Interventions: The Case of the Growth Mindset during the Transition to High School. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 374-391.
 New Sector Alliance (2019) Designing Your Success (DYS) Fellowship.
 Marx, Karl (1844). “Comment on James Mill,” Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
11
Bozhanka Vitanova, MA
bozhanka@entrepreneurialmuscle.com
Founder, Entrepreneurial Muscle Lab
National Science Foundation I-Corps Instructor, Brandeis University
Abstract
Cross-boundary innovation teams, composed of internal and external team members, are
collectively smarter than teams composed only of internal employees. This paper uses McGrath’s
Circumplex Model of Group Tasks to analyze the activities that innovation teams need to com-
plete in order to develop new products or processes. The team’s ability to complete the identified
tasks is then assessed using the Entrepreneurial Muscle Memory Seven Core Competencies mod-
el. Optimizing the team’s collective intelligence leads to a focus on a core competency, defined as
agency. The innovation competency is demonstrated through confidence in one’s ability to insti-
gate and drive change and is critical when moving beyond idea to execution. Available data shows
that agency is lacking among employees of large organizations and tends to be frequent among
small business and startup team members. Eliminating organizational boundaries when building
an innovation team can increase the team’s capacity to carry out an innovation initiative. Such a
construct can enable linkages between big and small businesses, ultimately generating profits and
creating jobs for both entities. Ultimately, something as simple as linking team members across
businesses of dierent sizes can be an important business and policy tool to distribute economic
growth.
Introduction
With 84% of executives considering innovation as the core of their company’s growth, only 6%
report being satisfied with the outcome of their innovation initiatives. For large companies, infusing
the corporate culture with risk-taking and entrepreneurialism is now recognized as a survival need,
making innovation teams ubiquitous across organizations. Most companies consider themselves in
the early stages of innovation maturity, presenting the need and opportunity for novel frameworks
that can potentially increase the success of innovation endeavors.
Open innovation, enabling companies to use external input in addition to their in-house R&D and
innovation resources, is a growing trend. Despite being the comparatively least utilized method,
multiple studies demonstrate positive outcomes and significant future potential of open innovation
initiatives.3 A 2018 BCG Henderson Institute report shows that companies satisfied with their in-
novation performance manage to run and reinvent the business at the same time, while fostering
collaboration with both internal and external partners.4 Another study concludes that 74% of com-
panies successful in developing innovative services use a mixture of internal and external innova-
tion drivers.5
Operationalizing open innovation starts with an understanding that high-value work in-
creasingly happens in teams.6 The Fourth Industrial Revolution has decreased the value of individ-
ual cognitive abilities, while demonstrating the eect of synergistic team performance.7 This paper
examines open innovation on a team level, using a competency-based approach to analyze tasks
teams need to complete throughout the innovation process. The core hypothesis presented is that
collectively smarter innovation teams are comprised of both internal and external team members.
A Cross-Boundary Team Approach to a Collaborative
Future of Work
12
Methods and Frameworks
To analyze the innovation process on a team level, we need to first understand the concept
of collective intelligence. Woolley et al. empirically validated the claim that teams possess collective
intelligence. The authors found evidence of collective intelligence that can be measured, compara-
ble to the way individual intelligence is assessed. The collective intelligence of a team is not strongly
correlated with the average or maximum intelligence of individuals in the group. Pea analyzed
intelligence as manifested through activity and not as a state of being. He developed the concept
of distributed intelligence, arguing that activity is enabled beyond the intelligence contributed by
an individual.
Next, we demonstrate the link between tasks the innovation team needs to complete and the
underlying competencies. We use McGrath’s Circumplex Model of Group Tasks to analyze intelli-
gence through dierent stages of group activity. In order to understand the competencies needed
to successfully carry out innovation tasks, we look at the Entrepreneurial Muscle Memory (EMM)
Seven Core Competencies model. Using the two frameworks provides an insight into how individual
competencies enable activity and relate to the collective intelligence of an innovation team.
McGrath provides a conceptual framework for the study of groups, classifying main group tasks
into four basic categories of processes: generate, choose, negotiate, and execute.10 His model is
shown in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. McGrath’s Circumplex Model of Group Tasks (McGrath, 1984).
13
The Entrepreneurial Muscle Memory (EMM) Framework provides an understanding of
critical traits that drive most successful innovations and a method to assess individuals against
those traits. The seven core EMM competencies are outlined in Table 1.
1 Awareness Inclination to spot opportunities, with an ability to focus and eliminate
the noise from the signal.
2 Agency Tendency to take action, initiate, and execute; assume responsibility
and believe in one’s ability to achieve goals.
3 Communication Attentive to appealing to both emotions and reason, while demonstrat-
ing credibility through a developed authentic communication style.
4 Problem-solving Tendency to dig under the surface and solve novel, ill-defined prob-
lems in a complex setting.
5 Resourcefulness Inclination to look for imaginative solutions and not be discouraged by
an environment infused with constraints.
6 Networking Disposition to focus on building and maintaining mutually enabling
relationships.
7 Resilience Prone to quickly recover from setbacks or failure, maintaining stability
in light of a highly disruptive event.
Table 1. Entrepreneurial Muscle Memory: Seven Core Competencies (Entrepreneurial Muscle Lab,2019).
Next, we look at McGrath’s four categories of group tasks as they relate to innovation initia-
tives, examining idea generation, selection, transition, and execution.
Idea generation: building a strategic plan and brainstorming
The first stage of the innovation process is connected to the “generate” section of McGrath’s
model. Generating plans is frequently a weak point in the innovation pipeline. As it requires an
innovation strategy, it goes beyond the sole notion that innovation is necessary to stay relevant. As
Pisano phrases it, this stage needs a thorough “understanding and articulation of specific objec-
tives related to helping the company achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.”12 Teams at this
stage need to use their awareness and problem-solving skills to identify factors related to creat-
ing, delivering, and capturing value with the end-customer in mind. The stage also requires strong
agency and communication skills to build a feasible plan despite obstacles and a clear manner of
communicating that plan.
Planning tends to be followed by generating ideas, a part that most innovation teams per-
form well on, using ideation sessions, hackathons, and workshops as methods. Generating ideas is
closely linked to a strong sense of awareness, an ability to spot opportunities, and problem-solving,
or tendency to dig under the surface. Generating ideas is rarely an obstacle. Employees end up
frustrated afterwards, when there is no tangible outcome upon completion of the idea generation
session.
Idea selection: assessing technical and business feasibility
The second part of the innovation team process is linked to the “choosing” portion of the
McGrath model. Using team members’ technical and functional expertise to solve problems with
correct answers requires strong analytical and problem-solving skills. To complete this stage suc-
cessfully, it is important to have the right technical and functional experts on board. Deciding issues
with no right answer requires slightly more than problem-solving skills. Dealing with the type of
situations when the correct answer is the preferred or agreed upon one, requires both strong prob-
lem-solving and communication skills. Corporate innovation teams, in general, tend to perform
well on this category of tasks.
14
Idea transition: team alignment and negotiation
Bringing individuals across disciplines, geographies, and organizations requires having
people on board who can be eective at handling the next stage of the innovation team work-
flow: “negotiating.” Resolving conflicts of viewpoint requires excellent communication skills and
the ability to put oneself in others’ shoes. Resolving conflicts of interest additionally requires strong
relationship-building skills. The study by Woolley et al. found that collective intelligence of teams is
“correlated with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of con-
versational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group.” The finding does not come as
a surprise as individuals with strong communication and networking tendencies are more likely to
exhibit that type of behavior, therefore contributing to the successful completion of tasks related to
team alignment and negotiation.
Idea execution: resolving power struggles and enhancing performance
Before getting to see the light of day, new ideas and plans need to go through bureaucrat-
ic hurdles and overcome power struggles. Resolving conflicts of power can be frequent when an
innovation initiative threatens to make jobs or departments obsolete. The stage requires superior
communication skills (sharing benefits of the initiative), networking (getting stakeholders’ buy-in),
resourcefulness (operating within multiple constraints) and ultimately resilience (not getting dis-
couraged by rejection).
Finally, executing an idea is when most initiatives fail. This “last” stage of the model requires
people with a strong sense of agency or belief in one’s ability to successfully drive change. An
intriguing trend appears when analyzing data from 220 entrepreneurial competency assessment
results by the Entrepreneurial Muscle Lab (EML). Less than 5% of individuals working at a large
company with over 1000 employees have agency as their leading competency, while close to 40%
have it as their relatively weakest one. On the other hand, 25% of individuals working at a startup or
a small business (below 1000 employees) have agency as their leading competency with 9% having
it as their weakest one.
Agency appears to increase in frequency as the organizational size decreases. Further re-
search is needed to understand whether the trend is due to self-selection or corporate bureaucra-
cy stifling individuals’ sense of agency. As a competency that significantly influences the capacity to
generate and execute innovation plans, agency could be the missing link that unlocks the power of
innovation teams.
The model is represented in an apparent chronological order for simplicity. In reality, most of these
tasks may be occurring concurrently, and there can be multiple iterations of dierent processes.
Discussion
Innovation teams composed of team members spanning organizational boundaries tend to
have complementary competencies needed to complete dierent group processes. The enhanced
ability to complete group tasks can be interpreted as a signal of an increased collective intelli-
gence. Analyzing the innovation team as a separate construct allows us to assess and optimize
team structures for increased performance. Previous studies have already shown that using both
internal and external resources in an innovation process leads to improved innovation outcomes.
The paper further confirmed the finding, focusing on the use of internal and external human capi-
tal.
Cross-boundary team structures present a unique opportunity to create synergies between
big and small businesses. For large organizations, it is a chance to infuse attitudes such as agili-
ty, proactivity, risk-taking, and entrepreneurialism. For small businesses, such close collaboration
provides access to platforms of scale, industry know-how, and the advantage that comes with high
market power. Eliminating organizational boundaries when forming an innovation team can en-
hance both organizations’ capability to drive change, build new products and services.
15
Ultimately, optimizing the distributed intelligence of individuals across organizations is a
potential win-win scenario, generating profits and creating new jobs on both ends. Demonstrating
the business case for investing in collaboration with smaller enterprises can incentivize large busi-
ness to reimagine the concept of what constitutes a workforce. On the small business side, estab-
lishing the external team member connection can decrease the fear in working with a significantly
more powerful partner. If properly utilized, cross-boundary team structures can act as an
equalizer, creating individual linkages that enable big – small business collaboration.
Cross-boundary team creation still poses a number of challenges, including transparency,
Intellectual Property ownership, coordination, common goals, and underlying drivers’ identifica-
tion. Further research is needed to understand environmental factors that influence teams’ perfor-
mance. Empirically validating the correlation between competencies and tasks completion can also
support the practical implementation of the proposed concept.
Conclusion
Examining open innovation on a team level shows that cross-boundary teams have an en-
hanced ability to complete innovation-related group tasks. The paper aimed to demonstrate that
a construct as simple as forming a team has the potential to contribute to innovation, productivity,
and economic output. Further understanding the practical application of cross-boundary team
formation can become a core business advantage.
Cross-boundary team structures could eliminate communication and incentive barriers
between big and small businesses, enabling them to help each other grow. Combining individuals
capabilities and drive could render organizational divides obsolete. Business tools and policy in-
struments that foster such connections can help design a collaborative future of work. Let us start
with a dialogue on how big and small players can not only co-exist but thrive together.
16
 (McKinsey&Company 2018) "McKinsey Global Innovation Survey."
 (KPMG 2018) Benchmarking Innovation Impact. Innovation Leader.
 (Sivam, et al. 2019) "Key settings for successful Open Innovation Arena." Journal of Computational Design and Engineering.
 (Reeves, Hansell and Charme di Carlo 2018) "How Vital Companies Think, Act, and Thrive." Boston Consulting Group Henderson Institute.
 (Som, Jaeger and Maloca 2014) "Modernisierung der Produktion." Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung.
 (Wuchty, Jones and Uzzi 2007) "The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge." Science 1036-1039.
 (Colvin 2016) Humans Are Underrated: What High Achievers Know That Brilliant Machines Never Will. New York, NY: Penguin.
 (Woolley, et al. 2010) "Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups." Science Vol. 330, Issue 6004, pp. 686-688.
 (Pea 1997) "Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education." New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
 (McGrath 1984) "Groups: Interaction and Performance." Englewood Clis, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 (Entrepreneurial Muscle Lab 2019)
 (Pisano 2015) "You Need an Innovation Strategy." Harvard Business Review.
 (Woolley, et al. 2010) "Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups." Science Vol. 330, Issue 6004, pp. 686-688.
 (Entrepreneurial Muscle Lab 2019). Data analyzed by Entrepreneurial Muscle Lab is aggregated, anonymized, and cannot be tracked to individual
reports.
Stefania Tapia Marchina
tapia.stefania@uabc.edu.mx
PhD Candidate, Global Development Studies, Autonomous University of Baja California
Abstract
Labour market interventions are essential to shape a future of decent work and economic
growth that leaves no one behind. Particularly in Latin America, a region that presents a landscape
of lower productivity economic sectors and high dependence on commodities.
While striving into higher technology conversion is one of the main aims for economic
growth, there are important risks of displacement and exclusion of large population sectors, es-
pecially women. The current employment segmentation in the region already presents important
limitations for women, particularly the poor and indigenous, which would be accentuated if gender
dimensions are not at the center of labour market interventions moving forward.
Introduction
Regardless of the various industrialization eorts in Latin America, the region still faces a
strong dependence on commodities and its main production structure is based in low value
creation chains of manufacturing, agriculture and natural resource extraction.
The later has particular eects in shaping labour markets, the access to decent jobs and
creating opportunities to lift people out of poverty, particularly for women. Data shows that, from
the 49% of women in Latin America that are considered part of the labour force, 21,9% are concen-
trated in informal commercial activities, 11,5% in manufacturing, and 27,7% in paid care and domes-
tic work; which is related to partial employment and lower income levels.
In addition to minimum diversification and low productivity, the fall of purchasing power
and the scarcity of secure living wages in the region has increased unpaid domestic and care work
as survival strategies within households. The burden of increased unpaid domestic and care work
translates into structural obstacles of time use for women to enter the labour force. Recent data
confirms that 43,4% of women in Latin America report family reasons as the main motive to not
tively look or engage in paid work.
Some of these challenges can be addressed through conversion into higher technology pro-
duction structures as a means for economic growth and overcoming dependency on commodities.
Nonetheless, in order to engage in ecient labour market interventions that leave no one behind,
the needs of women, particularly the poor, rural and indigenous, must be in the center of policy
design and implementation.
Discussion
In Latin America, the increasing participation of women in the work force is mainly caused
by economic depression, stagnated growth and the fall of purchasing power, which instead of lift-
ing them out of poverty and boosting economic autonomy, it has generated a poverty of time and
a double, or even triple, workload for women in excluded population sectors.
Data from 2014 shows that Latin American women work between 60 and 90 hours a week
depending on the country, combining paid and non paid work, while the range for men is between
48 to 73.5 hours.
An Intersectional Gender Lens to Labour Market
Interventions in Latin America
17
As the role of women has expanded into being professionals and providers of income for
their families, male roles have maintained over time with men rarely engaging in unpaid care and
domestic work. According to data provided by UN Women, 41% of global working hours are com-
promised by unpaid domestic and care work, from which, 31% is done by women and only 10% by
men.
Adding to the time constraints that this represents for women, the sexual division of labour
within households has translated into employment segmentation associated with lower income and
job insecurity. In Latin America 21,9% of employed women are concentrated in informal commercial
activities, while 27,7% take part in paid care and domestic work services.
Segmentation is also observed in employment productivity level, 51,8% of women in the
region are employed in lower productivity sectors, and from that percentage, 82,2% of women do
not have access to social security or a pension scheme for their retirement, which highlights the
degree of informality and job insecurity.
When the participation of women in the labour force responds to economic stagnation and
inequalities it does not serve to enhance their lives, but rather to increase overall workload, as men,
the State and the private sector are not engaging in redistributing unpaid social reproduction work.
Evidence confirms that there is a direct relationship between domestic and care work overload
with the type of jobs that women have access to. Most segmentation in employment sectors an-
swers to the need of women to reconcile care and paid labour in flexible schedules, informality and
auto-employment strategies.
The relationship between paid and unpaid work strongly exhibits a simultaneous inclu-
sion/exclusion of women in the labor force, while integrating them under employment insecurity
schemes, they are being excluded from economic and social mobility opportunities. Additionally,
State subsidiary welfare programs and cash transfers might keep these marginalized populations
under the radar, but they don’t redistribute care and domestic work nor represent a path out of
poverty.
Development research has shown that cash transfers, conditional or unconditional, even if
they are part of a scheme of social security networks, need to be framed in a broader structural
agenda that addresses labour market mobility and social networks to achieve long term results.
Furthermore, while addressing structural productivity levels through conversion into higher value
chains of production may be enough to sustain economic growth for the developing world, it is not
enough to achieve sustainable development, decent employment creation and inclusivity for all.
Specific labour market interventions from an intersectional gender perspective that takes
into account income level and ethnicity are of essence to shape the future of work. Interrelations
of gender discrimination, ethnicity and income vulnerability play a substantial role in creating of
opportunities accessible for the majority of the population.
Considering that almost a third of working women are employed in the paid care and do-
mestic work sector, investing in universal social security networks that oer decent work will have
particularly positive impacts for women. Research shows that direct investments in the care econo-
my not only reduce and redistribute paid care work, it also has the potential of creating millions of
jobs, of which 60-70% would be held by women.
It is important to note that structural changes that aim to reduce economic inequalities from
a gender perspective imply transforming the lives of all the population -women and men alike- to
be able to participate with equity in all spheres of the economy, paid and unpaid.
Hence, labour market interventions that are designed with women’s needs in the center
would have broader positive eects for all the population, while ignoring the gender dimensions of
employment has the risk of massive displacement and exclusion. For example, studies confirm that
current automation trends in lower value chains will have accentuated negative eects on women
if gender informed conversion is not prioritized.
18
Our challenge today is to design and implement the policy that will shape the work opportu-
nities of future generations. If the goal is to build fair economies, decent jobs and economic growth
that translates into the wellbeing of the majority and not the wealth of a minority, direct labour
market interventions need to address structural inequalities. Additionally, these need to be paired
with universal social security networks that ensure a basic floor of wellbeing for all and redistribute
unpaid domestic and care work.
To achieve these goals a strong collaboration between governments and the private sector
is needed. While interventions should be driven by States within a broader development agenda
that addresses economic structural inequalities, the private sector should be kept accountable for
equitable employment creation that includes marginalized populations, specially during the pro-
cess of higher technology convergence in the developing world.
Some key points that outline the basics for landscaping the future of work in Latin America,
from an intersectional gender lens, are as follows:
a) Direct investment into the care economy through universal social security networks;
b) labour regulations in accordance to decent work standards, particularly in paid care
employment;
c) revision of minimum wages and adequate earnings to meet inflation and cover the needs
of the population
d) gender pay gap audits and sanctions;
e) tax incentives to promote gender parity in the work place;
f) acknowledging and strategizing on reducing motherhood penalties in the workplace due
to career brakes, reduced working hours and gender biased promotions.
g) care services provision inside the workplace, while abiding by inclusive maternity, pater-
nity and parental leave;
h) addressing the digital an innovation gender gap to avoid feminized technological dis
placement.
The later are examples of policy arrangements that can be tailored to specific population gaps and
vulnerabilities, which paired with a broader strategy of allocated investment for employment cre-
ation under higher value chains and less dependence on natural resources, becomes a powerful
combination that brings governments and corporations together in shaping a future of work where
we all fit and women’s needs are met.
Conclusion
The next generation of work is not to be taken lightly. The present testifies for the conse-
quences of our decisions in the past, hence the challenges and opportunities of today should keep
us all accountable in forging an economy that has room for everyone today and tomorrow.
Addressing structural inequalities of income disparity and employment opportunities from
a gender informed perspective is essential in the process of creating inclusive economies. In the
context of the developing world, particularly in Latin America, we face high risks of employment
displacement as automation trends and higher technology conversion are implemented.
However, at this turning point in history, the opportunity is still open to take action into the
direction of inclusivity. Governments and the private sector alike, have a responsibility in turning the
wheel towards equity. The stakes are high and the future of work lays in taking action today.
Acknowledgements
A special mention to the Autonomous University of Baja California and the National Science
and Technology Commission of Mexico for supporting my research endeavors, as well as to the San
Diego Chapter of the United Nations Association of the United States of America for being the main
local advocate for Sustainable Development in our binational border region.
19
 Hernández, Enrique & Ramírez, Martin. (coord.). Bienestar y Pobreza en América Latina: Una visión desde la frontera norte de México. (UABC,
Ediciones Once Ríos: Mexico. 2015) 11-54.
 ECLAC. Oportunidades y Desafíos para la Autonomía de las Mujeres en el Futuro Escenario del Trabajo. (ECLAC: Santiago de Chile. 2019) 11-29.
 Ibid.
 Bidegain, Nicol & Calderón, Coral. Los Cuidados en América Latina y el Caribe.Textos seleccionados 2007-2018. (ECLAC: Santiago de Chile. 2018)
65-81.
 UN Women. Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment: Recognizing and Investing in the Care Economy. (UN Women: New York City. 2018) 42-
50.
 ECLAC, 11-29
 Ibid.
 UN Women, 42-50.
 Elson, Diane & Seth, Anuradha (eds.). Gender Equality and Inclusive Growth: Economic Policies to Achieve Sustainable Development. (UN Women:
New York City. 2019) 20-46.
 Hernández & Ramírez, 11-54.
 Ulrichs, Martina & Roelen, Keetie. Equal Opportunities for All?– A Critical Analysis of Mexico’s Oportunidades. IDS Working Papers, (2012) 1-23.
 UN Women, 14-17.
 Elson & Seth, 20-46.
 Faith, Becky. Automation, Women, and the Future of Work. RapidResponse Briefing, Issue 1. Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom, (July
2017), 1-4.
 International Labour Organization (ILO). Decent Work Indicators. (ILO: Switzerland. 2013) 23-206.
 Ibid, 65-91.
 ILO. A Quantum Leap for Gender Equality: For a Better Future of Work for All. (ILO, Switzerland. 2019) 32-60.
 As recommended by the International Labour Organization (ILO), the future of work should have time to care, and provide care services through
both the private sector and universal social security networks. Ibid, 34-41.
20
Benjamin J. Beers
ben@echoinggreen.org
Specialist, Knowledge, Echoing Green
Chisato F. Calvert, PhD
chisato@impact-experience.com
Director of Strategic Partnerships, Impact Experience
Liza Mueller
liza@echoinggreen.org
Vice President, Knowledge, Echoing Green
Jenna A. Nicholas
jenna@impact-experience.com
Chief Executive Ocer, Impact Experience
Abstract
While workforce development initiatives are often designed from the top-down, a hu-
man-centered approach calls for decision-making authority on economic policies to be shared
with the communities engaged – an approach which social entrepreneurs have been bringing to
their work for decades. Echoing Green, an organization with thirty years of experience investing
and support the growth of early-stage social entrepreneurs, has observed this approach succeed
time-and-time again. To do this work well requires investment in community leaders deeply em-
bedded in the constituencies they serve. Impact Experience, recipients of the 2018 Echoing Green
Fellowship, have brought a human centered approach to their work with twenty communities
across the United States on themes from climate resilience, community cohesion, and ecosystem
building - all within a framework of building a more equitable, inclusive, and sustainable workforce
and workplace. This paper highlights the progress and successes from Impact Experience’s work in
Williamson, West Virginia – a town working to overcome challenges stemming from the decline of
the coal industry – to both show the viability of Impact Experience’s local organizing model as well
as illuminate the contributions social entrepreneurship can make to promote an inclusive future of
work.
Introduction
In the report “Work for a Brighter Future,” the International Labour Organization called for a
human-centered agenda to ensure the future of work is designed to “drive growth, equity, and sus-
tainability for present and future generations.”1 To achieve the targets of Sustainable Development
Goal 8 – Decent Work and Economic Growth – will require a systemic coalition of eort across all
sectors and industries.
Social Entrepreneurship for the Future of Work:
Co-creating a Healthier Economy & Workforce in
Williamson, West Virginia
21
Social entrepreneurship – and the leaders who represent this movement of socially con-
scious businesses and non-profit organizations – have been on the front lines of implementing
impact-first and human-centered design work for decades. With proper investment, social entre-
preneurs can build equitable and locally sustainable organizations whose primary measurement
of success is their ability to transform their constituents and communities for the better. As other
industries seek to bring this perspective into their work, social entrepreneurs can be an invaluable
resource.
To steward the future of work, Echoing Green believes that the global community must not
only strengthen people’s rights and opportunities in economies as they exist today, but also invest
heavily in leaders with a vision for what the economies and societies of the future must become.
Social entrepreneurs are leading the way towards a future of work that is equitable and designed
to meet human needs first and foremost. These leaders already exist in communities throughout
the world. With support, they are ready to build new, collaborative alternatives to address worker
displacement, combat climate change, challenge the centralization of wealth and power, and em-
power those repressed by gender, racial, and other forms of systemic social oppression.
Impact Experience is an example of one such organization. Impact Experience is a social
impact organization focused on building bridges and deepening relationships between impact
investors, philanthropists, entrepreneurs and community leaders to co-develop solutions that align
with the community’s vision. Through their work in Williamson, West Virginia, they have engaged
in a community-driven process to design an equitable and inclusive future for the city, already
attracting more than $8 million USD in new funding, including capital for initiatives on workforce
development, healthcare and wellness, and community facilities and creating nearly 300 jobs. Their
successes represent the potential of inclusive social entrepreneurship; a model we believe can
make positive change if implemented across the world.
Discussion
In Williamson, West Virginia, over 2,000 coal workers – nearly 25% of the town’s workforce
– have lost their jobs since 2014. The decline of the coal industry and a lack of sustainable alterna-
tives has left many people uncertain about their day-to-day financial stability and has contributed
to a growing public health crisis in the area. Mingo County, where Williamson is located, struggles
with some of the highest rates of diabetes, hypertension, and opioid abuse in the United States.
In response to these challenges, Impact Experience has brought together the Williamson
community, investors, philanthropists, and innovators in a series of workshops to co-develop the
future of the city in an equitable and inclusive way. By bringing together diverse stakeholders to
co-create a citywide development, Impact Experience demonstrated an innovative and collabo-
rative approach to drafting inclusive economic policy. Over the course of five years, they worked
to generate trust amongst one another through a series of facilitated conversations that explored
implicit bias and aligned personal and professional values– a necessary step for the Williamson
community who experienced years of economic extraction and outside interests with little invest-
ment in the long-term wellbeing of their community. The trust-building phase was critical to ensure
that any economic development plans would respect their community’s values as well as Appala-
chian culture, heritage, and history.
This trust developed into a working partnership where all participants contributed to the
creation of a citywide development plan. Utilizing facilitation tools such as consensus building and
design thinking, they co-identified challenges to the community as well as opportunities to address
them. Beyond simply having surface-level conversations, Impact Experience emphasized the need
to have deep conversations about how to build an equitable, inclusive, and sustainable workforce.
Some of the key questions explored include:
22
What defines quality work for your community?
What new skills are required for a new labor force to partake in dignified work?
How can our development plan ensure that people across race, class, and socioeconomic
status are engaged, respected, and provided with opportunities?
How does technological innovation help or disrupt an existing labor-market dynamic?
By delving into dicult topics and engaging a variety of stakeholders with established trust,
the group was able to express their needs, generate insights, identify resources, and discover areas
of expertise that might otherwise have gone unrealized. At the end of this collaborative design pro-
cess, the community emerged with a roadmap to diversify the local economy, develop the work-
force needed to implement it, and ensure that accountability and ownership was vested in local
leaders so the solutions could be controlled by the community and sustained long-term. The Impact
Experience model serves as a replicable solution for rolling out a multistakeholder approach to
map SDG 8 targets at a local level.
Acting on the development plan, the Williamson community and external stakeholders sup-
ported the development of a Federally Qualified Healthcare Center, a health innovation hub, and
a mobile farmers market – generating nearly 300 jobs for former coal workers as well as serving
the health needs of over 20,000 patients who live under the poverty line. Impact Experience helped
attract an additional $8 million USD for projects ranging from workforce development in the health
and solar energy industries, broadband infrastructure projects, and investment in ecotourism proj-
ects. As a result, the Williamson community has been able to achieve the following outcomes:
Workforce Development: training former coal miners in the skills needed for employment in
diverse sectors including agriculture, computer science, renewable energy and construction.
Rural Healthcare: the development of the Williamson Health and Wellness Center, a Federally
Qualified Healthcare Center that provides over 20,000 local residents across Mingo County with
comprehensive healthcare and wellness programs.
Wellness Programs: local healthcare leaders are building several programs including a diabe-
tes intervention program, mobile farmers market, and a new fitness center.
Community Facilities: the Williamson Health and Wellness Center purchased a new facility with
meeting spaces, providing community members with the opportunity to connect with entrepre-
neurs who are supporting the growth of the local economy.
Williamson, West Virginia demonstrates what the future of work will look like: a broader shift
away from traditional extraction economies towards new, innovative and sustainable industries.
The future of work will require us to follow their lead, rethinking and redefining what it means to
work, how to build a workforce, and what comprises a dignified workplace.
Conclusion
To truly reframe the future of work, investment must be made in leaders willing to challenge
the practices of existing, exploitative industries and build the economies of the future – implement-
ed in full, contextual understanding of how disruptions to current economic systems can have detri-
mental eects, particularly in oppressed communities which all too often shoulder the burden.
Impact Experience’s engagement approach of generating trust among diverse stakehold-
ers, building consensus for a collaboratively designed strategy, and ensuring local sustainability is
applicable to communities across the globe. Their model and experience in doing this work is illus-
trative of multiple recommendations that should be adopted across the ecosystem of institutions
involved in workforce development.
23
First, policy makers should be consistently engaging diverse stakeholders across multiple
sectors to collaboratively envision the future of the community. This helps guarantee that work
and workforce development is owned and shaped by community leaders with a robust network of
resources – both financial and human capital – behind them. Without a strong network of support
that bridges across sectors, disciplines, and geographical regions, historically marginalized com-
munities will continue to bear the burden of structural inequalities designed to suppress the poten-
tial to obtain decent work, steady income, and a sustainable livelihood.
Second, to fulfill the ILO’s vision of implementing human-centered design to improve the
future of work, governments, investors, foundations and philanthropy should look to, elevate, and
partner to deploy the solutions social entrepreneurs are building across the world. In particular,
social entrepreneurs who display a commitment to equity, a focus on sustainability, and, perhaps
most importantly, who are building organizations designed to grant power and decision-making
authority to the constituents whom they represent and serve.
Third, increased investment in early-stage social enterprises led by local leaders, deeply in-
vested in their communities’ unique needs, is needed to drive change and achieve SDG 8.3. Innova-
tion cannot be entrusted to institutions with embedded financial and social stakes in the continua-
tion of a harmful or biased status quo. What Impact Experience, in collaboration with local partners
accomplished, in Williamson, West Virginia – and what social entrepreneurs across the world strive
to accomplish every day – serves as an example and a model for an evolved future of work where
businesses and organizations center equity, sustainability, and human needs at the very core of
their operations. As trends in both the nonprofit and for-profit sectors point towards an increased
centralization of economic power3, social entrepreneurship serves as a counterexample: vesting
power and financial resources in can deliver transformational impact.
Echoing Green’s research has found that social enterprises pursue funds across the spec-
trum of possible sources, regardless of corporate form. This underscores the importance of funders’
and investors’ work to design fair, inclusive processes as they determine who and what to fund4,
including the creation of new models of risk assessment for investment in innovative solutions be
developed. These new, innovative organizations understand that traditional risk assessment that
focuses solely on economic growth is shortsighted, knowing that the social, environmental and
economic challenges of today will be far costlier to address if the problems are left to grow worse.
Social entrepreneurs understand that success must not be defined solely in terms of profitability or
financial stability – a framework often implemented to prevent investment in areas desperately in-
need of such support – but must prioritize how investments improve the lives of people.
Whether it is in West Virginia, New York City, or Nairobi, social entrepreneurs in Echoing
Green’s community are already calling for change when it comes to the future of work. In a round-
table discussion with more than 10 NYC-based Fellows in 2017, these key issues and ideas were ap-
parent in the conversation and a final report, “How will New York City Define the Future of Work?”5
in partnership with Barclays. Putting people at the center of these workforce solutions is the key to
overcoming our challenges, no matter where they live.
Social entrepreneurship has the potential to reshape the future of work and strengthen the
social contract where existing economic structures have fallen short – yet it will not do so without
global support and a willingness to thoughtfully transition economic power and decision-making
toward community-based leadership.
The good news is that leaders willing and knowledgeable about how to do so already exist –
they are willing and able to begin their work today, if given the critical support they need. In addi-
tion to financial investment and resources, we must create a community of learning and support for
next generation leaders who are building and operating the businesses that are on the front lines
of creating new, socially responsible businesses dedicated to racial, economic, and social justice.
24
This transformation will not happen overnight: it is a long-term investment in the development of
leaders who, day by day, do the important work of building a new, collaborative and sustainable
economy.
Acknowledgments
Impact Experience (www.impact-experience.com)
Participants of the West Virginia Impact Experiences
Dr. Donovan Beckett at the Williamson Health and Wellness Center
Williamson Health and Wellness Center (www.williamsonhealthwellness.com)
Echoing Green (www.echoinggreen.org)
Barclays
 “Work for a Brighter Future.Global Commission on the Future of Work: Work for a Brighter Future, International Labour Organization 2019, 22 Jan.
2019, www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_662410/lang--en/index.html
 “State of Social Entrepreneurship 2019.Echoing Green, 10 Apr. 2019, www.echoinggreen.org/ideas/state-social-entrepreneurship-2019.
 “No.8 Skills Policies and Systems for a Future Workforce.Issue Briefs: No.8 Skills Policies and Systems for a Future Workforce, 2nd Meeting of the
Global Commission on the Future of Work, 20 Feb. 2018, www.ilo.org/global/topics/future-of-work/publications/issue-briefs/WCMS_618170/lang--
en/index.htm.
 “State of Social Entrepreneurship 2018” Echoing Green, 10 April 2018, https://www.echoinggreen.org/ideas/state-social-entrepreneurship-2018
 “How Will New York City Define the Future of Work?” Echoing Green, 28 May 2019, www.echoinggreen.org/ideas/how-will-new-york-city-define-
future-work.
25
Hélène Vincent
helene@vincentforboston.com
Candidate for Boston City Council
Sean Cheng, PhD
seanjcheng@gmail.com
Investment Manager, Philips Ventures
Abstract
With so much attention on millennials, a spotlight should shift towards another segment that
can significantly influence economic growth and impact in the Future of Work - the aging popula-
tion and workforce. As life expectancy and quality of life increases, retirement age remains static,
and the population of elderly grows, a silver economy is emerging of which societies are not yet
prepared to access today due to policy and technology shortfalls. Simultaneously, there is a (dis)
inclusion. Social isolation and loneliness epidemic among elderly that results in lost of purpose,
cognitive decline, and significantly healthcare risks and burden on society. The authors survey the
state of policy and technology to address these issues and conclude that more needs to be done to
create successful access channels and transfer the growing population into economic benefits and
reduced risks and cost to society.
Introduction: An Aging Workforce
Bob is the most socially plugged in volunteer on the author’s political campaign for Boston
City Council. He communicates out via call, email, text, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. His sti
fingers make it so that he occasionally inserts a typo, but he does not let that slow him down and
autocorrect technology helps. At 73 years old, Bob is one of the oldest volunteers and also one of
the best. Two years ago, Bob was laid o from his job. He has tried valiantly to find another job,
without any success. He has lengthy writer and editor experiences, but has had no success making
it past the first interview.
As life expectancy expands in countries with developed economies, Bob is one of many
seniors facing a particular challenge: they are capable and need employment but are not finding
employers willing to hire them. According to an AARP study, 61% of respondents over the age of 45
reported experiencing age discrimination in the workplace. Bob’s involvement in the campaign
provides a direct value for her team and in return imbues Bob with purpose and community, which
in turn helps reduce risks of cognitive decline and increase chances of longevity. Furthermore,
thanks to the advent of technologies like Google Drive and video conferencing, he can be more
mobile and work remotely when needed. As his search for paid employment continues, he can con-
tinue to volunteer to keep sharp and improve his prospects.
This article presents a perspective on how policy and technology can better provide opportunities
for a growing aging population to ensure economic growth, continued education, inclusion and
reduced healthcare cost burden on society.
Driving Economic Growth through Policy and Technology
for the Aging Population
26
Growing Silver Economies
Today, 8.5 percent of people worldwide (617 million) are aged 65 and over. According to a
new report, “An Aging World: 2015,” this percentage is projected to jump to nearly 17 percent of the
world’s population by 2050 (1.6 billion).3 We are just starting to grapple with the societal and eco-
nomic impacts of this trend. How do we rethink societal norms and structures to accommodate and
integrate our growing population of seniors?
We can look to Japan for one example of how to better integrate the older population. Over
25% of Japan’s population is now over 65 and that number is expected to grow to 40% in the next
10 years.4 One of the country’s key focuses is the integration of the elderly into community via pol-
icies like Design for 100-Year Life Society, businesses rethinking to target older customers, and
healthcare adopting elderly-friendly technologies.5 Japan believes that all this can create a friendly
environment with a strong, integrated aging community contributing to a growing economy and
reduced healthcare costs.
As one of the authors, Hélène, knock doors throughout Boston, she spends much of her day
with the only people who are likely to answer the door at 2pm on weekdays, the elderly. Many of
them invite the author into their homes for a visit. As much as these conversations are enjoyable,
there is often a painful undertone of loneliness and boredom. Boston has an exceptionally high
number of educational institutions. This means that there is a lot of elderly who have much to teach
as well as who yearn for mental stimulation. The author met one elderly woman recently who had
immigrated from Lebanon and got her PhD in computer technology - the first woman in her class
to attain this degree. She longs for intellectual challenge and reads a novel a day, in addition to
trade publications, in hopes of keeping her brain active.
Research shows that people who are socially isolated experience cognitive decline and have
poorer health outcomes. In addition, participants with a sense of purpose experience better health
outcomes. “The stronger the participants felt they had a purpose in life, the lower their risk of dy-
ing. This result remained even when the scientists adjusted their calculations for factors that could
aect their score, such as a participants’ sociodemographic status and their health.”
The lack of working policies, infrastructure or engagement with seniors presents a tremendous
financial burden on society. From a healthcare cost standpoint, a recent report indicates that lone-
liness and social isolation leads to increased health risks among seniors, which could result in a
heavy care burden on society. Our community, and the population at large, would benefit tremen-
dously from the social and reintegration of our seniors. Extrapolation of current trends to call out
several critical issues: 1) Social (dis)inclusion of the aging population, 2) Number of wasted work
hours and economic potential, 3) Skill/knowledge/brain drain, 4) Resultant healthcare costs from
mental deterioration or loss of ability, and 5) Retirement social security burden.
Like the 73-year-old political campaign intern Bob, many of the elderly individuals the au-
thor met with have multiple communications devices, which means they could in fact tele-commute
and do work remotely with some accommodations. What steps can we take to integrate our aging
seniors into our communities and workforce?
Policy Recommendations for the Aging Population
A sustainable solution to this problem will require a collective eort across both eective
policy making and technology implementation. We need to call on policymakers to incentivize
organizations to integrate our seniors. As we rethink our working hours from an outdated 1960s
nine-to-five structure to a more flexible approach, we can integrate people who need part-time or
remote work. The gig economy provides an additional opportunity for seniors to pick up short-term
work assignments. Many large companies have diversity and inclusion programming and training.
These programs can be expanded to cover age discrimination and help people recognize the value
of their older colleagues, rather than just writing them o.
27
The US for example have outdated policies including the Age Discrimination in Employment
Act (ADEA) from 1967 and recent interpretations of law including 2009 Supreme Court ruling in
“Gross v. FBL Financial Services, Inc.,” have made it more dicult to prove age discriminiation as
compared to race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.9 New eorts by influential law makers
are under way including the The Protecting Older Workers Against Discrimination Act (POWADA)
but this is only scratching the surface of what needs to be done to address access and infrastruc-
ture needs of people like Bob.
There should also be broad recognition and support for organizations working to bring
seniors and younger generations together. In California, a nonprofit called Bridging the Gap pairs
older Chinese immigrants with high school students in a double mentorship program. The young
students learn culture and language from the older folks and the seniors get help with their tech-
nology from the youth. Both groups experience feelings of inclusion and purpose. Programs in
Japan and Taiwan provide established channels for seniors to volunteer their time in public infra-
structure such as hospitals to stay engaged.
Technology must be the other driver that provides an accelerant for integrating seniors as
part of the future of work and inclusion. It is commonplace today to meet seniors as drivers via
Uber and Lyft or run errands on TaskRabbit as part of the gig economy. Airbnb’s fastest growing
segment are senior homeowner hosts.10 However, these generalist technology platforms represent
a small fraction of senior skillset and time conversion into the volunteer and work force. More tech-
nology platforms are needed to cater to senior-specific needs around access and must incentivize
employers willing to take on unit contributions from this demographic. A search for senior-specific
platforms in the US that can oer reliable sources of work came up with minimal solutions - an op-
portunity for entrepreneurs and investors.
Finally, we should invest in tech and retraining to prepare our seniors for the modern work-
place. Changing the workplace environment to become more senior friendly have also had in-
creased activity. Seniors have needs around vision impairment, other disabilities and ergonomic
that should be addressed in order to better utilize the aging workforce. An article in the MIT Tech-
nology Review on the topic indicated that fundamental shift in the design of the workplace must
shift as “designers don’t always think about older people.11 Tech companies like Google and
Amazon are thinking about the older population as customers and workers; Microsoft publishes an
online “Guide for Individuals with Age-Related Impairments.
Conclusion
According to the WHO, by 2050, the world’s population of people over the age of 60 will
double. As life expectancy continues to increase and baby boomers move towards retirement,
our aging population is a growing and critical segment and we should all be paying more atten-
tion. Reintegration of our seniors into the workplace has both societal and economic benefits. It
is important that we move the needle economically for all segments of the population,including
those who are aging. As a result, there needs to be significantly more investment, policy thinking,
and rapid execution in these arenas to address growing concerns around the aging workforce and
senior population. Even Japan with arguably the most sophisticated in senior access policy and
infrastructure is only starting to fulfill the vast potential of the silver economy. Every day, when Bob
shows up ready and eager to work, the author is remotivated to push for policies that would incen-
tivize organizations to integrate folks like him into the workforce. How can we make sure that the
areas covered in this article continue in the right direction as policymakers, investors, and entrepre-
neurs moving forwards?
28
 World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data, https://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/situation_trends_
text/en/
 Perron, Rebecca. The Value of Experience: AARP Multicultural Work and Jobs Study. Washington, DC: AARP Research, July 2018. https://doi.
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29
21ST CENTURY
EDUCATION &
SKILLS
Development
33
34
Education to Employment Systems in the Fourth
Industrial Revolution
Austin Halbert
austin@impactedlearning.com
CEO, ImpactEd
Introduction
The Fourth Industrial Revolution is often observed through the lens of fear and uncertainty.
Recently coined by Charles Schwab of the World Economic Forum, this era is defined by the inter-
section of exponential technologies, rapid social transformation, and institutional shifts. When we
hear about the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it is often through the megaphone of a warning. We
are warned to fear the pending the job losses, the economic disruption, and most of all the uncer-
tainty of a world that is accelerating beyond our control. What if, instead, we looked at the Fourth
Industrial Revolution as an opportunity for economic transformation? For the first time in history, we
have the tools and systems to create an economy that works for all people. The rate of change fac-
ing public and private institutions could create the conditions for us to recalibrate our economies to
work for the common good.
In many of the world’s wealthiest economies, such as the U.S., the economic system is not
working for most of the population. Inequality has been accepted as a condition of free market
economies, and it has continued to accelerate within countries in recent decades. Naturally, this
has correlated to a lack of mobility, especially for low-income youth. Increasingly, though, we have
the tools and technologies to steer more equitable learning opportunities and employment out-
comes. Whether we do so will determine whether we can muster the political will, the strategic
systems perspective, and the policy innovation to leverage the resources at our disposal.
Challenges
One of the most urgent Sustainable Development Goals set out by the United Nations was
focused on improving youth transitions by 2020. Target 8.6 of the Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) set out an objective to substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment,
education or training (NEET) by 2020. According to the World Employment and Social Outlook re-
port issued by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2019, this target “will almost certainly
be missed.” Over one-fifth of youth around the world are still disconnected from the workforce, a
reality which has not been substantially improved in any of the income groups. Given the failure
in achieving demonstrable progress on creating equitable opportunities for youth, it is clear that
countries need a new paradigm for developing eective education to employment systems at the
national level. This paper will therefore attempt to propose a national system that is better adapt-
ed to the systemic challenges that will aect youth education and employment between now and
2030.
Methodology
Through a comparative analysis, I have assessed the national education to employment
systems of two countries that maintain among the lowest NEET rates in the world: Switzerland and
Sweden. From there, I extrapolated key characteristics from those systems and cross-referenced
them with existing research on policies for education to employment systems in the United States,
a country that faces significant challenges in reducing NEET.
35
Ultimately, this led to a set of recommendations for the United States to develop a national “educa-
tion to employment system. The objective of this system is to demonstrate a national strategy for
implementing evidence-based recommendations vetted within the United Nations and put forward
by the ILO Commission on the Future of Work. These recommendations include:
Entry-level jobs guarantee
Public employment system
Universal access to lifelong learning
Comparative Analysis
Due to the complexity of the relationship between education to employment, national gov-
ernments must take a systems approach in order to sustainably and eectively address the issue.
This paper compares two national systems for creating a strong transition from education to em-
ployment: Switzerland and Sweden. See Table 1 for a summary of the contemporary analysis.
Switzerland: The Swiss system is characterized by its strong public-private ecosystem for transi-
tioning youth from education into career pathways. Switzerland is often held up as the holy grail
for youth employment, characterized by a strong apprenticeship system and a strong invest-
ment in innovation between the public and private sector. The nation has consistently ranked #1
in the Youth Employment Index.
Sweden: The Swedish system is characterized by its strong social protections. The government
has employed a job guarantee for youth, a public employment system to help monitor out-
comes, and a proactive approach to helping youth transition into the workforce through individ-
ualized pathways (with a particular focus on measures for at-risk youth).
Comparative Analysis of National Systems for Education to Employment Transitions
Country NEET (%) Key Characteristics
Switzerland Low (6.5%) Strong vocational training system, public-private investment in
education and innovation. Highlights include:
High rates of youth apprenticeships (over 70%)
Joint investment in innovation between public and private sec-
tor
Strong engagement of private sector in education and training
Market-based system for apprenticeship applications to stabi-
lize labor supply and demand
Pathway mapping from education to workforce for 230 occu-
pations
Sweden Low (6.3%) Strong social protections have enabled the development and
demonstration of successful policies for reducing youth NEET,
such as:
Jobs guarantee for youth
Public employment system & data
Equitable access to learning
Individualized pathways
Active measures for at-risk youth
Table 1: Comparative Analysis of National Systems for Education to Employment Transitions
36
System Analysis
Elements of an Eective National Education to Employment System
Both countries have engineered a variety of interconnected policies and solutions to form a
system that can provide an on-ramp into the economy for youth across varying regions, sectors,
and socioeconomic conditions. Taking a systems approach is especially necessary when it comes to
the policy challenge of reducing NEET. Navigating the transition from education to employment is
more complex now than ever before.
United States
At the national level, many of the challenges facing governments are so complex that they
require a “system-of-systems perspective.” One of the primary reasons that Switzerland and
Sweden have achieved strong outcomes for youth is that both countries have taken a systems ap-
proach to youth employment. This paper therefore aims to develop a framework for national-level
solutions to reducing NEET, through a systems perspective. The rate of NEET in the United States is
considerably higher than in Switzerland and Sweden at 13.7%, making it an ideal country for com-
parison. In order for the United States to leapfrog progress on NEET in time to counteract impend-
ing challenges, the country would need to consider the following questions:
1. How can we adapt the eectiveness of education to employment systems such as those in Swit-
zerland and Sweden?
2. How can we leverage the eciency of new technologies to deploy those solutions at scale, es-
pecially to those most at risk of being disconnected from the workforce?
A great deal of research has been carried out on how the U.S. can address specific aspects of
youth employment, whether through expanding apprenticeships or developing systems to track
labor market data. However, these initiatives are often recommended as standalone interventions,
rather than solutions as part of a system. Below, I outline a systematic approach to achieving three
outcomes in the United States. The intended outcomes are inspired from policy recommendations
outlined by the ILO Commission on the Future of Work:
Public employment system
Jobs guarantee for youth
Universal access to lifelong learning
Public Employment System
Exchange data between public and private sector - Data is one of the critical pieces for em-
ployers to share current and future skills and jobs needs with government partners. (GBCE). This
helps in building the appropriate pathways for economic development. Governments may need
to incentive information sharing through public-private partnerships built around shared objec-
tives on youth employment and economic growth.
Streamline eorts into one common system or agency - According to the Government Account-
ability Oce, the U.S. spends $18 billion across 47 dierent programs, scattered across dierent
agencies often with competing priorities. Federal eorts should be coordinated into a common
eort focused on creating economic pathways for those most in need. This can either be done
through the creation of a new government agency focused on transitions from education to
employment or an interagency initiative focused on maximizing the benefits of shared resourc-
es.
37
Make real time jobs data publicly available - Data is one of the most critical tools that a student
needs to navigate their education in today’s labor market. In order to make informed decisions,
students need access to information. Today, public labor market data in the United States is
often outdated and fragmented, which prevents it from being used as a compass by students.
Still, in an economy where students are expected to take an active role in adapting their learn-
ing journey to the needs of the labor market, knowledge is power. Private companies such as
Burning Glass Technologies currently have data systems to predict jobs forecasts with increas-
ing accuracy, demonstrating that it is possible to assess data that informs pathways for govern-
ments, employers, students, and educators. However, the government must invest in develop-
ing its own public data capacity to inform decisions on education to employment pathways for
all participants in the labor market.
Jobs Guarantee for Youth
Engage in public-private partnerships to demonstrate eective pathways - The proposal for
rapid expansion of apprenticeships in the United States is sometimes criticized due to the dif-
ficulty in quality control. Apprenticeships in the U.S. were traditionally restricted to construc-
tion trades. This has presented employers with significant barriers to developing quality ap-
prenticeships, ranging from outdated regulatory frameworks to lack of clarity around industry
standards. The government should work more directly with industry coalitions of private sector
leaders on joint funding and R&D to develop scalable frameworks for apprenticeships across
occupations. One such coalition is the Workforce Partnerships Initiative, led by the Business
Roundtable and supported by the Business and Higher Education Forum. This would address
the three major barriers for U.S. employers to expand apprenticeships (startup, regulatory
complexity, and lack of existing industry infrastructure) as outlined in a study carried out by the
Aspen Institute Skills for America’s Future initiative.
Create stopgaps to poverty for youth at risk of unemployment - For those who are most at risk
of long-term unemployment, guarantee immediate trai