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Bignoniaceae is a Pantropical plant family that includes 82 genera and 830 species of trees, lianas, and shrubs. The Tabebuia alliance (14 genera and 147 species) and tribe Jacarandeae (2 genera and 50 species) are both Neotropical and represent the largest clades of trees and shrubs in the family. Here, we present a taxonomic treatment for these two clades for the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Overall, we documented 23 species distributed in seven genera, i.e., Cybistax Mart. ex Meisn., Godmania Hemsl., Jacaranda Juss., Handroanthus Mattos, Sparattosperma Mart. ex Meisner, Tabebuia Gomes ex DC., and Zeyheria Mart. Six taxa are new records for the state, i.e., Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart., Handroanthus capitatus (Bureau & K. Schum) Mattos, Handroanthus umbellatus (Sond.) Mattos, Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., Sparattosperma catingae A.H. Gentry, and Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf. Furthermore, S. catingae, previously thought to be endemic to the Caatinga of Bahia, was documented for the first time in the Atlantic Forest domain. We present identification keys and taxonomic descriptions for all genera and species, as well as provide illustrations and information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and phenology for all species.
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Biota Neotropica 19(4): e20190737, 2019
www.scielo.br/bn
Flora of Pernambuco, Brazil: Tabebuia alliance and tribe Jacarandeae (Bignoniaceae)
Swami Costa1* , Lúcia G. Lohmann2 & Maria Teresa Buril1
1 Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Botânica, Recife, PE, Brasil.
2 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
*Corresponding author: Swami Costa, e-mail: swamilcosta@hotmail.com
COSTA, S.; LOHMANN, L.G.; BURIL, M.T. Flora of Pernambuco, Brazil: Tabebuia alliance and tribe
Jacarandeae (Bignoniaceae). Biota Neotropica. 19(4): e20190737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2019-0737
Abstract: Bignoniaceae is a Pantropical plant family that includes 82 genera and 830 species of trees, lianas, and
shrubs. The Tabebuia alliance (14 genera and 147 species) and tribe Jacarandeae (2 genera and 50 species) are
both Neotropical and represent the largest clades of trees and shrubs in the family. Here, we present a taxonomic
treatment for these two clades for the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Overall, we documented 23 species distributed
in seven genera, i.e., Cybistax Mart. ex Meisn., Godmania Hemsl., Jacaranda Juss., Handroanthus Mattos,
Sparattosperma Mart. ex Meisner, Tabebuia Gomes ex DC., and Zeyheria Mart. Six taxa are new records for
the state, i.e., Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart., Handroanthus capitatus (Bureau & K. Schum) Mattos,
Handroanthus umbellatus (Sond.) Mattos, Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., Sparattosperma catingae A.H. Gentry,
and Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf. Furthermore, S. catingae, previously thought to be endemic to the
Caatinga of Bahia, was documented for the rst time in the Atlantic Forest domain. We present identication
keys and taxonomic descriptions for all genera and species, as well as provide illustrations and information on the
geographic distribution, habitat, and phenology for all species.
Keywords: Botanical inventories; Brazilian ora; Caatinga; Atlantic Forest.
Flora de Pernambuco, Brasil: Aliança Tabebuia e tribo Jacarandeae (Bignoniaceae)
ISSN 1676-0611 (online edition)
Inventory
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2019-0737 http://www.scielo.br/bn
Introduction
The Bignoniaceae comprises about 830 species distributed in 82 genera
(Lohmann & Ulloa Ulloa 2006 continuously updated). This plant family
is Pantropical, but predominantly Neotropical, where about 80% of the
species occur, with only a few species occurring in the Temperate zones
(Lohmann 2004). The Bignoniaceae is centered in Brazil, where 33 genera
and 413 species are found, of which two genera (Neojobertia Baill. and
Paratecoma Kuhlm.) and 199 species are endemic (Lohmann 2010). The
family includes lianas, trees, and shrubs that generally occur in humid or dry
forests, sometimes in open dry areas, or rocky outcrops (Lohmann 2004).
Members of the family are characterized by the following
synapomorphies: a lack of endosperm in the mature seeds, and by two
placental ridges, each bearing one to several rows of ovules (Spangler
& Olmstead 1999). Species of the Bignoniaceae are also recognized
by the woody habitat, opposite and compound leaves, showy
hermaphrodite and gamopetalous owers, with four didynamous
stamens and one staminode (reduced or elongated), and dehiscent
fruits with winged seeds (Lohmann 2004).
Gentry (1980) divided the family into eight tribes based on habit,
distribution and fruit dehiscence: Bignonieae, Coleeae, Crescentieae,
Eccremocarpeae, Oroxyleae, Schlegelieae, Tecomeae, and Tourrettieae.
Resumo: Bignoniaceae é uma família de plantas pantropicais que inclui 82 gêneros e 830 espécies de árvores, lianas
e arbustos. A aliança Tabebuia (14 gêneros e 147 espécies) e tribo Jacarandeae (2 gêneros e 50 espécies) são ambas
neotropicais e representam os maiores clados de árvores e arbustos na família. Aqui, apresentamos um tratamento
taxonômico para estes dois clados para o estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. No geral, nós documentamos 23 espécies
distribuídas em 7 gêneros, i.e., Cybistax Mart. ex Meisn., Godmania Hemsl., Jacaranda Juss., Handroanthus Mattos,
Sparattosperma Mart. ex Meisner, Tabebuia Gomes ex DC., e Zeyheria Mart. Seis táxons são novos registros
para o estado, i.e., Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart., Handroanthus capitatus (Bureau & K. Schum) Mattos,
Handroanthus umbellatus (Sond.) Mattos, Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., Sparattosperma catingae A.H. Gentry,
e Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf. Além disso, S. catingae, que anteriormente se pensava ser endêmica da
Caatinga da Bahia, foi documentada pela primeira vez no domínio da Mata Atlântica. Nós apresentamos chaves
de identicação e descrições taxonômicas para todos os gêneros e espécies, assim como fornecemos ilustrações e
informações sobre a distribuição geográca, habitat e fenologia para todas as espécies.
Palavras-chave: Inventários botânicos; Flora brasileira; Caatinga; Mata Atlântica.
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Subsequent phylogenetic studies (Spangler & Olmstead 1999, Olmstead
et al. 2009) indicated that Tecomeae is not monophyletic and that the
supra-generic classication needed to be reformulated. Six monophyletic
tribes (i.e., Bignonieae, Catalpeae, Jacarandeae, Oroxyleae, Tecomeae,
and Tourrettieae) and two informally named clades (i.e., Tabebuia alliance
and Paleotropical clade) are currently recognized (Olmstead et al. 2009).
The Tabebuia alliance is restricted to the Neotropics and includes
14 genera and 147 species, representing the second largest clade of the
family (Olmstead et al. 2009). The clade includes genera composed
predominantly of large trees such as Handroanthus Mattos and Tabebuia
Gomes ex DC., as well as treelets and shrubs (Olmstead et al. 2009). Taxa
included in this clade are characterized by the palmate-compound leaves
(synapomorphy of the clade), owers with spathaceous to cupular calyces,
and infundibuliform corollas with varied colors, and linear to ovate ovaries
(Grose & Olmstead 2007, Olmstead et al. 2009). In Brazil, this group is
represented by seven genera and 44 species (Handroanthus, Tabebuia,
Zeyheria Mart., Godmania Hemsl., Paratecoma Kuhlm., Cybistax Mart ex
Meisn. and Sparattosperma Mart. ex Meisner) most of which are broadly
distributed throughout the national territory, except from Paratecoma
and Godmania that have more restricted distributions (Lohmann 2010).
Tribe Jacarandeae includes two genera (Jacaranda Juss. and
Digomphia Benth.), and around 55 species distributed from Guatemala
to Argentina (Olmstead et al. 2009). Both genera and 38 species are
found in Brazil (Lohmann 2010). This clade is sister to the rest of
the family and easily distinguished by the elongated and glandular
staminodes, pinnately or bipinnately compound leaves, calyx with
deeply divided lobes, and oblong to elliptic attened woody capsules
that dehisce perpendicularly to the septum (Olmstead et al. 2009).
The Northeast of Brazil concentrates around 215 species, representing
one of the regions with the greatest diversity of Bignoniaceae within the
country (Lohmann 2010). The state of Pernambuco comprises 60 of the
215 species found in the region (Lohmann 2010). However, there is still
little information about the family in Northeastern Brazil, especially in the
state of Pernambuco. The objective of this work is to inventory all members
of the Tabebuia alliance and tribe Jacarandeae in the state of Pernambuco
(Northeastern Brazil), and present a taxonomic treatment for all taxa.
Our ndings will help reduce the taxonomic impediment and contribute
knowledge that is relevant for the conservation of the Brazilian ora. This
study provides useful information for future studies on the ecology,
evolution, and biogeography of this iconic group of Brazilian plants.
Material and Methods
Pernambuco is located in Northeastern Brazil (Figure 1), being
limited in the south by the states of Alagoas and Bahia, in the north by
the states of Ceará and Paraíba, and in the west by the state of Piauí.
Figure 1. Map indicating the location of the state of Pernambuco (in light green), within the Northeastern region of Brazil (in orange). Prepared by Thais Mara Souza.
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Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae of Pernambuco
Biota Neotrop., 19(4): e20190737, 2019
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Pernambuco is situated between 7º15’45” and 9º28’18”S, and between
34º48’35’’ and 41º19’54”W, including 98.311 km² of surface area
(Andrade-Lima 1960). The state includes heterogeneous climate, soil,
and phytophysiognomies, although the regions with semi-arid climate,
covered with Caatinga vegetation occupy around 80% of the state.
Fragments of ombrophilous and seasonal forests, forested highlands,
restingas, mangroves, dunes and associated ecosystems are available in
the coastal areas and “Zona da Mata” (Andrade-Lima 1960).
Field trips were carried out between 2017 and 2018 to collect and
observe living material, as well as to obtain data on the ecological
characteristics of the individual species. The timing of eld trips
was defined according to the species phenological data obtained
from herbarium collections and literature. In the eld, collection
and herborization procedures followed Bridson & Forman (1998).
Specimens were deposited in the PEUFR herbarium. In addition to the
materials collected in the eld, materials deposited at thirteen herbaria
located in the state of Pernambuco were analyzed, i.e., ACAM, EAC,
HESBRA, HST, HUEFS, HUFRN, HVASF, IPA, JPB, MOSS, PEUFR,
RB and UFP (herbarium acronyms follow Thiers, continuously updated).
Specimen identication was based on comparisons with specimens
previously identied by specialists, images of Type materials, species
protologues, and published taxonomic treatments and oristic inventories
(e.g., Bureau & Schumann 1896, Espirito-Santo et al. 2014, Gentry 1992,
2009, Lohmann 2004, 2010, Lohmann & Pirani 1996a, 1996b, 2003,
Pereira & Mansano 2008, Scudeller 2004, Silva-Castro et al. 2007). We
also consulted online collections of the Virtual Herbarium REFLORA
(Brazil), Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT), and The New York
Botanical Garden (NY) to support identications and complement
information on the species distribution and morphology.
Morphological descriptions were based on materials collected
in the field and those deposited in herbaria. Descriptions follow
the terminology of Harris & Harris (2000) and Gonçalves & Lorenzi
(2007) and focus on diagnostic reproductive and vegetative traits.
Due to the large amount of examined materials, we selected the
best quality fertile specimens from each phytogeographic domain
(Caatinga and/or Atlantic Forest) and list those as “selected material.”
The remaining specimens analyzed are included in an overall list of
examined specimens (Appendix 1). Information on the geographic
distribution, owering and fruiting periods, ecological preferences,
altitude, and common names were obtained from specimen labels.
Ornamental species are not included.
The map of the region (Figure 1) and the species richness maps
(Figure 2) were both prepared using DIVA-GIS, while gure captions
were prepared in Corel Draw X7. The coordinates were obtained through
eld collections and original coordinates indicated in specimen labels
or using speciesLink.
Figure 2. Map showing the species richness of members of the Tabebuia alliance and tribe Jacarandeae in the state of Pernambuco. Prepared by Silmara Nepomuceno.
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Taxonomic treatment
Identication key for the Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae
genera occurring in the state of Pernambuco
1. Leaves pinnate or bipinnate; staminode longer than fertile stamens,
covered by glandular trichomes ……………....................... Jacaranda
1’. Leaves simple or palmate; staminode shorter than fertile stamens,
glabrous
2. Calyx tubular, densely lepidote to glabrous
3. Leaets discolorous; inorescences in thyrse; corolla white to
light pink ............………….............................… Sparattosperma
3’. Leaets concolorous; inorescences in panicle; corolla yellow
or white ……...................................……….................. Tabebuia
2’. Calyx cupular, pubescent or tomentose
4. Corolla infundibuliform
5. Calyx membranaceous; corolla green; capsules elliptic to
oblong, ribbed ……………….................................... Cybistax
5’. Calyx coriaceous; corolla yellow, pink, lilac or purple;
capsules linear-cylindrical, not-ribbed .............. Handroanthus
4’. Corolla campanulate or urceolate
6. Calyx green, with simple trichomes; corolla cream externally,
with purple spots internally; capsules linear-twisted, smooth ..
.................................................................................. Godmania
6’. Calyx dark brown, with stellate trichomes; corolla brown
externally, orange internally; capsules wide–elliptic, muricate
..................................................................................... Zeyheria
Cybistax Martius ex Meisner, Pl. vasc. gen. 2: 208, 1840.
Cybistax is a monospecic genus, represented in the state of
Pernambuco by Cybistax antisyphilitica.
1. Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart., Syst. Mat. Med. Bras.,
66, 1843. Figure 3 a–e.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, without lenticels, glabrous.
Leaves palmate, 56 foliolate; petiole 6.116 cm long, glabrous;
petiolule. 0.4–1.6 cm long, glabrous; leaets chartaceous, 11–13.4 ×
4.7–5 cm, elliptic to obovate, base cuneate, apex acuminate, margin
entire, slightly revolute, concolorous, adaxial surface glabrous,
abaxial surface lepidote, with sparse simple trichomes; venation
camptodromous. Inorescence in thyrse, terminal; bracts 0.5–1.5
cm long, oblanceolated; bracteoles 0.5–0.8 cm long, oblanceolated to
narrow–elliptic. Calyx cupular, membranaceous, 1.1–2.8 × 0.5–1.0
cm, 5-dentate, prolonged acuminate teeth, yellow to green, sparsely
pubescent in length and velutinous at apex, with simples trichomes,
internally velutinous, with simple trichomes, caducous. Corolla
infundibuliform, 2.2–6.8 × 0.9–1.3 cm, both sides green, externally
pubescent, with simple trichomes; stamens included, anthers ca. 0.3
cm long, glabrous, dorsal laments 2.2–2.3 cm long, ventral laments
1.7–1.9 cm long, staminode shorter than fertile stamens, ca. 0.2 cm long;
ovary sessile, ovate–oblong, 0.3 × 0.1 cm, lepidote, style ca. 2.7 cm
long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long, lanceolate. Capsule 15.3 × 4.2 cm, elliptic
to oblong, longitudinally 12–ribbed, prominent ribs, base and apex
acuminate, glabrous surface, woody, slightly inated. Seeds winged,
0.6–1.5 × 0.7–1.8 cm, wide–elliptic, wings hyaline, membranaceous.
Figure 3. Cybistax antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart.: a. Flower. b. Calyx. c. Fruit.
d. Fruit replum. e. Seed. Godmania dardanoi (J.C. Gomes) A.H. Gentry:
f. Flower. g. Calyx. h. Leaf. i. Fruit. Handroanthus capitatus (Bureau & K. Schum)
Mattos: j. Leaf. k. Calyx. Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos:
l. Inorescence. m. Flower. n. Fruit. Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos:
o. Leaf. p. Fruit.
Habitat and Distribution: Cybistax antisyphilitica occurs in Peru,
Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and, disjointly, in Suriname (Gentry 1992).
In Brazil it is distributed in all phytogeographical domains, occurring
from Pará to Santa Catarina (Lohmann 2010). This species is a new
record for the state of Pernambuco. It was found in a Caatinga area, at
high altitudes (ca. 875 m).
Phenology: Collected with owers and fruits in December.
Taxonomic Notes: Cybistax antisyphilitica can be recognized by the
calyx 5-dentate, with teeth long acuminate (Figure 3a-b), and oblong
fruit, longitudinally ribbed (Figure 3c-d). This is the only species in
the Bignoniaceae with light green corollas, which led to the popular
name “ipê verde.”
Examined Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Serrita, Serra de
Brejinho, 14.12.2012, . e fr., R.A. Silva 2493 (HVASF 18878).
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Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae of Pernambuco
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Additional Examined Material: BRAZIL. CEARÁ: Santana do Cariri,
04.12.1974, ., Academia Brasileira de Ciências 1154 (IPA 21491).
Godmania Hemsley, Diagn. pl. nov. mexic. 35, 1879.
The genus includes two species, G. aesculifolia and G. dardanoi,
distributed from Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia. In Pernambuco the genus
is represented by Godmania dardanoi.
2. Godmania dardanoi (J.C. Gomes) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri
Bot. Gard., 63: 74, 1936. Figure 3 f–i.
Tre e , 3–10 m alt.; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels,
pubescent, with simple trichomes. Leaves palmate, 4–6 foliolate; petiole
1.5–6.7 cm long, pubescent, with simple trichomes; petiolule absent; leaets
chartaceous, 1.7–4.9 × 0.7–1.5 cm, elliptic, base cuneate, apex acute, margin
entire to irregularly serrate, discolorous, pubescent, with simple trichomes in
both sides, abaxial surface grayish; venation camptodromous. Inorescence
in thyrse, terminal; bracts 0.1–0.3 cm long, lanceolate; bracteoles 0.1–0.2
cm long, lanceolate. Calyx cupular, 0.1–0.3 × 0.1–0.2 cm, 5–dentate, teeth
attenuated, green, pubescent, with simple trichomes, caducous. Corolla
campanulate to urceolate, 2.0–3.9 × 0.9–2.1 cm, externally cream and
internally with purple spots, lobes cuneate and facing out, pubescent
externally, with simple and glandular trichomes; stamens included, anthers
ca. 0.2 cm long, pubescent, dorsal laments 1.7–1.8 cm long, ventral
laments 1.4–1.5 cm long, staminode shorter than fertile stamens, ca. 0.2 cm
long; ovary sessile, linear–oblong, 0.3 × 0.1 cm, lepidote, style ca. 1.7 cm
long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long, lanceolate. Capsule 22.3–33.4 × 0.4–0.6 cm,
linear-twisted, attened, smooth, with longitudinal ridges along the entire
length, pubescent surface, with simple trichomes, margin entire. Seeds
winged, 4.5 × 0.5 cm, elliptic, wings hyaline, lengthy, membranaceous.
Habitat and Distribution: Godmania dardanoi is endemic to
the Brazilian Northeast, occurring in the states of Bahia, Ceará,
Pernambuco, Piauí, and Paraíba, in Caatinga and Cerrado environments
(Lohmann 2010; Brito et al. 2018). In Pernambuco this species was
found in areas of Caatinga, near rivers and roadside.
Phenology: Collected with owers from June to January and with
fruits in February.
Taxonomic Notes: Godmania dardanoi is recognized by the sessile
leaets, trait that dierentiates this species from the other species
in the genus (Figure 3h), corolla campanulate to urceolate (Figure
3f), internally with purple spots and fruit twisted and longitudinally
ridged (Figure 3i). This species is popularly known in the study area
as “chifre–de–carneiro” or “tapioca.”
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Araripina, 19.11.1992,
., A.M. Miranda et al. 671 (HUFRN 2157); Ipubi, 08.02.1983, . and
fr. G. Fotius 3345 (HUEFS 173093).
Handroanthus Mattos, Loefgrenia, 50: 2, 1970.
Small and large trees. Leaves palmate, 3–6 foliolate. Inorescence
terminal, a panicle or cyme. Calyx cupular, coriaceous, pubescent,
tomentose, lepidote or villose. Corolla infundibuliform, yellow, pink,
lilac or purple; stamens included, anthers glabrous, staminode shorter
than fertile stamens. Capsule linear–cylindrical, attened. Seeds winged,
wings hyaline, membranaceous.
Handroanthus is represented in the state of Pernambuco by 30
species distributed from Central and South America and Antilles
(Gentry 1992). In Brazil 27 species (15 endemic) are found (Lohmann 2010).
In the study area eight species were found, H. capitatus, H. chrysotrichus,
H. heptaphyllus, H. impetiginosus, H. ochraceus, H. serratifolius, H.
spongiosus, and H. umbellatus.
Identication key for the Handroanthus species occurring in
the state of Pernambuco
1. Corolla pink or lilac
2. Leaflets with margins entire, sometimes irregularly serrate,
pubescent in adaxial surface and glabrescent to tomentose in abaxial
surface, with simple trichomes; calyx pubescent with stellate and
simple trichomes; capsule without irregular constrictions ................
............................................................................. 6. H. impetiginosus
2’. Leaets with margins serrate, glabrous; calyx sparsely lepidote;
capsule with irregular constrictions …................ 5. H. heptaphyllus
1’. Corolla yellow
3. Inorescence in cyme or fascicle
4. Leaves 3–foliolate, strongly discolorous; calyx deeply 5–dentate
with a thin membrane between teeth .................. 9. H. spongiosus
4’. Leaves 5–foliolate, concolorous; calyx irregularly 3–5 dentate
with longitudinal ribs along this .............………. 10. H. umbellatus
3’. Inorescence in panicle
5. Leaets glabrescent or lepidote
6. Branchlets tetragonal, with stellate trichomes, without
lenticels; ovary linear–oblong, densely lepidote .......................
............................................................................ 3. H. capitatus
6’. Branchlets cylindrical, with simple trichomes, with lenticels;
ovary ovate, pubescent with glandular trichomes .......................
......................................................................... 8. H. serratifolius
5’. Leaets pubescent or tomentose
7. Leaets with abaxial surface rusty; sessile owers; capsule
with lanuginous indument …….........……… 4. H. chrysotrichus
7’. Leaets with abaxial surface whitish; pedicellate owers;
capsule with occose indument ....................... 7. H. ochraceus
3. Handroanthus capitatus (Bureau & K. Schum) Mattos,
Loefgrenia, 50: 4, 1970. Figure 3 j–k.
Tre e ; branchlets tetragonal, striated, without lenticels, pubescent,
with stellate trichomes. Leaves 5–6 foliolate; petiole 5.5–6.2 cm long,
pubescent, with stellate trichomes; petiolule 2.0–2.6 cm long, pubescent,
with stellate trichomes; leaets chartaceous, 7.2–14.1 × 4.2–5.8 cm,
elliptic, base rounded, apex acuminate, margin entire, concolorous,
adaxial surface glabrescent, abaxial surface pubescent only along the
main vein and in the axils of the secondary veins, with stellate trichomes;
venation brochidodromous. Inorescence in panicle. Calyx 0.7–1.2
× 0.5–0.8 cm, irregulary dentate, pubescent, with stellate trichomes.
Corolla 4.9–7.2 × 0.9–1.5 cm, yellow, glabrous externally; anthers ca.
0.2 cm long, dorsal laments ca. 1.7 cm long, ventral laments ca. 1.4
cm long, staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; ovary linear–oblong, 0.2 × 0.1
cm, densely lepidote, style ca. 2.0 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long.
Fruits and seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus capitatus is distributed
through Guyana, Suriname, Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil. This species
is restricted to the Amazonian domain, where it occurs in north and
northeastern Brazil (Maranhão only) (Gentry 1992, Lohmann 2010).
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Despite that, a specimen from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil (D. Andrade-
Lima 52-1000) was identied by Gentry (1979) as H. capitatus due
to the densely lepidote ovary. Even though we were able to verify the
identity of this specimen, it is possible that this specimen may have
been cultivated in this region.
Phenology: Collected with owers in March.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus capitatus can be recognized by the
branchlets and calyx with stellate trichomes (Figure 3k), by the leaets
entire, pubescent along the main vein and axils of the secondary veins
(abaxial surface), and by the densely lepidote ovary.
Examined Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: São Lourenço da Mata,
Usina Tiuma, 13.03.1952, ., D. Andrade–Lima 52–1000 (IPA 2482).
4. Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos, Loefgrenia,
50: 4, 1970. Figure 3 l–n.
Tre e , 8–10 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels,
pubescent, with stellate trichomes. Leaves 3–5 foliolate; petiole
1.3–2.9 cm long, tomentose, with stellate trichomes; petiolules
0.5–1.8 cm long, tomentose, with stellate trichomes; leaflets
chartaceous, 3.0–7.2 × 1.7–3.3 cm, obovate to elliptic, base cuneate,
apex cuneate to cuspidate, margin entire, discolorous, adaxial surface
tomentose, with stellate trichomes, abaxial surface rusty, tomentose,
with simple and stellate trichomes; venation brochidodromous.
Inorescence in panicle, congest, sessile owers. Calyx 0.5–1.9 ×
0.3–0.8 cm, 5–dentate, teeth acute, rust, tomentose, with rust stellate
and dendritic trichomes, persistent. Corolla 2.8–6.5 × 0.5–2.1 cm,
yellow, externally pubescent, with simple trichomes; anthers ca. 0.3
cm long, dorsal laments 2.1–2.3 cm long, ventral laments 1.8–1.9
cm long staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; ovary sessile, linear–oblong, 0.3
× 0.2 cm, pubescent, with glandular trichomes, style ca. 2.0 cm long,
stigma ca. 0.2 cm long, lanceolate. Capsule 10.2–15.2 × 0.9–1.7 cm,
rusty, lanuginous surface, with simple and stellate trichomes, margin
entire. Seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus chrysotrichus is found in
Argentina and in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest environments along the
Brazilian coast (Lohmann 2010). In Pernambuco it occurs in areas of
Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, in rocky outcrops and “brejos de altitude,”
with altitudes varying from 400 to 1080 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers in September, October and January
and with fruits in January.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus chrysotrichus and H. ochraceus
are morphologically similar due to the shared leaet shape (obovate
to elliptic), texture (chartaceous), trichomes type (stellate),
inorescence type (a congest panicle; Figure 3l and 4c) and shape
(linear-cylindrical), and capsule color (rusty) (Figure 3n and 4e).
These species can be dierentiated by the leaet with rusty abaxial
surface (vs. whitish abaxial surface in H. ochraceus), sessile owers
(Figure 3l) (vs. pedicellate owers; Figure 4c), and capsule with
indument lanuginous (vs. with occose indument).
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Maraial, Engenho
Curtume, 25.11.2007, fr., M. Sobral–Leite 561 (UFP 50292); Caruaru,
Brejo dos Cavalos, 09.01.1999, ., E. Locatelli & P. Medeiros s.n.
(UFP 39390)
5. Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos, Loefgrenia, 50: 2,
1970. Figure 3 o–p.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, glabrous.
Leaves 5–6 foliolate; petiole 2.8–9.8 cm long, glabrous; petiolule
0.8–2.8 cm long, glabrous; leaets chartaceous, 3.0–10.9 × 1.3–5.2
cm, obovate to elliptic, base obtuse, apex acute to attenuate, margin
serrate, concolorous, glabrous in both sides; venation brochidodromous.
Inflorescence in panicle, pedicellate flowers. Calyx 0.3–0.9 ×
0.2–0.5 cm, 5–dentate, teeth obtuse, lilac, sparsely lepidote, caducous.
Corolla 2.2–5.8 × 1.2–2.7 cm, lilac with yellow nectar guides,
externally pubescent, with simple trichomes; anthers ca. 0.3 cm
long, dorsal laments 2.2–2.3 cm long, ventral laments 1.5–1.6 cm
Figure 4. Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos: a. Leaf. b. Fruit.
Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos: c. Inorescence. d. Flower. e. Fruit.
Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl.) S. Grose: f. Leaf. g. Flower. h. Calyx.
Handroanthus spongiosus (Rizzini) S. Grose: i. Leaf. j. Flower. k. Calyx.
Handroanthus umbellatus (Sond.) Mattos: l. Flower. m. Calyx. Sparattosperma
catingae A.H. Gentry: n. Leaf. o. Flower. p. Fruit.
7
Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae of Pernambuco
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long, staminode ca. 0.3 cm long; ovary sessile, oblong, 0.3 × 0.1 cm,
pubescent, with glandular trichomes, style ca. 2.7 cm long, stigma
ca. 0.3 cm long, lanceolate. Capsule 24.5 × 1.3 cm, glabrous surface,
margin with irregular constrictions, with lenticels. Seeds 0.5–1.9 ×
0.2–0.3 cm, narrow–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus heptaphyllus occurs in
wet forests of Paraguay, western Bolivia and northeastern Argentina
(Gentry 1992). In Brazil it is found in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest
environments and is distributed in all states of the South, Southeastern
and Midwestern regions, as well as in the Northeastern states of Bahia,
Pernambuco and Ceará (Lohmann 2010). In the study area this species
was found in areas of Caatinga with altitude around 400 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers in September and October and with
fruits in January.
Taxonomic Notes: Most specimens of H. heptaphyllus deposited
in herbaria are identied as H. impetiginosus. Both species have
glabrous branchlets, terminal panicle inorescence, cupular calyx, 5–
dentate and pink to lilac owers with yellow to orange nectar guides.
However, these species can be dierentiated by leaets glabrous (vs.
pubescent with simple trichomes in H. impetiginosus), with serrate
margin (Figure 3o) (vs. entire margins; Figure 4a), calyx sparsely
lepidote (vs. pubescent with stellate trichomes), and fruit with irregular
constrictions (Figure 3p) (vs. fruit with linear margin; Figure 4b).
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Tacaratu, 13.09.1990,
., R. Pereira & A. Bocage 101 (IPA 53701); Tacaratu, 15.01.2009, fr.,
J.G. Carvalho–Sobrinho et al. 1802 (HVASF 2845).
6. Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos, Loefgrenia,
50: 2, 1970. Figure 4 a–b.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, glabrous.
Leaves 3–5 foliolate; petiole 2.2–9.2 cm long, glabrous; petiolule
0.8–3.9 cm long, glabrous; leaets chartaceous, 1.2–15.7 × 1.3–6.9
cm, elliptics, narrow–elliptic or obovate, base rounded, apex acute to
acuminate, margin entire, sometimes irregulary serrate, concolorous,
rarely discolorous, adaxial surface pubescent, with simple trichomes,
abaxial surface glabrescent to tomentose, with simple trichomes;
venation brochidodromous. Inflorescence in panicle, congest,
glabrous to densely tomentose; bracts and bracteoles 0.1–0.2 cm
long, narrow–elliptic. Calyx 0.2–1.0 × 0.2–0.7 cm, 5–dentate to
truncate, teeth cuneate, lilac, densely pubescent, glandular, with
stellate and simple trichomes, persistent. Corolla 2.2–6.7 × 0.9–3.3
cm, pink to lilac with yellow, pink or orange nectar guides, externally
pubescent, with simple trichomes; anthers ca. 0.2–0.3 cm long,
dorsal laments 1.8–2.0 cm long, ventral laments 1.5–1.6 cm long,
staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; ovary sessile, oblong, 0.3 × 0.2 cm,
lepidote, style ca. 2.5 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long, lanceolate.
Capsule 10.9–32.3 × 1.0–1.3 cm, glabrous surface, green to dark
brown, margin without irregular constrictions. Seeds 0.5–1.7 ×
0.2–0.4 cm, narrow–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus impetiginosus is distributed
from Northeastern Mexico to Argentina (Gentry 1992), and is widely
distributed throughout the Brazilian territory (except for the southern
region), where it occurs in Amazonia, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic
Forest, and Pantanal (Lohmann 2010). In Pernambuco it was found in
areas of Caatinga, Atlantic Forest, “brejos de altitude,” anthropic ar eas,
and rocky outcrops, between 300 to 1200 m alt.
Phenology: Collected with owers from April to December and fruits
from July to March.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus impetiginosus can be recognized
by leaets with entire margins (Figure 4a), pubescent with simple
trichomes, pink to lilac owers with yellow to orange nectar guides, by
the calyx pubescent with stellate trichomes, and by the fruit with linear
margins (Figure 4b). The similarity with H heptaphyllus is discussed
under that species comments.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: São Joaquim do
Monte, 8º23’43”S 35º51’02”W, 27.I.2014, fr., M. Oliveira 5736 (IPA);
Buíque, Parque Nacional do Catimbau, 14.IX. 2011, ., A.C.G. Costa
et al. 45 (IPA).
7. Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos, Loefgrenia, 50: 2,
1970. Figure 4 c–e.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, pubescent,
with stellate trichomes. Leaves 5–foliolate; petiole 3.1–5.6 cm long,
tomentose, stellate trichomes; petiolules 1.2–3.3 cm long, stellate
trichomes; leaets chartaceous, 4.2–10.1 × 3.1–7.3 cm, obovate to
elliptic, base cordate, apex retuse to rounded, margin entire, rarely
serrated, sometimes sinuate, discolorous, adaxial surface pubescent
only along of main veins and in axils of secondary veins, with stellate
trichomes, abaxial surface pubescent, with whitish stellate trichomes;
venation brochidodromous. Inflorescence in panicle, congest,
pedicellate owers. Calyx 0.5–1.5 × 0.5–1.0 cm, 5–dentate, teeth
acute, rust, villose, with simple and stellate trichomes, persistent.
Corolla 3.0–5.9 × 0.9–2.8 cm, yellow with wine ribs, externally
glabrous and internally pubescent, with simple and stellate trichomes;
anthers 0.2–0.3 cm, dorsal laments ca. 2.1 cm long, ventral laments
ca. 1.8 cm long, staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; ovary sessile, oblong, 0.2
× 0.1 cm, pubescent, style ca. 2.0 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long,
lanceolate. Capsule 9.2–13.2 × 0.8–1.5 cm, occose surface, with
stellate trichomes, rust, margin entire, without lenticels. Seeds 1.6 ×
0.6 cm, elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus ochraceus is found in dry
forests from Guatemala to Argentina, from sea level up to 1600 m
(Gentry 1992). It is widely distributed throughout Brazil, where it
occurs in Amazonia, Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest domains
(Lohmann 2010). In the study area it was found in Atlantic Forest and
Caatinga, “brejos de altitude,” and rocky outcrops.
Phenology: Collected with owers in September to February, and fruits
from September to November.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus ochraceus can be recognized
by obovate to elliptic leaflets with a whitish abaxial surface, by
the pedicellate owers (Figure 4c), and the capsule with occose
indumentum (Figure 4e). The similarity and differences with H.
chrysotrichus are discussed under that species comments.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Brejo dos cavalos,
01.III.1996, fr., D.S. Pimentel 55 (PEUFR 25148); Pesqueira,
28.IX.1995, ., M. Correia 371 (IPA 58254)
8. Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl.) S. Grose, Syst. Bot., 32:
666, 2007. Figure 4 f–h.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, pubescent,
with simple trichomes. Leaves 3–5 foliolate; petiole 1.5–3.9 cm long,
pubescent, with simple trichomes; petiolule 0.9–1.3 cm long, pubescent,
8
COSTA, S. et al.
Biota Neotrop., 19(4): e20190737, 2019
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with simple trichomes; leaets chartaceous, 3.1–7.3 × 1.9–4.1 cm,
elliptic to obovate–elliptic, base cuneate to rounded, apex acuminate,
margin entire, serrated or irregulary serrated, concolorous, lepidote
on both sides; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence in panicle;
bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx 0.7–1.4 × 0.5–0.9 cm, 3–5 dentate
to irregulary dentate, teeth cuneate, green, pubescent, with simple and
stellate trichomes, caducous. Corolla 4.8–7.9 × 0.8–2.2 cm, yellow,
externally glabrous; anthers ca. 0.3 cm long, dorsal laments 2.2–2.4
cm long, ventral laments 1.7–1.8 cm long, staminode ca. 0.3 cm long;
ovary sessile, ovate, 0.3 × 0.2 cm long, pubescent, glandular trichomes,
style ca. 3.1 cm long, stigma ca. 0.3 cm long. Capsule 18.3–39.8 ×
0.7–1.5 cm, glabrous surface, margin entire, without lenticels. Seeds
not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus serratifolius occurs from
Colombia to Bolivia in wet and dry forests (Gentry 1992). In Brazil this
species is widely distributed throughout most of the territory (except the
states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in the southern region),
where it occurs in areas of Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pantanal,
and Amazon forests (Lohmann 2010). In Pernambuco it occurs in the
Atlantic Forest and Caatinga.
Phenology: Collected with owers from November to January and
with fruits in August.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus serratifolius can be identied by the
leaets with entire, serrated or irregulary serrate margins (Figure 4f),
and the calyx with cuneate teeth (Figure 4h), with simple and stellate
trichomes.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Exu, Serra da
Gameleira, 06.VIII.1986, fr., V.C. Lima 337 (IPA 49180); Bonito,
29.I.1970, ., Andrade–Lima 70–5683 (IPA 20913).
9. Handroanthus spongiosus (Rizzini) S. Grose, Syst. Bot.,
32: 666, 2007. Figure 4 i–k.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, without lenticels,
pubescent, with stellate trichomes. Leaves 3–foliolate; petiole 1.1–
4.2 cm long, tomentose, with stellate trichomes; petiolules 0.5–1.0
cm long, tomentose, with stellate trichomes; leaets membranaceous,
4.5–8.7 × 1.9–3.3 cm, elliptic to obovate–elliptic, base obtuse
to rounded, apex attenuate, margin entire, strongly discolorous,
adaxial surface tomentose, with stellate trichomes, abaxial surface
densely tomentose, with whitish stellate trichomes, sometimes rusty;
venation brochidodromous. Inorescence a dicasial cyme, densely
tomentose, with stellate rusty trichomes; bracts and bracteoles
absent. Calyx 0.3–1.7 × 0.3–0.8 cm, deeply 5–dentate with a thin
membrane between the teeth, rusty, densely tomentose, with rusty
stellate trichomes, persistent. Corolla 1.8–4.9 × 1.2–1.5 cm, yellow
with red nectar guides, externally glabrous; anthers ca. 0.2 cm long,
dorsal laments 1.9–2.1 cm long, ventral laments 1.7–1.8 cm long,
staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; ovary sessile, linear, ca. 0.2 cm long,
lepidote, style ca. 3.5 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long. Capsule
13.1–22.5 × 0.6–0.8 cm, base cuneate, apex attenuate, glabrous
surface, margin with irregular constrictions, without lenticels. Seeds
2.1 × 0.5 cm, oblong–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: This species is endemic to Northeastern
Brazil, where it occurs in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Paraiba,
Pernambuco, Piauí and Sergipe (Lohmann 2010). In Pernambuco it
occurs in Caatinga, between 300 to 400 m of altitude.
Phenology: Collected with owers in May, August and October to
January, and with fruits from November to February.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus spongiosus is characterized by 3–
foliolate leaves (Figure 4i), densely tomentose leaets, inorescence
and calyx, with stellate rusty trichomes, and calyx deeply 5–dentate with
a thin membrane between the teeth (Figure 4j–k). In the eld, it can
be identied by the yellow owers with red nectar guides, and by the
aky bark. This species is known in the region by the common names
“sete cascas” and/or “cascudo.”
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Lagoa Grande, Fazenda
Cabana, 08º30’25,84”S 40º15’33,64”W, 10.XII.2012, fr., A.C.P Oliveira
et al. 2044 (HVASF 18918); Petrolina, 08º48’07”S 40º48’04”W, 534 m,
21.XI.2011, ., T.S. Oliveira et al. 73 (HVASF 13431).
10. Handroanthus umbellatus (Sond.) Mattos, Loefgrenia, 50: 2,
1970. Figure 4 l–m.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, sparsely pubescent,
with stellate trichomes. Leaves 5–foliolate; petiole 3.0–4.2 cm long, densely
pubescent, with stellate trichomes; petiolules 1.5–2.3 cm long, densely
pubescent, with simple trichomes; leaflets membranaceous, 5.5–8.9 ×
1.7–4.6 cm, elliptics, base obtuse, apex acuminate, margin entire, concolorous,
pubescent on both sides, with stellate trichomes; venation brochidodromous.
Inorescence a fascicle; bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx 0.6–2.0 ×
0.4–0.9 cm, irregulary 3–5 dentate, teeth cuneate, with longitudinal ribs
along to calyx, green to yellow, densely tomentose on base and on ribs,
sparsely pubescent on apex, with stellate trichomes. Corolla 4.2–7.7 ×
1.5–2.1 cm, yellow, glabrous externally; anthers ca. 0.3 cm long, dorsal
laments 2.0–2.1 cm long, ventral laments 1.4–1.5 cm long, staminode ca.
0.3 cm long; ovary sessile linear–cylindrical, 0.3 × 0.1 cm, lepidote, style ca.
2.2 cm long, stigma ca. 0.3 cm long, lanceolate. Fruit and seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Handroanthus umbellatus is endemic to
Brazil, where it occurs in Atlantic Forest vegetation along the Brazilian
coast, from Rio Grande do Sul to Bahia (Lohmann 2010). It represents a
new record for the state of Pernambuco, where it occurs in the Atlantic
Forest, at forest edges, with altitudes ranging between 400–600 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers in January and February.
Taxonomic Notes: Handroanthus umbellatus is recognized by the
calyx densely tomentose at the base and sparsely pubescent at apex,
longitudinally ribbed (Figure 4l–m).
Examined Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Bezerros, Parque
Ecológico Serra Negra, 08.02.1996, ., E. Inácio et al. 139 (MO); São Vicente
Férrer, Mata do Estado, 29.01.1999, ., E.M.N. Ferraz et al. 583 (MO).
Jacaranda Jussieu, Gen. Pl. 138, 1789.
Trees or shrubs. Leaves bipinnate or pinnate. Inorescence a panicle,
terminal or axillar. Calyx campanulate, pubescent, glabrescent, villose
or lepidote; corolla infundibuliform with the narrow base, purple, blue,
wine or lilac; stamens included, anthers mono-thecae or di-thecae,
staminode larger than fertile stamens, pubescent from half to apex,
glandular trichomes. Capsule wide-elliptic, elliptic or ovate, attened
or inated. Seeds winged, wings hyaline, membranaceous.
Jacaranda includes 49 species distributed from Guatemala to
Argentina (Gentry 1992). In Brazil, 36 species (32 endemic) are
found (Lohmann 2010). Six species are found in the study area
(i.e., J. brasiliana, J. cuspidifolia, J. jasminoides, J. microcalyx,
J. puberula, and J. rugosa).
9
Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae of Pernambuco
Biota Neotrop., 19(4): e20190737, 2019
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2019-0737 http://www.scielo.br/bn
Identication key for Jacaranda species occurring in the state
of Pernambuco
1. Anthers mono-thecae
2. Pinnules concolorous; calyx lobes ovate with acute apex, not
reexed, divided almost to the base; capsule inated and undulate at
dehiscence …………............................….……… 11. J. brasiliana
2’. Pinnules discolorous; calyx lobes lanceolate with acuminate
apex, reexed, divided to the base; capsule attened and smooth at
dehiscence …………..............................…..…… 12. J. cuspidifolia
1’. Anthers bi–thecae
3. Leaves pinnate completely or pinnate on base and bipinnate at
apex; leaets coriaceous; inorescence axillary
4. Leaets with smooth surface; bracts and bracteoles narrow–
elliptic; calyx sparsely pubescent …........….... 13. J. jasminoides
4’. Leaets with rugose surface; bracts and bracteoles absent;
calyx villose ……………………..............………… 16. J. rugosa
3’. Leaves bipinnate; leaets chartaceous; inorescence terminal
5. Branchlets tetragonal; leaets concolorous and lepidote on
both sides; bracts and bracteoles absent ……..... 14. J. microcalyx
5’. Branchlets cylindrical; leaets discolorous and glabrous on
adaxial surface and densely pubescent on abaxial surface; bracts
and bracteoles present ……………………...… 15. J. puberula
11. Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 174, 1807.
Figure 5 a–e.
Tre e , 10 m; branchlets cylindrical, winged, striated, with lenticels,
sparsely pubescent, with simple trichomes. Leaves bipinnate; petiole
4.1–4.8 cm long, pubescent, with simple trichomes; pinnules sessile,
chartaceous, 0.7–1.2 × 0.3–0.6 cm, elliptic to oblong–elliptic, base
cuneate, apex obtuse to acute, margin entire, concolorous, adaxial
surface glabrous, abaxial surface pubescent only in main veins, with
simple trichomes; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence terminal;
bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx 0.3–0.5 × 0.2–0.3 cm, 5–lobed, lobes
divided almost to the base, lobes ovate with acute apex, not reexed,
purple, pubescent, with glandular trichomes, caducous. Corolla 3.9–5.7
× 1.5–1.7 cm, purple to blue, externally densely pubescent on base and
sparsely pubescent on tube and lobes, with glandular trichomes; anthers
ca. 0.2 cm long, mono–thecae, dorsal laments 2.2–2.5 cm long, ventral
laments 1.7–1.8 cm long, staminode 3.0–3.3 cm long; disc annular,
0.2 × 0.2 cm; ovary ovate, 0.2 × 0.1 cm, glabrous, style ca. 2.4 cm
long, stigma ca. 0.3 cm long, elliptic. Capsule 8.6–19.2 × 7.7–16.8 cm,
wide–elliptic, inated, woody, undulate at dehiscence, surface glabrous,
margin entire, without lenticels. Seeds 2.1 × 1.8 cm, wide–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Jacaranda brasiliana is endemic to Brazil,
where it occurs in the Amazon, Cerrado, and Caatinga domains, from
Mato Grosso to Minas Gerais and from Pará to Bahia (Lohmann 2010).
In Pernambuco it occurs in environments of Caatinga with altitudes
ranging from 500–890 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers from November to February, and
with fruits in February.
Figure 5. Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam.) Pers.: a. Flower. b. Calyx. c–d.
Fruit. e. Seed. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart.: f. Calyx. g. Leaf. h. Detail of the
leaf rachis and leaets. i. Detail of leaet apex. j. Fruit. Jacaranda jasminoides
(Thunb.) Sandwith: k. Leaf. l. Calyx. Jacaranda microcalyx A.H. Gentry: m.
Calyx. Jacaranda puberula Cham.: n. Calyx. Jacaranda rugosa A.H. Gentry:
o. Calyx. p. Leaf.
Taxonomic Notes: Jacaranda brasiliana is morphologically very
close to J. cuspidifolia with which it shares the cylindrical branchlets,
sessile pinnules, entire pinnules margin, terminal inorescence, and
purple calyx. Despite that, J. brasiliana can be dierentiated by the
concolorous pinnules (vs. discolorous pinnules in J. cuspidifolia),
pinnas not winged (vs. pinnas slightly winged; Figure 5h), calyx lobes
ovate with acute apex, divided almost to the base (Figure 5b) (vs. lobes
lanceolate with acuminate apex, divided to the base; Figure 5f), and the
inated, undulate wide–elliptic fruit (Figure 5c–d) (vs. ovate, attened
wide–elliptic fruit; Figure 5j).
10
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Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Arcoverde, Serra
das Varas, 890 m, 22.II.2006, . and fr., R. Pereira et al. 2707 (IPA
73344); São José do Belmonte, 07º44’20,63”S 38º41’32,69”W, 570 m,
30.VII.2013, ., A.C.P. Oliveira et al. 2945 (HVASF 21170).
12. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., Prodr., 9: 228, 1845. Figure 5 f–j.
Shrubs, 8–10 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels,
glabrous. Leaves bipinnate; petiole 2.0–4.4 cm long, glabrous; pinna
slightly winged; pinnules sessile, membranaceous, 1.5–2.5 × 0.3–0.6
cm, lanceolate to oblong, base obtuse to cuneate, apex long acuminate,
margin entire, discolorous, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface
pubescent, with simple trichomes; venation brochidodromous.
Inorescence terminal; bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx 5–lobed,
lobes divided to the base, lobes lanceolate with apex acuminate, reexed,
0.2–0.5 × 0.1–0.3 cm, purple, glabrescent, with simple trichomes on
lobes margin, caducous. Corolla 2.4–5.4 × 0.6–1.5 cm, lilac, externally
pubescent, with glandular trichomes; anthers 0.2–0.3 cm long, mono–
thecae, dorsal laments 2.5–2.6 cm long, ventral laments 2.0–2.1 cm
long, staminode ca. 2.8 cm long; disc annular, 0.2 × 0.2 cm; ovary ovate,
0.2 × 0.1 cm, glabrous, style ca. 2.6 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long,
elliptic. Capsule 4.9–6.8 × 3.3–5.7 cm, ovate to wide–elliptic, attened,
smooth at dehiscence, base rounded, apex acute, surface glabrous,
margin entire, with lenticels. Seeds 1.2 × 1.0 cm, wide–elliptics.
Habitat and Distribution: Jacaranda cuspidifolia occurs from
Argentina to Bolivia (Gentry 1992). In Brazil it is distributed through
Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and Pantanal vegetation of the Midwestern
and Southeastern states (Lohmann 2010). This species is a new record
for the state of Pernambuco and consequently for Northeastern Brazil.
It is found in high altitude forest (above 1000 m).
Phenology: Collected with owers and with fruits in November.
Taxonomic Notes: Jacaranda cuspidifolia is recognized by the pinna
slightly winged (Figure 5h), the sessile leaets (Figure 5g) that are
lanceolate to oblong, with long and acuminate apices (Figure 5i), and
by the calyx 5–lobed, with lanceolate and acuminate lobes divided
all the way until the base and reexed (Figure 5f). The similarity and
dierences with J. brasiliana are discussed under that species comments.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Recife, Santuário dos
Três Reinos, 07º57’41,4”S 34º56’20,9”W, 99 m, 24.X.2013, ., M.
Sobral–Leite et al. 1336 (UFP 79079); Triunfo, Sítio Jardim, 17.XI.1998,
. and fr., A.M. Miranda 3080 (HUEFS 185187).
13. Jacaranda jasminoides (Thunb.) Sandwith, Figure 5 k–l.
Tree or shrubs, 3–8 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with
lenticels, pubescent, with simple and glandular trichomes. Leaves
pinnate on base and bipinnate on apex, with terminal leaet bigger;
petiole 3.8–5.0 cm long, pubescent, with simple trichomes; leaets
and pinnules sessile, coriaceous, 0.9–5.2 × 0.5–2.1 cm, ovate–elliptic
to ovate, base cuneate to rounded, apex acute to obtuse, margin entire,
discolorous, adaxial surface sparsely pubescent, with simple trichomes,
abaxial surface densely pubescent, simple trichomes, smooth surface;
venation brochidodromous. Inorescence axillar; bracts and bracteoles
0.2–0.3 cm long, narrow–elliptics. Calyx 0.4–0.9 × 0.3–0.5 cm, 5–
dentate, teeth attenuate, purple to vinaceous, sparsely pubescent, with
glandular trichomes, persistent. Corolla 3.1–4.2 × 1.2–1.9 cm, wine,
externally sparsely pubescent, with glandular trichomes; anthers ca.
0.2 cm long, di–thecae, dorsal lament 2.6–2.8 cm long, ventral lament
1.9–2.1 cm long, staminode ca. 4.0 cm long; ovary ovate, 0.2 × 0.2
cm, glabrous, style ca. 3.5 cm long, stigma ca. 0.3 cm long, elliptic.
Capsule 4.4 × 2.5 cm, elliptic to wide–elliptic, woody, base and apex
rounded, surface glabrous, margin entire, with lenticels. Seeds 1.2 ×
1.5 cm, wide–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Jacaranda jasminoides is endemic to Brazil,
where it occurs along the Brazilian coast, from Ceará to Rio de Janeiro,
in Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest vegetation (Lohmann 2010).
In Pernambuco it was found in areas of Caatinga, in mountains up to
1000 m altitude, and rocky outcrops up to 600 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers from November to February, and
fruits from May to December.
Taxonomic Notes: Morphologically close to J. rugosa with which
it shares cylindrical branchlets, discolorous, and coriaceous leaets,
axillar inorescences, elliptic to wide–elliptic capsules, and persistent
calyx in the fruit (unusual feature in the genus). These species can be
dierentiated by the pinnate leaves at the base and bipinnate at the
apex (Figure 5k) (vs. bipinnate leaves in throughout the leaf extension
in J. rugosa), leaets with smooth surface (Figure 5k) (vs. surface
densely rugose; Figure 5p), and calyx 5–dentate with attenuate teeth
(Figure 5l) (vs. teeth cuneate to rounded; Figure 5o).
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Araripina,
08.VIII.1986, fr., V.C. Lima 383 (IPA 49191); Tacaratu, Serra Grande,
09º04’20,70”S 38º07’34,20”W, 802 m, 23.XI.2009, . and fr. A.P.
Fontana & G. Rodrigues 6247 (HVASF 6460).
14. Jacaranda microcalyx A.H. Gentry, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr.,
25(2): 87, 1992. Figure 5 m.
Tre e , 8–10 m; branchlets tetragonal, striated, with lenticels,
glabrous. Leaves bipinnate; petiole 3.5–7.0 cm long, canaliculate,
lepidote; petiolule 1.2–1.5 cm long, canaliculate, lepidote; pinnule
subsessile, decreasing as it reaches the base; chartaceous, 3.3–9.5 ×
1.6–4.7 cm, elliptic to obovate–elliptic, base obtuse to cuneate, apex
attenuate to cuneate, margin entire, concolorous, adaxial surface
lepidote, abaxial surface densely lepidote; venation brochidodromous.
Inorescence terminal; bract and bracteoles absent. Calyx 0.3–0.5 ×
0.3–0.4 cm, truncate to minutely 5–dentate, purple, sparsely lepidote.
Corolla ca. 2.5–4.7 × 0.9–1.2 cm, lilac to wine, externally densely
pubescent, with glandular and simple trichomes; anthers ca. 0.2 cm long,
di–thecae, dorsal laments 2.1–2.3 cm long, ventral laments 1.7–1.8
long, staminode ca. 3.0 cm long; ovary oval, 0.2 × 0.1 cm, glabrous,
style ca. 2.5 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long. Capsule 6.1–7.3 × 4.7–5.5
cm, elliptic to oblong–elliptic, attened, woody, base attenuate, apex
rounded, surface lepidote, margin slightly undulate, without lenticels.
Seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Endemic to the Brazilian Northeast, where
it is known from two populations growing within Atlantic Forest
vegetation in Bahia and Pernambuco, respectively (Gentry 1992,
Lohmann 2010).
Phenology: Collected with owers from May to June, and fruits in
February.
Taxonomic Notes: Jacaranda microcalyx is morphologically
close to J. puberula, with which is shares chartaceous, elliptic
to obovate leaets, terminal inorescences, and purple calyces.
11
Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae of Pernambuco
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These species can be differentiated by the tetragonal branchlets
(vs. cylindrical in J. puberula), leaflets subsessile and lepidote
on both sides (vs. sessile and glabrous on the adaxial surface
and densely pubescent on the abaxial surface), calyx truncate
to minutely 5–dentate (Figure 5m) (vs. 5–dentate with cuneate
teeth; Figure 5n), and bracts and bracteoles absent (vs. bracts and
bracteoles lanceolate).
Examined Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Ipojuca, Engenheiro
Maranhão, 10.VI.1967, ., Andrade–Lima 67–5032 (IPA 16223).
Additional Examined Material: BRAZIL. BAHIA: (Type Specimen)
Ubaitaba–Itacaré, 14º20’S 39º20’W, 09.II.1985, . And fr., A.L. Gentry
& E. Zardini 49962 (MO).
15. Jacaranda puberula Cham. Linnaea, 7: 550, 1832. Figure 5 n.
Tre e , 8 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, pubescent,
with simple trichomes. Leaves bipinnate; petiole 4.6–5.8 cm long,
pubescent, with simple trichomes; pinnules sessile, chartaceous,
1.8–5.5 × 1.0–2.7 cm, obovate to elliptic, base cuneate, apex rounded
to attenuate, margin entire to irregulary serrate, slightly discolorous,
adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface densely pubescent, with simple
trichomes; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence terminal; bracts
and bracteoles ca. 0.2 cm long, lanceolate. Calyx 0.6–1.8 × 0.3–0.7
cm, 5–dentate, teeth cuneate, purple, sparsely pubescent, with simple
trichomes. Corolla 4.4–6.3 × 0.8–1.1 cm, lilac, externally pubescent,
with glandular and simple trichomes; anthers ca. 0.2 cm long, di–thecae,
dorsal laments 2.2–2.3 cm long, ventral lament ca. 1.9 cm long,
staminode ca. 3.8 cm long; disc annular, 0.1 × 0.2 cm; ovary ovate,
0.2 × 0.1 cm, glabrous, style ca. 2.5 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long,
elliptic. Fruits and seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Jacaranda puberula is widely distributed
in Atlantic Forest environments, where it occurs from Argentina and
Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, to the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, and
Ceará (Gentry 1992). In the study area, it was found in Atlantic Forest
vegetation.
Phenology: Collected with owers from November to January.
Taxonomic Notes: Jacaranda puberula is recognized by the sessile
pinnules, with abaxial surface densely pubescent and margin entire
to irregularly serrate, as well as by the calyx 5–dentate with cuneate
teeth (Figure 5n). The similarity and dierences with J. microcalyx are
discussed within the comments of that species.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Bom Conselho,
Fazenda Arabari, 01.XI.1966, ., E. Tenório 66–206 (IPA 14658);
Recife, Mata de Dois Irmãos, 06.I.1953, ., Ducke & Andrade–Lima
149 (IPA 5524).
16. Jacaranda rugosa A.H. Gentry, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr., 25(2):
102, 1992. Figure 5 o–p.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, without lenticels, densely
pubescent, with simple trichomes. Leaves pinnate; petiole 2.1–2.6 cm
long, pubescent, with simple trichomes; leaets sessile, coriaceous, 1.9–4.0
× 1.7–2.6 cm, elliptic, base cuneate to obtuse, apex cuneate to rounded,
margin entire and revolute, surface densely rugose, discolorous, adaxial
surface pubescent, with simple and short trichomes, abaxial surface densely
tomentose, with simple and long trichomes; venation brochidodromous.
Inorescence axillar; bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx 0.5–0.7 × 0.4–0.5
cm, 5–dentate, teeth cuneate to rounded, lilac, villose, with glandular and
simple trichomes, persistent. Corolla 3.1–5.2 × 1.2–1.7 cm, lilac with tube
white, externally pubescent, with glandular trichomes; anthers ca. 0.3 cm
long, di–thecae, dorsal laments ca. 1.8 cm long, ventral laments ca.
1.5 cm long staminode ca. 3.7 cm long; disc annular, 0.2 × 0.2 cm; ovary
ovate, 0.2 × 1.1 cm, glabrous, style ca. 2.5 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long,
elliptic. Capsule 3.5–5.3 × 2.2–4.2 cm, elliptic to wide–elliptic, attened,
base attenuate, apex rounded, surface pubescent, with simple trichomes,
margin entire, without lenticels. Seeds 1.7 × 0.9 cm, elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Jacaranda rugosa was rst described by
Gentry (1992) based on a material from the National Park Vale do
Catimbau in Buíque (Pernambuco). Even though materials from other
Brazilian states have been identied as J. rugosa, these identications
were later shown to be erroneous. As such, J. rugosa is presumed
endemic from the Caatinga of Pernambuco, where it is known from
the National Park Vale do Catimbau exclusively.
Phenology: Collected with owers from September to May, and fruits
from October to January and May to June.
Taxonomic Notes: Jacaranda rugosa is recognized by the densely
rugose leaets (Figure 5p), a trait exclusive to this species in the state of
Pernambuco. This species is also characterized by the calyx 5–dentate
with cuneate to rounded teeth (gure 5o). The similarity and dierences
with J. jasminoides are discussed within that species comments.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Buíque, Vale
do Catimbau, 06.XI.2002, fr. and fr., A. Lopes & M.J. Santos 27
(UFP 45437).
Sparattosperma Martius ex Meisner, Pl. vasc. Gen. 2: 208, 1840.
Trees. Leaves palmate, 3–5 foliolate. Inflorescence terminal,
a thyrse. Calyx tubular, caducous, lepidote or glabrous; corolla
campanulate to infundibuliform, white to light pink; stamens included,
anthers glabrous, staminode shorter than fertile stamens. Capsule linear,
margin entire, without lenticels.
Sparattosperma is represented by two species (S. catingae and S.
leucanthum), distributed from South America, both of which occur in
Pernambuco (Gentry 1992).
Identication key for Sparattosperma species occurring in
Pernambuco state
1. Leaves 3–foliolate; calyx bilabiate with lobes cuspidate and
indument lepidote; capsule with surface lepidote, without
longitudinal ribs ................................................................ S. catingae
1’. Leaves 5–foliolate; calyx 2–dentate with teeth acuminate
to apiculate and glabrous; capsule with surface glabrous, with
longitudinal ribs ............................................................ S. leucanthum
17. Sparattosperma catingae A.H. Gentry, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr.,
25(2): 115, 1992. Figure 4 n–p.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, lepidote. Leaves
3–foliolate; petiole 1.2–3.8 cm long, sparsely pubescent, with simple
trichomes; petiolule 0.5–1.8 cm long, sparsely pubescent, with simple
trichomes; leaets chartaceous, 2.3–6.8 × 2.0–3.2 cm, elliptic, base
rounded, apex attenuate to obtuse, margin entire, discolorous, densely
lepidote on both sides; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence
terminal; bracts and bracteoles 0.3–1.5 cm long, foliaceous, lanceolate,
12
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lepidote and pubescent, with simple trichomes. Calyx 0.8–1.5 × 0.3–0.4
cm, bilabiate, lobes cuspidate, densely lepidote. Corolla campanulate,
2.3–3.8 × 0.8–1.3 cm, with to light pink ribbed wine, externally
glabrous; anthers ca. 0.2 cm long, dorsal laments 1.7–1.9 cm long,
ventral laments 1.4–1.5 cm long, staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; disc
annular; ovary sessile, oblong, 0.3 × 0.1 cm, with longitudinal ribs,
pubescent, glandular trichomes, style 1.8–2.3 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2
cm long. Capsule 23.3 × 0.8 cm, slightly inated, base obtuse, apex
attenuate, surface lepidote, without longitudinal ribs. Seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Sparattosperma catingae has always been
thought to be an endemic species of the Caatinga vegetation from the
state of Bahia (Gentry 1992, Lohmann 2010). However, this study
documented the occurrence of this species in the state of Pernambuco
and in the Atlantic Forest domain, where this species was found in “Mata
das Negras” within the municipality of Glória de Goitá.
Phenology: Collected with owers in January.
Taxonomic Notes: Sparattosperma catingae diers from S. leucanthum
by the 3–foliolate leaves (Figure 4n) (vs. 5–foliolate in S. leucanthum;
Figure 4b), bilabiate calyx with cuspidate lobes (Figure 4o) and
densely lepidote (vs. 2–dentate calyx with acuminate to apiculate
teeth and glabrous; Figure 6a), and fruit with lepidote surface, without
longitudinal ribs (Figure 4p) (vs. capsule with glabrous surface and
with longitudinal ribs; Figure 6c).
Examined Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Glória de
Goitá, Mata das Negras, 27.I.2012, ., L.L.S. Melo & V.F. Silva 10
(HUEFS 191800).
Additional Examined Material: BRAZIL. BAHIA: Jequié, Fazenda
Brejo Novo, 13º56’41”S 40º06’33,9”W, 750 m, 30.IV.2004, fr., G.E.L.
Macedo 853 (PEUFR 48828); Boa Nova, 23.III.2013, . and fr., A.F.P.
Machado et al. 1218 (HUEFS 193968).
18. Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum, Nat. Panzenfam.
[Engler & Prantl], 4(3b): 235, 1894. Figure 6 a–c.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, glabrous. Leaves
5–foliolate; petiole 3.2–9.3 cm long, sparsely pubescent, with simple
trichomes; petiolule 0.9–3.3 cm long, sparsely pubescent, with simple
trichomes; leaets chartaceous, 5.5–8.9 × 1.5–4.8 cm, elliptic, base obtuse,
apex attenuate to acuminate, margin entire, discolorous, glabrous on both
sides, only with simple trichomes on axils of second veins; venation
brochidodromous. Inorescence terminal; bracts and bracteoles 0.2–2.1
cm long, foliaceous, lanceolate, pubescent, with glandular and simple
trichomes. Calyx 1.1–3.0 × 0.3–0.7 cm, 2–dentate, teeth acuminate to
apiculate, glabrous. Corolla infundibuliform, 2.2–5.0 × 0.5–0.9 cm, with to
light pink ribbed wine, externally glabrous; anthers ca. 0.2 cm long, dorsal
laments 1.7–1.8 cm long, ventral laments 1.3–1.4 cm long, staminode
ca. 0.2 cm long; disc annular; ovary sessile, oblong to ovate, 0.3 × 0.1 cm,
with longitudinal ribs, pubescent, glandular trichomes, style 2.0–2.7 cm
long, stigma ca. 0.4 cm long. Capsule 23.4 × 1.1 cm, attened, base obtuse,
apex attenuate, surface glabrous, with longitudinal ribs. Seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Sparattosperma leucanthum is widely
distributed from Venezuela and Peru to Southeastern Brazil, where it
occurs in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and Pantanal
(Gentry 1992, Lohmann 2010). In the state of Pernambuco it was found
growing on roadside, in Caatinga.
Phenology: Collected with owers in October.
Taxonomic Notes: Sparattosperma leucanthum is morphologically
close to the other species of the genus, being dierentiated mainly by
the number of leaets (Figure 6b), shape, calyx indument, and fruit
surface (Figure 6c) (see S. catingae).
Examined Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Canhotinho,
07.X.1956, ., Andrade–Lima 56–2600 (IPA 11021).
Additional Examined Material: BRAZIL. BAHIA: Cravolândia,
30.V.1994, F. França et al. 1053 (HUEFS 16945); Nova Viçosa, Argolo,
20.VII.1988, fr., G. Hatschbach & M. Hatschbach 52260 (MO).
Tabebuia Gomes ex A. P. de Candolle, Biblioth. Universelle Genève,
ser. 2, 17: 139, 1838.
Figure 6. Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum: a. Flower. b. Leaf.
c. Fruit. Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook f. ex S. Moore: d.
Leaf. e. Flower. f. Fruit. Tabebuia elliptica (DC.) Sandwith: g. Leaf. h.
Inflorescence. i. Calyx. Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith: j. Leave.
k. Flower. Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf: l. Leaf. m. Flower.
n. Fruit. Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bureau ex Verl.: o. Leaf. p. Flower. q. Fruit.
13
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Trees. Leaves simple or palmate, 3–6 foliolate. Inorescence terminal,
a panicle. Calyx tubular, coriaceous, lepidote; corolla infundibuliform or
hipocrateriform, yellow or white; stamens included, anthers glabrous,
staminode shorter than fertile stamens, ovary linear. Capsule linear,
attened or inated. Seeds winged, wings hyaline, membranaceous.
Tabebuia includes 67 species that are widely distributed from
Central and South America and Antilles (Gentry 1992). In Brazil, 15
species (5 endemic) are found (Lohmann 2010). Four species were
documented in the state of Pernambuco: T. aurea, T. elliptica, T.
roseoalba and T. stenocalyx.
Identication key for Tabebuia species occurring in the state
of Pernambuco
1. Simple leaves; corolla hipocrateriform ........................... T. stenocalyx
1’. Palmate leaves, 3–6 foliolate; corolla infundibuliform ................. 2
2. Corolla yellow; bracts and bracteoles absent; capsules wide with
calyx caducous .................................................................... T. aurea
2’. Corolla white; bracts and bracteoles present; capsule narrow with
calyx persistent
3. Leaves 5–foliolate; bracts and bracteoles liform ............ T. elliptica
3’. Leaves 3–foliolate; bracts and bracteoles triangular ......... T. roseoalba
19. Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook f. ex S. Moore,
Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., 4: 423, 1895. Figure 6 d–f.
Tre e , 3–10 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels,
glabrous. Leaves palmate, 5–6 foliolate; petiole 1.4–8.7 cm long,
glabrous; petiolule 1.0–4.4 cm long, glabrous; leaets coriaceous,
5.3–22.3 × 0.5–9.1 cm, elliptic, oblong–elliptic or lanceolate, base
rounded to obtuse, apex rounded to cuneate, margin entire, concolorous,
glabrescent to lepidote on both sides; venation brochidodromous.
Inorescence a panicle; bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx 0.8–1.7
× 0.5–0.7 cm, irregulary dentate, teeth cuneate, light brown to yellow,
densely lepidote, with sparsely distributed glands, caducous. Corolla
infundibuliform, 4.3–8.1 × 1.1–1.7 cm, yellow, externally glabrous;
anthers ca. 0.3 cm long, dorsal laments 1.9–2.1 cm long, ventral
laments 1.6–1.7 cm long, staminode ca. 0.3 cm long; ovary 0.3 × 0.1
cm, densely lepidote, style 2.8–3.0 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long.
Capsule 10.3–20.3 × 1.7–3.7 cm, attened, base attenuate, apex acute,
surface densely lepidote, margin entire, without lenticels. Seeds 1.7–1.9
× 3.5–4.1 cm, oblong–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Tabebuia aurea is widely distributed in
South America, occurring in dry forests and savannas of Argentina,
western Bolivia, and occurring disjunctly in southern Suriname
(Gentry 1992). In Brazil it is found in all phytogeographical domains
extending from the Amazon to Paraná (Lohmann 2010). Due to its
exuberant yellow tree-top while owering, it is widely used in public
ornamentation and landscaping. In the state of Pernambuco it is found
in Caatinga environments, with altitudes varying from 300–500 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers from September to March, and fruits
from October to December.
Taxonomic Notes: Tabebuia aurea is easily recognized by the yellow
corollas (the only species of Tabebuia in Pernambuco with this
character), calyx densely lepidote, with sparse glands, and wide variation
in leaf shape (Figure 6e).
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Águas Belas,
Território Indígena Fulni–ô, 01.X.2015, fl., W. Torres et al 213
(IPA 91002); Floresta, Riacho Caraíbas, 08º43’09”S 38º29’39,39”W,
354 m, 11.X.2012, . and fr. A.C.P. Oliveira & N.M. Almeira 1979
(HVASF 18529).
20. Tabebuia elliptica (DC.) Sandwith, Candollea, 7: 253, 1937.
Figure 6 g–i.
Tre e , 4–5 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, glabrous.
Leaves palmate, 5–foliolate; petiole 1.5–10.2 cm long, sparsely
pubescent, with simple trichomes; petiolule 0.6–2.5 cm long, sparsely
pubescent, with simple trichomes; leaets coriaceous, 3.3–11.2 ×
2.8–7.1 cm, elliptic to oblong–elliptic, base rounded to truncate, apex
acuminate to cuspidate, margin entire, concolorous, lepidote on both
sides; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence a panicle; bracts and
bracteoles 0.5–1.9 cm long, liform. Calyx 1.1–2.3 × 0.4–1.0 cm, 2–3
lobed, lobes acuminate, green, densely lepidote, persistent. Corolla
infundibuliform, 4.3–7.2 × 1.2–1.7 cm, white, internally yellow and
white tube, externally glabrous; anthers ca. 0.3 cm long, dorsal laments
1.6–1.7 cm long, ventral laments 1.4–1.5 cm long, staminode ca. 0.3
cm long; disc annular; ovary 0.4 × 0.1 cm, lepidote, style 2.1–3.2 cm
long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long. Capsule 8.7–20.9 × 0.3–0.7 cm, attened,
base and apex acute, glabrous, with longitudinal ribs, margin entire,
without lenticels. Seeds 0.5–1.4 × 0.4–0.5 cm, oblong–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Tabebuia elliptica is endemic to Brazil,
where it occurs in “restingas” and Atlantic Forest vegetation, from
Paraíba to Espirito Santo (Lohmann 2010). In Pernambuco it was found
in the Atlantic Forest.
Phenology: Collected with owers from December to March, and
fruits in December.
Taxonomic Notes: Tabebuia elliptica is morphologically similar to
T. roseoalba, with which it shares the cylindrical branchlets, leaets
that are concolour, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, with entire margins
(Figure 6g and 6j), infundibuliform and glabrous corollas (Figure
6h and 6k). These species are distinguished by the leaves 5–foliolate
(Figure 6g) (vs. 3–foliolate in T. roseoalba (Figure 6j), bracts and
bracteoles liform (Figure 6h) (vs. triangular and numerous bracts
and bracteoles), calyx 2–3 lobed acuminate (Figure 6i) (vs. irregulary
lobed with cuneate lobes (Figure 6k), and corolla white externally,
with yellow internally and white tube (vs. white externally, yellow
internally and pink tube).
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Aldeia, 17.III.1952,
., D. Andrade–Lima 52–1006 (IPA 2488); Goiana, 28.XII.1965, .
and fr., D. Andrade–Lima 65–4344 (IPA 13709).
21. Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith, Kew Bull., 9: 597, 1955.
Figure 6 j–k.
Tre e , 8–10 m; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels,
glabrous. Leaves palmate, 3–foliolate; petiole 1.3–10.3 cm long,
glabrous; petiolule 0.3–2.9 cm long, glabrous; leaets chartaceous,
3.4–11.2 × 1.5–9.1 cm, elliptic to oblong–elliptic, base obtuse to
cuneate, apex acuminate, margin entire, concolorous, glabrous
on both sides; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence a panicle;
bracts and bracteoles 0.3–0.7 cm long, triangular, numerous.
14
COSTA, S. et al.
Biota Neotrop., 19(4): e20190737, 2019
http://www.scielo.br/bn http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2019-0737
Calyx 0.8–2.3 × 0.3–0.7 cm, irregulary lobed, lobes cuneate, brown,
densely lepidote, persistent. Corolla infundibuliform, 2.9–6.1 × 0.5–1.3
cm, white, internally yellow and pink tube, externally glabrous; anthers
ca. 0.3 cm long, dorsal laments 1.5–1.6 cm long, ventral laments
1.3–1.4 cm long, staminode ca. 0.2 cm long; disc annular; ovary 0.4 ×
0.1 cm, densely lepidote, style 2.4–2.7 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long.
Capsule 13.2–28.8 × 0.3–0.7 cm, attened, base obtuse, apex acute,
lepidote, margin entire, without lenticels. Seeds 0.4–0.5 × 0.2–0.3 cm,
oblong–elliptic.
Habitat and Distribution: Tabebuia roseoalba occurs in dry forests of
Paraguay, Bolivia, and disjunctly in Peru (Gentry 1992). In Brazil, it is
distributed through most of the national territory (except the southern
region), in the areas of Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest vegetation
(Lohmann 2010). In the state of Pernambuco it occurs in the Atlantic
Forest domain.
Phenology: Collected with owers from November to June, and with
fruits in January and February.
Taxonomic Notes: Tabebuia roseoalba can be recognized by the leaves
3–foliolate (Figure 6j), triangular and numerous bracts and bracteoles,
and calyx irregulary lobed with cuneate lobes (Figure 6k). This species
is morphologically similar to T. elliptica. The similarities and dierences
among those species are discussed under that species comments.
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Ipojuca, Sítio Oiteiro,
26.V.2012, ., M.C. Moraes s.n. (IPA 88620); Olinda, São Bento,
01.I.1915, . and fr., B. Pickel 434 (IPA 4928).
22. Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform.
Kew, 1910: 196, 1910. Figure 6 l–n.
Tre e ; branchlets cylindrical, striated, with lenticels, glabrous.
Leaves simple; petiole 0.3–3.2 cm long, glabrous; leaves coriaceous,
12.1–23.3 × 2.9–9.1 cm, obovate to oblong–obovate, base attenuate,
apex cuneate to attenuate, margin entire, concolorous, lepidote on both
sides; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence a panicle; bracts and
bracteoles 0.5–0.9 cm long, liform. Calyx 1.5–4.7 × 0.3–0.6 cm,
5–dentate, teeth acute to cuneate, green, densely lepidote with sparse
glands, persistent. Corolla hipocrateriform, 7.2–8.5 × 0.3–0.7 cm,
white, externally glabrous; anthers ca. 0.3 cm long, dorsal laments
ca. 1.1 cm long, ventral laments ca. 0.8 cm long, staminode ca. 0.3
cm long; disc cupular; ovary 0.5 × 0.1 cm, densely lepidote, style ca.
1.2 cm long, stigma ca. 0.2 cm long. Capsule 10.8–15.3 × 0.7–1.0 cm,
inated, base and apex cuneate, glabrous, with longitudinal ribs, margin
entire. Seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Tabebuia stenocalyx is found in wet areas of
the Guyana, Venezuela, and Brazil, where it occurs in the Atlantic Forest
of Bahia, Espirito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro (Gentry 1992, Lohmann
2010). This species represents a new record for Pernambuco, where it
is found in Atlantic Forest vegetation.
Phenology: Collected with owers in September and December, and
fruits in February.
Taxonomic Notes: Tabebuia stenocalyx is often confused with T.
obtusifolia, with which it shares simple obovate to oblong–obovate
leaves (Figure 6l). However, these species can be separated by the
long (> 7.2), 5–dentate tubular calyx (Figure 6m) (vs. campanulate and
bilabiate calyx in T. obtusifolia), and corolla hipocrateriform (Figure 7m)
(vs. corolla infundibuliform).
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Recife, Beberibe,
IX.1937, ., Vasconcelos–Sobrinho s.n. (IPA 542); Recife, Dois Irmãos,
14.II.1952, fr., D. Andrade–Lima 52–979 (IPA 2450).
Zeyheria Martius, Nov. gen. Spec. pl.
The genus includes two species (Z. montana and Z. tuberculosa)
distributed in Bolivia and Brazil (Gentry 1992). In Pernambuco it is
represented by Zeyheria tuberculosa.
23. Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bureau ex Verl., Vidensk. Meddel.
Dansk Natuhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn, 1863: 115, 1863.
Figure 6 o–q.
Tre e or shrubs; branchlets subtetragonal, striated, without lenticels,
densely tomentose, with stellate trichomes. Leaves palmate 5–foliolate;
petiole 5.6–18.2 cm long, densely tomentose, with stellate trichomes;
petiolule 0.2–0.6 cm long, densely tomentose, with stellate trichomes;
leaets chartaceous, 3.4–16.7 × 2.1–6.3 cm, elliptic to obovate, base
truncate or cordate, apex acuminate, margin entire, rarely irregulary
serrated, strongly discolorous, densely tomentose on both sides, with
stellate and dendritic trichomes, adaxial surface dark green, rugose,
abaxial surface whitish; venation brochidodromous. Inorescence
a panicle, terminal; bracts and bracteoles 1.1–2.7 cm long, narrow–
elliptics. Calyx cupular, 0.3–0.5 × 0.3–0.4 cm, bilabiate to truncate,
lobes rounded, dark brown, densely tomentose, with stellate trichomes,
caducous. Corolla wide–campanulate, 1.1–1.6 × 0.7–1.0 cm, externally
brown, internally orange, externally densely tomentose, with stellate
trichomes; stamens exserted, anthers ca. 0.1 cm long, glabrous, dorsal
laments 0.9–1.0 cm long, ventral laments 0.8–0.9 cm long, staminode
shorter than fertile stamens, ca. 0.2 cm long; ovary stipitate, obovate, 0.2
× 0.2 cm, pubescent, stellate trichomes, style 0.9–1.0 cm long, stigma ca.
0.2 cm long. Capsule 8.3–12.5 × 8.1– 12.3 cm, wide–elliptic, inated,
base and apex rounded, muricate, without lenticels. Seeds not seen.
Habitat and Distribution: Zeyheria tuberculosa occurs in all states
of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil, growing disjunctly in Bolivia
in areas of Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest (Gentry 1992). In
Pernambuco it was found growing in Atlantic Forest vegetation, growing
up to 1100 m.
Phenology: Collected with owers from April to July, and fruits in
February.
Taxonomic Notes: Zeyheria tuberculosa can be easily recognized by
the strongly discolorous 5–foliolate leaves (Figure 6o), corolla wide–
campanulate (Figure 6p), brown externally and orange internally, and the
wide–elliptic fruit with muricate surface (typical of the genus; Figure 6q).
This species is commonly known as “ipê felpudo” or “bolsa de pastor.”
Selected Material: BRAZIL. PERNAMBUCO: Lagoa dos Gatos, Serra do
Ururbu, 22.II.2011, fr., F. Gadelha 10 (HUFRN 15835); Arcoverde, Serra
do Mimoso, 20.IV.1996, ., A.M. Miranda et al. 2349 (HUEFS 97160).
Discussion
In this study we documented 23 species of the Tabebuia alliance
and tribe Jacarandeae in Pernambuco, distributed among seven genera,
i.e., Cybistax, Godmania, Jacaranda, Handroanthus, Sparattosperma,
Tabebuia, and Zeyheria. Of these, Handroanthus (8 spp.), Jacaranda
(6 spp.), Tabebuia (4 spp.), and Sparattosperma (2 spp.) are the most diverse.
15
Tabebuia alliance and Jacarandeae of Pernambuco
Biota Neotrop., 19(4): e20190737, 2019
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2019-0737 http://www.scielo.br/bn
The genera Cybistax, Godmania, and Zeyheria are represented by a single
species each (Table 1). The most frequent species in the area are:
Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos and Tabebuia aurea
(Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook f. ex S. Moore.
In the checklist of the Bignoniaceae from Brazil, Lohmann (2010)
documented 16 species of the Tabebuia alliance and tribe Jacarandeae
for the state of Pernambuco. The occurrence of all of these taxa in
Pernambuco was conrmed during this study. Besides those, Cybistax
antisyphilitica (Mart.) Mart., Handroanthus capitatus (Bureau & K.
Schum) Mattos, Handroanthus umbellatus (Sond.) Mattos, Jacaranda
cuspidifolia Mart., Sparattosperma catingae A.H. Gentry, and Tabebuia
stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf were documented for the rst time in the
state of Pernambuco, thus constituting new records.
Furthermore, S. catingae, previously thought to be endemic
to the Caatinga of Bahia, was documented for the rst time in
the Atlantic Forest domain (Table 1). Jacaranda cuspidifolia
was also documented for the rst time in Northeastern Brazil. In
addition, Jacaranda rugosa was conrmed as an endemic species
of Pernambuco caatinga, being found only in the National Park Vale
do Catimbau (see the comments of this species).
The diversity map (Figure 2) indicated that the State Park Dois
Irmãos (Figure 2f), the National Park Vale do Catimbau (Figure 2d),
Ecological Reserve Carnijó (Figure 2e), and the National Forest
Negreiros (Figure 2a) represent the three most diverse areas in the
state of Pernambuco. These areas are located within conservation units,
highlighting the importance of these units for species preservation.
The diversity map also highlights other priority areas for conservation
within the state, all of which include high diversity but are outside of
conservation units, such as Triunfo (Figure 2c) and Petrolina (Figure 2b).
Supplementary material
The following online material is available for this article:
Appendix 1 - List of examined materials
Acknowledgments
The authors thank the managers of the conservation units visited
during eldwork, ICMBIO for collecting permits, and herbarium
curators and technicians for allowing us to examine their collections.
We also thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientíco e
Tecnológico (CNPq) for a Masters scholarship to SLC and a Pq-1B grant
to LGL (310871/2017-4). We also thank the Federal Rural University of
Pernambuco for supporting this study, Regina Carvalho for preparing
the botanical illustrations, and Silmara Nepomuceno and Thaís Mara
Souza for preparing the maps.
Author Contributions
Swami Costa: Data collection; species identication; data analysis
and interpretation; manuscript preparation; and, study design.
Lúcia G. Lohmann: Data interpretation; species identication;
manuscript preparation and critical revision, adding intellectual content.
Maria Teresa Buril: Data collection; manuscript preparation and
critical revision, adding intellectual content; and study design.
Conict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conict of interest related to
the publication of this manuscript.
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Published online: 03/10/2019
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... In Brazil this species occurs in the North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast regions (Lohmann, 2020), where it is found in different kinds of vegetation formations such as semideciduous tropical forests and Cerrado sensu stricto (Santos et al., 2011;Venturoli et al., 2013). Cybistax antisyphilitica can also be found in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, whose structure is characterized by a higher canopy cover (Costa et al., 2019b). Thus, this species occurs in almost all the phytogeographical domains in Brazil (Lohmann, 2020). ...
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Cybistax antisyphilitica (Bignoniaceae) is extensively distributed in the Cerrado biome, from typical savannas to forest formations. In these areas, light varies widely in both time and space. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial growth and physiological responses of potted C. antisyphilitica seedlings to natural light conditions. To this end, we cultivated one group of seedlings under full sunlight (FS), a second group under a small gap with medium transmittance (MT) and a third group under canopy shade with low transmittance (LT), in an urban fragment of a tropical semideciduous forest. The daily course of chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured at the beginning, middle and end of the dry season. Also, at the end of the experiment, measurements of leaf gas exchange and growth were carried out. Dynamic photoinhibition was found in seedlings under FS. The photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and transpiration rates were higher under FS compared to seedlings under LT conditions. Overall, the stem diameter, the dry mass of leaves and stem, total dry mass and relative growth rate were higher in plants under FS and MT than plants under LT. Cybistax antisyphilitica allocated less biomass to stems and leaves and more to the roots, independent of growth conditions. The plasticity at leaf level suggests that C. antisyphilitica can exploit the heterogenous light environment of the semideciduous forest, but the massive development of the roots can contribute to its tolerance to dry periods typical of the Cerrado biome.
... Despite that, few studies of this plant family are available for Northeastern Brazil (but see Harley & Simmons 1986;Gentry 1995;Lohmann & Pirani 1996a;Silva-Castro & Queiroz 2003;Espírito-Santo et al. 2013;Colombo et al. 2016;Santos et al. 2009Santos et al. , 2013Medeiros et al. 2018). While a recent study treated all members of the Tabebuia alliance and tribe Jacarandeae for Pernambuco (Costa et al. 2019), a detailed floristic account of tribe Bignonieae from Pernambuco is still lacking. This study presents a complete taxonomic treatment for all species of Bignonieae from Pernambuco. ...
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This study shows a taxonomic treatment for all species of Bignonieae from the state of Pernambuco (Brazil). Through extensive herbarium and field work, we documented 42 species and 13 genera for Pernambuco, of which six species represent new records for the state (i.e., Adenocalymma coriaceum, Anemopaegma gracile, Anemopaegma velutinum, Bignonia sciuripabulum, Callichlamys latifolia and Fridericia cuneifolia). In addition, Anemopaegma citrinum was documented for the first time in the Atlantic Forest domain. We provide identification keys for genera and species, taxonomic descriptions, data on geographic distribution, habitat, phenology, and illustrations for all species.
... As informações taxonômicas associadas aos trabalhos de inventários da flora são apresentadas com chave de identificação, tendo como base caracteres morfológicos para determinação dos táxons e com imagens das espécies para ajudar no reconhecimento das plantas. Os estudos são realizados em várias escalas, desde a descrição de espécies que compõem um gênero ou uma família (Pereira et al., 2016;Costa et al., 2019) até a descrição de uma comunidade vegetal como em Parques Ambientais (Lima & Conceição, 2016;Vargas et al., 2018), no intuito de propor a conservação, manejo e manutenção das áreas estudadas. ...
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This manuscript presents a taxonomic study of the tribe Tecomeae (Bignoniaceae) in the Itatiaia National Park, located in Southeastern Brazil. The studied site has a wide ranging altitudinal gradient and consequently great diversification of vegetation formations and high biological diversity. The tribe Tecomeae is represented by 13 species, distributed in four genera: Tabebuia with six species, Jacaranda with five species, Cybstax and Sparattosperma, both with one species. Keys to identify the taxa, descriptions, illustrations and geographical distribution data are presented.
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A phylogenetic analysis of the Bignoniaceae and related families was conducted using the DNA sequences of the chloroplast genes rbcL and ndhF. Trees were constructed using each gene separately and in a combined data set. The analysis suggested that the family is more derived within the order Lamiales sensu lato than once believed. Paulownia and Schlegelia previously have been placed in Bignoniaceae or Scrophulariaceae. However, the sequence data presented here do not support their placement in Bignoniaceae. Excluding Paulownia and Schlegelia, Bignoniaceae were found to be monophyletic. Tribes Bignonieae, Crescentieae, and Coleeae each forms a monophyletic group based on this analysis. Tribe Tecomeae is paraphyletic.
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