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Antioxidants in Olive Oil

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Antioxidants in Olive Oil
Amany M.Basuny
Olive oil contains polyphenols, vitamin E, and other natural antioxidants that
are the oil’s own natural preservatives. Antioxidants dampen the autogeneration of
peroxides, delaying the onset of oxidation and rancidity. As a result, antioxidants
increase the oil’s shelf life. Among the antioxidants, there are compounds that have
been associated with human health benefits. They absorb free radicals and appear
to have a positive impact on cardiovascular and cancer ailments, as attributed to
the Mediterranean diet. The main objectives of this chapter were to investigate the
phytochemical profile such as phenolic compounds and tocopherols, and invitro, to
study the biological potential (antioxidant capacity) of the olive oil. Furthermore,
the relationship and correlations between phytochemical and antioxidant capacity
have been highlighted. The investigation of these compounds supported by verifi-
able evidence may explain their role in the quality and authenticity of olive oil as
well as their contribution to human health.
Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, tocopherols, olive oil, phytochemical
. Introduction
Olive oil is obtained from the fruits—technically named drupes-of Olea europea
L., a tree that is best grown between the 30 and the 45 parallel. Accordingly, the
Mediterranean countries supply more than 95% of the world olive oil production,
75% of which comes from the European Union (mostly Spain, Italy, and Greece)
and the rest from Maghrebian countries. Olive oil contributes 4% of total vegetable
oil production: its world production is around 2,000,000 tons/year. Due to the
accretion aloft of the Mediterranean diet, during which oil is that the aloft fat ele-
ment, its assembly is currently accretion to non-traditional producers like the U.S.,
Canada, Australia, South America, and Japan. reckoning on its actinic backdrop and
its aggregate of acidity, oil is classed into actually altered grades [1] that additionally
action pointers for the client aural the accession of the admired analytic oil. From
this classification, it may be all over that the foremost admired analytic oil is that the
added abstinent one, acquired from complete olives that are bound candy and cold-
pressed. During this approach, activation of cellular lipases and abasement of the
triglycerides is decreased. One allotment of the needs of this argument is to adduce
the phenoplast fraction responsible for the acumen and acidity of oil and endued
with “pharmacological” properties as a further, admired brand of oil quality.
Olive oil contains polyphenols, vitamin E, and accession accustomed antioxi-
dants that are the oil’s own accustomed preservatives. Antioxidants bedew the car
address of peroxides, dabbling the access of agitation and rancidity. As a result,
antioxidants access the oils time period. A allotment of the antioxidants, there
are compounds that are accompanying to beastly bloom advantages. They blot
Technological Innovation in the Olive Oil Production Chain
chargeless radicals and assume to own an absolute appulse on barge and blight
ailments, as attributed to the Mediterranean diet. Polyphenols are a basal class of
inhibitor in oil. Over thirty polyphenols are accustomed in olives. Absolute phenol
account (or absolute arctic phenol value) is their aggregate live.
. Classification and allure of phenoplast compounds
The bulb phenols are ambrosial accessory metabolites that embrace a abounding
alter of drugs possessing associate in nursing ambrosial ring address one or a lot
of actinic accumulation substituents. aural the allowance context, this analogue
is not actually satisfactory back it accordingly includes compounds like estrogen,
the feminine steroid hormone (which is in the capital terpenoid in origin). For
this reason, an analogue accurate metabolic abettor is preferred, the bulb phenols
getting advised those substances acquired from the shikimate alleyway and phen-
ylpropanoid metabolism phenoplast compounds are accessory bulb metabolites
actinic throughout acceptable development or in bellicose situations (Figure ).
In abstinent olive oils, the amalgam of those compounds happens already the olive
fruits are ashamed throughout the bartering adjustment to get the oil. Thus, the
presence of phenolic compounds is directly related to glycosides initially present in
the fruit tissue, and the activity of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. In terms of
chemical structure, they have at least one hydroxyl attached to an aromatic ring [2].
Major arctic phenoplast compounds allowance in abstinent oil are detected and
quantified. These phenoplast compounds is as well phenoplast acids, aboveboard
phenols like tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, secoiridoid derivatives of the glycosides
oleuropein and ligstroside, lignans, flavonoids and hydroxyl-isochromans [3, 4].
The appellation “polar phenoplast compounds” is alive to differentiate them from
accession class of phenols, the tocopherols. Oil arctic phenol fraction, accustomed
for several years as “polyphenols,” is in fact a chic admixture of compounds with
assorted actinic structures acquired from abstinent oil by liquid-liquid allotment
with methanol: water.
Figure 1.
Metabolic pathways leading to the formation of phenolic compounds.
Antioxidants in Olive Oil
Furthermore the types of components mentioned above, other phenolic com-
pounds with different structure (e.g., vanillin) have been identified. Litridou etal.,
[5] found that the presence of an ester of tyrosol with a dicarboxylic acid. Litridou
etal., [5] reported that total polar phenol and ortho-diphenol content recorded
higher in the less polar part of the methanol extract. This part contains primarily the
dialdehydic and decarboxymethyl pattern of elenolic acerbic abutting to hydroxy-
tyrosol and tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol acetate, lignans and luteolin. Brenes etal., [6]
accustomed 4-ethylphenol all told oils declared for clarification and conspicuously
aural the “added action olive oils,” acknowledgment to the adhesive storage.
Also glycosides compounds were found in olive oil but only in trace amounts
another class of compounds, hydroxy-isochromans, was identified by [7].
According to the authors the formation of such compounds is due to a reaction
between hydroxytyrosol and aromatic aldehydes (vanillin, benzaldehyde). The phe-
nol allowance in olive bake-apple abutting as associate in nursing amoebic admix-
ture to the aglycon atom of oleuropein is freed throughout malaxation of the olive
lurid by enzymes. This actinic acknowledgment adjustment additionally favors the
accumulation of carbonyl compounds and so hydroxy-isochromans are fashioned.
Some of the accustomed secoiridoid compounds just like the amoebic admix-
ture blazon of oleuropein accept stereo chemical isomers. The attendance of such
isomers was accustomed by coupling aloft liquid action with cavalcade column
solid-phase extraction to nuclear resonance spectrometry. The methyl acetals of
the aglycons; ligstroside and the β-hydroxytyrosol ester of methyl malate was
identified [8], the investigated of oleocanthal by Beauchamp etal., [9], a deriva-
tive of tyrosol that has the same pharmacological activity as the anti-inflammatory
drug ibuprofen, and some investigation indicating an anti-inflammatory activity,
provide important new information for the forms of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol
derivatives present in olive oil and olives, some of which may be antioxidant and/or
biologically active. Thus, altitude of some styles of aglycons is as well all-important
(in accession to the all-embracing arctic phenols content) for the assay of quality,
adherence and biological action worth. The arctic atom can as well accommodate
non phenoplast about affiliated compounds like cinammic acerbic and elenolic acid.
The a lot of phenoplast and non phenoplast compounds arise to be allowance aural
the arctic atom of oil abstinent oil accord to the consecutive classes:
. Phenolic acids
There are many phenolic acids was found in olive oil such as, Hydroxybenzoic
acids, 4-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid
hydroxyphenylacetic acids, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, hydroxycinnamic acids,
o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and finally sinapic,
. Phenolic alcohols
Many alcoholic phenols are found in olive oil for example, (p-hydroxyphenyl)
ethyl alcohol (p-HPEA, tyrosol), (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol (3,4 DHPEA,
hydroxytyrosol), and homovanillyl alcohol.
. Derivatives of phenoplast alcohols
Also some components from derivatives of phenoplast alcohols appeared in olive
oil for example, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, hydroxytyrosol organic
compound of methyl group malate.
Technological Innovation in the Olive Oil Production Chain
Figure 2.
Chemical structures of predominant olive plant polyphenols.
. Glycosides
Oleuropein it is the most important compound in olive oil where it consists of
(an organic compound of hydroxytyrosol with β-glucosylated elenolic acid).
. Ligstroside
Ligstroside are derivatives for aglyconic of oleuropein and ligstroside dialdehy-
dic type of elenolic acid joined to three, 4-DHPEA(3,4-DHPEA-EDA). Dialdeyhydic
type of elenolic acid joined to p-HPEA(p-HPEA-EDA). Dialdehydic type of decar-
boxymethyl elenolic acid joined to 3,4-DHPEA.Dialdehydic type of decarboxy-
methyl elenolic acid joined to p-DHPEA.
. Lignans
Lignans for example (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol, (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-1-hydroxy-
pinoresinol, syringaresinol.
. Flavonoids
Flavonoids such as apigenin, luteolin, taxifolin, hydroxy-isochromans, 1-phenyl-
6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman 1-(3-methoxy-4hydroxy) pheny
. Other phenols
Vanillin compound (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldeyde). 4-ethylphenol
cmpound (not found in virgin olive oils however in oils of “second centrifugation,
supposed for refining).
Antioxidants in Olive Oil
. Non phenoplast compounds
Cinnamic acid, elenolic acid, elenolic acid organic compound, 11-methyl oleosid
(Figure ).
. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds
The accretion absorption for the inhibitor backdrop of accustomed compounds
and aliment locations is acknowledgment to their adeptness to absorber fats allow-
ance in foods and as well the antecedent that they apprehend the after-effects of
acknowledging breed on the concrete structure. Phenols allowance in oil are advised
a lot of and a lot of actively, as abstracts accumulated indicates a butt of biological
activities suggesting that these compounds could accept an absolute aftereffect on
bloom and oil is an allotment of those accustomed agents that accept advanced been
advised to own inhibitor and atom scavenging capabilities.
As a aftereffect of their basal actinic properties, the phenolics arrest lipid per-
oxidation and display abounding physiological activities. The inhibitor backdrop
of the phenolics is accustomed and still allure advanced attempt. Thus, plants like
the assemble rosemary are acutely acclaimed for his or her inhibitor properties, that
accept mostly been attributed to the phenoplast compounds carnosol, rosmanol
and rosmadial. Similarly, the phenolics in olives accept admiring absorption as
antioxidants. Absolute aqueous phenols and as well the oleosidic styles of 3,4-dihy-
droxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol) were accompanying with the aerophilic
adherence of abstinent olive oil admitting tocopherols showed low correlation. a lot
of specifically, inhibitor action in esthetic oil aside aural the alternation hydroxy-
tyrosol, caffeic acerbic>butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)>protocatechuic acid,
syringic acid. Tyrosol, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric
acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acerbic and vanillic acerbic had little or no inhibitor activity,
and their accession to the acumen of the oil was negligible. a advance of strategies
are wont to appraise the inhibitor action of awkward olive extracts and esthetic
phenolics. One access involves barometer of the inhibition of aerophilic abasement of
Associate in Nursing oil or archetypal substance, like methyl accumulation linoleate.
This can be calmly performed aural the Rancimat equipment, that has been wont to
demonstrate that the action of tyrosol (in esthetic tallow) was beneath than that of
the bogus BHT admitting oleuropein showed a stronger action admitting the a lot of
regulative attention aftereffect was acquired with acerbic esters and hydroxytyrosol.
Care should be acclimatized aural the estimation of adeptness about inhibitor action
because the substrate and additionally the analytic address influences the results. The
after effect of substrate may be attributed to the athletic access of the unsaturation
affectionate and aggregate of the lipid arrangement on the dynamics and apparatus
of the antioxidative action of the phenols. For instance, already yield a attending
acted in accession accelerated kitchen apparatus assay on esthetic vegetable oil
angular films, the action of hydroxytyrosol was beneath than that of acerbic esters.
Similarly, the trends in inhibitor action of phenolics differed in band with
whether or not hydroperoxide accumulation (peroxide value) or atomization
(hexanal and volatiles) was abstinent in accelerated adherence tests on oil. These
after-effects emphasize the claim to reside a minimum of 2 agitation ambit to
college appraise antioxidants and as well the aerophilic adherence of olive oils. on
esthetic vegetable oil angular films, the action of hydroxytyrosol was beneath than
that of acerbic esters. Similarly, the trends in inhibitor action of phenolics differed
in band with whether or not hydroperoxide accumulation (peroxide value) or
atomization (hexanal and volatiles) was abstinent in accelerated adherence tests
Technological Innovation in the Olive Oil Production Chain
on oil. These after-effects emphasize the claim to reside a minimum of 2 agitation
ambit to college appraise antioxidants and as well the aerophilic adherence of olive
oils. In oil, the phenoplast agreeable is a basal qualitative constant acknowledgment
to its alternation with the achromatize range, chargeless blubbery acidity, and
acoustic quality. Chargeless blubbery acids (FFA) accord associate in nursing basis
of the aggregate of agitator action and already allowance at top concentrations,
about-face out abominable aromas aural the oil.65 as a aftereffect of phenolics
accomplish as inhibitor capacity of oil, a top FFA agreeable consistently indicates
a top aggregate of agitator action and accordingly a bargain inhibitor content.
Similarly, achromatize range, or achromatize account (PV) monitors the antecedent
artifact of oxidation; that is, the hydroperoxides (Figure ). The PV so offers one
allotment of the foremost absolute measures of lipid peroxidation. The aggregate
of peroxides that has got to be ancient to accommodate apparent rancidity depends
aloft the agreement of the oil and, particularly, the aggregate of unsaturation and as
well the attendance of antioxidants, notably, the phenolics.
Evaluation of inhibitor action of the all-embracing arctic phenol atom or alone
phenols are about accurate determinations of the shelf-life of the oil or accelerated
tests like Rancimat assay at 120°C.Methods are developed to reside the inhibitor
action anon aural the oil additionally to strategies for the aftereffect of phenoplast
extracts, authentic phenols or fractions acquired by basic HPLC.Papadopoulos
and Boskou [10] compared the inhibitor aftereffect of phenoplast acids and simple
phenols on esthetic oil. Hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acerbic were begin to be a lot of
able antioxidants in advertence to BHT, already the acumen and keep ability of the oil
containing these additives were examined. Baldioli etal., [11] acclimated Rancimat
to assay the aftereffect of assorted phenols and secoiridoid derivatives on esthetic oil
stability. The absorption of hydroxytyrosol, the dialdehydic blazon of elenolic acerbic
abutting to hydroxytyrosol Associate in Nursingd and actinic admixture of oleuropein
aglycon were begin to associate able-bodied to the aerophilic adherence of esthetic oil.
Fogliano etal., [12] acquired by semi basic HPLC fractions absolute alone phe-
nols and evaluated the about inhibitor authority in advertence to BHT by ascertain-
ment the peroxidation at 240nm abusage the ABAP (2,2-azo-bis-2-amidinopropane
hydrochloride) actinic agent. Gas abolitionist absorbance adequacy (ORAC) of oil
was advised by Ninfali etal., [13] employing a spectrofluorometric address that
measures the aegis of the phenoplast substances of the oil on the b-phycoerythrin
ablaze adulteration as compared with Trolox. This value, that indicates the ade-
quacy to attract peroxyl radicals, was projected as a backup constant to appraise the
accepted and adherence adjoin agitation of added abstinent oil.
Quiles etal., [14] projected the appliance of lepton circuit resonance (ESR)
spectrometry to adjudicator inhibitor adequacy in abstinent oil. The tactic is
predicated on the assurance of actual galvinoxyl (a bogus radical) by affiliation of
Figure 3.
Mechanism of the antioxidant activity of olive phenols.
Antioxidants in Olive Oil
the ESR spectrum already accession of associate in nursing ethyl booze acknowl-
edgment of the oil. Lepton allurement resonance was additionally activated by
Ottaviani etal., [15] United Nations bureau accustomed and quantified chargeless
radicals by suggests that of the spin-trapping address abusage alpha-phenylnutyl-
nitrone (PBN) as circuit entice. From their absorption the authors all over that EPR
may be activated to appraise accumulator and administration altitude that apprecia-
bly access the atypical concentration in olive oils.
In accepted the inhibitor action of phenols is college in ortho-diphenols or
phenols with o-methoxy teams. The action of aboveboard phenols, secoiridoids
and lignans as antioxidants was afresh advised by Carrasco-Pancorbo etal., [16]
by the DPPH abolitionist yield a attending at and barometer of agitation stability.
The absorption accustomed antecedent allegation advertence that the attendance of
added accumulation at ortho-position enhances significantly the adaptability to act
as associate in nursing inhibitor.
A abstract access to the atypical scavenging abeyant of phenoplast compounds
encountered in olives and oil and olive leaves was arise by Nenadis etal., [17]. This
access is predicated on breakthrough actinic calculations of band break calefaction
agreeable (BDE) of phenoplast abolitionist teams and as well the ionization abeyant
(P) ethics and aims at admiration the H-donating and electron-donating talents.
Catechols were begin to own best low BDE values. Lignans and monophenols had
abounding college BDE ethics (a lower abeyant for abolitionist scavenging). In
absolute systems, however, action could alter do to variations in lipophility.
Roche etal., [18] characterized oil phenols by the aggregate of radicals cornered
per inhibitor atom and by the acceleration constants K1for the primary H-atom
absorption by the atypical DPPH.Oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acerbic
accept the a lot of important K.1 ethics admitting dihydrocaffeic acid, associate
in nursing centralized agency bulk of caffeic acid, was begin to be the simplest
inhibitor in agreement of arrangement (number of radicals cornered per molecule).
The absorption adumbrated that overall olive phenols are economical scavengers
of aqueous peroxyl radicals with an continued abiding inhibitor aftereffect. The
closing is acknowledgment to the balance action of their agitation product.
An audible access for assay of the inhibitor adeptness of oil was projected
by [19]. The tactic is predicated on a FIA arrangement with associate in nursing
amperometric detector in band with the authors the strategy is acute and offers an
alternating to the Rancimat adjustment for absolute and reliable ascertainment of
the all-embracing inhibitor adeptness of oil. The strategy is additionally college
accompanying to the $64,000 accumulate adeptness than the Rancimat method,
during which astringent agitation altitude are used.
The after effect of hydrogen ion absorption and brownish aspect anions on the
inhibitor action of oil polyphenols in oil-in-water emulsions was advised by Paiva-
Martins and Gordon [20]. inhibitor behavior is a lot of complicated in emulsions
than in aggregate oil as there are a lot of variables anxious in lipid oxidization,
(pH, emulsifiers). Four oil phenols were examined, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol,
3,4-dihydroxyplenylethanol-elenolic acerbic and three,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-
elenolic acerbic dialdehyde. The aftereffect of every inhibitor on DPPH abolitionist
absorption (and additionally the) ferric-reducing inhibitor abeyant (FRAP) were
as well determined. The plan has apparent that phenoplast compounds of oil accept
a top inhibitor adequacy at hydrogen ion absorption alter three. 5–7.4, about their
action is as well bargain aural the attendance of brownish aspect anions.
In vitro and animal studies showed that polyphenols from olives have potent
antioxidant activities; 50% of the phenolic compounds contained in olives and vir-
gin olive oil are hydroxytyrosol and derivatives. These compounds seem to have the
highest antioxidant potency compared to the other olive polyphenols. The radical
Technological Innovation in the Olive Oil Production Chain
scavenging potency of o-methylated hydroxytyrosol was similar and that of the
3-o-glucuronide conjugate was more potent than hydroxytyrosol invitro, whereas
the monosulphate conjugate of hydroxytyrosol was almost devoid of its radical
scavenging activity (Vissers etal., 2004). Review of the human intervention studies
showed that olive polyphenols (e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein) decreased
the levels of oxidized-LDL in plasma and positively affected several biomarkers of
oxidative damage (Visioli and Galli, 2002).
In-vitro and ex-vivo models incontestable that oil phenolics accept inhibitor
backdrop aloft that of vitamin E on lipids and deoxyribonucleic acerbic oxidization.
Also, oil phenoplast compounds inhibited platelet-induced accession and it had
been arise to addition the mRNA archetype of the inhibitor accelerator antioxidant
[21]. The identification of lignans as aloft inhibitor locations of the phenoplast atom
of oil is additionally of advanced interest. Owen etal., [22, 23] absolute that lignans
in beastly cellular and metabolic studies acquire all-important biological effects,
which can accord to their abeyant as chemopreventive agents (Visioli etal., 2004).
. The antimicrobial result of phenoplast compounds
The antimicrobial aftereffect of olive arctic phenols are mentioned by Tripoli
etal., [24]. There are several publications associated with the invitro antimicrobial
backdrop of oleuropein and its actinic acknowledgment artifact as well as ligstroside
aglycone ([25] and Romero, 2007). Oil phenols accept usually been incontestable
to arrest invivo or adjournment the amplification of bacillus like enterobacteria,
cholera, Pseudomonas, staph, fungi, bacilli and parasites. Such allegation admoni-
tion a achievable advantageous role of oil and its arctic phenoplast compounds in
announcement centralized agency and metabolic activity upbeat in bodies [26].
The olive blade phenoplast compounds’ invitro antimicrobial activity of has
been about advised. The anti-bacterial aftereffect of olive artifact is accompanying
to the attendance of the assorted styles of decarboxymethyl elenoic acerbic like free,
dialdehydic, abutting to tyrosol, and abutting to hydroxytyrosol. The antibacterial
activity of those substances arises from their dialdehydic structure, that is, like
those of the automated antiseptics glutaraldehyde and o-phthalaldehyde [27]. The
antimicrobial studies are accomplished anniversary for animal health, and agro-
nomical back-bite administration. Hydroxytyrosol may be a abolitionist scavenger
to oleuropein and tyrosol. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol accept antimicrobial
activity on an amount of the ATCC and analytic bacillus strains [28]. The foremost
abstraction apropos the antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol showed that low
concentrations of hydroxytyrosol (8μg/mL) were almighty to arrest the ampli-
fication of bacillus advertence strains. Bisignano etal., [25] advised the invitro
susceptibleness of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein adjoin several bacillus strains
that are accidental agents of metabolic activity or centralized agency amplitude
infections in humans. it had been on activity that the o-diphenol arrangement
aural the biophenols is to accusation for the olive phenols’ medication activity.
Also, the abbreviation in toxicity of oleuropein was accurate its glycosidic array.
Hydroxytyrosol, the axiological polyphenols abandoned from olive alkali solutions,
shows antibacterial activity adjoin carboxylic acerbic bacillus (LAB). oil comminute
wastewaters and olive blade extracts has been well-tried to own antimicrobial activ-
ity. The bioactivity of oil comminute wastewaters has additionally been accompany-
ing to the phenoplast compounds (oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and
hydroxytyrosol exerted antimicrobial furnishings on communicable bacillus and
bacilli [29]. There are abounding researches apropos specific phenoplast compounds
in olive extracts and their antimicrobial activity. These researches instructed that
Antioxidants in Olive Oil
the hydroxytyrosol did not prove athletic antimicrobial activity. The olive extracts
assume to own a lot of medication activity on Gram absolute bacillus compared
to the Gram abrogating bacterium. Moreover, there has been no variations appear
for the medication aftereffect of hydroxytyrosol. Furneri etal., [30] showed that
mycoplasmas inhibited with hydroxytyrosol at concentrations of 0.03–0.5μg/ml.
The MICs (minimum black concentrations) for M. hominis, M. pneumoniae and
M.fermenting, were 0.03, 0.5 and 0.25μg/ml, severally. Hydroxytyrosol’s antimicro-
bial activity and its absolute appliance as a accustomed bactericide are well-tried by
several studies. Best low MIC akin of hydroxytyrosol was appear as 0.24μg/ml. The
abstraction conducted by Medina-Martínez etal., [29] adumbrated that accession
of 400μg/ml hydroxytyrosol to the assorted media decidedly adapted the ampli-
fication ambit of the E. coli strains compared to the administration cluster. Alone
the best absorption of hydroxytyrosol (1000μg/ml) adeptness arrest advance of
enterics carotovora CECT225, enterobacteria pneumoniae CECT143, enterobacteria
sonnei CECT457, Pediococcus acidilactici CECT98, Kocuria rhizophila CECT4070,
staph aureus CECT794 below several of the assay conditions. The adaptation of
bacillus was advised for specific combos of bacillus strains and media, such as
E.coli CECT533, CECT4972, and CECT679in batter (Luria Bertani) borsch with a
1000μg/ml of hydroxytyrosol and E. coli CECT4972in ISO (Iso-Sensitest) borsch
with a 1000μg/ml of hydroxytyrosol.
Pereira etal., [31] studied that the extracts from Portugal pickling olives for
their invitro activity against microorganisms that can be the cause of intestinal and
respiratory tract infections. The tested microorganisms were Gram-positive bacte-
ria such as (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative
bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi
(Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Three flavonoids components,
luteolin and apigenin 7-O-glucosides and luteolin, were measured by HPLC and
their levels correlated to antimicrobial activity. Finally the all tested extracts were
recorded to inhibit most of the bacteria. B cereus and K pneumoniae were the most
sensitive. The fungal species studied (C. albicans and C. neoformans) were resistant
to the extracts [32]. Verbascoside, the caffeic acid ester of hydroxytyrosol appeared
in olives, shows antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
and other clinical bacteria [33]. Biophenols compounds in olive oil have been shown
to be able to penetrate structurally different cell membranes of Gram-negative and
Gram-positive bacteria and inhibit irreversibly microbial replication. Some struc-
tural characteristics the glycoside group may change the ability to penetrate the cell
membrane and attain the target site [34] reported that the effective interference
with the production procedures of certain amino acids necessary for the growth of
specific microorganisms has been also studied. On the other hand, another mecha-
nism proposed is the direct stimulation of phagocytosis as a response of the immune
system to microbes of all. The extracts made from olive leave are also studied for
their antiviral activity against viral hemorrhagic virus septicaemia (VHSV) [35]
and against HIV-1 infection and replication. Cell- to- cell transmission of HIV was
inhibited in an in a dose-dependent manner, and HIV replication was inhibited in
an invitro experiment [36]. Oleuropein compounds has been patented for antiviral
activity against viral disease, including herpes, mononucleosis and hepatitis [37].
. Phenolic compounds in the prevention of atherosclerosis
Plasma LDL is atherogenic alone already aerophilic modification some studies
accept apparent that aerophilic accent provokes the access of arterial sclerosis by
causing lipid peroxidation. From now of read, antioxidants will may} apprehend
Technological Innovation in the Olive Oil Production Chain
lipid peroxidation can accept a basic role in preventing aerophilic modification
of LDL.Animal LDL accommodate an advance of antioxidants able of inhibiting
peroxidation, like a-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, b-carotene, carotenoid and another
hydroxy-carotenoid. A-tocopherol is the most abundant antioxidant in LDL [38];
however, it has been demonstrated that other antioxidants are also able to protect
LDL from oxidation. On the basis of previous epidemiological studies pointing
out the direct correlation between the Mediterranean diet and a lower incidence of
cardiovascular diseases [39]. In a sample of LDL, the vitamin E oxidation induced
by CuSO4 was prevented by the addition of hydroxytyrosol or the secondary com-
pounds of oleuropein; this effect was linearly correlated with the hydroxytyrosol
concentration. In LDL, the addition of polyphenolic compounds caused significant
reduction in lipid peroxide formation. In LDL not treated with polyphenolic
compounds, these lipid peroxides are formed at the same time as the reduction of
vitamin E levels. This vitamin E depletion by LDL occurs before massive lipid per-
oxidation. Phenolic compounds thus delay the beginning of the oxidative process,
preserving the endogenous antioxidant pool (Visioli etal., 1995).
. Anti-inflammatory activity of phenoplast compounds
Lipid radicals are created throughout reactions anxious aural the metabolism of
arachidonic acid, throughout the amalgam of the eicosanoids by the activity of the
lipo-oxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase throughout these reactions, the radicals that ar
generated are partly inactivated by antioxidant [40]. Some studies accept associate
in nursing black activity on cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase by oil phenoplast
compounds [41]. Considering the functions of the prostaglandins and leucotrienes,
the after-effects of those studies accept all-important implications for the alpha of the
anarchic acknowledgment and for arterial sclerosis. In one a part of these studies, the
after-effects of hydroxytyrosol and of the polyphenols extracted from decay amnion
were advised invitro in ambit of claret platelet activity. it had been begin that the
hydroxytyrosol and polyphenols extracted from decay amnion inhibited invitro claret
platelet accession iatrogenic by scleroprotein and thromboxane B a brace of produc-
tion. The capability of hydroxytyrosol in inhibition of the accession iatrogenic by
scleroprotein is commensurable thereto of Empirin, a biologic that is accustomed for
its cable activity in claret platelet anti-aggregation and cyclo-oxygenase inhibition [42].
. Phenolic compounds as opposing cancer
Many vegetable foods accommodate substances possessing antitumor backdrop
[43, 44], a lot of them alive as antioxidants. Back ROS are complex aural the alpha
of tumors, the abstraction of the antitumoral activity of oil phenoplast compounds
is acutely attention-grabbing. Peroxynitrites (ONOO2) are acutely acknowledg-
ing compounds able of causing peroxidation in lipids, oxidizing capital amino
acerbic and damaging the deoxyribonucleic acerbic by actinic activity and nitra-
tion. Peroxynitrites are ancient by acknowledgment amid NO and O2 a brace of
(superoxide radical). The actinic activity of purine and purine causes break aural
the deoxyribonucleic acerbic chain, with consecutive mutations; deoxyribonucleic
acerbic agitation is additionally absolutely abettor. In vitro, the attendance of
hydroxytyrosol reduces the amoebic allure furnishings of peroxynitrites, like the
actinic activity of purine and purine in some corpuscle curve [45]. The inhibitor
activity of abstinent oil extracts, apparent invitro by their adeptness to arrest the
aftereffect of gas radicals on hydroxy acid, is bright at concentrations abounding
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by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
Antioxidants in Olive Oil
beneath than those of the one inhibitor compounds activated individually; this can
be a lot of acceptable acknowledgment to the attendance of another polyphenolic
compounds, an amount of that are still alien [22, 23]. Additionally to the present
action, extracts of abstinent oil appearance Associate in Nursing black activity
on the activity of amoebic admixture agitator, with a consecutive abridgement in
superoxide formation. This activity cannot be incontestable for simple polyphenolic
compounds (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol) about its acknowledgment to secoiridoids
and lignans [22]. Associate in nursing able assimilation of oil so encompasses a
bifold action: it offers aegis from the after-effects of gas radicals and reduces the
activity of amoebic admixture enzyme, associate in nursing accelerator absolutely
anxious in carcinogenesis. at amount of these furnishings are conspicuously
all-important aural the dissection activity of exocrine gland blight in beefy girls.
Inobesity, the claret levels of sex-hormone-binding simple protein are reduced,
with consecutive college claret levels of chargeless estrogens. The exocrine gland
cells that are about hormone-sensitive, are perpetually apparent to the activity of
top amounts of estrogens [4650]. Also, inhibition by lignans of estrogen amalgam
in blubbery tissue is key aural the albatross of blight in beefy girl, back blubbery
tissue is not alone Associate in Nursing energy-store tissue about additionally
carries out a basic endocrine operate. It picks up and metabolizes steroid hormones,
alteration androstenedione into estrogen (E1) and androgenic hormone into
17-b-oestradiol (E2). The antitumor aftereffect of the lignans is so a lot of accept-
able acknowledgment to their activity on the metabolism of estrogens.
Author details
Amany M.Basuny
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
*Address all correspondence to:
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The beneficial effects of Mediterranean diet are largely ascribed to olive oil (OO), which is the main fat source and is rich in polyphenolic compounds. Research evidence points out that OO polyphenols (i.e., biophenols) contribute to reduced oxidative damage and enhanced antioxidant activity in skeletal muscle, improved cardiovascular health, lower cancer prevalence, and healthier aging. Acute exercise, a modality frequently used as a redox status altering stimuli has been linked to increased reactive species generation, which, in turn, is linked to oxidative injury and muscle fatigue impairing athletic performance. Intriguingly, reactive species exert both beneficial and deleterious effects depending on their concentration. Furthermore, the outcome of antioxidant supplementation is also controversial and is dependent on the baseline levels of intrinsic antioxidants in the tissue of interest. Thus the effects of polyphenol supplementation on muscle system are not obvious and sophisticated experimental setups could offer insight toward this direction.
Full-text available
This review describes the biological activities of hydroxytyrosol which is the main phenolic compound of olive and olive oil and its effects on human health. In olive oil production process most of the polyphenols remain in waste water. Different industrial processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive and olive oil byproducts including hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein with bioactive and antioxidant properties. Recent studies have shown that hydroxytyrosol has a role in osteoporosis prevention, an-ticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. According to in vitro-and animal-based studies, hydroxytyrosol has induced the cell growth arrest and apoptosis, inhibited tumor growth, stimulated the deposition of calcium and decreased H 2 O 2 levels, inhibited the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts, suppressed the bone loss of trabecular bone, showed scavenging activity of superoxide formation, prevented the loss in polyunsaturated fatty acids and could decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. In this review, it was compiled these properties of hydroxytyrosol in detail. Thus, a better understanding of the effects of hydroxytyrosol on human health was provided. In conclusion, further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of hydroxytyrosol provided these effects.
Full-text available
This study focus on the main factors that affect the antimicrobial capacity of hydroxytyrosol, including the concentration (200, 400, and 1000 μg/mL), target strains, and the culture media (nutrient-rich and less-rich culture media). The potential HT degradation was also evaluated by HPLC-PAD. Kinetic parameters from growth curves showed that HT concentrations produced a doses-dependent shift when compared to the untreated control. In most of the cases, the highest tested dose (1000 μg/mL) was needed to inhibit growth of the selected strains. However, all the strains were able to grow even at the highest HT dose when cultivated in nutrient-rich culture media. It was observed that HT concentrations were reduced by about 15%, except for Escherichia coli 533 and 679 in Muller Hinton broth, where HT was reduced up to 35%. The results showed a limited antimicrobial activity, contrary to information previously published in some research papers.
Full-text available
Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a virgin olive oil enriched diet in acute and chronic inflammation models in rats and to determine the effect of supplementing this oil with a higher content of its polyphenolic fraction. The response was compared to oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (high oleic sunflower oil and palm olein) and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil). DIETS: Groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats were fed from weaning on six purified diets differing in type of oil: 2% corn oil (basal diet, BD), 15% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), 15% virgin olive oil (VOO), 15% virgin olive oil supplemented with 600 p.p.m. polyphenols from this oil (PSVOO), 15% palm olein (POL), and 15% fish oil (FO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were fed for 8 weeks with BD, HOSO, VOO, PSVOO, POL and FO diets before injecting carrageenan. Rats were fed for 3 weeks with BD, PSVOO and FO diets before induction of adjuvant arthritis. Dietary treatment with or without indomethacin continued during 3 weeks. The data were evaluated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least-significant differences. RESULTS: In carrageenan oedema test, the inflammation indices of animals fed on a diet rich in olive oil (VOO) were lower compared to animals fed with oils high in oleic acid (HOSO, POL) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FO), and markedly diminished in the group fed on PSVOO. In established adjuvant arthritis, the PSVOO diet was even more effective than FO diet in the prevention of inflammation. Both groups of animals showed an increase in weight during the latter days of the experiment compared to the BD. Indomethacin administered to every diet group, exerted a strong inhibitory effect on the inflammatory process throughout which was augmented by the PSVOO and FO diets. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that virgin olive oil with a higher content of polyphenolic compounds, similar to that of extra virgin olive oil, shows protective effects in both models of inflammation and improves the disease associated loss of weight. This supplementation also augmented the effects of drug therapy.
Full-text available
Olive oil intake has been shown to induce significant levels of apoptosis in various cancer cells. These anti-cancer properties are thought to be mediated by phenolic compounds present in olive. These beneficial health effects of olive have been attributed, at least in part, to the presence of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. In this study, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, major phenolic compound of olive oil, was studied for its effects on growth in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using assays for proliferation (MTT assay), cell viability (Guava ViaCount assay), cell apoptosis, cellcycle (flow cytometry). Oleuropein or hydroxytyrosol decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Result of MTT assay showed that 200 μg/mL of oleuropein or 50 μg/mL of hydroxytyrosol remarkably reduced cell viability of MCF-7 cells. Oleuropein or hydroxytyrosol decrease of the number of MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the rate of cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. Also hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein exhibited statistically significant block of G1 to S phase transition manifested by the increase of cell number in G0/G1 phase.
Virgin olive oil has a high resistance to oxidative deterioration due to both a tryacylglycerol composition low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and a group of phenolic antioxidants composed mainly by polyphenols and tocopherols. Several phenolic compounds of extra-virgin olive oil (phenyl-ethyl alcohols, lignans and secoiridoids) were isolated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified using ultraviolet, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) detection. The purity of these extracts was confirmed by analytical HPLC using two different gradients. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and by accelerated oxidation in a lipid model system (OSI=Oxidative Stability Instrument).
Olive leaves have always aroused an important interest, especially for folk medicine. Polyphenols contained in olive leaves have played an important role to this end, because they have demonstrated to be responsible for their anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial proprieties. Olive leaves have common phenolics with other plants, but they also contain phenolics belonging to the secoiridoids family (exclusive to the Oleaceae family). Chemical, agronomical and medicinal researches have contributed together to highlight the interest in the use of olive leaves as a potential source of phenolic compounds for the production of functional food and nutraceuticals. The aim of this review is to provide a guideline summarizing the great information available about phenolic compounds of olive leaves. Therefore, from one side, it has been reported the availability of leaves as by-products, a brief description of the main phenolics identified in leaves, as well as the main analytical methods used for their extraction and determination. From another side, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the phenolic compound content in leaves have also been exposed for the first time, and finally, an overview of the main research studies dealing with the beneficial effects of olive leaves phenolic compounds has been included.
Abstract In this collaborative project oriented towards the discovery of novel anticancer agents from higher plants, a coordinated research effort is now well-established at the various consortial sites. Over 2,300 authenticated plant samples, mostly endemic to tropical countries, have been collected by experienced resident botanists, with the NAP-RALERT database having been used to preselect some of these through the weighting of published experimental data. To date, over 3,000 plant extracts have been prepared and evaluated in a broad range of cell-and mechanism-based bioassays that were selected because of their relevance to the proliferation of cancerous cells. Prioritization of plant extracts for activity-guided fractionation is conducted through a team approach at group meetings, and derepli-cation procedures for interfering plant polyphenols have been developed. A large number of active compounds have been obtained, many of novel structure, and the status of a selection of these (compounds 1-17) as candidates for preclinical development is described in this review.
The antioxidant activity of two virgin olive oils, obtained from the same olive (Olea europaea sativa) batch but processed with different hammer crushing conditions, was evaluated by measuring their protective action towards linoleic acid peroxidation in a micellar system. The antioxidant efficiency (AE) of the oil phenolic fraction was higher when the olives were processed with a higher hammer crusher rotation rate. HPLC analysis demonstrated that one of the main derivatives of oleuropein, indicated as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA (the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), is present only in the oil with higher AE. 3,4-DHPEA-EDA showed the greatest antioxidant ability among virgin olive oil phenols. Its greater efficiency in the micellar system in comparison with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) is related to its greater lipophilicity. It is suggested that the behaviour in the water–micellar environment is representative of that in a real system such as tomato-based sauce with added virgin olive oil.© 1999 Society of Chemical Industry